Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Peru

Brazil Nuts/Chestnuts
Brazil Nuts/Chestnuts
Forced Labor Icon
Bricks
Bricks
Child Labor Icon
Coca (Stimulant Plant)
Coca (Stimulant Plant)
Child Labor Icon
Fireworks
Fireworks
Child Labor Icon
Fish
Fish
Child Labor Icon
Gold
Gold
Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Timber
Timber
Forced Labor Icon
Peru
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Peru made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The National Labor Inspection Superintendency opened two new inspection offices and added approximately $14 million to its 2018 budget. Peru's Congress also passed legislation to strengthen the labor inspectorate system by temporarily transferring competencies, functions, and staff from the Regional Governments to the National Labor Inspection Superintendency. In addition, the government renewed the National Plan to Combat Forced Labor and the National Policy Against Trafficking in Persons. However, children in Peru engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Peruvian law allows children ages 12 to 14 to do light work without specifying the activities in which children may work. In addition, labor law enforcement agencies in Peru lack sufficient inspectors and training to adequately combat child labor.

Children in Peru engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1,2) In the 2015 National Child Labor Survey, the government identified 1,619,200 children, ages 5 to 17, engaged in child labor. Rates of child labor were higher in the sierra and jungle regions than in the coastal region, and higher in rural areas than in urban areas. (3) The government estimated that 1,251,400 children, ages 5 to 17, were engaged in hazardous child labor and that 58.4 percent of these children worked in agriculture, fishing, or mining. The government also identified 70,500 children, ages 10 to 17, who were at risk of forced labor. (3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Peru.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

21.8 (1,261,484)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

63.8

Industry

 

6.1

Services

 

30.2

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

97.6

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

25.0

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

93.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2018, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (4)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil, 2015. (5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2.Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Transplanting and harvesting rice, collecting and harvesting Brazil nuts/chestnuts (6,7)

Fishing,† including deep sea fishing,† organizing tools, throwing fishing lines and nets,† unloading ships, harvesting crabs and shrimp eggs, and cleaning shrimp and prawns for packaging† (1,6,8,9)

Logging† timber and clearing forestland for mining, including cutting down and burning trees (1,10,11)

Industry

Mining,† including for silver and gold (1,3,6,11,12)

Construction and production of bricks† and fireworks† (3,6,11,13)

Services

Street work,† including vending, begging, shoe shining, carrying loads, selling in kiosks and markets, collecting fares on public buses,† and washing cars (1,3,14,15)

Treating leather and working on shoes (3)

Repairing motor vehicles† (10)

Garbage scavenging† (11,16,17)

Domestic work† and cleaning offices and hotels (3,11)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in mining, including gold mining (1,10-18)

Forced labor in logging timber, street vending, and begging (1,2,10,11,13-20)

Forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1,2)

Commercial sexual exploitation, including in bars, nightclubs, brothels, and mining camps, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1,2,21)

Growing and processing coca (stimulant plant), sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and transporting drugs (1,2,6,19,21,22)

Counterfeiting U.S. dollars and lightbulbs (1,2,23,24)

Recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (2)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children in Peru work in informal and small-scale mining, particularly for gold, sometimes in situations of forced labor, and are exposed to hazards, including wall and mine collapses, landslides, explosives accidents, and exposure to mercury and harmful gases. Near mining areas, children are also subjected to commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1,2,10,11,25-27) Remnants of the Shining Path terrorist group continue to use children in combat, domestic servitude, and drug trafficking. (1,2,19) Forced labor in support of narco-trafficking can include using hazardous chemicals to process coca or working as a drug courier. (1) The influx of over 800,000 Venezuelan migrants and refugees into Peru since 2017 may exacerbate child labor and human trafficking. (1,2,28) Government and civil society groups have noted specific cases of human trafficking in which Venezuelan victims were promised jobs upon arrival to Lima, only to be forced into prostitution to pay off a debt. (1)

Indigenous and Afro-Peruvian children and children from rural communities experience lower school enrollment and completion rates, with indigenous children especially vulnerable to dropping out of school and engaging in hazardous work in agriculture. (11,29,30)

Peru has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Peru's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the lack of prohibition of child recruitment by non-state armed groups.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 51 of the Child and Adolescent Code (31)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 58 of the Child and Adolescent Code (32)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Sections A and B of Supreme Decree No. 003-2010-MIMDES; Article 58 of the Child and Adolescent Code (32,33)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 2 and 23 of the Constitution; Article 4 of the Child and Adolescent Code; Articles 128, 129, 153, 168, and 182 of the Penal Code; Article 153 of the Law Against Trafficking of Persons and the Illicit Trafficking of Migrants; Article 153 of the Law that Perfects the Typification of the Crime of Trafficking of Persons (32,34-37)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Child and Adolescent Code; Articles 153 and 182 of the Penal Code; Article 153 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons and the Illicit Trafficking of Migrants (32,34-36)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Child and Adolescent Code; Articles 153 and 179–183 of the Penal Code (32,35,38) 

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 128 and 297 of the Penal Code (35,39,40)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Articles 2, 6, and 42 of the Military Service Law (41)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

N/A*

   

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

No

   

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17‡

Article 17 of the Constitution; Articles 12 and 36 of the General Education Law; Article 61 of Supreme Decree No. 011-2012-ED (37,42-44)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Constitution; Article 4 of the General Education Law (37,42)

* No conscription

‡ Age calculated based on available information (37,42-45)

Although night work is on the hazardous work list, Article 57 of the Child and Adolescent Code allows a judge to authorize children ages 15 and older to engage in night work not exceeding 4 hours a day. The Child and Adolescent Code provides a light work exception for children as young as age 12 to receive work authorization without specifying the activities permitted. (1,31) In addition, as the minimum age for work is lower than the compulsory education age, children may be encouraged to leave school before the completion of compulsory education. (32,37,42-44)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor and Promotion of Employment (MTPE) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Promotion of Employment (MTPE)

Sets national policies and guidelines for labor law enforcement, including for inspections. Responsible for supporting the National Labor Inspection Superintendency (SUNAFIL). (46,47) Maintains an online reporting service to receive complaints of labor law violations. (48)

National Labor Inspection Superintendency (SUNAFIL)

As part of the Ministry of Labor and Promotion of Employment, enforces labor laws in 16 regions. (1,49,50) Conducts labor inspections of employers who have more than 10 registered workers. (51) Maintains a special inspection group comprising 15 inspectors who conduct inspections targeting forced labor and child labor violations and train other inspectors on these topics. (1,8,52,53) Addresses possible child labor violations during inspections and refers cases of child labor to the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations (MIMP) and the Public Ministry, as appropriate. (54)

Regional Directorates for Labor

Inspects employers with 10 or fewer registered workers and conducts labor inspections in regions without a SUNAFIL office. Following Congress' 2018 legislation to strengthen the labor inspectorate, the Regional Directorates now consist of one representative of the regional government, one representative of the MTPE, and one representative of SUNAFIL. (55) 

Ombudsman's Department for Children and Adolescents

Coordinates government policies and programs that target children and adolescents. Assists the MTPE to investigate child labor complaints. (45)

Peruvian National Police (PNP)

Enforce criminal laws regarding child labor and child exploitation, and maintain a human trafficking investigation unit to investigate cases of child trafficking for labor and sexual exploitation. (1,2) Coordinate with the Public Ministry and MIMP to place rescued minors with family members or state social services. (1,2) 

Public Ministry

Coordinates with MTPE, SUNAFIL, and the National Police to investigate and prosecute cases of criminal violations of child labor laws. Maintains a specialized human trafficking prosecutorial unit in the Public Prosecutor's Office. (56)

Ministry of the Interior (MININTER)

Investigates child trafficking cases. (1,45) Maintains a hotline to receive reports of human trafficking. Provides victims and the public with information on human trafficking, refers cases of human trafficking to the relevant government offices, and coordinates services for victims. (1,57,58) 

MIMP Children's Bureau

Designs, promotes, coordinates, monitors, and evaluates government policies and programs for the well-being of children. (45,59) Provides social services to children found in the worst forms of child labor and refers cases to the MTPE. (52,60)

In July 2018, Peru's Congress passed legislation to strengthen the labor inspectorate system. (1,55) Under this legislation, the government temporarily transferred competencies, functions, and staff from the Regional Governments to the National Labor Inspection Superintendency (SUNAFIL), the central authority of the labor inspection system, for a period of 8 years. (61-63) The government also issued a resolution which formalized the existing Specialized Group of Labor Inspectors on Forced Labor and Child Labor. This group within SUNAFIL, comprising inspectors specialized in child labor and forced labor, closely coordinate inspection procedures with other government ministries. (1,53,64) The Government of Peru also increased SUNAFIL's budget for the third year in a row, adding approximately $14 million to the total budget. (1) SUNAFIL opened 2 new inspection offices in Ayacucho and Puno, resulting in a total of 16 offices across Peru's 25 regions and the Province of Lima.(1,2,50,65) SUNAFIL and the MTPE, in coordination with the Public Ministry, conducted multiple child labor courses during 2018, training over 1,000 labor inspectors and regional government officials. (1,66)

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Peru took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MTPE that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including the lack of data on labor inspections.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$28,922,000 (6)

$43,000,000 (1)

Number of Labor Inspectors

626 (67)

686 (28) 

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown (6)

Unknown (1)

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (6)

Unknown (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (6)

Unknown (1)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (6)

Unknown (1)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (6)

Unknown (1)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Peru's workforce, which includes over 17 million workers. According to the ILO's technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Peru would need to employ about 1,135 inspectors. (68-70) Although both the MTPE and SUNAFIL received budget increases for labor inspections in 2018, resources remain inadequate to enforce labor laws, especially in the informal sector, which remains a large portion of Peru's economy. (1)

NGOs, the MTPE, and SUNAFIL reported that the number of labor inspectors and inspections remained inadequate and noted that insufficient training for inspectors and lack of funding for conducting inspections, hiring additional inspectors, and maintaining offices may have continued to hamper their enforcement of child labor laws, including in informal artisanal mining and domestic work. (1,6,71-73) Reports indicate that penalties for child labor were insufficient to deter violations, and enforcement in the informal sector is lacking. (1) NGOs and labor experts estimated that the MTPE collected approximately 10 percent of fines imposed in 2018. SUNAFIL collected no fines for child labor violations issued between 2014 and 2017 because the fines remained in the judicial appeals process. (1,6) In addition, many of Peru's inspectors are "auxiliary" or junior-level inspectors with limited authority to conduct inspections until they complete 2 years of service and an examination. (74) Auxiliary inspectors must have full inspectors supervise their inspection processes and review their inspection acts for any businesses with over 10 employees. (74,75) SUNAFIL reported plans to remove the auxiliary inspector classification and require that all inspectors at the national level be full-fledged inspectors with full authority. (75)

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Peru took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including insufficient financial resources.

Table 7.Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (6)

Unknown (1)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (6)

Unknown (1)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (6)

Unknown (1)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (6)

Unknown (1)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (6) 

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (6)

Yes (1)

In June 2018, SUNAFIL inspectors carried out a joint operation with Lima municipal authorities, the Lima Public Prosecutor's Office, and the Peruvian National Police (PNP) at the Las Malvinas industrial area in Lima, identifying three children working illegally with heavy equipment in printing shops. The children were turned over to the Lima Family Prosecutor's Office, and SUNAFIL fined the printing shop owners and launched an investigation of the printing shops. (1) In January 2018, during joint operations with the PNP, the Public Ministry, and the regional government authorities in the city of Huánuco, SUNAFIL identified 7 children ages 11 to 15 working illegally in restaurants and hostels. The PNP turned the children over to the Public Ministry and the business owners were fined. (1) During the reporting period, the National Police's Trafficking in Persons Unit expanded to 398 officers, up from 147 in 2017. (2) Peru also signed a trafficking in persons border agreement with Colombia in 2018 and a counter-human trafficking bilateral agreement with Spain in February 2019. (2)

In 2018, the Public Prosecutor's Office also funded six specialized regional prosecutors who cover TIP crimes in the districts of Lima, Madre de Dios, Tumbes and Loreto. (1) The Public Ministry conducted over 25 TIP training sessions for prosecutors and police during the reporting period. (2) Despite these efforts, reports indicate that investigations and prosecutions were inadequate to deter child trafficking, particularly in illegal mining areas and bars. Such reports noted too few investigators, insufficient funding or resources to carry out investigations, low conviction rates, and inadequate training for MTPE investigators. (2,6,19,67,73) Although the Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations (MIMP) operates two shelters exclusively for human trafficking victims in Lima and Madre de Dios, there remains a lack of shelters and sustained specialized services for TIP victims throughout the country. (2)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including implementation of action plans.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor (CPETI)

Implements the National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor. (1,48) Proposes public policies and coordinates, evaluates, and monitors government actions to combat child labor. Maintains subcommittees, including on informal mining, child labor in indigenous villages, and project evaluations. (45) Led by the MTPE, comprises representatives from 17 government agencies, including MININTER; the Ministries of Education and Justice; the Peruvian National Police; and business associations, unions, and NGOs. (45,76) The commission held 10 meetings during the reporting year and promoted the implementation of the National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor. (1)

Regional Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor

Manages and implements regional public policy for the prevention and eradication of child labor. Present in all 25 regions of Peru. (77) Some Regional Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor have not fulfilled their mandate to create action plans to combat child labor, while others have action plans but have failed to provide the necessary funding to carry them out. (1,6,56)

National Commission Against Forced Labor

Coordinates government efforts to combat forced labor, including conducting research and awareness-raising campaigns, developing legislation, and strengthening Peru's institutional capacity to address forced labor. Led by the MTPE, with the participation of eight additional government ministries. (1) The commission completed an evaluation of the implementation of the National Plan to Combat Forced Labor in early 2018. (28)

Permanent Multi-Sectoral Commission on Illegal Mining

Coordinates government efforts to address illegal mining by developing programs to eradicate child labor and commercial sexual exploitation of children in mining areas. Led by the Prime Minister's Office, includes representatives of regional governments and six national government agencies, including the Ministry of Energy and Mines and MININTER. (78)

Multi-Sector Commission Against Trafficking in Persons

Leads and coordinates government efforts to combat human trafficking by designing, recommending, monitoring, and implementing policies to combat human trafficking, including of children. Chaired by MININTER, comprises 12 government agencies, including the MTPE, MIMP, and the Ministries of Justice, Education, and Health. (79) Continued coordination in 2018 through the Ministry of the Interior. (2)

During the reporting period, government agencies used data from the 2015 national child labor survey to inform their efforts to address child labor, enhancing coordination between SUNAFIL, the MTPE, the National Police, and local officials. (1,2) The agencies worked together on joint inspections, police operations, awareness training, and employment training for victims with an emphasis on rural areas. (1) In April 2018, SUNAFIL labor inspectors coordinated with the Public Ministry, the PNP, and Cajamarca Regional government officials to identify and rescue 2 girls ages 14 and 15 from working in a rural agricultural processing plant. The PNP and Public Ministry then placed the victims in the custody of the Cajamarca Family Prosecutor's Office, which notified their families; SUNAFIL fined the owners of the plant, and the Public Ministry launched a criminal investigation. (1)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including funding.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor (2012–2021)

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by improving livelihoods of low-income families, educational opportunities, and working conditions for adolescents; raising awareness of child labor; and increasing child labor law enforcement. (1,14,60,77) Also seeks to improve the quality of child labor data in Peru. (14) Continued implementation in 2018. (1) 

A Peru Without Child Labor

Aims to prevent and eradicate child labor through a partnership between the government and a network of private businesses committed to supporting the National Strategy. (60,77,80) The government did not provide information on activities taken under this policy in 2018 for inclusion in this report.

National Action Plan for Children and Adolescents (2012–2021)

Establishes a comprehensive set of government policies for children and adolescents to eradicate the worst forms of child labor. (1,59,77) Continued implementation in 2018. (1)

National Plan to Combat Forced Labor (2017–2021)

Establishes policies and priorities for combating forced labor, including programs and projects focusing on the most vulnerable populations such as children. (77,81) Continued implementation in 2018. (1) The plan was renewed during the reporting period, however, funding was never secured to implement the renewed Plan, making it difficult to implement across the government. (1,2,6)

Inter-sectoral Protocol Against Forced Labor

Outlines the government's role in combating forced labor and provides for the housing, legal defense, and educational reintegration of children and adolescent victims of forced labor. Monitored by the National Commission Against Forced Labor. (77,82,83) The Government of Peru implemented this policy in 2018 by holding regional conferences and workshops on how ministries and regional governments should address forced labor cases, monitor forced labor risk factors, and establish strategies to identify victims and provides services. (2)

National Plan of Action Against Trafficking in Persons 2017–2021

Aims to prevent and reduce human trafficking by addressing root causes, prosecuting perpetrators, assisting victims, and strengthening programs for vulnerable populations, including child laborers. (1,2,84,85) Emphasizes the needs of human trafficking victims through a dedicated Victim Reintegration Plan. (1,2) The government did not provide information on activities taken under this policy in 2018 for inclusion in this report.

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of efforts to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects that aim to eliminate child labor, including its worst forms, through research, improved monitoring and enforcement, policy development, and awareness-raising. These projects include Promoting Better Understanding of Indicators to Address Labor Trafficking in Peru, a $2 million, 4-year project implemented by Capital Humano y Social Alternativo (CHS); Proyecto Semilla (Seed Project): Combating Exploitative Rural Child Labor in Peru, a $16 million, 7-year project implemented by Desarrollo y Autogestión;  Consolidating and Disseminating Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru, a $6.8 million, 5-year project implemented by the ILO;  Engaging Workers and Civil Society to Strengthen Labor Law Enforcement, a $2.8 million, 3-year project implemented by the American Center for International Labor Solidarity;  Closing the Child Labor and Forced Labor Evidence Gap: Impact Evaluations, implemented by Innovations for Poverty Action; and From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor (The Bridge Project), a global project implemented by the ILO. For additional information about USDOL's work, please visit our website. (86-89)

Responsible Peru†

MTPE program to create formal youth employment opportunities, encourage adolescents to stay in school, and strengthen corporate social responsibility. (6,45) In 2018, the MTPE signed several agreements with private companies to develop public-private partnerships for corporate responsibility to help reduce child labor through an employment program that encourages adolescents to stay in school. (1)

Huánuco Project†

Improves school retention and attendance rates among child laborers in rural areas. In conjunction with the Together Program, assists approximately 4,000 children and 3,200 families by providing cash transfers, education, and livelihood services. (14,52,56) The government did not provide information on activities taken under this project in 2018 for inclusion in this report.

Carabayllo Project†

Provides scholarships, education assistance, psychological help, and other services to 1,000 families and 1,500 children to reduce urban child labor, especially in garbage dumps.(14,16,17,52,56) The government did not provide information on activities taken under this project in 2018 for inclusion in this report.

Learn Program (Yachay)†

MIMP program to increase protection and access to social services for children subjected to street work, begging, and commercial sexual exploitation. (93) In 2018, assisted approximately 8,000 minors in total and enabled over 6,000 children to reduce their work hours. (1)

Street Educators (Educadores de Calle)†

MIMP program under Yachay that provides counseling and training to children engaged in begging and street work. Operates 71 centers for educational activities, parent training, and workshops. (1,6,45,94) Connects working children and their families to educational and social services to withdraw them from exploitative work and improve family welfare. (95-97) The program assisted over 1,000 families in over 25 cities during the reporting period. (1,2)

Together Program (Juntos)†

Ministry of Social Development program, provides cash transfers to approximately 763,000 low-income households in 15 of the country's 25 regions. Provided services to nearly 900,000 families in 2018. (1,6,48,98)

† Program is funded by the Government of Peru.

In December of 2018, the Government of Peru officially announced its plan to combat the pervasive practice of illegal gold mining in the Amazonian region, which has historically fostered child labor, forced labor, and sex trafficking. Starting in early 2019, the government plans to focus efforts on social and economic development support to mining communities from key ministries, targeted assistance for human trafficking victims, and restoration of areas deforested and contaminated by mercury. (2) Under the Plan, MIMP will relocate victims of human trafficking, forced, and child labor to shelters in Cusco and other regions of the country. (2) Under the Semilla Project and the Adolescent Labor Reconversion Program, from 2016 to 2018 the MTPE provided employment training to over 2,000 youth ages 14 to 17 who had previously engaged in hazardous child labor in Junín and Pasco. (6,99) Reports indicate that existing social programs are not sufficient to fully address the problem of child labor in Peru, including the large number of children who perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Peru also lacks targeted programs to assist children who are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation and children who work in mining, logging, and domestic work. (6,19,20)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Peru (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that children are either prohibited from engaging in night work with no exceptions or if children are permitted to engage in night work, that they are adequately protected.

2014 – 2018

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2018

Ensure that the law's light work provisions are specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor.

2017 – 2018

Raise the minimum age for work to the age up to which education is compulsory.

2018

Enforcement

Publish information on the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites; the number of child labor violations found and for which penalties were imposed and collected; and the number of criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2018

Ensure adequate enforcement of child labor laws, particularly in the informal sector, including in artisanal mining and domestic work.

2009 – 2018

Increase the collection rate of fines imposed for child labor law violations to deter future violations.

2015 – 2018

Establish National Labor Inspection Superintendency (SUNAFIL) offices in all regions of Peru to support labor law enforcement throughout the country.

2017 – 2018

Increase the level of funding and the resources allocated for criminal law enforcement related to the worst forms of child labor, including for increased training on the worst forms of child labor for criminal investigators.

2015 – 2018

Conduct criminal investigations in mining areas and bars in which minors serve alcohol or are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation, and ensure that penalties are properly enforced.

2016 – 2018

Coordination

Ensure that Regional Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor (CPETIs) develop action plans to combat child labor and allocate sufficient funding to implement these plans.

2010 – 2018

Government Policies

Allocate sufficient funding to fully implement policies and plans to combat forced labor.

2013 – 2018

Publish information on activities taken under key policies to address child labor.

2018

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, in particular in indigenous and Afro-Peruvian communities and rural areas.

2014 – 2018

Expand social programs to reach a greater number of children who perform dangerous tasks in agriculture; initiate social programs to address child commercial sexual exploitation, child labor in mining, child labor in logging, and child domestic work; and publish information on activities taken under all social programs that address child labor.

2009 – 2018

  1. U.S. Embassy- Lima. Reporting. December 21, 2018.

  2. U.S. Embassy- Lima. Reporting. March 12, 2019.

  3. ILO-MTPE. Magnitud y características del trabajo infantil en Perú: Informe de 2015 - Análisis de la Encuesta Nacional de Hogares (ENAHO) y de la Encuesta sobre Trabajo Infantil (ETI). 2016. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_28857/lang--es/index.htm.

  4. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report. http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

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  6. U.S. Embassy- Lima. Reporting. January 12, 2018.

  7. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, Including Its Causes and Consequences, Gulnara Shahinian. New York City. August 15, 2011. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Slavery/SR/A-HRC-18-30-Add.2_en.pdf.

  8. U.S. Embassy Lima official. Email communication to USDOL official. April 16, 2015.

  9. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Perú: Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes que Trabajan, 1993–2008. December 2009. https://www.inei.gob.pe/media/MenuRecursivo/publicaciones_digitales/Est/Lib0875/libro.pdf.

  10. Verité. Risk Analysis of Indicators of Forced Labor and Human Trafficking in Illegal Gold Mining in Peru. 2013. https://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-Gold-Mining-in-Peru_0.pdf.

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  12. El Comercio. Investigan denuncias de trabajo infantil en tres regiones. August 21, 2014. http://elcomercio.pe/peru/pais/investigan-denuncias-trabajo-infantil-tres-regiones-noticia-1751626.

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  15. El Comercio. Mayoría de niños trabajadores del Cercado son de Huancavelica. October 1, 2014. http://elcomercio.pe/lima/sucesos/mayoria-ninos-trabajadores-cercado-son-huancavelica-noticia-1761030.

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  21. Ministry of Labor official. Interview with USDOL official. June 3, 2015.

  22. Governorship of Amazonas official. Interview with USDOL official. June 1, 2015.

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  24. Solidarity Center. PERU: Factory Fire Exposes Forced, Child Labor. June 30, 2017. https://www.solidaritycenter.org/peru-factory-fire-exposes-forced-child-labor/.

  25. AJ+. Inside The Underage Sex Trafficking Brothels Of Peru’s Illegal Gold Mines. January 21, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lJo6o_2jhvU&feature=youtu.be.

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  29. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Peru (ratification: 2002) Published: 2017. Accessed October 11, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3298432.

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