Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Rwanda

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Rwanda

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Rwanda made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. During the year, the Ministry of Public Service and Labor officials developed district-level regulations that identify priority sectors in which children are at-risk of child labor and provided guidelines to help labor inspectors carry out their work in enforcing child labor laws.  The district-level child labor committees implemented the National Steering Committee on Child Labor policies that outlined strategies to address child labor. In addition, the Ministry of Public Service and Labor revised its interpretation of Labor Law No 13/2009 to permit labor inspectors to conduct inspections outside of normal business hours. However, children in Rwanda are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Gaps exist in the Government's enforcement of laws on child labor, and there are no social programs specifically targeting children engaged in domestic work.

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Children in Rwanda are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1, 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Rwanda.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

 

Working children, ages 6 to 14 (% and population):

4.4 (118,385)

School attendance, ages 6 to 14 (%):

85.8

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

4.0

Primary completion rate (%):

66.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Integrated Households Living Conditions Survey, 2010.(4)

Data on working children, school attendance, and children combining work and school are not comparable with data published in the previous version of this report because of differences between surveys used to collect the data.

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including carrying heavy loads, applying pesticides and fertilizers (5, 6)

Production of sugarcane,* bananas,* and tea (5, 7-9)

Planting and harvesting cabbage,* coffee,* manioc,* peas,* pineapple,* potatoes,* sweet potatoes,* corn,* beans,* sorghum,* pyrethrum,* and rice* (5, 6, 10)

Herding cattle* and caring for sheep,* goats,* rabbit,* chicken,* and pigs* (6, 11)

Producing charcoal* (12)

Fishing,*†activities unknown(13)

Industry

Construction,*† activities unknown (8, 9)

Digging pit latrines* (14)

Making bricks*† (12, 14)

Mining† coltan* (15, 16)

Services

Domestic work† (1, 9, 17)

 

Street work, including collecting scrap metal†, lifting and carrying heavy loads, portering, and vending (8, 18-20)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 17, 21-23)

Agricultural labor and domestic work sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 17, 24, 25)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) – (c) of ILO C. 182.

Children are trafficked internally in Rwanda for domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.(2, 17) Rwandan children in East Africa, South Africa, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Malaysia, China, the United States, and Europe are exploited in domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, and forced labor in the agricultural and industrial sectors.(2)

Education is free and compulsory; but, in practice, the costs of uniforms, school supplies, and unofficial school fees may preclude some families from sending their children to school.(1, 19, 26-28)

Rwanda has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 4 of the Labor Law (29)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 4 of the Labor Law (29)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Articles 4–6 of Ministerial Order (2010-06); Kigali City Guidelines (2012-02); Mimuri sector child labor guidelines for sugar and rice production (30-32)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 8 and 72 of the Labor Law; Article 178 of the Organic Law Instituting the Penal Code; Article 51 of the Law Relating to the Rights and Protection of the Child (27, 29, 33)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 72 of the Labor Law; Article 28 of the Law on Prevention and Punishment of Gender-Based Violence; Articles 225, 251, 258–261 of the Organic Law Instituting the Penal Code; Article 51 of the Law Relating to the Rights and Protection of the

Child (27, 29, 33, 34)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 72 of the Labor Law; Articles 190, 211, 260 Organic Law Instituting the Penal Code; Article 51 of the Law Relating to the Rights and Protection of the Child (27, 29, 33)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 72 of the Labor Law; Article 220 of the Organic Law Instituting the Penal Code; Article 51 of the Law Relating to the Rights and Protection of the Child (27, 29, 33)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Presidential Order 155/01; Presidential Order 72/01; Article 50 of the Law Relating to the Rights and Protection of the Child (27, 35)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 47 of the Law Relating to the Rights and Protection of the Child (27)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 47 of the Law Relating to the Rights and Protection of the Child; Twelve Years Basic Education (12YBE) policy (27, 28)

*No conscription (17, 27, 35)

Children working in non-contractual employment do not have the same protections under child labor laws and regulations as children working in contractual employment.(29, 36, 37) During the year, the Ministry of Justice led the Inter- Ministerial Steering Committee on Child Labor and the Ministry of Public Service and Labor (MIFOTRA) in a review of the child labor provisions in Rwanda’s 2012 Penal Code with the aim of strengthening penalties for exploitative child labor and trafficking in persons. The penalties are expected to be presented to Parliament in 2016.(1) MIFOTRA also reported developing district-level regulations for labor inspectors that specifically identified priority sectors where children are at risk of engaging in child labor. These draft regulations were not made publicly available.(1) The Kigali City Security Council likewise developed guidelines on child labor.(31) These guidelines prohibit the employment of children in Kigali City as domestic servants, street beggars, porters, bar attendants, hairdressers, and dancers in clubs. It also prohibits using children in pornographic productions, to sell drugs, and to replace their parents in paid employment.(31) These guidelines also require local authorities to raise awareness of child labor and calls for a census at the local cell administrative level to estimate the prevalence of child domestic workers.(31)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service and Labor (MIFOTRA)

Enforce labor laws, including laws on child labor.(10, 38-40)

Rwandan National Police (RNP)

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor and operate a free hotline to report incidents of gender-based violence and child abuse, including child labor.(10, 13, 41) The RNP also operates an Anti-Trafficking Unit to combat the worst forms of child labor, such as child trafficking.(1)

Child Protection Unit

Investigate cases of child abuse, including the use of children in commercial sexual exploitation. Operates under the Commission for Criminal Investigations of the RNP.(10, 42, 43)

National Public Prosecution Authority (NPPA)

Prosecute violations of labor laws, including laws on child labor.(10, 38-40)

Directorate for Anti-Gender-Based Violence

Assist victims of the worst forms of child labor through anti-gender-based violence officers. Operates under the RNP, at each of  the 78 police stations in Rwanda.(8)

Directorate General of Immigration and Emigration

Receive referrals for trafficking cases and employ an anti-trafficking specialist.(13) Verify that children transported across the border are traveling with the permission of their parents or guardians. Train border and immigration officials to identify potential trafficking victims. (10, 44)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Rwanda took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

 Table 6.  Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$527,800†(19)

$690,600‡(19)

Number of Labor Inspectors

30 (19)

35(1)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (19)

Yes (1)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (19)

Yes (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (19)

Yes (1)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown*(19)

Unknown*(1)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown*(19)

Unknown*(1)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown*(19)

Unknown*(1)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown*(19)

Unknown*(1)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

 Unknown*(19)

Unknown*(1)

Number of Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown*(19)

Unknown*(1)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown*(19)

Yes (1)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown*(19)

Yes (1)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (19)

Yes (1)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (19)

Yes (1)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (19)

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (19)

Yes (1)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.
† Data are from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014.
‡ Data are from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015.

In 2015, MIFOTRA revised its interpretation of Labor Law No 13/2009 to comply with ILO. C. 81 by permitting labor inspectors to conduct inspections outside of normal business hours. The new interpretation of this law  allowed labor inspectors to conduct inspections by pre-notification to employers, or by conducting surprise unannounced visits, or by calling employers into the district offices.(1) According to MIFOTRA, the number of labor inspectors was inadequate to monitor and enforce child labor laws, but MIFOTRA had adequate transportation to carry out labor inspections During the year, the MIFOTRA received training by the ILO that focused on the laws of Rwanda and its commitment to international conventions such as ILO. C. 138 on child labor and ILO. C. 182 on the worst forms of child labor. (1)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Rwanda took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7.  Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (19)

Yes (1)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (19)

Yes (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (19)

Yes (1)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (19)

Unknown* (1)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (19)

Unknown* (1)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (19)

Unknown* (1)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (19)

Unknown* (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (19)

Yes (1)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

The Rwandan National Police (RNP) operates an anti-trafficking unit within the force’s Interpol directorate in the RNP. The unit is staffed with 15 full-time officers.(8, 17, 19, 45).  The RNP has expanded police training on child sexual exploitation, gender based violence, and trafficking in the past year. With support from Interpol, the RNP has placed officers at the Kigali International Airport and 13 land border crossings who are trained in identifying and combatting trafficking in persons.(8, 46)  

The Government continued to operate and expand its network from 15 to 21 “One-Stop” centers in hospitals and district capitals for victims of gender-based violence and human trafficking, including individuals who have experienced child domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, and forced labor. These centers provide medical care, counseling, legal aid, short-term shelter, and access to police services.(17) In villages, citizens can report instances of child labor to the RNP or to a local volunteer officer in charge of social affairs. If the officer cannot resolve the problem, it may be referred to the village leader, who in turn may contact the RNP.  (13) Although the RNP operates a free hotline staffed by social workers to report incidences of gender-based violence and child abuse, including child labor, it is unknown how many of these complaints were related to child labor.(13, 17, 41)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Inter-Ministerial Steering Committee on Child Labor

Coordinate government efforts related to the worst forms of child labor, review child labor laws, advocate for the inclusion of child labor policies in national development plans, oversee the implementation of child labor interventions, and conduct field visits to assess the prevalence of child labor and to raise awareness of child labor. Meets quarterly and includes representatives from MIFOTRA; the Ministry of Youth; the Ministry of Education (MINEDUC); the Ministry of Gender and Family Promotion (MIGEPROF); the Ministry of Local Government (MINILOC); the Ministry of Sports and Culture; the RNP; the National Human Rights Commission; the Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Commission (RDRC); trade unions; the ILO; UNICEF; the Private Sector Federation; and Winrock International.(8, 46, 47)

National Consultative Forum on Human Trafficking, Drug Abuse, and Gender-Based Violence

Enable national-level discussion of and coordination of efforts to address human trafficking. Chaired annually by the First Lady of Rwanda and included parliamentarians; representatives of MIGEPROF, the Ministry of Justice (MINIJUST), MINEDUC, and the RNP; NPPA prosecutors; NGOs; and faith-based and civil society leaders. MIGEPROF was selected to coordinate implementation of the plan.(17)

National Commission for Children (NCC)

Monitor, promote, and advocate for children’s rights; develop action plans to protect children from abuse and exploitation. Overseen by MIGEPROF and supported by a board of directors and an advisory council of 14 institutions.(8, 48, 49)

Inter-Ministerial Committee on Child Rights

Coordinate and assess the progress of the Integrated Child Rights Policy (ICRP) and Strategic Plan in Rwanda. Mandated to meet at least once a year. Includes members from MIGEPROF, the Ministry of Health, MINEDUC, MINILOC, MINIJUST, and the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning.(8, 10, 35)

National Commission on Orphans and Vulnerable Children

Monitor and protect orphans and vulnerable children in Rwanda. Composed of the NCC, MIFOTRA, MIGEPROF, and UNICEF.(10, 44, 50)

Child Labor Committees

Monitor incidents of child labor nationwide, through 149 local committees.(8, 46) In the case of Gender-Based Violence Committees, operate at the district level. In the case of Child Protection Committees, identify and report cases of child rights violations at the district, sector, and cell levels.(51, 52) During the year, a child labor committee was formed in each of the 30 districts. The  district-level committees implemented policies developed by the Inter-Ministerial Steering Committee on Child Labor on combatting child labor. The district-level committees also coordinated district labor inspectors, police, and social services officers in conducting inspections, enforcing labor laws, and providing social services to child labor victims.(1)

Friends of the Family (Incuti Z’Umuryango) Committees

Support child welfare and protection, combat child labor, and counter trafficking in persons through the creation of the national-to-village level reporting and social assistance structure.  (17, 19)

Kigali City Council Task Force

Coordinate activities to combat child labor in the districts of Gasabo, Kicukiro, and Nyarugenge.(15, 52, 53)

 

The USDOL-funded REACH-T project implemented by Winrock, in collaboration with the MIFOTRA, established a Roundtable on the Elimination of Child Labor for Sustainable Tea Forum (REST) at the district and national level, which includes officers from tea factories and cooperatives, education officers, labor inspectors, and social service officers. REST met on quarterly basis to discuss advancing policy and programs related to child labor in the tea sector.(1)

The Government of Rwanda has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Policy for the Elimination of Child Labor (2013) and 5-Year Action Plan to Combat Child Labor

Aims to prevent at-risk children from entering exploitative child labor; withdraws children engaged in exploitative labor through the provision of education; rehabilitates former child laborers through counseling, life skills training, and medical care; raises community awareness on child labor; and establishes monitoring and evaluation mechanisms on child labor. Government committed more than $4.2 million to implement activities listed in the Policy and Plan.(10, 54-56)

Integrated Child Rights Policy and Strategic Plan (2011–2016)

Addresses all children’s issues, including child labor. Guided by principles that deem abuse, exploitation, and violence against children intolerable, and that emphasize accountability of the Government and caretakers for the well-being of children.(35, 57) In the case of the ICRP, prohibits child labor, and in the case of the Strategic Plan, provides $9,000 to MIFOTRA to develop time bound programs to eliminate child labor.(35, 57)

National Policy Against Gender-Based Violence (2011–2016)

Recognizes that orphans and vulnerable children, including child laborers, are at increased risk of gender-based violence, and outlines measures to provide assistance to such groups. Implemented by the Gender-Based Violence Technical Working Committee under MIGEPROF. (58, 59)

National Employment Policy (2007)

Includes a set of integrated strategies for employment promotion and generation. Provides for youth employment programs, which include child labor issues.(47, 60)

Vision 2020 (2000)*

Aims to transform agriculture into a productive, market-oriented, and high- value sector. Calls for the protection of children and provides educational opportunities to children who drop out of secondary school.(13, 61)

National Social Protection Strategy (2011)*

Defines social protection and outlines social development activities to assist poor households, such as providing vulnerable children with grants and free education.(62)

National Youth Policy (2005)

Seeks to address concerns facing youth, including economic exploitation and education.(13, 63)

Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (2013–2018)

Describes the social policies and programs necessary to promote growth and reduce poverty. Supports access to education and seeks to eliminate child labor.(64)

National TVET Policy (2008)*

Aims to establish a well-trained and adaptable workforce and provides educational alternatives to children who have dropped out of school.(65)

UNDAF Rwanda (2013–2018)

Enhances government efforts to protect children from exploitation.(66)

Trafficking in Persons Action Plan

Aims to improve government efforts to combat human trafficking through awareness raising, research, poverty reduction strategies, improved service provision, enforcement, and collaboration. Developed by the Consultative Forum on Human Trafficking, Drug Abuse, and Gender-Based Violence.(17, 67)

12YBE Policy*

Provides free education for 12 years and aims to improve access to education by hiring new teachers and building schools.(28)

Education Sector Strategic Plan (2013/14-2017/18)

Aims to increase access to primary education, enhance quality of education and training for children, and ensure that trainings are correlated to meet labor market demands.(68)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

During the year, the ILO produced a report, “ Mainstreaming Child Labor Concerns Into Social Protection Planning and Programming: an Assessment of the Opportunities of Rwanda that assessed the impact of the Government’s social programs such as cash transfers to impoverished households and subsidized medical insurance on the prevalence of child labor. The report indicated that the social programs had a positive impact but further research was needed to quantify the results.(1) It is unclear how the Integrated Child Rights Policy (ICRP) and its Strategic Plan are coordinated with the National Policy for the Elimination of Child Labor and the 5-Year Action Plan to Combat Child Labor. In addition, current budget allocations may not be sufficient for the full implementation of the ICRP.(58)The Government of Rwanda has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Policy for the Elimination of Child Labor (2013) and 5-Year Action Plan to Combat Child Labor

Aims to prevent at-risk children from entering exploitative child labor; withdraws children engaged in exploitative labor through the provision of education; rehabilitates former child laborers through counseling, life skills training, and medical care; raises community awareness on child labor; and establishes monitoring and evaluation mechanisms on child labor. Government committed more than $4.2 million to implement activities listed in the Policy and Plan.(8, 60-62)

Integrated Child Rights Policy and Strategic Plan (2011–2016)

Addresses all children's issues, including child labor. Guided by the principles that deem abuse, exploitation, and violence against children intolerable, and that the Government and caretakers are accountable for the well-being of children.(35, 63) In the case of the ICRP, prohibits child labor, and in the case of the Strategic Plan, provides $9,000 to MIFOTRA to develop timebound programs to eliminate child labor.(35, 63)

National Policy Against Gender-Based Violence (2011–2016)

Acknowledges that orphans and vulnerable children, including child laborers, are at increased risk of gender-based violence and outlines measures to provide assistance to such groups. Implemented by the Gender-Based Violence Technical Working Committee under the MIGEPROF.(64, 65)

National Employment Policy (2007)

Includes a set of integrated strategies for employment promotion and generation. Provides for youth employment programs, which include child labor issues.(46, 66)

Vision 2020 (2000)*

Aims to transform agriculture into a productive, market-oriented, and high- value sector. Calls for the protection of children and provides educational opportunities to children who drop out of secondary school.(42, 67)

National Social Protection Strategy (2011)*

Defines social protection and outlines social development activities to assist poor households, such as providing vulnerable children with grants and free education.(68)

National Youth Policy (2005)

Seeks to address concerns facing youth, including economic exploitation and education.(42, 69)

12YBE Policy*

Provides free education for 12 years and aims to improve access to education by hiring new teachers and building schools.(28)

Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (2013–2018)

Describes the social policies and programs necessary to promote growth and reduce poverty. Supports access to education and seeks to eliminate child labor.(70)

National TVET Policy (2008)*

Aims to establish a well-trained and adaptable workforce and provides educational alternatives to children who have dropped out of school.(71)

Girls' Education Strategic Plan (2009–2013)

Aims to improve access and quality of girls' education to prevent girls from engaging in the worst forms of child labor.(72)

UNDAF Rwanda (2013–2018)

Enhances government efforts to protect children from exploitation.(73)

Trafficking in Persons Action Plan (2014)†

Aims to improve government efforts to combat human trafficking through awareness raising, research, poverty reduction strategies, improved service provision, enforcement, and collaboration. Developed by the Consultative Forum on Human Trafficking, Drug Abuse, and Gender-Based Violence.(18, 74)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

It is unclear how the Integrated Child Rights Policy (ICRP) and its Strategic Plan are coordinated with the National Policy for the Elimination of Child Labor and the 5-Year Action Plan to Combat Child Labor. In addition, current budget allocations may not be sufficient for the full implementation of the ICRP.(64)

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In 2015, the Government of Rwanda funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Commission (RDRC) Child Rehabilitation Program and Center

RDRC-operated center in the Musanze District of the Northern Province for former child combatants returning from the Democratic Republic of the Congo that raises awareness of child soldier issues and provides a 3-month course to former child soldiers, which includes counseling, education, recreational activities, and vocational training.(8, 12, 35, 45).

Rwanda Education Alternatives for Children in Tea-Growing Areas (2013–2017)

$5 million, USDOL-funded, , 4-year project implemented by Winrock International targets 4,090 children engaged in or at risk of entering exploitative child labor in Rwanda with a focus on the tea sector, and 1,320 vulnerable households for sustainable livelihoods promotion. With support from MIFOTRA, aims to train labor inspectors on child labor issues and develop and eventually operate a mobile-phone child labor monitoring system.(69) In February 2015, Winrock International and MIFOTRA launched a Child Labor Monitoring System (CLMS) in 12 districts that gave citizens a mechanism to report child labor violations. During the year, 88 Community Activists were trained on how to use the CLMS.(1) The CLMS recorded 346 cases of suspected child labor and these cases were referred to MIFOTRA and district social services for intervention.(1

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (2011–2017)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the Government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor in Rwanda.(70)

Youth and Workforce Development (Advancing Youth Project)

USAID funded program support training youth ages 14 and above to develop skills to find jobs. The program also connects graduates to internship and employment opportunities.(71)

Child Labor Awareness Raising†

MIFOTRA program to raise public awareness of the worst forms of child labor through radio shows, television announcements, and skits. Also implements awareness-raising campaigns to combat commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking in persons.(8, 17)

 Friends of the Family (Incuti Z’Umuryango) Program

Government social assistance and reporting program that supports child welfare and combats child trafficking and child labor. Trains volunteers to provide social services to families and children, as well as connect at-risk families to government support programs, while reporting children at risk for trafficking or forced labor to district governments and the RNP. Intended to identify child domestic workers and those subjected to other forms of forced labor. Establishing monitoring committees at the village, cell, sector, district, and national levels.(17) During the year, provided training to over 6,000 community volunteers to identify children at risk of trafficking or forced child labor in 10 of the 30 districts. Each volunteer was given a cell phone to report any suspected cases of trafficking to the MIGEPROF. 

Positive Parenting to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Drug Abuse†

MIGEPROF campaign that partners with churches and civil society organizations to teach parents and community leaders to recognize risk factors for human trafficking and to report identified victims.(17)

Eastern Africa Police Chiefs Cooperation Organization (EAPCCO)

Government program to combat human trafficking by collaborating with 11 East African countries to foster regional cooperation and build the capacity of East African law enforcement authorities.(73, 74)

Vision 2020 Umurenge Program†

Government cash and in-kind transfer program for child-headed households and street children.(10, 62, 75, 76)

Gitagata Center†

Government-operated center for former street children in the Bugesera District that provided education support, vocational training, and psychosocial counseling to street children, and when able to do so, reunites them with their families.(8, 77)

One Cup of Milk per Child Program

EU-funded school feeding program that provides milk to children in nursery and primary schools.(50, 78, 79)

† Program is funded by the Government of Rwanda.

Although Rwanda has programs that targets child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem of child labor in domestic work and agriculture.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms in Rwanda (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that relevant child labor laws and regulations apply equally to children working in non-contractual and contractual employment.

2009 – 2015

Enforcement

Ensure that labor law enforcement personnel have sufficient human and financial resources to enforce child labor laws.

2009 – 2015

Make information publicly available on the number of labor inspections, violations, and penalties pertaining to child labor.

2009 – 2015

Make information publicly available on the number of criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015

Disaggregate the number of complaints that relate to child labor to the police hotline.

2013 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into Vision 2020, the National Social Protection Strategy, 12YBE Policy, and National TVET Policy.

2011 – 2015

Allocate funds for the ICRP to ensure its implementation.

2013 – 2015

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children working in construction and fishing to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that school costs, such as uniforms, school supplies, and unofficial school fees do not diminish the impact of the 12-year education policy.

2010 – 2015

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem in domestic work and agriculture.

2015

 

1.         U.S. Embassy- Kigali. reporting, January 13, 2016.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Rwanda," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2015/index.htm.

3.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December  16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

4.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Integrated Households Living Conditions Survey, 2010. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

5.         ICF Macro. Child Labor in Agriculture in Rwanda. Washington, DC; January 2012. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/iclre/Downloads/Research/Report/Rwanda_Research_Report.pdf.

6.         Winrock International official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 20, 2013.

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44.       U.S. Embassy- Kigali. reporting, February 15, 2012.

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46.       U.S. Embassy- Kigali. reporting, February 26, 2014.

47.       Ministry of Public Service and Labor official. Interview with USDOL official. February 8, 2013.

48.       Child Protection: Rwanda, UNICEF, [online] [cited January 9, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/rwanda/protection.html.

49.       Pamela Abbott, and Francesca Sapsford. Legal and Policy Framework for Children's Rights in Rwanda. Kigali, Institute of Policy Analysis and Research - Rwanda; July 2012.

50.       U.S. Embassy- Kigali official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 6, 2014.

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