Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Nigeria

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Nigeria

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Nigeria made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted a law that restricts the ability of judges to offer fines in lieu of prison time for human trafficking offenses and investigated and prosecuted individuals involved in operating a human trafficking network that trafficked girls to Dubai for commercial sexual exploitation. The National Steering Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor also worked to standardize child labor reporting. However, children are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in quarrying gravel and armed conflict. The legal framework has inconsistencies on child labor, and the minimum age for work is below international standards. The Government did not take actions to implement the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor, and social programs are not sufficient to address the scope of the problem.

Expand All

Children in Nigeria are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in quarrying gravel and armed conflict.(1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Nigeria.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

31.1 (13,924,739)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

76.2

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

26.8

Primary completion rate (%):

76.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2010, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011.(7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of manioc/cassava, cocoa, rice,* and tobacco* (8-14)

Herding livestock (10, 14, 15)

Fishing,* activities unknown (8, 10)

Industry

Mining and quarrying granite and gravel and breaking granite into gravel (4, 10, 11, 13, 16-18)

Harvesting sand (11, 19)

Artisanal gold mining and processing (10, 11, 13, 20-24)

Construction, including making bricks* and carrying construction materials* (10, 13, 14)

Services

Domestic work (10, 13, 14, 17, 25)

Conducting and collecting money on public buses, and automotive repair (10, 14, 17, 26)

Street work, including vending, begging, and scavenging (8, 10, 13, 14, 16, 17, 25-28)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 8, 10, 14)

Use in the production of pornography* (10)

Forced begging, domestic work, street vending, textile manufacturing,* mining and quarrying gravel and granite, and labor in agriculture, including in cocoa, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 8, 10, 14, 16, 29, 30)

Use in illicit activities for armed groups, sometimes as a result of forced recruitment, including participating in extortion, armed robbery, and drug trafficking (10, 14, 26, 28)

Use in armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forced recruitment (1-3, 5, 31, 32)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In northern Nigeria, many families send children from rural to urban areas to live with and receive a Koranic education from Islamic teachers, known as mallams. These children, known as almajiri, may receive lessons, but teachers often force them to beg on the streets and surrender the money they collect.(8, 28, 33) These children are highly vulnerable to recruitment by Boko Haram.(34)

Benin City, the capital of Edo state, is a major human trafficking hub in Africa.(35, 36) Children in Nigeria are trafficked internally and subjected to forced labor in agriculture, begging, domestic work, mining, stone quarrying, textiles manufacturing, street vending, and commercial sexual exploitation.(2, 37) Children from Nigeria are trafficked to Equatorial Guinea, where they may be forced to work as domestic servants, market laborers, street vendors, and launderers.(38) Girls from Nigeria are trafficked to Europe for commercial sexual exploitation.(2, 35) During the reporting period, reports indicated that children were trafficked from internally displaced persons camps for domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation; however, a government multi-agency taskforce investigated the allegations and found no evidence of child trafficking.(39-41)

Children from West African countries experience forced labor in Nigeria, including in granite mines.(2) Boys from Niger are subjected to forced labor, including forced begging, by corrupt mallams.(33, 41) Children from Benin are trafficked to Nigeria for domestic and agricultural work.(30)

Pervasive poverty, coupled with mass unemployment and a poor education system, has created an atmosphere in which youth are susceptible to participation in armed conflict with various groups, including ethnic-based militia organizations, criminal gangs, extremist groups, and partisan political organizations, such as party youth wings.(28, 42-44) Children as young as age 8 are recruited, and sometimes forced, into such groups.(28) Research found no reports of children being used in the Government’s armed forces.

Boko Haram recruited and used child soldiers during the reporting period.(1-3, 5) Reports indicate that children as young as age 7 were recruited to participate in combat operations, burn houses, cook, and work as look-outs and porters.(45) Young girls were used to carry out numerous suicide bombings.(3, 5, 46-48) The terrorist group also abducted girls, and militants subjected them to forced labor and sexual servitude.(2, 32) Children as young as age 14 joined Borno state’s Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF) and other civilian vigilante groups.(2, 32) The CJTF works with security forces by identifying and helping to arrest suspected Boko Haram members.(32) Although it is unclear whether the CJTF forcibly recruited children under age 18 during the reporting period, the Nigerian military has told the group not to allow children to join.(2, 3, 32)

Ongoing insecurity has forced the displacement of millions of people in Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria.(49) By the end of 2015, more than 1.8 million people had been displaced within Nigeria, including more than 1 million children.(5) Despite hundreds of schools reopening in northwest Nigeria for the first time in a year and a half, many classrooms are severely overcrowded because some school buildings are still being occupied by displaced persons seeking shelter from the conflict.(50, 51) Furthermore, schools continue to be occupied by government armed forces combating Boko Haram.(5) Many teachers and students are reluctant to return to school because of persistent conflict in the region.(50)

Although free and compulsory education is federally mandated by the Education Act, little enforcement of compulsory education laws occurs at the state level.(31) While some states offer free education, free and compulsory education does not yet fully exist in Nigeria.(10) School fees are often charged, and the cost of books, uniforms, and other supplies can be prohibitive for low-income families.(10, 31, 52) Under financial strain, many families choose to send girls to work and boys to school.(10)

In 2011, the Government collected data on the prevalence of child labor; however, this data has not been published.(31)

Nigeria has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

Nigeria has ratified the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa, known as the Kampala Convention.(53) The Convention prohibits armed groups from recruiting children, or otherwise permitting them to participate in conflict, and engaging in sexual slavery and trafficking, especially of women and children.(54)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

12

Section 59(1) of the Labour Act; Sections 28 and 29 of the Child’s Right Act (55, 56)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 59(6) of the Labour Act; Sections 28 and 29 of the Child’s Right Act (55, 56)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Sections 59-61 of the Labour Act; Section 28 of the Child’s Right Act (55, 56)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 13, 22, 24, and 25 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act; Sections 28 and 30 of the Child’s Right Act (56, 57)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Section 13 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act; Section 30 of the Child’s Right Act (56, 57)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 13–17 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act; Sections 30 and 32 of the Child’s Right Act (56, 57)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 19 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act; Sections 25 and 30 of the Child’s Right Act (56, 57)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Section 28 of the Armed Forces Act; Section 34 of the Child’s Right Act (56, 58)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Sections 2 and 15 of the Education Act; Section 15 of the Child’s Right Act (56, 59)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Sections 2 and 3 of the Education Act; Section 15 of the Child’s Right Act (56, 59)

* No conscription (60)

In 2015, the Government amended the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Law Enforcement and Administration Act to increase penalties for human trafficking offenders and restrict the ability of judges to penalize human trafficking offenders with fines in lieu of prison time. In addition, the Act criminalizes the employment of children under age 12 in domestic work.(2, 57)

The Federal Child’s Right Act (CRA) codifies the rights of children in Nigeria and must be ratified by each state to become law in its territory.(14, 56) Nigeria had no new adoptions of the CRA during the reporting period.(14) To date, 23 states and the federal capital territory have ratified the CRA; of the remaining 13 states, 12 are in northern Nigeria.(14, 25)

The laws in Nigeria regarding minimum age for employment are inconsistent. The CRA states that the provisions on young people in the Labour Act apply to children under the CRA, but also that the CRA supersedes any other legislation related to children.(56) The CRA restricts children under age 18 from any work except light work for family members; however, Section 59 of the Labour Act, which is in force in all 36 states, sets the minimum employment age at 12.(55, 56, 61) The Labour Act also permits children of any age to do light work alongside a family member in agriculture and domestic work.(55, 61) This language makes it unclear what minimum ages apply for certain types of work in the country.(61) The minimum age protections in the Labour Act do not apply to children who are self-employed.(55, 61)

Although the Labour Act forbids the employment of youth under age 18 in work that is dangerous to their health, safety, or morals, it does allow children to participate in certain types of work that may be dangerous by setting different age thresholds for various activities.(55) For example, the Labour Act allows children ages 16 and older to work at night in gold mining and the manufacturing of iron, steel, paper, raw sugar, and glass, and thus, children are vulnerable to dangerous work in industrial undertakings, underground, and with machines.(55, 61) The National Steering Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor developed a report in 2013 that identified hazardous child labor in Nigeria. The Ministry of Labor and Employment (MLE) is establishing guidelines that will operationalize the report.(13, 14, 33)

Some states have enacted additional provisions to protect working children in their territories. The 2006 Abia State Child Rights Law prohibits all children under age 18 from engaging in domestic work outside of the home or family environment.(62) The state governments of Anambra, Bayelsa, and Lagos have prohibited children from all street trading, and Delta state prohibits children from street trading during the school day. Kano state has initiated a prohibition against almajiri begging on the street.(14)

The law does not sufficiently prohibit the commercial sexual exploitation of children because the distribution and possession of child pornography are not criminally prohibited.(56, 57)

In Zamfara state, the Shari’a Penal Code, the moral code and religious law of Islam, defines an offender as anyone who “does any obscene or indecent act in a private or public place, or acts or conducts himself/herself in an indecent manner.” This language may leave children forced into commercial sexual exploitation to be treated as offenders instead of victims.(63)

Although the CRA criminalizes using, procuring, and offering  a child in the production and trafficking of drugs, the 13 states that have not yet ratified the CRA have no legislation in place to criminalize this activity.(56)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Employment (MLE), Labor Inspectorate

Enforce federal child labor laws. Deploy labor inspectors across 36 state labor offices and the federal capital territory to investigate all labor law violations, including those related to child labor.(14, 64)

National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP)

Enforce laws against human trafficking and exploitative labor.(14) Investigate whether any person has committed an offense under the anti-human trafficking law.(65) Coordinate with the Ministry of Women’s Affairs and Social Development and state governments to provide child victims with social services and reunite trafficked children with their families.(14)

Nigeria Police

Enforce all laws prohibiting forced child labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Support MOLP and collaborate with NAPTIP on trafficking enforcement.(14)

Nigeria Immigration Service

Collaborate with NAPTIP to enforce laws against child trafficking.(14)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Nigeria took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (14)

Unknown (31)

Number of Labor Inspectors

660 (14)

660 (31)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

Unknown

Unknown

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown

Unknown

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (14, 33)

Yes (31)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown (14)

Unknown

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (14)

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (14)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (14)

Unknown (31)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (14)

Unknown (31)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (66)

Yes (31)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (66)

Yes (66)

 

In 2015, the Labor Inspectorate employed 258 factory inspectors and 402 labor officers; however, according to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Nigeria should employ about 3,830 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(31, 67-69)

There are no labor inspectors available to conduct inspections on seafaring vessels.(70) The Labour Act states that children ages 15 and older may work onboard these vessels and, therefore, children are unprotected by the country’s enforcement framework.(55) Research did not find mechanisms to enforce existing protections for street children; however, the Government is developing guidelines to extend labor law protections to the informal economy.(71)

State agencies are responsible for enforcing the CRA, and they can undertake additional measures to enforce child labor laws.(14) In Edo state, for example, labor officers work with the transportation industry to prevent children from working as bus conductors during the school day.(14)

MOLP refers cases of children that are gravely in danger to the National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP); however, research found no other referral mechanisms between MOLP and social welfare services.(66)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Nigeria took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (72)

Number of Investigations

236 (14)

42 (73)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

516 (72)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

12 (74)

2 (73)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (14)

Yes (72)

 

In 2015, NAPTIP, in collaboration with international organizations, provided training on investigation and reportage of human trafficking cases and victim identification to 341 NAPTIP officials, Nigerian Immigration Service Officers, Nigeria Police officers, and media practitioners.(75)

During the reporting period, the Government initiated an investigation against a Nigerian soldier who was accused of exploiting a child in forced labor.(2) NAPTIP investigated and prosecuted individuals involved in operating a human trafficking network that trafficked girls to Dubai for commercial sexual exploitation.(72)

In 2015, NAPTIP identified and provided assistance to 516 child trafficking victims, 261 of which were victims of labor exploitation.(72)

NAPTIP coordinates with the Ministry of Women’s Affairs and Social Development and state governments to provide social services to trafficked children through the National Referral Mechanism; however, research did not find a referral mechanism for children found in other worst forms of child labor.(14) During the reporting period, criminal law enforcement authorities detained 129 children for alleged association with Boko Haram.(5)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinate efforts to combat child labor. Includes representatives from MOLP; the Ministry of Women’s Affairs and Social Development; and the Ministries of Mining and Metal Production, Agriculture, Foreign Affairs, and Education, along with NAPTIP and the National Bureau of Statistics.(14) In addition, includes representatives from ILO-IPEC, UNICEF, NGOs, and faith-based organizations that work on child labor issues.(14) During the reporting period, the Committee discussed efforts to standardize child labor reporting across Nigeria to identify violations and update child labor statistics.(31)

Ogun and Oyo State Steering Committees on Child Labor

Facilitate action plans for the elimination of child labor in each state and enhance collaboration among agencies. Includes officials from MOLP, Ministry of Women’s Affairs and Social Development, Ministry of Education, NAPTIP, Nigeria Police, Nigeria Immigration Service, and NGOs.(76, 77)

Inter-Ministerial Taskforce on Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate child labor issues related to human trafficking. Chaired by NAPTIP.(14) In 2015, completed its first report, which designated human trafficking as a national priority; provided recommendations to mobilize government agencies to focus on human trafficking; and provided recommendations to strengthen coordination at the federal, state, and local levels.(72)

State Child Labor Task Forces

Ensure that children attend school. Established in Akwa Ibom, Delta, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, and Oyo states.(14, 78)

 

In April 2015, an expert consultation met to discuss options for handover and return of children associated with armed forces and armed groups in northeast Nigeria. Participants included federal and state government officials, NGOs, and UN agencies.(45)

The Government of Nigeria has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Policy on Child Labor

Aims to significantly reduce the prevalence of child labor in Nigeria by 2015 and achieve total elimination by 2020.(79)

National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor in Nigeria (2013–2017)

Provides the roadmap for implementation of the National Policy on Child Labor in Nigeria.(80)

Ogun and Oyo State Action Plans on Child Labor (2014–2017)

Guides implementation of the National Policy on Child Labor in Ogun and Oyo states.(77, 81, 82)

NAPTIP Strategic Plan (2012–2017)

Provides a framework for mobilizing NAPTIP and all stakeholders involved in combating human trafficking within Nigeria and internationally. Structured around six main areas: organizational development; research and assessment; prevention, protection, return, and re-integration measures; law enforcement; monitoring and evaluation; and international cooperation.(83)

National Policy on Protection and Assistance to Trafficked Persons in Nigeria

Outlines protection and rehabilitation services for victims of human trafficking and child labor.(84)

ECOWAS Regional Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor

Aims to eliminate worst forms of child labor in ECOWAS member states by 2015.(85)

National Framework for the Development and Integration of Almajiri Education into the Universal Basic Education Scheme

Provides guidelines for state governments to improve the Islamic education system and address the problem of begging by almajiri.(86-88)

Action Plan for Ending Violence Against Children in Nigeria†

Focuses on eliminating sexual and physical violence against children. Implemented by the Ministry of Women’s Affairs and Social Development. May encourage more states to adopt and enforce the Child’s Rights Act.(31)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

According to the Government, no steps were taken to implement the National Policy and National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor in 2015.(31)

In 2015, the Government of Nigeria funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

NAPTIP Shelters for Human Trafficking Victims†

Government-funded program that operates 9 shelters in Nigeria, with a total capacity for 313 victims. Shelters provide legal, medical, psychological, and family reunification services, and vocational training and business management skills.(2)

State Government Programs†

Anambra state program raises awareness of the state’s ban of children in street trading. Ogun state has a program for labor officers to initiate awareness-raising programs for parents of children working in stone quarries.(14) Akwa Ibom, Delta, and Rivers states provide free primary education.(14, 78, 89) Katsina state provides free primary and secondary education. Osun state operates an elementary school feeding and health program that provides free lunch for elementary school students.(14) Borno state provides funds, transportation, and lunch to vulnerable children to help them attend school.(78) Kano state provides free primary education, free school meals, and some free transportation for children to attend school and the state is also introducing kindergarten classes.(14) In 2015, Kaduna state launched a program to cover costs of school uniforms, books, and meals for students in public primary and junior secondary schools.(52)

Safe Schools Initiative†

Government-funded program, with support from the UN, that aims to provide remedial education and pilot 10 safe education facilities in northeast Nigeria in Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa states. Combines school-based interventions, community interventions to protect schools, and special measures for vulnerable populations.(90, 91)

Sokoto and Niger States Program

United Kingdom’s Department for International Development-funded program, implemented by the Government and UNICEF, that provides cash transfers to pay for textbooks and other school-related costs for girls ages 6 to 15.(92)

† Program is funded by the Government of Nigeria.

During the reporting period, NAPTIP conducted awareness-raising events at select primary and secondary schools in six states known for a high prevalence of human trafficking. More than 10,000 students learned about human trafficking.(72)

Although Nigeria has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. Research found no evidence of programs to specifically address children engaged in agriculture, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, forced labor, illicit activities, and armed conflict.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Nigeria (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Increase the minimum age for regular work to at least 14, in accordance with international standards; ensure that national legislation on minimum age for work is consistent and that all children, including those who are self-employed, are protected; and ensure that provisions related to light work conform to international standards.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that the distribution and possession of child pornography are criminally prohibited.

2015

Ensure that states that apply Shari’a as the penal code do not penalize child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that using, procuring, and offering a child for the production and trafficking of drugs are criminally prohibited in all states.

2015

Enforcement

Make information publicly available on the Labor Inspectorate's funding, training of labor inspectors and criminal investigators, number and type of labor inspections conducted, number of violations found, number of prosecutions initiated, and complaint mechanisms.

2009 – 2015

Provide an adequate number of trained inspectors to effectively enforce labor laws, including laws related to the worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2015

Ensure that child labor inspections occur on seafaring vessels and that a mechanism exists for enforcing existing protections for street children.

2010 – 2015

Establish referral mechanisms between Nigeria’s law enforcement and social service agencies for all children found during labor inspections and criminal investigations.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that children associated with armed groups are not detained and refer these children to social service providers.

2015

Government Policies

Take steps to implement the National Policy on Child Labor and National Action Plan to Eliminate Child Labor.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Make the results of the 2011 child labor study publicly available, and, if necessary, conduct additional research to determine the activities of children working in fishing.

2011 – 2015

Take steps to provide sufficient educational infrastructure for children to access school. Remove all armed groups and forces from schools and compounds.

2015

Ensure that all states adopt programs to offer free education and expand existing programs that provide vulnerable children, especially girls, with funds to cover school fees and the cost of materials.

2014 – 2015

Establish and expand programs that prevent and remove children from child labor in agriculture and domestic work, and from the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, illicit activities, and armed conflict.

2009 – 2015

 

1.         Amnesty International. 'Our Job is to Shoot, Slaughter, and Kill' Boko Haram's Reign of Terror in North-East Nigeria; April 2015. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr44/1360/2015/en/.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Nigeria," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243561.pdf.

3.         Human Rights Watch. "Nigeria," in World Report 2016. New York; 2016; https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2016/country-chapters/nigeria.

4.         Oseni, AL. "Women and Children Breaking Rocks for Survival." westafricainsight.org [online] October 2012 [cited May 2, 2013]; hardcopy on file.

5.         United Nations Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/70/836–S/2016/360); April 20, 2016. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2016/360.

6.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

8.         International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Nigeria. Geneva; June 30, 2011. http://www.ituc-csi.org/report-for-the-wto-general-council,9354.html.

9.         Kassim Adekunle Akanni, and Alfred Olayinka Dada. "Analysis of Labour-Use Patterns among Small-Holder Cocoa Farmers in South Western Nigeria." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, B(2)(2012); http://www.davidpublishing.com/davidpublishing/Upfile/3/23/2012/2012032309828459.pdf

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Nigeria," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236604.pdf.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja. reporting, November 12, 2015.

12.       Sylvester, E. "How Tobacco Industry Players Veil Child Labour, Smuggling As CSR." Daily Independent, Lagos, May 5, 2014. http://allafrica.com/stories/201405081068.html.

13.       Government of Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity. List of Hazardous Child Labour in Nigeria. 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-addis_ababa/---ilo-abuja/documents/publication/wcms_300829.pdf.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja. reporting, January 23, 2015.

15.       Ibrahim Abdul 'Aziz. "The Inside Story of Adamawa Schools." Daily Trust, November 24, 2011. http://allafrica.com/stories/201111240632.html.

16.       Natsa, RT. "Child Miner- Implications for Society." allafrica.com [online] December 14, 2011 [cited April 27, 2012]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201112140820.html.

17.       ILO. Report on the Rapid Assessment of Child Labour Situation in Artisinal Mines and Quarries in Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria. Abuja; 2013.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja. reporting, January 13, 2013.

19.       Macro International Inc. Children Working in Riverine Communities in Nigeria- Task 3: Research & Data Collection International Child Labor Issues. Project Document. Calverton, MD; August 24, 2007.

20.       Human Rights Watch. Mali: Artisanal Mines Produce Gold with Child Labor. Press Release. Bamako; December 6, 2011. http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/12/06/mali-artisanal-mines-produce-gold-child-labor.

21.       Beaubien, J. Nigeria Pressured To Clean Up Lead-Contaminated Villages, National Public Radio, [blog] December 6, [cited February 14, 2013]; http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/12/06/166651255/nigeria-pressured-to-clean-up-lead-contaminated-villages?ft=1&f=.

22.       Human Rights Watch. A Heavy Price: Lead Poisoning and Gold Mining in Nigeria's Zamfara State [Video]; 2012, 05 min., 44 sec., February 18, 2013; http://www.hrw.org/features/a-heavy-price.

23.       Kriesch, A. Children mining gold in Nigeria, DW News, [cited November 23, 2015 http://www.dw.com/en/children-mining-gold-in-nigeria/av-18673329.

24.       Idris, A. Child labour rampant in Nigerian mines [YouTube video]. online: Al Jazeera; October 7, 2013, 02 min., 16 sec., 2015; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sBWAHSsmAIc.

25.       Kure, I. "Despite Bans, Child Labor Prevalent in Nigeria." voanews.com [online] September 10, 2013 [cited January 29, 2014]; http://www.voanews.com/content/child-labor-still-common-in-parts-of-nigeria/1747147.html.

26.       "Are There Hiccups With the Draft Policy On Child Labour?" Daily Independent, Lagos, April 1, 2015. http://allafrica.com/stories/201504020402.html

27.       Simon, L. "Poverty and Girl-Child Hawking in the North." Nigerian Tribune, Lagos, August 3, 2011. http://tribune.com.ng/index.php/gamji-features/26025-poverty-and-girl-child-hawking-in-the-north.

28.       Shepler, S. Analysis of the Situation of Children Affected by Armed Conflict in the Niger Delta and Northern Region of Nigeria. Washington, DC, Search for Common Ground; 2012. https://www.academia.edu/Download.

29.       Abdelkader, GK, M Zangaou. Domestic and sexual slavery in Niger; 2012. http://www.antislavery.org/includes/documents/cm_docs/2012/w/wahaya_report_eng.pdf.

30.       Devillard, A, A Bacchi, M Noack. A Survey on Migration Policies in West AfricaInternational Centre for Migration Policy Development and International Organization for Migration; March 2015. http://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/ICMPD-Website/ICMPD_General/Publications/2015/A_Survey_on_Migration_Policies_in_West_Africa_EN_SOFT.pdf.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja. reporting, January 14, 2016.

32.       Amnesty International. Stars on Their Shoulders. Blood on Their Hands.; June 2015. http://www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/files/report.compressed.pdf

33.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 8, 2015.

34.       Oduah, C. "Teaching peace to protect young Nigerians from hate." Al Jazeera, Maiduguri, May 31, 2015. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2015/05/teaching-peace-protect-young-nigerians-hate-150531105625144.html.

35.       James Politi, and Maggie Fick. "The long and dangerous road to slavery." Financial Times Magazine, December 3, 2015. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/26f1a120-990f-11e5-95c7-d47aa298f769.html#axzz3tHDnMA3W.

36.       itv News. In numbers: People trafficking in Nigeria, October 15, 2015 [cited December 23, 2015 http://www.itv.com/news/2015-10-15/in-numbers-people-trafficking-in-nigeria/.

37.       Oduma, I. "DSS nabs child trafficking syndicate, rescues 36 victims." LexisNexis Database [online] July 16, 2015 [cited November 12, 2015]; [source on file].

38.       U.S. Department of State. "Equatorial Guinea," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243559.pdf.

39.       Dickson, C. Grim Tales of Rape, Child Trafficking in Displaced Persons Camps International Centre for Investigative Reporting; January 29, 2015. http://icirnigeria.org/grim-tales-of-rape-child-trafficking-in-displaced-persons-camps/.

40.       Elbagir, N. "Children for sale heartbreakingly easy to find in ravaged Nigeria." cnn.com [online] March 23, 2015 [cited November 10, 2015]; [source on file].

41.       U.S. Department of State. "Niger," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243561.pdf.

42.       Parker, G. "Nigeria Reels from Extremist Violence." globalpost.com [online] January 8, 2012 [cited January 30, 2012]; http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/africa/nigeria/120108/nigeria-islamic-extremists-increase-violence.

43.       Gambrell, J. "Youth Rage Boils Amid North Nigeria Sect Attacks." The San Diego Union Tribune, January 25, 2012. http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/2012/jan/25/youth-rage-boils-amid-north-nigeria-sect-attacks/.

44.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 4, 2012.

45.       United Nations. reporting. 2015.

46.       Amnesty International. Boko Haram: Civilians continue to be at risk of human rights abuses by Boko Haram and human rights violations by state security forces; September 24, 2015. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr44/2428/2015/en/.

47.       "'Seven-year-old girl' kills herself and five others in Nigeria suicide bombing." The Guardian, February 22, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/22/girl-as-young-as-seven-kills-herself-and-five-others-in-nigeria-suicide-bombing?utm_source=February+23+2015+EN&utm_campaign=2%2F23%2F2015&utm_medium=email 

48.       Leduc, S. "Female suicide bombers: Boko Haram’s weapon of choice." France 24, February 25, 2015. http://www.france24.com/en/20150224-nigeria-boko-haram-female-suicide-bombers/?utm_source=February+25+2015+EN&utm_campaign=2%2F25%2F2015&utm_medium=email.

49.       UNICEF. Over 1.4 million children forced to flee conflict in Nigeria and region. September 18, 2015. http://www.unicef.org/media/media_85551.html.

50.       Guilbert, K. "Many northeast Nigeria schools reopen despite fear of attacks." reuters.com [online] 2015 [cited December 4, 2015]; http://www.reuters.com/article/us-nigeria-boko-haram-education-idUSKBN0TK4O220151201#HYR3vfJoTpz5rT3k.97.

51.       UNICEF. Nigeria conflict forces more than 1 million children from school. Press Release; December 22, 2015. http://www.unicef.org/media/media_86621.html.

52.       Stein, C, I Yakubu. "Nigeria's Kaduna State Removing School Fees." voanews.com [online] November 2, 2015 [cited November 10, 2015]; http://www.voanews.com/content/nigeria-kaduna-state-removing-school-fees/3032824.html.

53.       Integrated Regional Information Networks. "African Convention on Internally Displaced Persons Comes into Force." IRINnews.org [online] December 7, 2012 [cited February 20, 2013]; http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/dec/07/african-convention-internally-displaced-persons.

54.       African Union. Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa (Kampala Convention), enacted October 23, 2009. http://www.unhcr.org/4ae9bede9.html.

55.       Government of Nigeria. Labour Act (Chapter 198) (No. 21), as amended. Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (1990 Revised edition), Vol. X, Cap. 198, enacted 1990. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/42156/64980/E7RNGA01.htm#p3.

56.       Government of Nigeria. Child's Right Act, No. 26, enacted July 31, 2003. [source on file].

57.       Government of Nigeria. Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act, enacted March 26, 2015.

58.       Government of Nigeria. Armed Forces Act, enacted 1994.

59.       Government of Nigeria. Compulsory, Free Universal Basic Education Act, 05-26, enacted 2004. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87623/99979/F606926563/NGA87623.pdf.

60.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder Than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

61.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) - Nigeria (ratification: 2002) Published: 2013; accessed January 30, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.

62.       Government of Nigeria. Abia State Child's Rights Law, No. 7 of 2006, enacted April 25, 2006.

63.       Government of Nigeria. Shari'ah Penal Code Law Zamfara State Of Nigeria, enacted January 27, 2000. http://www.f-law.net/law/threads/37487-Shari-ah-Penal-Code-Law-Zamfara-State-Of-Nigeria-January-2000.

64.       Government of Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity. Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity, [Web page] [cited June 2, 2015]; http://www.labour.gov.ng/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1&Itemid=119.

65.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) - Nigeria (ratification: 2002) Submitted: 2012; accessed January 29, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.

66.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 13, 2015.

67.       Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook, COA, [online] [cited January 19, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131.

68.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf.

69.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf.

70.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection (Seafarers) Convention, 1996 (No. 178) Nigeria (ratification: 2004) Submitted: 2011; accessed April 18, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:::.

71.       ILO. Towards Inclusive and Sustainable Development in Africa Through Decent Work; 2015. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_409861.pdf.

72.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja. reporting, February 22, 2016.

73.       National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP). Data Analysis Report; 2015. http://www.naptip.gov.ng/index.php/downloads/finish/3/25.

74.       National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP). Data Analysis Report. 2014. http://www.naptip.gov.ng/docs/2014%20DATA%20ANALYSIS%20%20FINAL.pdf.

75.       National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP). NAPTIP Training; 2016.

76.       ILO-IPEC. Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa and  Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS–II. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2012.

77.       ILO-IPEC official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 16, 2014.

78.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 19, 2014.

79.       Government of Nigeria. National Policy on Child Labour. Abuja; April 2013.

80.       Government of Nigeria. National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labour in Nigeria (2013-2017). Abuja; June 2013.

81.       Government of Nigeria. Oyo State Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labour in Nigeria (2014-2017). Ibadan; 2014.

82.       Government of Nigeria. Ogun State Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labour in Nigeria (2014-2017). Abeokuta; 2014.

83.       National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP). Strategic Plan; 2012.

84.       National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP). National Policy on Protection and Assistance to Trafficked Persons in Nigeria. Abuja, Government of Nigeria; November 2008.

85.       ECOWAS. ECOWAS Regional Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labour Especially in the Worst Forms. Abuja; June 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/documents/publication/wcms_227737.pdf.

86.       U.S. Embassy- Abuja. reporting, February 1, 2011.

87.       Olatunji, S. "Capacity Building for Almajiri Teachers, Our Priority Coordinator." punchng.com [online] January 6, 2012 [cited May 14, 2012]; http://www.punchng.com/education/capacity-building-for-almajiri-teachers-our-priority-coordinator/.

88.       Universal Basic Education Commission. National Framework for the Development and Integration of Almajiri Education into the UBE Scheme. Abuja, Government of Nigeria; December 2010. hardcopy on file.

89.       Adebowale, S. "Education Now Compulsory for School Age Children in Delta – Uduaghan." theeagleonline.com [online] 2013 [cited May 27, 2014]; http://theeagleonline.com.ng/education-now-compulsory-for-school-age-children-in-delta-uduaghan/.

90.       United Nations Development Program. Nigeria Safe Schools Initiative Multi-Donor Trust Fund, UNDP, [cited March 30, 2015]; http://mptf.undp.org/factsheet/fund/NGA00.

91.       United Nations Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/69/926 – S/2015/409); June 5, 2015. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/69/926&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC.

92.       UNICEF. Cash Programme for Girls to go to School launched in Sokoto State. Press Release. Wurno; September 22, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/nigeria/media_8579.html.

Related Content