Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Peru

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Peru

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2015, Peru made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed a law prohibiting the physical or humiliating punishment of children and adolescents, including in the workplace; launched a national policy against trafficking in persons that highlights the increased vulnerability of child laborers; and conducted a national child labor survey. The National Labor Inspection Superintendency opened a new inspection office in Ancash, and the National Commission for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor created subcommittees to address hazardous adolescent work, child domestic work, and intervention strategies for the Regional Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor. However, children in Peru continue to engage in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Labor and criminal law enforcement agencies in Peru lack sufficient training and resources to adequately combat child labor, including its worst forms. Moreover, Peruvian law allows adolescents to work in mining and commercial fishing, despite the designation of both activities as hazardous under other provisions of Peruvian law, and to engage in night work in some circumstances.

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Children in Peru are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-8) According to the Government’s 2011 National Household Survey, 68 percent of child laborers under the legal working age work in rural areas, principally on farms.(1, 9) According to the same survey, approximately 31 percent of child laborers in urban areas work in the service sector, including in hazardous occupations such as street work. Official statistics indicate that the rates of child labor are significantly higher in the highland and jungle regions of Peru than in the coastal regions.(9) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Peru.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

22.8 (1,297,106)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

79.3

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

19.4

Primary completion rate (%):

95.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(10)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta Nacional de Hogares (ENAHO), 2014.(11)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of Brazil nuts/chestnuts* (6, 8, 12)

Planting and harvesting avocados,* barley,* beans,* cocoa,* coffee,* corn,* grass,* passion fruit,* pineapples,* plantains,* potatoes,* rocoto chili peppers,* and yucca* (13)

Transplanting and harvesting rice*(2, 14-24)

Herding and caring for farm animals*† (9, 25)

Fishing,† including deep sea fishing,*† organizing tools,* throwing fishing lines and nets,*† harvesting crabs* and shrimp eggs,*† and cleaning shrimp* and prawns* for packaging*† (16, 26)

Logging*† and clearing forestland for mining, including cutting down and burning trees*† (5, 6, 12)

Industry

Mining,† including silver mining* and particularly gold mining (5, 6, 8, 12, 14, 27, 28)

Production of bricks† and fireworks† (6, 8, 12)

Services

Street work,† including vending, begging, shoe shining, unloading ships,† carrying loads, and car washing (2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 16, 29)

Collecting fares on public buses*† (16)

Repairing motor vehicles*† (5)

Garbage scavenging† and battery recycling* (6, 12, 27)

Domestic work*† (6, 25)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor

Forced labor in mining, particularly gold mining* (2-6, 12, 30)

Forced labor in logging,* street vending,* and begging (2-7, 12, 31)

Forced domestic work sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 4, 6, 32)

Commercial sexual exploitation, including in bars, brothels, and mining camps, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 3, 5-8, 12, 31, 33-35)

Growing and processing coca (stimulant plant) sometimes as a result of human trafficking and transporting drugs (2-4, 6, 8, 12, 31, 34, 35)

Counterfeiting United States dollars,* smuggling gas* and gasoline* (16, 17)

Use in armed conflict sometimes as a result of forced or compulsory recruitment* (4, 7, 8, 12, 31)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Peruvian girls are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation across the country, particularly in mining communities and in the tourist zones of Cuzco, Iquitos, and Lima.(7, 31, 33, 36, 37) Young Colombian girls and boys enter Santa Rosa, Peru, by canoe, where they engage in illicit activities and are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation. Canoe access to Colombia closes from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. every day, resulting in further commercial sexual exploitation of children unable to return to Colombia by night.(34, 35)

Remnants of the terrorist group Shining Path use children as soldiers and domestic workers as well as to produce coca and transport drugs.(2-4, 6, 12, 31) In July, the Government of Peru rescued 54 indigenous Ashaninka people, including 34 children, who were being held by Shining Path members in remote jungle areas.(38) Colombian children from the departments of Amazonas and Nariño frequently travel across the border to Peru to work in the cultivation of coca and illegal drug production. Sometimes, these children are trafficked to perform these activities.(39, 40)

Children in Peru work in informal mining, particularly in informal gold mines and peripheral services. Children working in informal and small-scale mining are exposed to hazards, including wall and mine collapses, landslides, explosives accidents, and harmful gases.(6, 16, 41, 42)

Adolescents from indigenous communities had a 42.5 percent secondary school completion rate in 2013, whereas 67.6 percent of non-indigenous youth completed secondary school. Only 42.1 percent of girls ages 17 to 18 in rural communities completed secondary school in 2013, as opposed to 75.7 percent of girls the same age in urban areas.(43) Some parents do not to send their daughters to high school because of the distance, cost, and concerns over sexual violence and teen pregnancy.(44) A 2012 family health survey indicated that 34.9 percent of girls who had completed only primary school were either pregnant or already had a child.(45) School authorities reportedly deny girls admission to school if they are pregnant or dating, despite legislation requiring school directors to ensure that female students who are pregnant or have children remain in school and do not face discrimination.(44, 46)

Peru has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 51 of the Child and Adolescent Code (47)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 58 of the Child and Adolescent Code (48)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Sections A–B of the Supreme Decree No. 003-2010-MIMDES (49)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 2 and 23 of the Constitution; Article 4 of the Child and Adolescent Code; Articles 128–129, 153, 168, and 182 of the Penal Code (48, 50-53)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Child and Adolescent Code; Articles 153 and 182 of the Penal Code (48, 50-52)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Child and Adolescent Code; Articles 153 and 179–183 of the Penal Code (48, 52, 54)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 128 and 297 of the Penal Code (51, 55, 56)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 42 of the Military Service Law (32)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 42 of the Military Service Law (32, 57)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17‡

Article 17 of the Constitution; Articles 12 and 36 of the General Education Law; Article 61 of the Supreme Decree No. 011-2012-ED (2, 53, 58-60)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Constitution; Article 4 of the General Education Law (53, 58)

‡ Age calculated based on available information.(2, 53, 58-60)

Education is compulsory in Peru through secondary school, with a projected progression of 6 years of study in primary school, beginning at age 6, and 5 years of study in secondary school. The Government of Peru has indicated that the average secondary school completion age is 17.(2, 53, 58-60)

In 2015, the Government of Peru strengthened legal protections for children and adolescents by passing a law prohibiting the use of physical or humiliating punishment against children and adolescents, including in the workplace.(61) The Child and Adolescent Code does not fully protect adolescents (ages 12 to 18)  engaged in night work and hazardous work. Article 57 prohibits children (under age 12) and adolescents  from working between the hours of 7 p.m. and 7 a.m., with the exception that a judge may authorize adolescents age 15 and older to engage in night work not exceeding 4 hours a day. In 2014, the Government of Peru proposed a bill amending the Child and Adolescent Code to raise the minimum age for authorized night work to 16. This amendment was not approved during the reporting period.(2, 48, 62) Additionally, although Section A of the Supreme Decree No. 003-2010-MIMDES designates fishing and mining as work that is hazardous by nature, Article 51 of the Child and Adolescent Code allows adolescents to perform work in mining at age 16 and in commercial fishing at age 17, without provisions to ensure that their health, safety, and morals are fully protected, or that they receive specific instruction or training in these activities.(47, 49)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Promotion of Employment (MTPE)

Set national policies and guidelines for labor law enforcement, including for inspections. Responsible for supporting the National Labor Inspection Superintendency (SUNAFIL).(63) Maintain an online reporting system to receive complaints of labor law violations.(64)

SUNAFIL

Enforce labor laws in nine regions with operational SUNAFIL offices.(2, 65) Conduct labor inspections of employers who have more than 10 registered workers.(66) Maintain a special inspection group composed of 15 inspectors who conduct inspections targeting forced labor and child labor violations, and train other inspectors on these topics.(16, 67) Address possible child labor violations during all inspections and refer cases of child labor to the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations (MIMP) and the Public Ministry, as appropriate.(68, 69)

Regional Directorates for Labor

Inspect employers who have 10 or fewer registered workers.(63, 66)

Ombudsman’s Department for Children and Adolescents

Coordinate government policies and programs that target children and adolescents. Assist the MTPE in investigating complaints of violations of child labor laws.(2)

National Police

Enforce criminal laws regarding child labor and child exploitation and maintain a trafficking in persons investigation unit to investigate cases of child trafficking for labor and sexual exploitation.(2, 69, 70) Coordinate with the Public Ministry and MIMP to place rescued minors in the care of family members or state social services.(1)

Public Ministry

Coordinate with the MTPE, SUNAFIL, and the National Police to investigate and prosecute cases of criminal violations of child labor laws. Maintain a specialized trafficking in persons prosecutorial unit within the Public Prosecutor’s Office.(69, 71)

Ministry of the Interior (MININTER)

Investigate child trafficking cases and refer children to victim services.(2) Maintain a hotline that functions during office hours to receive reports of trafficking in persons. Provide victims and the general public with information on human trafficking, communicate cases of human trafficking to relevant government offices, and coordinate services for victims.(1, 72)

MIMP Children’s Bureau

Design, promote, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate government policies and programs for the well-being of children and adolescents.(2, 73) Manage the Street Educators program and a hotline for exploited children, including child laborers. Provide social services to children found working in the worst forms of child labor and refer cases to the MTPE.(67, 69, 74)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Peru took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

 Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$24,647,980 (3)

$24,282,131.66 (2)

Number of Labor Inspectors

295 (3)

482 (2)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (3)

Yes (2)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (3)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

25,104 (75)

35,813 (75)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

25 (3)

85 (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

25 (3)

11 (2)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

0 (2)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (3)

Yes (2)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (3)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (3)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (3)

Yes (2)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (64)

Yes (64)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (2)

 

In 2015, the National Labor Inspection Superintendency (SUNAFIL) opened a new inspection office in Ancash and was operational in nine regions. SUNAFIL conducted 338 child labor inspections and removed 116 children from child labor, including its worst forms, during the reporting period.(2, 65, 76) Although the total number of labor inspectors and labor inspections increased in 2015 from the previous year, inspectors lacked sufficient training and resources, such as transportation and fuel, to address the problem of child labor, particularly in the informal sector.(2, 4, 42, 70) Many regional labor inspectorates were understaffed and underfunded, and the Ministry of Labor and Promotion of Employment (MTPE) continued to report an insufficient number of labor inspectors. The ILO Committee of Experts also noted that the number of labor inspectors is inadequate to monitor the informal economy where the majority of child labor in Peru occurs.(2, 3, 30)

According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Peru should employ roughly 1,120 inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(77-79) Of Peru’s 482 labor inspectors, 88 were inspectors from the Regional Directorates for Labor and 394 were SUNAFIL inspectors.(2) Of the SUNAFIL inspectors, 20 were supervisors.  While these supervisors are fully accredited inspectors, SUNAFIL reported that they focus on managerial functions.  In addition, 267 inspectors were auxiliary, who required supervision to inspect employers who had more than 10 employees; and 107 were labor inspectors, who were authorized to inspect businesses with more than 10 employees. Of these, 98 were located in Lima.(2) In regions outside of Lima, there were only 9 SUNAFIL labor inspectors and the 88 inspectors from the Regional Directorates for Labor.(2)

Penalties for child labor were insufficient to deter violations, particularly as NGOs estimated that the labor authority collected only 10 percent of imposed fines. In addition, SUNAFIL reported it had not collected any fines from 2015 due to pending appeals.(2, 3)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Peru took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (3, 80)

 Yes (71)

Number of Investigations

110 (42)

359 (38)

Number of Violations Found

25 (80)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

110 (42)

Unknown (2)

Number of Convictions

19 (80)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (2)

 

In 2015, the trafficking in persons investigation unit of the National Police employed 110 child labor investigators, and the specialized trafficking in persons prosecutorial unit of the Public Prosecutor’s Office in Lima employed 11 prosecutors. During the reporting period, the Public Prosecutor’s Office authorized funding to place six specialized trafficking in persons prosecutors in Lima, Madre de Dios, Tumbes, and Loreto.(2) NGOs and the MTPE noted that investigators did not have sufficient funding or resources to carry out investigations and that training for MTPE investigators was insufficient and failed to strengthen MTPE investigative capacity.(2)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor (CPETI)

Implement the National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor.(64) Propose public policies and coordinate, evaluate, and monitor government actions to combat child labor. Maintain subcommittees, including on informal mining, child labor in indigenous villages, and project evaluation.(2) Led by the MTPE and includes 17 government agencies, including MININTER, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Justice, and the Peruvian National Police as well as representatives from business associations, unions, and NGOs.(2, 4) Met regularly during the reporting period and created three subcommittees to focus on hazardous adolescent work, child domestic work, and intervention strategies for the Regional Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor.(2, 64)

Regional Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor

Carry out CPETI’s mandate at the regional level.(81) Is present in all 25 regions of Peru.(16)

National Commission against Forced Labor

Coordinate government efforts to combat forced labor, including conducting research on forced labor, awareness-raising efforts, developing legislation, and strengthening Peru’s institutional capacity to address forced labor. Led by the MTPE, with participation of eight additional government ministries.(1, 70) Met infrequently throughout the reporting period.(2, 64)

Permanent Multi-Sectoral Commission on Illegal Mining

Coordinate government efforts to address illegal mining, including by developing programs to eradicate child labor and child prostitution in mining areas. Led by the Prime Minister’s Office and includes the participation of regional governments and six national government agencies, including the Ministry of Energy and Mines and MININTER.(82)

Multi-Sector Committee Against Trafficking in Persons

Lead and coordinate government efforts to combat trafficking in persons. Chaired by MININTER and includes 12 government agencies, including the Ministry of Justice, MIMP, and the MTPE.(70)

 

Despite effective coordination among law enforcement agencies, including SUNAFIL, the MTPE, and the National Police, in the rice plantations of the Tumbes region during the reporting period, Peruvian officials acknowledged that, in general, the collection and sharing of information to address child labor was limited by an overall lack of interagency coordination.(2)

The Government of Peru has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor for 2012–2021

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by improving the livelihoods of low-income families, improving education opportunities, raising awareness of child labor, improving work conditions for adolescents, and increasing child labor law enforcement.(9, 74) Also seeks to improve the quality of child labor data in Peru. Includes the objective of carrying out pilot programs to combat child labor in urban and rural areas.(9)

A Peru without Child Labor

Aims to prevent and eradicate child labor through a partnership between the Government and a network of private businesses committed to supporting the National Strategy by investing in child development and building a skilled workforce.(74, 83)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014–2020)

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories’ efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013) and signed by Peru at the ILO’s 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima (October 2014).(84, 85)

Declaration of Cancún and Plan of Action (2015)†

In 2015, the Government of Peru participated in the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to promote decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas, held in Cancún, Mexico. Participating countries adopted the declaration, which aims in part to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and to promote education and vocational training for youth.(86, 87) Participating countries also adopted the Plan of Action, which prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and the development of social protection policies for children and families.(86, 88)

National Action Plan for Children and Adolescents for 2012–2021

Establishes a comprehensive set of government policies for children and adolescents, including the goal of eradicating the worst forms of child labor.(1, 70, 74)

Sector Strategy on the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor

Includes the objectives of increasing the availability of child labor data, raising public awareness, strengthening coordination between public and private entities on child labor issues, and improving investigations of child labor violations. Developed jointly by the MTPE and the ILO.(69, 89)

Second National Plan to Combat Forced Labor for
2013–2017

Establishes the Government’s policies and priorities for combating forced labor. Includes the goal of reducing children’s vulnerability to becoming engaged in forced labor.(41)

Intersectoral Protocol against Forced Labor

Outlines the Government’s role in combating forced labor and provides for the housing, legal defense, and educational reintegration of children and adolescent victims of forced labor. Monitored by the National Commission Against Forced Labor.(3, 90)

National Policy against Trafficking in Persons†

Aims to prevent and reduce human trafficking by addressing root causes, prosecuting perpetrators, assisting victims, and strengthening programs for vulnerable populations, including child laborers.(2, 64, 91)

Illegal Mining, Drug Trafficking, Inequality, and Poverty Elimination Agreement Between the Government of Colombia and the Government of Peru

Outlines 11 agreements between the 2 nations, including several that focus on child and adolescent labor protection issues, such as identifying and assisting children and adolescents who work in mining activities and are in vulnerable situations.(92) In addition, establishes a roadmap to apply concepts from the Cooperation Agreement on the Exchange of Experiences and Good Practices regarding labor and labor relations, including child labor.(92)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

Although potentially a useful policy tool, the Second National Plan to Combat Forced Labor for 2013–2017 still does not have funding for implementation.(2) Additionally, some Regional Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor have not fulfilled their mandate to create action plans to combat child labor, while others have action plans but have failed to provide the necessary funding to carry them out.(68, 71, 93)

In 2015, the Government of Peru funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (2013–2017)

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in 10 countries, including Peru, to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building the capacity of the Government to conduct research in this area.(94) In August 2015, organized a workshop in Lima to develop survey questionnaires for the National Child Labor Survey, which was funded by the project, the MTPE, and Peru’s National Institute of Statistics.(95) The National Institute of Statistics and ILO conducted the National Child Labor Survey in November 2015, sampling 6,458 households in 24 regions. Results will be released in 2016.(2, 95)

Seed Project (Proyecto Semilla)

(2011–2016)

$13 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by the NGO Desarrollo y Autogestión to combat rural child labor. Supports the national and regional governments in developing child labor policies, carries out awareness-raising campaigns, and aims to provide 6,650 children and 3,000 families with education and livelihood services to reduce the incidence of child labor.(96)

Peru Works (Trabaja Perú)†

(2006–2015)

MTPE program that offers temporary work and technical training to low-income households. Requires beneficiaries to ensure their children attend school and do not engage in child labor.(2, 69, 70)

Huánuco Project†

Seeks to improve school retention and attendance rates among child laborers in rural areas. In conjunction with the Together Program, assists approximately 4,000 children and 3,200 families by providing them with cash transfers, education, and livelihood services.(1, 9, 67, 71)

Carabayllo Project†

Provides scholarships, education assistance, psychological help, and other services to 1,000 families and 1,500 children, with the aim of reducing urban child labor, especially in garbage dumps.(1, 9, 67, 71)

Learn Program

(Yachay)

MIMP program created in 2012 to increase protection and access to social services for children and adolescents subjected to street work, including begging and commercial sexual exploitation.(97)

Street Educators (Educadores de Calle)†

MIMP program within the Yachay program that provides counseling and training to children engaged in begging and street work in 20 cities throughout Peru.(2, 98) Connects working children and their families to educational and social services, with the goal of withdrawing them from exploitative work and improving family welfare.(68, 98) In 2015, MIMP provided identification cards, health insurance, education, and employment training to approximately 9,600 street children.(2)

Youth to Work (Jóvenes a la Obra)†

MTPE program to provide youth ages 16 to 24 with free job training, including on-the-job training in companies.(2, 4)

Responsible Peru†

MTPE program to create formal youth employment and strengthen corporate social responsibility.(2)

Go Peru (Vamos Perú)†

MTPE program to provide job training and technical assistance to entrepreneurs as well as job placement services to the unemployed, including youth.(2, 4)

Regional Action Group for the Americas (Grupo de Acción Regional para las Américas)

Regional initiative that conducts prevention and awareness-raising campaigns to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Latin America. Members include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.(99)

Project to Consolidate Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru (2012–2017)

$6 million USDOL-funded, 5-year project implemented by the ILO to combat forced labor, including forced child labor, in Brazil and Peru, and to share Brazil’s good practices with the Government of Peru and Peruvian stakeholders.(100) In 2015, conducted and published two research reports on forced labor in gold mining and logging, trained more than 280 law enforcement officials in forced labor, and partnered with the Government of Peru to raise awareness of forced labor in the Cusco and Piurá regions. Sponsored exchange activities between Brazilian and Peruvian law enforcement officials, including conducting joint forced labor inspections in Brazil and Peru.(101-104)

From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor (The Bridge Project)*

USDOL-funded global project implemented by the ILO to support global and national efforts aimed at combating forced labor of adults and children under the 2014 ILO Protocol and supporting Recommendation to C.29 on Forced Labor. Includes Mauritania, Nepal, and Peru as priority countries.(105)

Together Program (Juntos) (2005–2015)†

Ministry of Social Development program to provide cash transfers to approximately 650,000 low-income households in 15 of the country’s 25 departments.(64, 106, 107)

Improved Rural High School†

Ministry of Education program to provide academic and social support to students in rural high schools. In 2015, 54 teams of 3 professionals collaborated with 214 schools to raise community awareness on the benefits of secondary education and encourage the reintegration of adolescents into the school system.(64, 108)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Peru.

Although Peru has programs that reach children who work in agriculture in rural areas, the scope of these programs is still insufficient to fully address the large numbers of children engaged in hazardous occupations in agriculture. Peru also lacks targeted programs to assist children who are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation and child soldiering, as well as children who work in mining, logging, and domestic work.(2)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Peru (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the minimum age for work in fishing, mining, and night work between, is 18 or that adolescents age 16 and older receive adequate, specific instruction or training and that their health, safety, and morals are fully protected.

2014 – 2015

Enforcement

Make publicly available information on the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk review and about the training system for labor inspectors and criminal investigators, including details on training provided to inspectors and investigators and training provided on new laws related to child labor.

2015

Increase the level of funding allocated to the MTPE, SUNAFIL, and Regional Labor Inspectorates for staff, training, and resources to help ensure effective enforcement of child labor laws, particularly in the informal sector and regions with high rates of child labor.

2009 – 2015

Increase the collection rate of fines imposed for child labor law violations, in particular to deter future violations.

2015

Increase publicly available information about law enforcement efforts related to child labor, particularly at the regional level and particularly related to criminal law enforcement, including the number of criminal violations identified, prosecutions initiated, and convictions involving the worst forms of child labor.

2012 – 2015

Increase the level of funding and resources allocated for criminal law enforcement related to the worst forms of child labor, including for increased training on the worst forms of child labor for criminal investigators that targets specific investigative challenges.

2015

Coordination

Strengthen coordination and information-sharing mechanisms among government agencies responsible for responding to child labor issues.

2012 – 2015

Government Policies

Allocate sufficient funding to fully implement the Second National Plan to Combat Forced Labor.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that regional CPETI commissions develop action plans to combat child labor, and allocate sufficient funding to implement these plans.

2010 – 2015

Social Programs

Improve access to education for girls in rural and indigenous communities.

2014 – 2015

Expand social programs to reach a greater number of children working in hazardous occupations in agriculture and initiate social programs to address child commercial sexual exploitation, child soldiering, child labor in mining, child labor in logging, and child domestic work.

2009 – 2015

 

1.         Government of Peru. Written Communication. Submitted in response to USDOL Request for Information about Child and Forced Labor. Lima; January 28, 2013.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Lima. reporting, January 21 2016.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Lima. reporting, January 13, 2015.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Lima. reporting, January 10, 2014.

5.         Verite. Risk Analysis of Indicators of Forced Labor and Human Trafficking in Illegal Gold Mining in Peru. Amherst; 2013. http://www.verite.org/sites/default/files/images/Indicators%20of%20Forced%20Labor%20in%20Gold%20Mining%20in%20Peru_0.pdf.

6.         UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, Gulnara Shahinian. New York; August 15, 2011.

7.         U.S. Department of State. "Peru," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243561.pdf.

8.         U.S. Department of State. "Peru," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236922.pdf.

9.         Government of Peru. Estrategia Nacional para la Prevención y Erradicación del Trabajo Infantíl 2012-2021. Lima; 2012.

10.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

11.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from ENAHO, 2014. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

12.       U.S. Department of State. "Peru," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

13.       Proyecto Semilla. Documento de Linea de Base. Project Document. Lima, Desarrollo y Autogestion, DESCO, World Learning; December, 2012.

14.       El Comercio. "Investigan denuncias de trabajo infantil en tres regiones." El Comercio, Lima, August 21, 2014. http://elcomercio.pe/peru/pais/investigan-denuncias-trabajo-infantil-tres-regiones-noticia-1751626.

15.       Government of Peru. Ministerio de Trabajo continúa con acciones para erradicar explotación laboral infantil en el norte del país, Ministerio de Trabajo, [online] [cited March 27, 2015]; http://www.mintra.gob.pe/mostrarNoticias.php?codNoticia=4471.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Lima official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 16, 2015.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Lima. reporting, November 10, 2015.

18.       Diario Correo. "Trabajo infantil en sembrios de arroz." Lima, August 8, 2014. http://diariocorreo.pe/ciudad/trabajo-infantil-en-sembrios-de-arroz-14474/.

19.       El Comercio. "Nueve menores fueron rescatados de explotación laboral." El Comercio, Lima, August 11, 2014. http://elcomercio.pe/peru/tumbes/nueve-menores-fueron-rescatados-explotacion-laboral-noticia-1748959.

20.       Diario Correo. "Tumbes: Rescatan a 56 menores de trabajo infantil." Lima, March 19, 2015. http://diariocorreo.pe/edicion/tumbes/tumbes-rescatan-a-56-menores-de-trabajo-infantil-573452/.

21.       Andina. "Ejecutan operativo de prevención contra trabajo infantil en arrozales de Tumbes." andina.com [online] February 5, 2015 [cited January 22, 2016]; http://www.andina.com.pe/agencia/noticia-ejecutan-operativo-prevencion-contra-trabajo-infantil-arrozales-tumbes-542351.aspx.

22.       Andina. "Piura: Ministerio de Trabajo iniciará campaña contra el trabajo infantil." andina.com [online] April 3, 2015 [cited January 22, 2016]; http://www.andina.com.pe/agencia/noticia-piura-ministerio-trabajo-iniciara-campana-contra-trabajo-infantil-550235.aspx.

23.       Government of Peru. SUNAFIL Retira 17 Menores del Trabajo Infantil en Tumbes, SUNAFIL, [online] [cited January 22, 2016]; http://www.sunafil.gob.pe/portal/noticias/item/271-sunafil-retira-17-menores-del-trabajo-infantil-en-tumbes.

24.       Panamericana.pe. Los niños del arroz: trabajo infantil en Tumbes [video]. Peru; March 1, 2015, 18 min., 43 sec., accessed January 22, 2016; http://panamericana.pe/panorama/nacionales/177042-ninos-arroz-infantil-tumbes.

25.       Centro de Desarrollo y Autogestión. Combating Exploitative Rural Child Labor in Perú. Project Document. Lima; November 2011.

26.       Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Perú: Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes que Trabajan, 1993-2008. Lima; December 2009. http://www.fundacion.telefonica.com.pe/pronino/upload/LIB_PDF_Inei.pdf.

27.       UN Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant: Peru. Geneva; May 30, 2012. Report No. E/C.12/PER/CO/2-4. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/publisher,CESCR,CONCOBSERVATIONS,,506447ed2,0.html.

28.       Villavicencio, E. "La Libertad: Mineros informales depredan cerro Ragash de Salpo." El Comercio, Trujillo, September 23, 2013. http://elcomercio.pe/actualidad/1635112/noticia-libertad-mineros-informales-depredan-cerro-ragash-salpo.

29.       El Comercio. "Mayoría de niños trabajadores del Cercado son de Huancavelica." El Comercio, Lima, October 1, 2014. http://elcomercio.pe/lima/sucesos/mayoria-ninos-trabajadores-cercado-son-huancavelica-noticia-1761030.

30.       ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Peru (ratification: 2002) Published: 2014; accessed November 5, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/.

31.       U.S. Department of State. "Peru," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226848.pdf.

32.       Government of Peru. Ley del Servicio Militar, No. 27178, enacted September 28, 1999. http://www.resdal.org/Archivo/d0000281.htm.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Lima official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 3, 2013.

34.       Governorship of Amazonas official. Interview with USDOL official. June 1, 2015.

35.       Ministry of Labor official. Interview with USDOL official. June 3, 2015.

36.       Cardenas, MA. "Son las familias las que involucran a sus niños en la trata de personas." El Comercio, Lima, December 5, 2011. http://elcomercio.pe/peru/1343756/noticia-son-familias-que-involucran-sus-ninos-trata-personas_1.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Lima. reporting, February 15, 2013.

38.       U.S. Embassy- Lima. reporting, February 2, 2016.

39.       Colombian District Attorney's Office official. Interview with USDOL official. June 2, 2015.

40.       Colombian Institute for Family Well-Being (ICBF) official. Interview with USDOL official. June 2, 2015.

41.       Government of Peru. II Plan Nacional para la Lucha contra el Trabajo Forzoso 2013-2017. Lima; 2013.

42.       U.S. Embassy- Lima official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 11, 2015.

43.       ESCALE. Tasa de conclusión, secundaria, grupo de edades 17-18, Ministerio de Educación, [online] June 23, 2014 [cited February 27, 2015]; http://escale.minedu.gob.pe/tendencias.

44.       Hildebrandt Chávez, C. La Escuela del Silencio [Youtube]. Peru: UNICEF; March 25, 2014, 24 min., 16 sec., accessed February 27, 2015; http://www.unicef.org/peru/spanish/media_26884.htm.

45.       Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Peru Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar 2012. Lima; April 2013. http://proyectos.inei.gob.pe/endes/2012/.

46.       Government of Peru. Ley que Fomenta la Reinsercion Escolar por Embarazo, Law Number 29600, enacted March 26, 2013. http://www.minedu.gob.pe/ditoe/xtras/DS-002-2013-ED.pdf.

47.       Government of Peru. Ley que Modifica el Artículo 51 de la Ley No. 27337, 27571, enacted December 4, 2001. http://www.mintra.gob.pe/contenidos/legislacion/dispositivos_legales/ley_27571.htm.

48.       Government of Peru. Ley que Aprueba el Nuevo Código de los Niños y Adolescentes, No. 27337, enacted August 2, 2000. http://www.acnur.org/biblioteca/pdf/01163.pdf.

49.       Government of Peru. Decreto Supremo, No. 003-2010-MIMDES, enacted 2010. http://www.mimp.gob.pe/files/direcciones/dgnna/Lectura_15_Relacion_Trabajos_Peligrosos_Adolescentes.pdf.

50.       Government of Peru. Ley contra la Trata de Personas y el Tráfico Ilícito de Migrantes, Law No. 28950, enacted January 16, 2007. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/ley_trata_peru_06.pdf.

51.       Government of Peru. Código Penal No. 635, enacted August 4, 1991. http://spij.minjus.gob.pe/CLP/contenidos.dll?f=templates&fn=default-codpenal.htm&vid=Ciclope:CLPdemo.

52.       Government of Peru. Ley que perfecciona la tipificacion del delito de trata de personas, Ley N 30251, enacted October 20, 2014. http://www.mef.gob.pe/contenidos/servicios_web/conectamef/pdf/normas_legales_2012/NL20141021.pdf.

53.       Government of Peru. Constitución Política del Perú enacted 1993. http://www2.congreso.gob.pe/congreso/Constitución-Política-08-09-09.doc.

54.       Government of Peru. Modificación del Código Penal No. 28251, enacted August 4, 2004. http://www.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/ley_28251_esci_pe.pdf.

55.       Peruvian Ministry of Labor official. Official communication to USDOL official. January 21, 2014.

56.       Government of Peru. Ley que protege a las ninas, ninos y asolescentes de la mendicidad, 28190, enacted February 26, 2004. http://www2.congreso.gob.pe/sicr/cendocbib/con3_uibd.nsf/BA2E8C56206D9C0E0525786500711261/$FILE/28190.pdf.

57.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers. London; 2012. http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

58.       Government of Peru. Ley General de Educación, Ley N 28044, enacted July 28, 2003. http://www.minedu.gob.pe/p/ley_general_de_educacion_28044.pdf.

59.       Government of Peru. Written Communication. Lima; April 5, 2013.

60.       Government of Peru. Reglamento de la Ley General de Educación, Decreto Supremo N 011-2012-ED, enacted July 6, 2012. http://www.minedu.gob.pe/files/3926_201207101510.pdf.

61.       Government of Peru. Ley que prohíbe el uso del castigo físico y humillante contra los niños, niñas y adolescentes, Ley N 30403, enacted December 29, 2015. http://busquedas.elperuano.com.pe/download/url/ley-que-prohibe-el-uso-del-castigo-fisico-y-humillante-contr-ley-n-30403-1328702-1.

62.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Peru (ratification: 2002) Published: 2014; accessed November 5, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3145230:NO.

63.       Government of Peru. Gobierno promulgó ley de creación de la Superintendencia Nacional de Fiscalización Laboral, Ministry of Labor and Employment Promotion, [online] [cited April 15, 2014]; http://www.mintra.gob.pe/mostrarNoticias.php?codNoticia=3871.

64.       Government of Peru. Written Communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (October 27, 2015) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Lima; January 5, 2016.

65.       Government of Peru. Intendencias Regionales, SUNAFIL, [online] [cited March 25, 2016]; http://www.sunafil.gob.pe/portal/intendentes-regionales.

66.       USDOL official. Observation Report; January 27, 2014.

67.       Government of Peru. Written Communication. Submitted in response to USDOL Request for Information about Child and Forced Labor. Lima; January 20, 2014.

68.       U.S. Embassy- Lima. reporting, January 24, 2012.

69.       Government of Peru. Written Communication. Submitted in response to USDOL Request for Information about Child and Forced Labor. Lima; May 30, 2011.

70.       U.S. Embassy- Lima. reporting, January 30, 2013.

71.       U.S. Embassy- Lima official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 27, 2016.

72.       Government of Peru. Línea contra la trata de personas 0800-2-3232, Ministry of the Interior, [online] [cited April 15, 2014]; http://dgsd.mininter.gob.pe/ddfg/lineatrata.html.

73.       Government of Peru. Dirección General de Niñas, Niños y Adolescentes - Nosotros, Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables, [online] [cited April 13, 2016]; http://www.mimp.gob.pe/portalmimp2014/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=134&Itemid=289.

74.       Government of Peru. Written Communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 13, 2014) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Lima; January 27, 2015.

75.       Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social Banco de Buenas Practicas Sobre Inspección Laboral en Iberoamérica. Peru - Ficha de país; accessed July 14, 2016; http://bancoinspeccioniberoamerica.stps.gob.mx/Publico/Index.aspx.

76.       Government of Peru. SUNAFIL Inaugura Sede de Fiscalizacion Laboral en Haraz en la Provincia del Santa, SUNAFIL, [online] [cited March 25, 2016]; http://www.sunafil.gob.pe/portal/noticias/item/178-sunafil-inaugura-sede-de-fiscalizacion-laboral-en-huaraz-y-en-la-provincia-del-santa.

77.       Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook, CIA, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

78.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

79.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

80.       U.S. Embassy- Lima. reporting, February 12, 2015.

81.       Government of Peru. Decreto Supremo 052-2011-PCM, enacted June 21, 2011. http://spij.minjus.gob.pe/Normas/textos/210611T.pdf.

82.       Government of Peru, Public Defender's Office. Gestión del Estado frente a la Minería Informal e Ilegal en el Perú. Lima; 2013. http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/modules/Downloads/informes/varios/2013/Informe-N-001-2013-DP-AMASPPI-MA.pdf.

83.       Government of Peru. Ministra de Trabajo y empresarios unen esfuerzos para combatir el trabajo infantil en el Perú, Ministerio de Trabajo, [online] [cited February 20, 2015]; http://www.mintra.gob.pe/mostrarNoticias.php?codNoticia=4163.

84.       ILO. 18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean Sign a Declaration to Free the Region from Child Labour, ILO, [online] [cited December 1, 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/caribbean/WCMS_314428/lang--en/index.htm [source on file].

85.       United Nations News Centre. "At UN-backed forum, Latin American, Caribbean nations pledge robust efforts against child labour." un.org [online] October 15, 2014 [cited 2014]; http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=49082#.VHyeYdLF98E.

86.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML)- List of Participants, [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_IIPreparatoryXIX_IACML.asp [source on file].

87.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML)- Declaration of Cancún 2015: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1 [source on file].

88.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML)- Plan of Action of Cancún: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1 [source on file].

89.       Government of Peru, and Ministry of Labor and Employment Promotion. Informe Anual de la Inspección del Trabajo en el Perú: Año 2014. Lima; January 2014. http://www.mintra.gob.pe/archivos/file/DGIT/2014/RESULTADOS_INSPECCIONES/RESULTADOS_INSPECCIONES_ENERO_2014.pdf.

90.       Government of Peru. Decreto Supremo que aprueba el protocolo intersectorial contra el trabajo forzoso, Decreto Supremo Nº 011-2014-TR, enacted October 2, 2014. http://www.mintra.gob.pe/archivos/file/SNIL/normas/2014-10-03_011-2014-TR_3715.pdf.

91.       Government of Peru. Decreto Supremo, Nº 001-2015-JUS, enacted January 24, 2015. http://www.peru.gob.pe/normas/docs/DS_001_2015_JUS.pdf.

92.       La W Radio. "Colombia y Perú firmaron 11 acuerdos de cooperación binacional." wradio.com.co [online] September 30, 2014 [cited May 5, 2015]; http://www.wradio.com.co/noticias/actualidad/8203colombia-y-peru-firmaron-11-acuerdos-de-cooperacion-binacional/20140930/nota/2440352.aspx.

93.       U.S. Embassy- Lima. reporting, February 22, 2011.

94.       ILO-IPEC. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP). Technical Progress Report. Geneva; April 2014.

95.       ILO-IPEC. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP). Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015.

96.       U.S. Department of Labor. Proyecto Semilla (Seed Project) Combatting Exploitative Rural Child Labor in Peru. Technical Cooperation Project Summary. Washington, DC; n.d. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/Peru_CECL.pdf.

97.       Government of Peru. Programa Nacional Yachay, Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables, [online] [cited April 13, 2016]; http://www.mimp.gob.pe/yachay/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1848&Itemid=595.

98.       Government of Peru. Programa Educadores de Calle, Government of Peru, [previously online] [cited April 15, 2014]; http://www.inabif.gob.pe/portalinabif/02_lineas/pec/pec.htm [source on file].

99.       Grupo de Acción Regional para las Américas. Inicio, Government of Ecuador, [online] [cited March 4, 2016]; http://www.grupodeaccionregional.gob.ec/.

100.     U.S. Department of Labor. Consolidating and Disseminating Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru. Technical Cooperation Project Summary. Washington, DC. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/RegionalBrazilPeru_ForcedLabor.pdf.

101.     ILO. Consolidating and Disseminating Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015.

102.     ILO. Technical Visit to Exchange Good Practices in Combating Forced Labour in the Framework of the South-South Cooperation Program between Brazil and Peru. Geneva; November 2015.

103.     Mujica, J. Precariedad y trabajo forzoso en la extracción de madera. Un estudio en espacios rurales de la Amazonía peruana. Lima, ILO Office for Andean Countries; 2015. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---americas/---ro-lima/documents/publication/wcms_427032.pdf.

104.     Sanz, T. Caracterización de las condiciones de trabajo forzoso en la minería de oro en Madre de Dios y una aproximación a los factores de riesgo. Lima, ILO Office for Andean Countries; 2015. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---americas/---ro-lima/---sro-lima/documents/publication/wcms_427621.pdf.

105.     U.S. Department of Labor. From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor (The Bridge Project). Statement of Work. Washington, DC; 2015.

106.     Government of Peru. Tablero de Control- JUNTOS, Government of Peru, [online] [cited April 15, 2014]; http://infomidis.midis.gob.pe/tablero/JUNTOS/P_Descripcion.html.

107.     Romulo Paes-Sousa, Ferdinando Regalia, and Marco Stampini. Conditions for Success in Implementing CCT Programs: Lessons for Asia from Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, DC, Inter-American Development Bank; June 2013. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=37839386.

108.     Government of Peru. Secundaria Rural Mejorada en la Jornada Escolar Completa, Ministerio de Educación, [online] [cited January 20, 2016]; http://jec.perueduca.pe/?page_id=1236.