Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Nigeria

Cocoa
Cocoa
Child Labor Icon
Forced Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Gold
Gold
Child Labor Icon
Granite
Granite
Child Labor Icon
Forced Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Gravel (Crushed Stones)
Gravel (Crushed Stones)
Child Labor Icon
Forced Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Manioc/Cassava
Manioc/Cassava
Child Labor Icon
Sand
Sand
Child Labor Icon
Nigeria
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Nigeria made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government adopted the Edo State Trafficking in Persons Prohibition Law, which codified the Edo State Taskforce for implementation. Nigeria's National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons received $715,100 for victim care in 2018, a three-fold increase over its 2017 allocation, and government officials appropriated $3.8 million to provide training and education materials to raise awareness among youth of the dangers of human trafficking. Criminal investigators also conducted 314 investigations into the worst forms of child labor, resulting in 5 convictions. Although the government made meaningful efforts in all relevant areas during the reporting period, Nigeria's security forces continued to detain children for prolonged periods of time due to their alleged association with Boko Haram, including girls who were used as concubines. Children engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in quarrying granite and gravel, commercial sexual exploitation, and armed conflict. Other gaps remain, including inconsistencies regarding child labor in the legal framework, and the minimum age for work is below international standards. Furthermore, there are not enough labor inspectors to provide sufficient coverage of the workforce, and social programs are not sufficient to address the scope of the problem.

Children in Nigeria engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in quarrying granite and gravel, commercial sexual exploitation, and armed conflict. (1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Nigeria.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

31.1 (13,924,739)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

76.2

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

26.8

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

73.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2010, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (5)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011. (
6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of manioc/cassava, cocoa, rice, and tobacco (2,7,8)  

Fishing, activities unknown (9

Herding livestock (8)  

Industry

Mining and quarrying of granite and gravel (1,2)  

Artisanal gold mining and processing (1,8,10,11)   

Harvesting sand (1,11)  

Construction, including making bricks and carrying construction materials (2,8)   

Services

Domestic work (2,8,12-14)     

Collecting money on public buses, washing cars, and automotive repair (1,8,12,13,15)   

Street work, including vending, begging, and scavenging (1,2,8,12,13,15,16

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4,8,12,14,18,19)   

Forced begging; domestic work; street vending; textile manufacturing; mining and quarrying gravel, granite, and gold; and labor in agriculture, including in cocoa, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4,8,14,20,21)    

Recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict and in non-conflict support roles (4,14,22-24)      

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In northern Nigeria, many families send children from rural to urban areas to live with Islamic teachers and receive a Koranic education. These children may receive lessons, but teachers often force them to beg on the streets and surrender the money they collect. (14,25,26) Furthermore, these children are highly vulnerable to recruitment by Boko Haram, which continued to forcibly recruit and use child soldiers in combat and support roles, as well as suicide bombers and concubines. (3,4,22-24,26,27) Unlike in previous years, there were no new reports that the Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF), a non-state self-defense militia involved in fighting Boko Haram, recruited or used children during the reporting period. (28,29

Benin City, the capital of Edo state, is a major human trafficking hub in Africa, but increased enforcement efforts may have caused some human trafficking rings to shift their focus to other areas of southern Nigeria. (29-31) Girls from Nigeria are sent to North Africa and Europe for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. (26,31-35) Children from West African countries experience forced labor in Nigeria, including in granite and gold mines. (4,20)  

In 2018, the security situation in Nigeria continued to worsen, due to attacks by insurgency groups such as Boko Haram and conflicts in rural areas between farmers and herders. (29) This resulted in the displacement of about 2 million people, of which 56 percent were children. (23,26,36) Some girls, particularly unaccompanied minors, were subjected to commercial sexual exploitation in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps and military barracks, often by members of the Nigerian military, the CJTF, and other camp security personnel in exchange for food. (4,23,26,27,29,34,37-40) Research was not able to determine the scale of this problem in 2018.

Although free and compulsory education is federally mandated by the Education Act, little enforcement of compulsory education laws occurs at the state level. School fees are often charged in practice, and the cost of materials can be prohibitive for families. (8,41) When families experienced economic hardship, the enrollment of boys was typically prioritized over the enrollment of girls. Other barriers to education include a lack of teachers, sexual harassment, inadequate sanitation facilities, and fear of abduction or attack by Boko Haram while at school, particularly for girls in the northeastern part of the country. (8,13,23,26,42,43) Furthermore, schools may be used to house IDPs or occupied by government armed forces in their campaign against Boko Haram and the Islamic State-West Africa. (24,27,44) Almost 1,400 schools have been destroyed since 2009, and more than 57 percent of schools in Borno State were closed in the 2017/2018 school year due to violence in the area, leaving about 3 million children without access to education. (24,27)  

Nigeria has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Nigeria’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the minimum age for work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

12

Section 59(1) of the Labour Act; Sections 28 and 29 of the Child’s Right Act (45,46

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 59(5) and (6) of the Labour Act; Sections 28, 29, and 277 of the Child’s Right Act (45,46)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

No

 

Sections 59–61 of the Labour Act; Section 28 of the Child’s Right Act; Section 23 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act (45-47)    

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 13, 22, and 24–25 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act; Sections 28 and 30 of the Child’s Right Act (46,47)    

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Section 13 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act; Section 30 of the Child’s Right Act (46,47)    

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 13–17 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act; Sections 30 and 32 of the Child’s Right Act; Section 23 of the Cybercrimes Act (46,47,48)    

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 19 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act; Sections 25–26 and 30 of the Child’s Right Act (46,47)  

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Section 28 of the Armed Forces Act; Section 34 of the Child’s Right Act (46,49)  

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes*

   

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

No

 

Section 19 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act (47)  

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Sections 2 and 15 of the Education Act; Section 15 of the Child’s Right Act (46,50)  

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Sections 2–3 of the Education Act; Section 15 of the Child’s Right Act (46,50)  

* No conscription (49

In 2018, Edo State adopted the Edo State Trafficking in Persons Prohibition Law, which codified the Edo State Taskforce Against Human Trafficking and provides a comprehensive framework for the prevention, detection, and prosecution of human trafficking. (14,51) This is the first state-level legislation prohibiting human trafficking in Nigeria, and it complements federal legislation. (29

The Federal Child’s Right Act (CRA) codifies the rights of children in Nigeria and must be adopted and implemented by each state to become law in its territory. (26,46) To date, 26 states and the federal capital territory have adopted and implemented the CRA; all 10 of the remaining 10 states are in northern Nigeria. (26,52

The laws in Nigeria regarding minimum age for employment are inconsistent. The CRA supersedes all legislation related to children, yet it states that the provisions related to young people in the Labour Act still apply to children. This includes Section 59, which sets the minimum employment age at 12, in contradiction to the CRA, which only permits children under age 18 to engage in light work for family members. (45,46) The Labour Act also permits children of any age to do light work in agriculture and domestic work if they are working with a family member. Furthermore, the minimum age protections in the Labour Act do not apply to children who are self-employed or working in the informal economy. (45,53) Furthermore, as the minimum age for work is lower than the compulsory education age, children may be encouraged to leave school before the completion of compulsory education.

Although the Labour Act forbids the employment of youth under age 18 in work that is dangerous to their health, safety, or morals, it does not establish the types of hazardous activity that are prohibited to children under age 18. (45,53) The National Steering Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor developed a report in 2013 that identified hazardous child labor in Nigeria; however, the government has yet to determine by law or regulation the types of hazardous work prohibited for children. (2,53)  

Although the CRA criminalizes using, procuring, and offering a child in the production and trafficking of drugs, the 10 states that have not yet ratified the CRA have no legislation in place to criminalize this activity. (26,46) Lastly, children are not excluded from the Terrorism Prevention Act’s penalty of life imprisonment for assisting in acts of terrorism. (54

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Labor Inspectorate, Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE)

Deploys labor inspectors across 36 state labor offices and the federal capital territory to enforce federal child labor laws. (8,26,55)   

National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP)

Enforces laws against human trafficking and exploitative labor. Coordinates with the Ministry of Women's Affairs and Social Development and state governments to provide child victims with social services and reunite trafficked children with their families. (8,14,26) Operates hotlines for victims in Abuja and each zonal command center. (29) In 2018, launched an app, iReport, that allows users to report cases of human trafficking. (56

Nigeria Police

Enforces all laws prohibiting forced child labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Collaborates with NAPTIP on human trafficking enforcement. (8)  

Nigeria Immigration Service

Collaborates with NAPTIP to enforce laws against child trafficking. (8)  

Edo State Taskforce Against Human Trafficking*

Enforces the Edo State Trafficking in Persons Prohibition Law as well as other laws prohibiting trafficking in persons, and investigates all cases of child trafficking and forced child labor. Includes an Investigation and Security Unit tasked with the prevention and detection of human trafficking cases. (51) As of March 2019, investigated 56 cases and filed charges in 20 cases. (29,57)  

* Agency responsible for child labor enforcement was created during the reporting period.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Nigeria took action to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of MOLE that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

$506,755 (58

Number of Labor Inspectors

888 (59)  

1,164 (58

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (45)  

Yes (45

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (59

Yes (58

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

25,395 (59)  

24,646 (58

Number Conducted at Worksite

23,472 (59

24,646 (58

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

606 (59

438 (58

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

3 (59

320 (58

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

0 (59

316 (58

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (59

Yes (58

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (59

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (45

Yes (45

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (59

Yes (58

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (59

Yes (58

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (59

Yes (58

Of the 24,646 inspections conducted in 2018, 7,394 were dedicated child labor inspections. A total of 48 children were removed from situations of child labor during the reporting period. Social services were provided to a number of children, including enrolling 333 children in primary or secondary education and reuniting 316 children with their families. (58) However, enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the lack of resources for inspections, and research did not find mechanisms to enforce existing protections for children in the informal sector. (58,60)   

Although the Government of Nigeria significantly increased the number of labor inspectors, the total number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Nigeria’s workforce, which includes approximately 60 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Nigeria would employ about 4,005 labor inspectors. (61,62

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Nigeria took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including investigation planning.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (63

Yes (29

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (63

Yes (29

Number of Investigations

25† (64

314 (8

Number of Violations Found

3 (59

72 (29

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

10† (64

12‡ (65

Number of Convictions

10† (64

24‡ (65

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (4

Yes (8

† Data are from January 2017 to September 2017.
‡ Data are from April 2018 to February 2019.

NAPTIP's 2018 operating budget was about $11.9 million, more than double its 2016 budget. (29) During the reporting period, the Government of Nigeria convicted a total of 48 individuals in 28 cases of adult and child trafficking between April 2018 and February 2019, the most in a given year and almost double the previous year's total number of convictions. (29,65) At least three government officials are being prosecuted for exploitation of a minor, two for child trafficking-related offenses, and the other for commercial sexual exploitation. (29

Criminal law enforcement authorities continued to detain children for their alleged association with Boko Haram, including girls who were victims. (4,24,26,27,37,40) Although the government released some of the children and referred them to social services providers, many remained in detention facilities for prolonged periods. (4,24,26)   

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including efficacy in accomplishing mandates.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinates efforts to combat child labor. Led by MOLE, and comprises representatives from seven governmental agencies, faith-based organizations, NGOs, ILO, and UNICEF. (8) Research was unable to determine whether this body was active during the reporting period.

Inter-Ministerial Taskforce on Trafficking in Persons

Coordinates child labor issues related to human trafficking. Chaired by NAPTIP. (8) Met throughout the reporting period and drafted a Protocol for Identification, Safe Return, and Rehabilitation of Trafficked Persons and considered NATIP's 2018–2023 national action plan. (4

State Steering Committees on Child Labor

Guide state-level implementation of the National Policy on Child Labor. (8) Research was unable to determine whether this body was active during the reporting period.

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementing a new national child labor action plan.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

NAPTIP 2019 Plan of Action†

Provides a framework for mobilizing NAPTIP and all stakeholders involved in combating human trafficking, with an emphasis on enforcement, prosecution, and provision of victim services. (66) NAPTIP also held consultations with stakeholders to develop a longer 5-year action plan. (29

National Action Plan for Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism

Designed to end the recruitment and use of children by CJTF. Aims to promote the protection of children’s rights, ensure that suspects under age 18 are treated in accordance with international law, and provide for disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration for children previously associated with CJTF. (67-69) In 2018, CJTF conducted awareness-raising activities to prevent child recruitment and cooperated with Borno state officials and the UN Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting during verification and screening procedures, resulting in the release of 833 children, some as young as 11 years old. (24,28,29)  

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (
70

Although the Government of Nigeria has adopted policies on human trafficking and the use of children in armed conflict, research found no evidence of a policy on other worst forms of child labor since the conclusion of the National Policy on Child Labor in 2017.

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of efforts to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Decent Work Country Program II (2015–2018)

ILO-implemented project in coordination with the government that aims to combat child labor, including its worst forms. Aims to build government capacity to conduct child labor surveys and establish community-based child labor monitoring systems. (42) In 2018, under this program, ILO supported capacity-building workshops in six areas; continued implementation of the Freedom of Movement of Persons and Migration in West Africa Project (2013–2020); and began implementing a regional project titled Accelerating Action for the Elimination of Child Labor in Supply Chains in Africa, which will focus on the gold and cocoa sectors. (71

NAPTIP Shelters for Human Trafficking Victims†

Government-funded program that operates 10 shelters in Nigeria, with a total capacity of 315 victims. Shelters provide legal, medical, and psychological services, as well as vocational training and business management skills. (4,14) Continued to provide services to victims in 2018. (29

Measurement, Awareness-Raising, and Policy Engagement Project on Child Labor and Forced Labor

USDOL-funded project implemented by ILO to conduct research and develop new survey methodologies, improve awareness, strengthen policies and government capacity, and promote partnerships to combat child labor and forced labor. Additional information is available on the USDOL website. (72) In 2018, completed data collection on forced child labor in conflict zones in three countries, including Nigeria. (73

World Bank-funded Programs

Projects which aim to improve access to education. Includes: National Social Safety Nets Project (2016–2022), a $50 million project that aims to provide primary school lunches and offer conditional cash transfers based on children's enrollment; Nigeria Partnership for Education Project (2015–2019), a $100 million project that aims to improve access and quality of education in selected states, particularly for girls; and the Better Education Service Delivery for All (BESDA) (2017–2022), a $611 million project which aims to increase access to education for out-of-school youth and improve literacy. (74-76) In 2018, as part of BESDA, provided cash transfers to 256,000 households in 13 states, awarded 15,221 grants to primary schools, and disbursed 15 grants to focus states. (77-79

Safe Schools Initiative

Donor-funded program implemented by the government and international organizations that aims to improve access to education in northeastern Nigeria. (25,80,81) In 2018, signed the letter of endorsement for the Safe Schools Declaration, which commits the government to take steps to decrease the likelihood that schools, students, and teachers will be attacked. (24,82)  

† Program is funded by the Government of Nigeria.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (
83

NAPTIP received $715,100 for victim care in 2018, more than a threefold increase from its 2017 allocation, and the government appropriated $3.8 million to provide training and education materials to discourage vulnerable youth from becoming victims of human trafficking. (8) However, this funding was insufficient to address the full scope of the problem, and research found no evidence of programs to specifically address children engaged in agriculture, quarrying, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, and illicit activities.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Nigeria (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Raise the minimum age for work to the age up to which education is compulsory; ensure that national legislation on the minimum age for work is consistent; and that all children are protected, including those who are self-employed.

2012 – 2018

Ensure that provisions related to light work conform to international standards.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that the types of work determined to be hazardous for children are prohibited by law or regulation for all children under age 18.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that using, procuring, and offering a child for the production and trafficking of drugs are criminally prohibited in all states.

2015 – 2018

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2018

Amend the Terrorism Prevention Act to prohibit the punishment of children for their association with armed groups.

2016 – 2018

Enforcement

Publish information on the training of labor inspectors and criminal investigators, as well as other enforcement data, including whether targeted routine inspections were conducted and if penalties were imposed for violations related to the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2018

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice. Ensure that labor inspectors receive sufficient resources to enforce child labor laws.

2016 – 2018

Ensure that a mechanism exists for enforcing existing protections for children working in the informal sector.

2010 – 2018

Cease the practice of detaining children associated with armed groups for prolonged periods of time and refer these children to social services providers.

2015 – 2018

Coordination

Ensure that all coordinating bodies are active and able to carry out their mandates as intended.

2018

Government Policies

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant worst forms of child labor, including the commercial sexual exploitation of children and forced child labor in granite, gravel, and cocoa production.

2018

Social Programs

Ensure that all states adopt programs to offer free education and expand existing programs that provide funds to vulnerable children, especially girls, to cover school fees and the cost of materials.

2014 – 2018

Ensure an adequate number of trained teachers and provide sufficient educational infrastructure for children, particularly girls, to access schools. Remove all armed groups and forces from schools and compounds.

2015 – 2018

Establish and expand programs that prevent and remove children from child labor in agriculture, quarrying, armed conflict, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, and illicit activities.

2009 – 2018

 

1

ILO. Report on the Rapid Assessment of Child Labour Situation in Artisanal Mines and Quarries in Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria. Abuja. 2013. Source on file.

2

Government of Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity. List of Hazardous Child Labour in Nigeria. 2013.
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-addis_ababa/---ilo-abuja/documents/publication/wcms_300829.pdf.

3

UNICEF. Children under attack at shocking scale in conflicts around the world, says UNICEF. December 28, 2017.
https://www.unicef.org/media/media_102357.html.

4

U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018: Nigeria. Washington, DC. June 28, 2018.
https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/nigeria/.

5

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

6

ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7

Sylvester, Enoghase. How Tobacco Industry Players Veil Child Labour, Smuggling as CSR. Daily Independent. May 5, 2014.
http://allafrica.com/stories/201405081068.html.

8

U.S. Embassy- Abuja. Reporting. March 5, 2019.

9

U.S. Embassy Abuja official. Email communication to USDOL official. February 2, 2018.

10

Environmental Law Institute. Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Nigeria: Recommendations to Address Mercury and Lead Exposure. November 2014.
http://www.eli.org/sites/default/files/docs/nigeria_asgm_assessment_-_final_report.pdf.

11

Global Rights Nigeria official. Interview with USDOL official. May 7, 2018. Source on file.

12

Amaefule, Everest. Nigeria Has Eight Million Child Labourers – NAPTIP. Punch. June 2, 2016.
http://punchng.com/nigeria-eight-million-child-labourers-naptip/.

13

Abubakar, Ali Abare. Child labor continues to be a pressing problem in Nigeria. Girls are especially at risk. July 30, 2018.
https://www.pri.org/stories/2018-07-30/child-labor-continues-be-pressing-problem-nigeria-girls-are-especially-risk.

14

UNHCR. End of visit statement, Nigeria (3-10 September) by Maria Grazia Giammarinaro, UN Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children. September 10, 2018.
https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23526&LangID=E.

15

Daily Independent. Are There Hiccups With the Draft Policy On Child Labour? April 1, 2015.
http://allafrica.com/stories/201504020402.html.

16

Anumihe, Isaac. Kid Beggars Lay Siege to Abuja. The Sun. June 8, 2016.
http://sunnewsonline.com/kid-beggars-lay-siege-to-abuja/.

17

Akinwotu, Emmanuel. From Hawkers to Criminals: How the Lagos Ban on Street Selling Hurts the City. The Guardian. August 3, 2016.
https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/aug/03/hawkers-criminals-lagos-ban-street-selling.

18

Auwal, Abubakar. Nigeria: NAPTIP Discovers Centres for Pornographic Performance in Sokoto. Daily Trust. June 7, 2016.
http://allafrica.com/stories/201606071322.html.

19

The News Chronicle. In Abuja, A Noisy Night at a Sex Market. August 14, 2016.
http://thenews-chronicle.com/in-abuja-a-nosy-night-at-a-sex-market/.

20

Devillard, Alexandre, et al. A Survey on Migration Policies in West Africa International Centre for Migration Policy Development and International Organization for Migration. March 2015.
http://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/ICMPD-Website/ICMPD_General/Publications/2015/A_Survey_on_Migration_Policies_in_West_Africa_EN_SOFT.pdf.

21

Nwaubani, Adaobi Tricia. Trafficked, beaten, and abused: The life of a Nigerian house girl; Titi, 14, recounts horrific ordeals of young life as domestic servant in troubled West African nation. The Independent. July 24, 2017.
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/nigeria-house-girls-trafficking-beaten-abused-servants-modern-slavery-titi-14-case-study-a7856861.html.

22

News 24. Four teen girl suicide bombers launch deadly attack in Nigeria. April 1, 2018.
https://www.news24.com/Africa/News/four-teen-girl-suicide-bombers-launch-deadly-attack-in-nigeria-20180331.

23

Plan International. Adolescent Girls in crisis: Voices from the Lake Chad Basin. August 29, 2018.
https://plan-international.org/publications/adolescent-girls-crisis-lake-chad-basin.

24

UN. Global Horizontal Notes. January - September 2018. Source on file.

25

Oduah, Chika. Teaching Peace to Protect Young Nigerians from Hate. Al Jazeera. May 31, 2015.
http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2015/05/teaching-peace-protect-young-nigerians-hate-150531105625144.html.

26

U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2018: Nigeria. Washington, DC. March 13, 2019.
https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/nigeria/.

27

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