Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Peru

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Peru

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2017, Peru made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government increased criminal penalties for subjecting children to forced labor and achieved its longest human trafficking sentence to date, in a case involving minors. The National Labor Inspection Superintendency also opened four new inspection offices, hired 160 additional labor inspectors, added approximately $4.9 million to its 2017 budget, and issued a protocol to strengthen child labor inspections and sanctions. Following devastating coastal floods, representatives from multiple government agencies coordinated with regional officials in Piura and other impacted regional cities to provide training and outreach on child labor and human trafficking prevention. In addition, the Government of Peru signed agreements with the United States and Chile to address child labor, reached 83,000 new families with the Together conditional cash transfer program, and expanded in two new cities the Street Educators program, which assists children engaged in street work and begging. However, children in Peru engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Peruvian law allows children ages 12-14 to do light work without specifying the activities in which children may work. In addition, labor law enforcement agencies in Peru lack sufficient inspectors and training to adequately combat child labor.

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Children in Peru engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) In the 2015 National Child Labor Survey, the government identified 1,619,200 children, ages 5 to 17, engaged in child labor. Rates of child labor were higher in the sierra and jungle regions than in the coastal region and higher in rural areas than in urban areas. (6) The government estimated that 1,251,400 children, ages 5 to 17, were engaged in hazardous child labor and that 58.4 percent of these children worked in agriculture, fishing, or mining. The government also identified 70,500 children, ages 10 to 17, who experienced indicators of forced labor. (6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Peru.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

21.8 (1,261,484)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

63.8

Industry

 

6.1

Services

 

30.2

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

97.6

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

25.0

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

102.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (7) Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil (ETI), 2015. (8)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Transplanting and harvesting rice (9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 3)

Fishing,† including deep sea fishing,† organizing tools, throwing fishing lines and nets,† unloading ships, harvesting crabs and shrimp eggs, and cleaning shrimp and prawns for packaging† (16; 17; 3)

Logging† timber and clearing forestland for mining, including cutting down and burning trees (2; 18)

Industry

Mining,† including for silver and gold (2; 9; 19; 3; 18)

Construction and production of bricks† and fireworks† (6; 3; 20; 18)

Services

Street work,† including vending, begging, shoe shining, carrying loads, selling in kiosks and markets, collecting fares on public buses,† and washing cars (21; 6; 16; 22; 23; 24; 3)

Treating leather and working on shoes (6)

Repairing motor vehicles† (2)

Garbage scavenging† (18; 25; 26)

Domestic work† and cleaning offices and hotels (6; 18)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor

Forced labor in mining, including gold mining (2; 3; 4)

Forced labor in logging timber, street vending, and begging (2; 27; 3; 4)

Forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (27; 3)

Commercial sexual exploitation, including in bars, brothels, and mining camps, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 2; 28; 29; 3; 4; 18; 30; 5; 31)

Growing and processing coca (stimulant plant), sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and transporting drugs (29; 28; 27; 3; 4)

Counterfeiting U.S. dollars, smuggling gas and gasoline, producing counterfeit light bulbs (16; 32; 33)

Recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (4)

Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children in Peru work in informal and small-scale mining, particularly for gold, sometimes in situations of forced labor, and are exposed to hazards, including wall and mine collapses, landslides, explosives accidents, and exposure to mercury and harmful gases. Children are also subjected to commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking near mining areas. (2; 9; 19; 3; 18; 30; 5; 31) Remnants of the Shining Path terrorist group use children in combat, domestic servitude, and drug trafficking. (3; 4)

In 2017, severe flooding damaged over 2,000 schools and prevented an estimated 250,000 children from attending school. (34) During the year, the government distributed education materials in indigenous languages and continued to offer bilingual education programs. However, indigenous and Afro-Peruvian children and children from rural communities experience lower school enrollment and completion rates, with indigenous children especially vulnerable to dropping out of school and engaging in hazardous work in agriculture. (35; 18; 36)

Peru has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Peru's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including the lack of prohibition of child recruitment by non-state armed groups.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 51 of the Child and Adolescent Code (37)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 58 of the Child and Adolescent Code (38)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Sections A and B of Supreme Decree No. 003-2010-MIMDES; Article 58 of the Child and Adolescent Code (38; 39)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 2 and 23 of the Constitution; Article 4 of the Child and Adolescent Code; Articles 128, 129, 153, 168, and 182 of the Penal Code (38; 40; 41; 42; 43; 44)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Child and Adolescent Code; Articles 153 and 182 of the Penal Code (38; 40; 41; 42)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Child and Adolescent Code; Articles 153 and 179–183 of the Penal Code (38; 42; 45)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 128 and 297 of the Penal Code (41; 46; 47)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Articles 2, 6, and 42 of the Military Service Law (48)

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17‡

Article 17 of the Constitution; Articles 12 and 36 of the General Education Law; Article 61 of Supreme Decree No. 011-2012-ED (21; 43; 49; 50; 51)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Constitution; Article 4 of the General Education Law (43; 49)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (21; 43; 49; 50; 51)

 

In 2017, the government amended Article 168 of the Penal Code to include increased criminal penalties for subjecting children to forced labor. (41; 44) Although night work is on the hazardous work list, Article 57 of the Child and Adolescent Code allows a judge to authorize children ages 15 and older to engage in night work not exceeding 4 hours a day. The Child and Adolescent Code provides a light work exception for children as young as age 12 to receive work authorization without specifying the activities permitted . (37)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor and Promotion of Employment (MTPE) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Promotion of Employment (MTPE)

Set national policies and guidelines for labor law enforcement, including for inspections. Responsible for supporting the National Labor Inspection Superintendency (SUNAFIL). (52) Maintain an online reporting service to receive complaints of labor law violations. (53)

SUNAFIL

Enforce labor laws in 10 regions. (21; 54) Conduct labor inspections of employers who have more than 10 registered workers. (55) Maintain a special inspection group comprising 15 inspectors who conduct inspections targeting forced labor and child labor violations, and train other inspectors on these topics. (16; 56) Address possible child labor violations during inspections and refer cases of child labor to the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations (MIMP) and the Public Ministry, as appropriate. (57)

Regional Directorates for Labor

Inspect employers with 10 or fewer registered workers and conduct labor inspections in regions without a SUNAFIL office. Function independently of the MTPE. (27; 58)

Ombudsman's Department for Children and Adolescents

Coordinate government policies and programs that target children and adolescents. Assist the MTPE to investigate child labor complaints. (21)

National Police

Enforce criminal laws regarding child labor and child exploitation, and maintain a human trafficking investigation unit to investigate cases of child trafficking for labor and sexual exploitation. (21; 59) Coordinate with the Public Ministry and MIMP to place rescued minors with family members or state social services. (60)

Public Ministry

Coordinate with the MTPE, SUNAFIL, and the National Police to investigate and prosecute cases of criminal violations of child labor laws. Maintain a specialized human trafficking prosecutorial unit in the Public Prosecutor's Office. (61)

Ministry of the Interior (MININTER)

Investigate child trafficking cases. (21) Maintain a hotline to receive reports of human trafficking. Provide victims and the general public with information on human trafficking, refer cases of human trafficking to the relevant government offices, and coordinate services for victims. (60; 62)

MIMP Children's Bureau

Design, promote, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate government policies and programs for the well-being of children. (21; 63) Provide social services to children found in the worst forms of child labor and refer cases to the MTPE. (56; 64)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Peru took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MTPE that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including the lack of data on labor inspections.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$23,431,454 (27)

$28,922,000 (3)

Number of Labor Inspectors

480 (58)

626 (65)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (58)

Yes (3)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (3)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (58)

Yes (3)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown (3)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown

Unknown (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

132 (58)  

Unknown (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown (3)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

Unknown (3)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (27)

Yes (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (27)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (27)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (58)

Yes (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (58)

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (27)

Yes (3)

 

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Peru's workforce, which includes over 17 million workers. According to the ILO's technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Peru would employ roughly 1,135 inspectors. (66; 67; 68) The government increased the budget for the National Labor Inspection Superintendency (SUNAFIL) and opened new SUNAFIL inspection offices in Callao, Lambayeque, Cusco, and Piura during the reporting period. However, NGOs, the MTPE, and SUNAFIL reported that the number of labor inspectors and inspections remained inadequate and noted that insufficient training for inspectors and funding for conducting inspections, hiring additional inspectors, and maintaining offices continued to hamper their enforcement of child labor laws, particularly in the informal sector, including in artisanal mining and domestic work. (69; 3; 70; 71) Furthermore, reports indicate that penalties for child labor were insufficient to deter violations. SUNAFIL collected no fines for child labor violations issued between 2014 and 2016 because the fines remained in the judicial appeals process; NGOs estimated that the MTPE collected only 10 percent of fines issued in 2017. (3) In 2017, SUNAFIL was operational in 14 of 25 regions and issued a new protocol to strengthen child labor inspections and sanctions. (3)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Peru took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including financial resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (3)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (3)

Number of Investigations

764 (72)

Unknown (3)

Number of Violations Found

281 (72)

Unknown (3)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown (3)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (27)

Yes (3)

 

During the reporting period, the National Police conducted 865 human trafficking operations and rescued 302 children from commercial sexual exploitation and labor exploitation. (3) However, the government sometimes housed child victims of human trafficking in police stations for extended periods of time. (4) Following an investigation conducted by the National Police, Public Ministry, and Ministry of Interior, the special trafficking in persons prosecutor in Cusco achieved the longest human trafficking sentence in Peru to date when, in December, the government sentenced a brothel bar owner to 35 years in prison for subjecting four teenage girls to human trafficking for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation in the Madre de Dios region. Despite this case, reports indicate that investigations and prosecutions were inadequate to deter child trafficking, particularly in illegal mining areas and bars, noting too few investigators, insufficient funding or resources to carry out investigations, low conviction rates, and that training for MTPE investigators was inadequate to strengthen MTPE investigative capacity. (3; 71; 4; 65)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including implementation.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Commission for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor (CPETI)

Implement the National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor. (53) Propose public policies and coordinate, evaluate, and monitor government actions to combat child labor. Maintain subcommittees, including on informal mining, child labor in indigenous villages, and project evaluation. (21) Led by the MTPE, comprises representatives from 17 government agencies, including MININTER; the ministries of Education and Justice; the Peruvian National Police; and business associations, unions, and NGOs. (21; 23)

Regional Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor

Manage and implement regional public policy for the prevention and eradication of child labor. Present in all 25 regions of Peru. (58)

National Commission Against Forced Labor

Coordinate government efforts to combat forced labor, including conducting research and awareness-raising campaigns, developing legislation, and strengthening Peru's institutional capacity to address forced labor. Led by the MTPE, with participation of eight additional government ministries. (59; 60)

Permanent Multi-Sectoral Commission on Illegal Mining

Coordinate government efforts to address illegal mining by developing programs to eradicate child labor and commercial sexual exploitation of children in mining areas. Led by the Prime Minister's Office, includes representatives of regional governments and six national government agencies, including the Ministry of Energy and Mines and MININTER. (73)

Multi-Sector Commission Against Trafficking in Persons

Lead and coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking by designing, recommending, monitoring, and implementing policies to combat human trafficking, including of children. Chaired by MININTER, comprises 12 government agencies, including the MTPE, MIMP, and the ministries of Justice, Education, and Health. (59)

 

During the reporting period, government agencies used data from the 2015 national child labor survey to inform their efforts to address child labor, enhancing coordination between SUNAFIL, the MTPE, the National Police, and local officials. Following devastating floods in 2017, which may have left children in Peru more vulnerable to child labor and the worst forms of child labor, representatives from the Ministry of Education, Attorney General’s Office, National Police, Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations (MIMP), the MTPE, and SUNAFIL coordinated with regional officials in Piura to provide training and outreach on child labor and human trafficking prevention in the region. (3; 74; 75) However, research was unable to determine whether the coordinating bodies above were active during the reporting period. In addition, some Regional Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor have not fulfilled their mandate to create action plans to combat child labor, while others have action plans but have failed to provide the necessary funding to carry them out. (57; 61; 3)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including funding.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor (2012–2021)

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by improving livelihoods of low-income families, educational opportunities and working conditions for adolescents; raising awareness of child labor; and increasing child labor law enforcement. (22; 58; 64) Also seeks to improve the quality of child labor data in Peru. (22) In 2017, approximately 8,000 children in 5 regions received assistance from 3 pilot projects implemented under the strategy. (3)

A Peru Without Child Labor

Aims to prevent and eradicate child labor through a partnership between the government and a network of private businesses committed to supporting the National Strategy. (58; 64; 76)

National Action Plan for Children and Adolescents (2012–2021)

Establishes a comprehensive set of government policies for children and adolescents to eradicate the worst forms of child labor. (58; 59; 60; 64)

Second National Plan to Combat Forced Labor (2013–2017)

Established policies and priorities for combating forced labor to reduce children's vulnerability to becoming engaged in forced labor. (77; 58)

Intersectoral Protocol Against Forced Labor

Outlines the government's role in combating forced labor and provides for the housing, legal defense, and educational reintegration of children and adolescent victims of forced labor. Monitored by the National Commission Against Forced Labor. (78; 58; 79)

National Policy Against Trafficking in Persons

Aims to prevent and reduce human trafficking by addressing root causes, prosecuting perpetrators, assisting victims, and strengthening programs for vulnerable populations, including child laborers. (21; 53; 58; 80)

 

In February 2017, the Governments of Peru and the United States signed a memorandum of understanding to combat labor exploitation, including forced labor and hazardous child labor, in illegal gold mining through cooperation on prevention, investigation, prosecution, and conviction. (81) In July 2017, the Governments of Peru and Chile signed a declaration to work to eradicate child labor and improve employment opportunities in both countries through exchanges and joint research studies. (82) Although a potentially useful policy tool, funding was never secured to implement the Second National Plan to Combat Forced Labor for 2013–2017. (3)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of efforts to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects that aim to eliminate child labor, including its worst forms, through research, improved monitoring and enforcement, policy development, and awareness-raising. These projects include Promoting Better Understanding of Indicators to Address Labor Trafficking in Peru, a $2 million, 4-year project implemented by Capital Humano y Social Alternativo (CHS); Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development, implemented in 10 countries by the ILO; Proyecto Semilla (Seed Project): Combating Exploitative Rural Child Labor in Peru, a $16 million, 7-year project implemented by Desarrollo y Autogestión; Consolidating and Disseminating Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru, a $6 million, 5-year project implemented by the ILO; From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor (The Bridge Project), a global project implemented by the ILO. For additional information about USDOL's work, please visit our website. (83; 84; 85; 86)

Responsible Peru†

MTPE program to create formal youth employment opportunities, encourage adolescents to stay in school, and strengthen corporate social responsibility. (21; 3) In 2017, the MTPE signed agreements with the Municipality of Rímac and with 4 private companies. (3)

Huánuco Project†

Improves school retention and attendance rates among child laborers in rural areas. In conjunction with the Together Program, assists approximately 4,000 children and 3,200 families by providing cash transfers, education, and livelihood services. (22; 56; 58; 60; 61)

Carabayllo Project†

Provides scholarships, education assistance, psychological help, and other services to 1,000 families and 1,500 children to reduce urban child labor, especially in garbage dumps. (22; 56; 58; 60; 61; 25; 26)

Child Labor Record System (2015–2017)

$230,243 Government of Canada-funded, 2-year project implemented by the ILO to create an integrated child labor identification and registration system to improve case management and measure policy impact. Primarily operates in Lima, Huánuco, and Tacna and refers children in, or at risk of, child labor to appropriate education and social services. (58; 87; 88; 89)

Learn Program (Yachay)†

MIMP program to increase protection and access to social services for children subjected to street work, begging, and commercial sexual exploitation. (90) In 2017, assisted 7,228 children, including by helping 5,667 children reduce their number of hours worked to focus on education. (3)

Street Educators (Educadores de Calle)†

MIMP program under Yachay that provides counseling and training to children engaged in begging and street work. Operates 71 centers for educational activities, parent training, and workshops. (21; 91; 3) Connects working children and their families to educational and social services to withdraw them from exploitative work and improve family welfare. (72; 57; 91) In 2017, expanded to 2 additional cities, for a total of 22. (3)

Together Program (Juntos)†

Ministry of Social Development program, provides cash transfers to approximately 763,000 low-income households in 15 of the country's 25 regions. (53; 92; 93; 3) In 2017, reached an additional 83,000 families. (3)

† Program is funded by the Government of Peru.

 

Reports indicate that existing social programs are not sufficient to fully address the problem of child labor in Peru, including the large number of children that perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Peru also lacks targeted programs to assist children who are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation and children who work in mining, logging, and domestic work. (27; 3; 4) At the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina in November 2017, the Government of Peru pledged to design a national program for children ages 14 to 17 engaged in hazardous work and begin implementing it in 2019 through regional and local governments. The program will target rural areas and provide training to help children older than the minimum age enter formal, safe employment. (94)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Peru (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that children are either prohibited from engaging in night work with no exceptions or if children are permitted to engage in night work, they are adequately protected.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the law’s light work provisions are specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor.

2017

Enforcement

Publish information on the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites; the number of child labor violations found and for which penalties were imposed and collected; and the number of criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2017

Increase the level of funding allocated to Labor Inspectorates for staff, training, and resources to help ensure adequate enforcement of child labor laws, particularly in the informal sector, including in artisanal mining and domestic work.

2009 – 2017

Increase the collection rate of fines imposed for child labor law violations, especially to deter future violations.

2015 – 2017

Establish SUNAFIL offices in all regions of Peru to support labor law enforcement throughout the country.

2017

Ensure timely referrals of child victims of human trafficking to appropriate shelter and social services.

2017

Increase the level of funding and the resources allocated for criminal law enforcement related to the worst forms of child labor, including for increased training on the worst forms of child labor for criminal investigators.

2015 – 2017

Conduct criminal investigations in mining areas and bars in which minors serve alcohol or are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation, and ensure that penalties are properly enforced.

2016 – 2017

Coordination

Strengthen coordination and information-sharing mechanisms among government agencies responsible for responding to child labor issues.

2012 – 2017

Ensure that regional CPETI commissions develop action plans to combat child labor and allocate sufficient funding to implement these plans.

2010 – 2017

Government Policies

Allocate sufficient funding to fully implement plans to combat forced labor.

2013 – 2017

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, in particular, in indigenous and Afro-Peruvian communities and rural areas.

2014 – 2017

Expand social programs to reach a greater number of children that perform dangerous tasks in agriculture, and initiate social programs to address child commercial sexual exploitation, child labor in mining, child labor in logging, and child domestic work.

2009 – 2017

1. The Center of Promotion and Defense of Sexual and Reproductive Rights, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, and Centro Ideas. Shadow Report for the 71st Session of the Committee on the Rights of the Child regarding the right to sexual and reproductive health of children and adolescents in Peru. January 5, 2016. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC/Shared%20Documents/PER/INT_CRC_NGO_PER_22626_E.pdf.

2. Verité. Risk Analysis of Indicators of Forced Labor and Human Trafficking in Illegal Gold Mining in Peru. https://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-Gold-Mining-in-Peru_0.pdf.

3. U.S. Embassy- Lima. Reporting, January 12, 2018.

4. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Peru. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271263.htm.

5. Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime. Case Study: Illicit Gold Mining in Peru. November 2017. http://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/tgiatoc-case-study-peru-1878-web-lo-res.pdf.

6. ILO-MTPE. Magnitud y características del trabajo infantil en Perú: Informe de 2015 - Análisis de la Encuesta Nacional de Hogares (ENAHO) y de la Encuesta sobre Trabajo Infantil (ETI). 2016. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_28857/lang--es/index.htm.

7. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9. El Comercio. Investigan denuncias de trabajo infantil en tres regiones. August 21, 2014. http://elcomercio.pe/peru/pais/investigan-denuncias-trabajo-infantil-tres-regiones-noticia-1751626.

10. Government of Peru. Ministerio de Trabajo continúa con acciones para erradicar explotación laboral infantil en el norte del país. Ministerio de Trabajo. Accessed March 27, 2015. [Source on file].

11. El Comercio. Nueve menores fueron rescatados de explotación laboral. August 11, 2014. http://elcomercio.pe/peru/tumbes/nueve-menores-fueron-rescatados-explotacion-laboral-noticia-1748959.

12. Andina. Ejecutan operativo de prevención contra trabajo infantil en arrozales de Tumbes. February 5, 2015. http://www.andina.com.pe/agencia/noticia-ejecutan-operativo-prevencion-contra-trabajo-infantil-arrozales-tumbes-542351.aspx.

13. —. Piura: Ministerio de Trabajo iniciará campaña contra el trabajo infantil. April 3, 2015. http://www.andina.com.pe/agencia/noticia-piura-ministerio-trabajo-iniciara-campana-contra-trabajo-infantil-550235.aspx.

14. Government of Peru. SUNAFIL Retira 17 Menores del Trabajo Infantil en Tumbes. SUNAFIL. Accessed January 22, 2016. https://sunafil.gob.pe/prensa/notas-de-prensa.html?category_id=3&isc=0&orders[publishUp]=publishUp&issearch=1&type=rss&start=320.

15. Panamericana.pe. Los niños del arroz: trabajo infantil en Tumbes. March 1, 2015. http://panamericana.pe/panorama/nacionales/177042-ninos-arroz-infantil-tumbes.

16. U.S. Embassy- Lima official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 16, 2015.

17. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Perú: Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes que Trabajan, 1993-2008. December 2009. http://www.fundacion.telefonica.com.pe/pronino/upload/LIB_PDF_Inei.pdf.

18. UN General Assembly. Compilation on Peru - Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. August 28, 2017. Report number A/HRC/WG.6/28/PER/2. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/250/98/PDF/G1725098.pdf?OpenElement.

19. Villavicencio, Eliana. La Libertad: Mineros informales depredan cerro Ragash de Salpo. El Comercio. September 23, 2013. http://archivo.elcomercio.pe/sociedad/lima/libertad-mineros-informales-depredan-cerro-ragash-salpo-noticia-1635112.

20. Peru 21. Hacían trabajar a menor de edad en una ladrillera en condiciones peligrosas. September 15, 2017. https://peru21.pe/peru/ica-hacian-menor-edad-ladrillera-condiciones-peligrosas-376094.

21. U.S. Embassy- Lima. Reporting, January 21, 2016.

22. Government of Peru. Estrategia Nacional para la Prevención y Erradicación del Trabajo Infantíl 2012-2021. 2012. [Source on file].

23. U.S. Embassy- Lima. Reporting, January 10, 2014.

24. El Comercio. Mayoría de niños trabajadores del Cercado son de Huancavelica. October 1, 2014. http://elcomercio.pe/lima/sucesos/mayoria-ninos-trabajadores-cercado-son-huancavelica-noticia-1761030.

25. Centro de Estudios Sociales y Publicaciones. Carabayllo Libre de Trabajo Infantil. November 2014. http://www.cesip.org.pe/file/717/download?token=C0lXG-iD.

26. Ministerio de Trabajo y Promocion del Empleo. Informe sobre trabajo infantil en Carabayllo. July 21, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sFg53bwn_P0.

27. U.S. Embassy- Lima. Reporting, January 13, 2017.

28. Ministry of Labor official. Interview with USDOL official. June 3, 2015.

29. Governorship of Amazonas official. Interview with USDOL official. June 1, 2015.

30. Andina. Peru Police razes 184 illegal mining camps in latest crackdown. July 11, 2017. http://www.andina.com.pe/Ingles/noticia-peru-police-razes-184-illegal-mining-camps-in-latest-crackdown-674356.aspx.

31. AJ+. Inside The Underage Sex Trafficking Brothels Of Peru’s Illegal Gold Mines. January 21, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lJo6o_2jhvU&feature=youtu.be.

32. U.S. Embassy- Lima. Reporting, November 10, 2015.

33. Solidarity Center. PERU: FACTORY FIRE EXPOSES FORCED, CHILD LABOR. June 30, 2017. https://www.solidaritycenter.org/peru-factory-fire-exposes-forced-child-labor/.

34. SOS Children's Villages International. General Information on Peru. https://www.sos-childrensvillages.org/where-we-help/americas/peru.

35. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Peru (ratification: 2002) Published: 2017. Accessed October 11, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3298432.

36. UN General Assembly. National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21. August 23, 2017. Report number A/HRC/WG.6/28/PER/1. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/245/31/PDF/G1724531.pdf?OpenElement.

37. Government of Peru. Ley que Modifica el Artículo 51 de la Ley No. 27337, Law No. 27571. Enacted: December 4, 2001. http://www.mintra.gob.pe/contenidos/legislacion/dispositivos_legales/ley_27571.htm.

38. —. Ley que Aprueba el Nuevo Código de los Niños y Adolescentes, No. 27337. Enacted: August 2, 2000. http://www.mimp.gob.pe/yachay/files/Ley_27337.pdf.

39. —. Decreto Supremo, No. 003-2010-MIMDES. http://www.mimp.gob.pe/files/direcciones/dgnna/Lectura_15_Relacion_Trabajos_Peligrosos_Adolescentes.pdf.

40. —. Ley contra la Trata de Personas y el Tráfico Ilícito de Migrantes, Law No. 28950. Enacted: January 16, 2007. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/population/trafficking/peru.traf.07.pdf.

41. —. Código Penal, No. 635. Enacted: August 4, 1991. http://spij.minjus.gob.pe/CLP/contenidos.dll?f=templates&fn=default-codpenal.htm&vid=Ciclope:CLPdemo.

42. —. Ley que perfecciona la tipificacion del delito de trata de personas, Ley N 30251. Enacted: October 20, 2014. http://www.mef.gob.pe/contenidos/servicios_web/conectamef/pdf/normas_legales_2012/NL20141021.pdf.

43. —. Constitución Política del Perú . Enacted: 1993. http://www2.congreso.gob.pe/congreso/Constitución-Política-08-09-09.doc.

44. —. Decreto Legislativo Nº 1323. Enacted: January 5, 2017. http://busquedas.elperuano.pe/normaslegales/decreto-legislativo-que-fortalece-la-lucha-contra-el-feminic-decreto-legislativo-n-1323-1471010-2/.

45. —. Modificación del Código Penal, No. 28251. Enacted: August 4, 2004. [Source on file].

46. Peruvian Ministry of Labor official. Official communication to USDOL official. January 21, 2014.

47. Government of Peru. Ley que protege a las ninas, ninos y adolescentes de la mendicidad, No. 28190. Enacted: February 26, 2004. http://www2.congreso.gob.pe/sicr/cendocbib/con3_uibd.nsf/BA2E8C56206D9C0E0525786500711261/$FILE/28190.pdf.

48. —. Ley del Servicio Militar, No. 27178. Enacted: September 28, 1999. http://www.resdal.org/Archivo/d0000281.htm.

49. —. Ley General de Educación, Ley No. 28044. Enacted: July 28, 2003. http://www.minedu.gob.pe/p/ley_general_de_educacion_28044.pdf.

50. —. Written Communication. April 5, 2013. [Source on file].

51. —. Reglamento de la Ley General de Educación, Decreto Supremo N 011-2012-ED. Enacted: July 6, 2012. http://www.minedu.gob.pe/files/3926_201207101510.pdf.

52. —. Gobierno promulgó ley de creación de la Superintendencia Nacional de Fiscalización Laboral. Ministerio de Trabajo y Promocion del Empleo. Accessed April 15, 2014. http://noticias.rse.pe/?p=7556.

53. —. Written Communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (October 27, 2015) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". January 5, 2016.

54. —. Intendencias Regionales. SUNAFIL. Accessed January 25, 2017. http://www.sunafil.gob.pe/portal/intendentes-regionales.

55. USDOL official. Observation Report. January 27, 2014.

56. Government of Peru. Written Communication. Submitted in response to USDOL Request for Information about Child and Forced Labor. January 20, 2014.

57. U.S. Embassy- Lima. Reporting, January 24, 2012.

58. Government of Peru. Written Communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (September 30, 2016) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". December 13, 2016.

59. U.S. Embassy- Lima. Reporting, January 30, 2013.

60. Government of Peru. Written Communication. Submitted in response to USDOL Request for Information about Child and Forced Labor. January 28, 2013.

61. U.S. Embassy- Lima official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 27, 2016.

62. Government of Peru. Línea contra la trata de personas 0800-2-3232. Ministry of the Interior. Accessed April 15, 2014. [previously online].

63. —. Dirección General de Niñas, Niños y Adolescentes - ¿Quienes Somos? Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Accessed February 17, 2017. http://www.mimp.gob.pe/homemimp/direcciones/dgnna/pagina-dgnna.php.

64. —. Written Communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 13, 2014) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". January 27, 2015.

65. U.S. Embassy- Lima official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 14, 2018.

66. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed January 29, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131 Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report..

67. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Committee on Employment and Social Policy. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. .

68. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf.

69. ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Peru (ratification: 2002) Published: 2014. Accessed February 17, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3145230.

70. —. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Peru (ratification: 2002) Published: 2017 . Accessed October 11, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3298440.

71. —. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Peru (ratification: 2002) Published: 2017. Accessed October 11, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3298436.

72. U.S. Embassy- Lima official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 13, 2017.

73. Government of Peru, Defensoria del Pueblo. Gestión del Estado frente a la Minería Informal e Ilegal en el Perú. 2013. http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/modules/Downloads/informes/varios/2013/Informe-N-001-2013-DP-AMASPPI-MA.pdf.

74. Defensoria del Pueblo. Trabajo infantil podría haber aumentado por fenómeno “El Niño”, advierte Defensoría del Pueblo. June 13, 2017. http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/blog/trabajo-infantil-podria-haber-aumentado-por-fenomeno-el-nino-advierte-defensoria-del-pueblo/.

75. ILO. In conflicts and disasters, protect children from child labour. June 12, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/how-the-ilo-works/ilo-director-general/statements-and-speeches/WCMS_557204/lang--en/index.htm.

76. Government of Peru. Ministra de Trabajo y empresarios unen esfuerzos para combatir el trabajo infantil en el Perú. Ministerio de Trabajo. February 20, 2015. http://www.mintra.gob.pe/mostrarNoticias.php?codNoticia=4163.

77. —. II Plan Nacional para la Lucha contra el Trabajo Forzoso 2013-2017. 2013. [Source on file].

78. U.S. Embassy- Lima. Reporting, January 13, 2015.

79. Government of Peru. Decreto Supremo que aprueba el protocolo intersectorial contra el trabajo forzoso, Decreto Supremo Nº 011-2014-TR. Enacted: October 2, 2014. http://www.mintra.gob.pe/archivos/file/SNIL/normas/2014-10-03_011-2014-TR_3715.pdf.

80. —. Decreto Supremo, Nº 001-2015-JUS. Enacted: January 24, 2015. http://www.peru.gob.pe/normas/docs/DS_001_2015_JUS.pdf.

81. Governments of U.S. and Peru. MOU Between the U.S. & the GOP on Cooperation Related to Small-Scale Gold Mining. February 16, 2017. https://pe.usembassy.gov/wp-content/uploads/sites/107/2017-MOU-Gold-Mining.pdf.

82. Andina. Perú y Chile erradicarán trabajo infantil y mejorarán empleabilidad de jóvenes. July 7, 2017. http://www.andina.com.pe/agencia/noticia-peru-y-chile-erradicaran-trabajo-infantil-y-mejoraran-empleabilidad-jovenes-673982.aspx.

83. U.S. Department of Labor. Consolidating and Disseminating Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru. Technical Cooperation Project Summary. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/RegionalBrazilPeru_ForcedLabor.pdf.

84. —. From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor (The Bridge Project). 2015: Statement of Work.

85. —. Proyecto Semilla (Seed Project) Combatting Exploitative Rural Child Labor in Peru. n.d.: Technical Cooperation Project Summary. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/Peru_CECL.pdf.

86. ILO-IPEC. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP). April 2014: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

87. ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 9, 2017.

88. Ministerio de Trabajo y Promocion del Empleo. Unidos por un Peru libre de trabajo infantil. June 2017. http://www3.vivienda.gob.pe/documentos/ogc/triptico-dia-mundial-jun-2017.pdf.

89. El Peruano. Para disminuir el trabajo infantil. June 14, 2017. http://www.elperuano.pe/noticia-para-disminuir-trabajo-infantil-56707.aspx.

90. Government of Peru. Programa Nacional Yachay. Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Accessed April 13, 2016. https://plataformacelac.org/programa/1234.

91. —. Programa Educadores de Calle. Accessed April 15, 2014. [Source on file].

92. —. Tablero de Control- JUNTOS. Accessed April 15, 2014. http://infomidis.midis.gob.pe/tablero/JUNTOS/P_Descripcion.html.

93. Paes-Sousa, Romulo, et al. Conditions for Success in Implementing CCT Programs: Lessons for Asia from Latin America and the Caribbean. Inter-American Development Bank. June 2013. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=37839386.

94. IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor. Pledges. November 2017. http://childlabour2017.org/en/resources/updates/pledges.

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