Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Nigeria

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Nigeria

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Nigeria made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government launched a National Social Protection Program which provides cash transfers to extremely poor households on the condition that their children are enrolled in school. The National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons implemented standard operating procedures for investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases, and established an anti-human trafficking training center. However, children are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in quarrying granite and gravel, commercial sexual exploitation, forced begging, and armed conflict. The legal framework has inconsistencies regarding child labor, and the minimum age for work is below international standards. Child labor enforcement data is also not publicly available, and social programs are not sufficient to address the scope of the problem.

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Children in Nigeria engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in quarrying granite and gravel, commercial sexual exploitation, forced begging, and armed conflict.(1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Nigeria.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

31.1 (13,924,739)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

76.2

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

26.8

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

76

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2010, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011.(7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of manioc/cassava, cocoa, rice, and tobacco (4, 8-11)

Herding livestock (12)

Fishing, activities unknown (13)

Industry

Mining and quarrying granite and gravel (1, 3, 4, 9, 14)

Artisanal gold mining and processing (4, 9, 15-19)

Harvesting sand (9)

Construction, including making bricks and carrying construction materials (4, 13)

Services

Domestic work (3, 4, 13, 20, 21)

Collecting money on public buses, and automotive repair (3, 12, 21, 22)

Street work, including vending, begging, and scavenging (3, 4, 13, 20-25)

Use by state armed groups for domestic work, to carry loads, and to act as messengers and guards (26, 27)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5, 13, 21, 28, 29)

Forced begging, domestic work, street vending, textile manufacturing, mining and quarrying gravel and granite, and labor in agriculture, including in cocoa, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5, 13, 30-32)

Use in illicit activities for armed groups, sometimes as a result of forced recruitment, including participating in extortion, armed robbery, and drug trafficking (11, 21-23)

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (2, 5, 33-35)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In northern Nigeria, many families send children from rural to urban areas to live with Islamic teachers, known as mallams, and receive a Koranic education. These children, known as almajiri, may receive lessons, but teachers often force them to beg on the streets and surrender the money they collect.(23, 36) Furthermore, these children are highly vulnerable to recruitment by Boko Haram.(37)

Benin City, the capital of Edo state, is a major human trafficking hub in Africa.(38, 39) Girls from Nigeria are trafficked to North Africa and Europe for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation.(5, 39-43) In 2016, there was an increase in child trafficking for sexual exploitation, particularly to Europe.(12, 40, 43) Children from West African countries experience forced labor in Nigeria, including in granite mines.(5) Children from Benin and Niger are subjected to forced labor, including forced begging, by corrupt mallams.(36, 44, 45) Children from Benin are also exploited in domestic and agricultural work; Togolese children are forced to work in agriculture.(31, 46)

Children as young as age 8 are recruited, and sometimes forced, to participate in armed conflict with various groups, including ethnic militia organizations, criminal gangs, extremist groups, and partisan political organizations, such as party youth wings.(23, 47-49) Boko Haram forcibly recruited and used child soldiers during the reporting period.(2, 5, 27, 35) Reports indicate that children were recruited to participate in combat operations and act as spies, porters, and cooks.(26, 27) There was an increase in the use of young girls to carry out suicide bombings.(2, 33) The terrorist group also subjected girls to forced labor and sexual servitude.(5, 26, 27) Limited research found that the Nigerian military used children rescued or arrested during Boko Haram military operations for domestic work, to carry loads, and to act as messengers and guards.(26, 27) The Nigerian military also conducted on-the-ground coordination with elements of the Borno state government-funded Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF), a non-state self-defense militia involved in fighting Boko Haram. Research found that the CJTF continued to recruit and use children, possibly by force, to supervise checkpoints, conduct patrols, spy, and apprehend suspected insurgents.(26, 27, 50, 51) The Government of Nigeria has officially prohibited the recruitment and use of child soldiers.(50, 51)

An estimated 1.8 million people were internally displaced in northeast Nigeria, of which 1 million were children under age 18.(52) During the reporting period, reports indicated that children were trafficked from internally displaced persons (IDP) camps for labor and sexual exploitation, and girls were subjected to commercial sexual exploitation in the camps.(5, 53-55) Research found that children in IDP camps are also at risk of human trafficking and other forms of exploitation when they leave the camps unaccompanied to work.(50)

While most public schools in Maiduguri, the capital of Borno State, began reopening in February, the Borno State Government announced that 512 primary schools, 38 secondary schools, and two tertiary institutions had been destroyed in the state.(56, 57) Some school buildings are still being occupied by displaced people seeking shelter from the conflict.(50) Furthermore, government armed forces occupied schools in their campaign against Boko Haram.(57)

Although free and compulsory education is federally mandated by the Education Act, little enforcement of compulsory education laws occurs at the state level.(12) School fees are often charged, and the cost of materials can be prohibitive for families.(12, 13, 58) Access to education is further hindered by a lack of teachers and inadequate sanitation facilities, particularly for girls.(12) Many families favored the enrollment of boys over girls in elementary and secondary school.(13, 59)

Nigeria has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Nigeria’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

12

Section 59(1) of the Labour Act; Sections 28 and 29 of the Child’s Right Act (60, 61)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 59(6) of the Labour Act; Sections 28 and 29 of the Child’s Right Act (60, 61)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

No

 

Sections 59–61 of the Labour Act; Section 28 of the Child’s Right Act; Section 23 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act (60-62)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 13, 22, 24, and 25 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act; Sections 28 and 30 of the Child’s Right Act (61, 62)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Section 13 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act; Section 30 of the Child’s Right Act (61, 62)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 13–17 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act; Sections 30 and 32 of the Child’s Right Act; Section 23 of the Cybercrimes Act (61-63)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 19 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act; Sections 25, 26, and 30 of the Child’s Right Act (61, 62)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Section 28 of the Armed Forces Act; Section 34 of the Child’s Right Act (61, 64)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

Section 19 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act (62)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Sections 2 and 15 of the Education Act; Section 15 of the Child’s Right Act (61, 65)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Sections 2 and 3 of the Education Act; Section 15 of the Child’s Right Act (61, 65)

* No conscription (64)

The Federal Child’s Right Act (CRA) codifies the rights of children in Nigeria and must be ratified by each state to become law in its territory.(11, 61) To date, 23 states and the federal capital territory have ratified the CRA; of the remaining 13 states, 12 are in northern Nigeria.(11, 20)

The laws in Nigeria regarding minimum age for employment are inconsistent. The CRA states that the provisions on young people in the Labour Act apply to children under the CRA, but also that the CRA supersedes any other legislation related to children.(61) The CRA restricts children under age 18 from any work except light work for family members; however, Section 59 of the Labour Act, which is in force in all 36 states, sets the minimum employment age at 12.(60, 61, 66) The Labour Act also permits children of any age to do light work alongside a family member in agriculture and domestic work.(60, 67) Furthermore, the minimum age protections in the Labour Act do not apply to children who are self-employed.(60, 67)

Although the Labour Act forbids the employment of youth under age 18 in work that is dangerous to their health, safety, or morals, it does not establish types of hazardous activity that are prohibited to children under 18.(60) The National Steering Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor developed a report in 2013 that identified hazardous child labor in Nigeria; however, the Government has not yet determined by law or regulation the types of hazardous work prohibited for children.(4, 67)

In Zamfara state, the Shari’a Penal Code, the moral code and religious law of Islam, defines an offender as anyone who “does any obscene or indecent act in a private or public place, or acts or conducts himself/herself in an indecent manner.” This language may cause children forced into commercial sexual exploitation to be treated as offenders instead of victims.(68)

Although the CRA criminalizes using, procuring, and offering a child in the production and trafficking of drugs, the 13 states that have not yet ratified the CRA have no legislation in place to criminalize this activity.(61)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Labor Inspectorate, Ministry of Labor and Employment (MLE)

Deploy labor inspectors across 36 state labor offices and the federal capital territory to enforce federal child labor laws.(11, 69)

National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP)

Enforce laws against human trafficking and exploitative labor.(11) Coordinate with the Ministry of Women’s Affairs and Social Development and state governments to provide child victims with social services and reunite trafficked children with their families.(11) In 2016, developed and implemented standard operating procedures for investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases. With donor support, also established an anti-human trafficking training center.(70)

Nigeria Police

Enforce all laws prohibiting forced child labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Support MLE and collaborate with NAPTIP on human trafficking enforcement.(11)

Nigeria Immigration Service

Collaborate with NAPTIP to enforce laws against child trafficking.(11)

Labor Law Enforcement

Research did not find information on whether labor law enforcement agencies in Nigeria took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

660 (71)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

Unknown

Unknown

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown

Unknown

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (71)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (71)

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (36)

Unknown

No labor inspectors are available to conduct inspections on seafaring vessels.(72) The Labour Act states that children ages 15 and older may work onboard these vessels and, therefore, children are unprotected by the country’s enforcement framework.(60) Research did not find mechanisms to enforce existing protections for children who perform street work.(73) Enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the lack of resources for inspections.(12, 74)

The Ministry of Labor and Employment (MLE) refers cases of children that are gravely in danger to the National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP); however, research found no other referral mechanisms between MLE and social welfare services.(36)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Nigeria took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (70)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (75)

Yes (70)

Number of Investigations

42 (76)

89 (77)

Number of Violations Found

516 (75)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

2 (76)

10 (77)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (11)

Yes (5)

In 2016, NAPTIP conducted 89 investigations of the worst forms of child labor in domestic work. The Government rescued 412 children from the worst forms of child labor, 382 children from domestic work, and 30 girls from commercial sexual exploitation.(77)

NAPTIP coordinates with the Ministry of Women’s Affairs and Social Development and state governments to provide social services to child trafficking victims through the National Referral Mechanism; however, research did not find a referral mechanism for children found in other worst forms of child labor.(11) Children are not excluded from the Terrorism Prevention Act’s penalty of life imprisonment for assisting in acts of terrorism, and criminal law enforcement authorities continued to detain children for their or their parent’s alleged association with Boko Haram.(78-80)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinate efforts to combat child labor. Led by MLE, comprises representatives from seven governmental agencies, faith-based organizations, NGOs, ILO, and UNICEF.(11, 81)

Inter-Ministerial Taskforce on Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate child labor issues related to human trafficking. Chaired by NAPTIP.(11)

State Steering Committees on Child Labor

Guide state-level implementation of the National Policy and National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor.(81) Established in Akwa Ibom, Delta, Lagos, Ogun, and Oyo states.(82)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Policy on Child Labor

Aims to eliminate child labor in Nigeria by 2020.(83)

National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor in Nigeria (2013–2017)

Provides the roadmap for implementation of the National Policy on Child Labor in Nigeria.(81)

NAPTIP Strategic Plan (2012–2017)

Provides a framework for mobilizing NAPTIP and all stakeholders involved in combating human trafficking within Nigeria and internationally.(84)

‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(85, 86)

Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Policy on Child Labor and National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor during the reporting period.

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Decent Work Country Program II (2015–2018)

ILO-implemented project in coordination with the Government that aims to combat child labor, including its worst forms. Aims to build Government capacity to conduct child labor surveys and establish community-based child labor monitoring systems.(59)

UNICEF country program (2014–2017)

Donor-funded program in coordination with the Government to ensure children associated with armed groups, including those in detention facilities, receive reintegration services.(87-89)

NAPTIP Shelters for Human Trafficking Victims†

Government-funded program that operates nine shelters in Nigeria, with a total capacity of 313 victims. Shelters provide legal, medical, and psychological services, as well as vocational training, business management skills, and family reunification.(5)

National Social Protection Program*

$302 million World Bank-funded program implemented by the Government that aims to provide youth with skills and vocational training, provide primary school students with daily meals, and offer monthly cash transfers to extremely poor households on the condition that their children are enrolled in school.(90)

Safe Schools Initiative

Donor-funded program implemented by the Government and international organizations that aims to provide remedial education and pilot 10 safe education facilities in northeast Nigeria in Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe states.(91, 92) By April 2016, 213,985 internally displaced and vulnerable children were enrolled in schools.(93)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Nigeria.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(94)

In 2016, NAPTIP incorporated human trafficking instruction into Nigeria’s national public school curriculum.(70) Research found no evidence of programs to specifically address children engaged in agriculture, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, forced labor, and illicit activities. Although Nigeria has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs, including those that target child soldiers, is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Nigeria (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Increase the minimum age for regular work to at least 14, in accordance with international standards; ensure that national legislation on minimum age for work is consistent and that all children, including those who are self-employed, are protected; and ensure that provisions related to light work conform to international standards.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the types of work determined to be hazardous for children are prohibited by law or regulation for all children under age 18.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that states that apply Shari’a as the penal code do not penalize child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that using, procuring, and offering a child for the production and trafficking of drugs are criminally prohibited in all states.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Amend the Terrorism Prevention Act to prohibit the punishment of children found engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including recruitment for armed conflict.

2016

Enforcement

Publish information on the Labor Inspectorate's funding, number of labor inspectors, training of labor inspectors and criminal investigators, number and type of labor inspections conducted, and complaint mechanisms between law enforcement and social service providers, as well as the number of violations found and prosecutions initiated.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that labor inspectors receive sufficient resources to enforce child labor laws.

2016

Ensure that child labor inspections occur on seafaring vessels and that a mechanism exists for enforcing existing protections for street children.

2010 – 2016

Establish referral mechanisms between Nigeria’s law enforcement and social service agencies for all children found during labor inspections and criminal investigations.

2013 – 2016

Cease the practice of detaining children associated with armed groups and refer these children to social service providers.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that the Nigerian Security Forces do not exploit children that are rescued or arrested during military operations.

2016

Government Policies

Take steps to implement the National Policy on Child Labor and National Action Plan to Eliminate Child Labor.

2014 – 2016

Social Programs

Ensure an adequate number of trained teachers and provide sufficient educational infrastructure for children, particularly girls, to access schools. Remove all armed groups and forces from schools and compounds.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that all states adopt programs to offer free education and expand existing programs that provide funds to vulnerable children, especially girls, to cover school fees and the cost of materials.

2014 – 2016

Establish and expand programs that prevent and remove children from child labor in agriculture, armed conflict, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, forced labor, and illicit activities.

2009 – 2016

1.         Audu Liberty Oseni. "Women and Children Breaking Rocks for Survival." westafricainsight.org [online] October 2012 [cited May 2, 2013]; [Source on file].

2.         UN General Assembly Human Rights Council. Annual Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict December 22, 2016. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/HRC/34/44&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC.

3.         ILO. Report on the Rapid Assessment of Child Labour Situation in Artisinal Mines and Quarries in Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria. Abuja; 2013. [Source on file].

4.         Government of Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity. List of Hazardous Child Labour in Nigeria. 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-addis_ababa/---ilo-abuja/documents/publication/wcms_300829.pdf.

5.         U.S. Department of State. "Nigeria," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 16, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf.

6.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         Akanni, KA, AO Dada. "Analysis of Labour-Use Patterns among Small-Holder Cocoa Farmers in South Western Nigeria." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, B(2)(2012); http://www.davidpublishing.com/davidpublishing/Upfile/3/23/2012/2012032309828459.pdf

9.         U.S. Embassy- Abuja. reporting, November 12, 2015.

10.       Sylvester, E. "How Tobacco Industry Players Veil Child Labour, Smuggling as CSR." Daily Independent, Lagos, May 5, 2014. http://allafrica.com/stories/201405081068.html.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja. reporting, January 23, 2015.

12.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja. reporting, January 20, 2017.

13.       U.S. Department of State. "Nigeria," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington DC; 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/252927.pdf.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja. reporting, January 13, 2013.

15.       Beaubien, J. Nigeria Pressured to Clean Up Lead-Contaminated Villages, National Public Radio, [blog] December 6, 2012 [cited February 14, 2013]; http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/12/06/166651255/nigeria-pressured-to-clean-up-lead-contaminated-villages?ft=1&f=.

16.       Human Rights Watch. "A Heavy Price: Lead Poisoning and Gold Mining in Nigeria's Zamfara State" [video]; 2012, 05 min., 44 sec., February 18, 2013; http://www.hrw.org/features/a-heavy-price.

17.       Kriesch, A. Children Mining Gold in Nigeria, DW News, [online] 2015 [cited November 23, 2015]; [Source on file].

18.       Environmental Law Institute. Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Nigeria: Recommendations to Address Mercury and Lead Exposure. Washington, D.C; November 2014. http://www.eli.org/sites/default/files/docs/nigeria_asgm_assessment_-_final_report.pdf.

19.       Idris, A. Child Labour Rampant in Nigerian Mines. Al Jazeera; 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sBWAHSsmAIc.

20.       Kure, I. "Despite Bans, Child Labor Prevalent in Nigeria." voanews.com [online] September 10, 2013 [cited January 29, 2014]; http://www.voanews.com/content/child-labor-still-common-in-parts-of-nigeria/1747147.html.

21.       Amaefule, E. "Nigeria Has Eight Million Child Labourers – NAPTIP." punchng.com [online] June 2, 2016 [cited December 14, 2016]; http://punchng.com/nigeria-eight-million-child-labourers-naptip/.

22.       "Are There Hiccups With the Draft Policy On Child Labour?" Daily Independent, Lagos, April 1, 2015. http://allafrica.com/stories/201504020402.html

23.       Shepler, S. Analysis of the Situation of Children Affected by Armed Conflict in the Niger Delta and Northern Region of Nigeria. Washington, DC, Search for Common Ground; 2012. [Source on file].

24.       Akinwotu, E. "From Hawkers to Criminals: How the Lagos Ban on Street Selling Hurts the City." The Guardian [online] August 3, 2016 [cited December 14, 2016]; https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/aug/03/hawkers-criminals-lagos-ban-street-selling.

25.       Anumihe, I. "Kid Beggars Lay Siege to Abuja." The Sun, Lagos, June 8, 2016. http://sunnewsonline.com/kid-beggars-lay-siege-to-abuja/.

26.       Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict. Watchlist in Nigeria to Monitor the Situation of Children Affected by Armed Conflict, [online] [cited March 22, 2017]; http://watchlist.org/watchlist-in-nigeria-to-monitor-the-situation-of-children-affected-by-armed-conflict/.

27.       UN. reporting, July-September 2016.

28.       Auwal, A. "Nigeria: NAPTIP Discovers Centres for Pornographic Performance in Sokoto." Daily Trust, Abuja, June 7, 2016. http://allafrica.com/stories/201606071322.html.

29.       The News Chronicle. "In Abuja, A Noisy Night at a Sex Market " thenews-chronicle.com [online] August 14, 2016 [cited November 9, 2016]; http://thenews-chronicle.com/in-abuja-a-nosy-night-at-a-sex-market/.

30.       Abdelkader, GK, M Zangaou. Domestic and Sexual Slavery in Niger Anti-Slavery and Association Timidria; 2012. http://www.antislavery.org/includes/documents/cm_docs/2012/w/wahaya_report_eng.pdf.

31.       Devillard, A, A Bacchi, M Noack. A Survey on Migration Policies in West AfricaInternational Centre for Migration Policy Development and International Organization for Migration; March 2015. http://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/ICMPD-Website/ICMPD_General/Publications/2015/A_Survey_on_Migration_Policies_in_West_Africa_EN_SOFT.pdf.

32.       Igidi, T. "Corruption Thrives at Nigeria's Borders." Daily Trust, Abuja, January 3, 2016. http://www.dailytrust.com.ng/news/feature/corruption-thrives-at-nigeria-s-borders/127163.html.

33.       Osborne, S. "Two Young Girls 'Around Seven or Eight' Blow Themselves Up Near Nigerian Market." independent.co.uk [online] December 12, 2016 [cited December 12, 2016]; http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/nigeria-girl-suicide-bombers-boko-haram-a7468936.html?utm_source=Media+Review+for+December+12%2C+2016&utm_campaign=DMR-+EN+-+12%2F12%2F2016&utm_medium=email.

34.       Hinshaw, D, J Parkinson. "The 10,000 Kidnapped Boys of Boko Haram." The Wall Street Journal, New York, N.Y., August 12, 2016. https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-kidnapped-boys-of-boko-haram-1471013062.

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