Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Mozambique

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Mozambique

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Mozambique made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government adopted a list of hazardous activities that are prohibited for children and approved a National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor. However, children in Mozambique engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work. Children also perform dangerous tasks in the production of tobacco. The law establishes 15 as the minimum age for work, but education is compulsory only until age 13, leaving children ages 13 and 14 vulnerable to child labor. Law enforcement officials also do not receive the appropriate training and resources to conduct inspections and prosecute cases of child labor. In addition, existing programs are inadequate to address child labor in the country.

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Children in Mozambique engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work. (1; 2) Children also perform dangerous tasks in the production of tobacco. (1) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Mozambique.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

22.5 (1,526,560)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

69.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

22.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

48.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2008. (4)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cashews, coconuts, cotton, sesame, sugarcane, tea, tobacco, and tomatoes (5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 1)

Fishing, including preparing nets (7; 9; 1)

Forestry, activities unknown (7; 1)

Herding livestock, including cattle (9; 1)

Industry

Mining,† including gold and gemstones† (9; 12; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; 19; 20; 1)

Construction, † including crushing stone† and making bricks† (9; 17)

Services

Domestic work, including caring for babies and other children† (5; 6; 9; 11; 14; 21; 19; 20; 1)

Street work, including car washing, street vending, and garbage scavenging† (7; 9; 10; 11; 12; 21; 20; 22; 23; 1)

Selling alcoholic beverages in markets† (11; 22)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (9; 12; 17; 24; 2) (25; 1)

Forced labor in agriculture, domestic work, mining, and vending, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (9; 10; 14; 15; 2)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking, stealing, and assisting poachers in the illegal poaching industry (9; 11; 1)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Mozambican children, lured from rural areas with promises of work and educational opportunities, are subjected to forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation in urban areas in Mozambique and South Africa. (10; 14; 2) Research indicates that Mozambican children are also trafficked to South Africa for forced labor in agriculture, street vending, and commercial sexual exploitation. (10; 2)

Although tuition for primary education is free, families must provide supplies and uniforms. (26) Moreover, there are not enough schools, and many students, particularly in rural areas, face difficulties traveling long distances to get to school. (27; 28; 29) In addition, physical and sexual abuse is common in schools. Research found that some teachers demand sex from female students. (30; 26)

Mozambique has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Mozambique’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the minimum age for work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

15

Article 26 of the Labor Law; Article 4 of the Regulations on Domestic Work (31; 32)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 23 of the Labor Law (32)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

18

Hazardous Work List (33)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 10–11 of the Trafficking in Persons Law; Articles 196 and 198 of the Penal Code (34; 35)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 10–11 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (34)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 10–11 of the Trafficking in Persons Law; Articles 226–227 of the Penal Code (34; 35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 33 and 40 of the Law on Drugs (36)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 2 of the Law on Military Service (37)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 23 of the Law on Military Service (37)

Non-state

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 10 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (34)

Compulsory Education Age

No

13‡

Article 41 of the Law of Basic Child Protection (38)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 41 of the Law of Basic Child Protection (38)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (38; 39)

 

In October 2017, the government approved a list of dangerous work prohibited for children. (33)

The Regulations on Domestic Work allow children ages 12 to 15 to conduct domestic work with the permission of their legal guardian. (31) The Labor Law also states that children ages 12 to 15 may work under certain conditions defined by the Council of Ministers. (32) The minimum age of 12 for light work is not in compliance with international standards; the law does not determine the activities in which light work may be permitted, prescribe the number of hours per week for light work, or specify the conditions under which light work may be undertaken. (39) In addition, the Labor Law’s minimum age protections do not apply to children working outside of formal employment relationships. (32; 39; 40)

The gap between the end of compulsory education and the minimum age for work leaves children ages 13 and 14 vulnerable to child labor, including its worst forms, because they are not in school, but they also may not legally work. (39)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security

Enforce child labor laws and regulations. (41) Labor Inspectorate works with the National Police Force to enforce criminal law. (7) Monitors implementation of the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor. (42)

Ministry of Industry and Trade’s General Inspectorate of Economic Activities

Enforce child labor laws and regulations. (43) In 2017, the Inspectorate for Economic Activities fined clubs in Manica province for allowing girls under age 18 to enter the clubs and engage in commercial sexual exploitation. (44)

National Police Force

Enforce all criminal laws, including those related to the worst forms of child labor. The criminal investigation branch has a seven-person unit devoted to anti-human trafficking and violence against women and children; investigates cases and refers them to the Attorney General’s Office. (7)

Attorney General’s Office

Coordinate the government’s efforts against human trafficking and receive cases from the criminal investigation branch of the National Police Force for prosecution. (7; 45)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Mozambique took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including financial resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (43)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown

Unknown

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (43)

Yes (18)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (46)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Yes (47)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (18)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown (43)

Unknown

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (18)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (43)

Yes (18)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (43)

Yes (18)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (43)

Yes (18)

 

Reports indicate that the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Mozambique’s workforce, which includes approximately 13 million workers. (2; 18; 48) According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed countries, Mozambique would employ about 325 labor inspectors. (49) Furthermore, inadequate training and financial resources hamper the Labor Inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws. (2)

Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security officials can refer victims of child labor to either the police or social workers from the Ministry of Gender, Children, and Social Action (MGCAS) for family assessments and potential placement of the children in foster homes. (50)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Mozambique took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (18)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (51)

Unknown

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (43)

Yes (18)

 

Research found that law enforcement officials responsible for investigating and prosecuting criminal child labor cases are poorly trained. (9) Case investigations are of very low quality and lack appropriate evidence for prosecution. (7)

Criminal law enforcement officials work with the MGCAS and the National Reference Group for the Protection of Children and Combating Trafficking in Persons to coordinate referrals of children to social service providers. (18)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including the efficacy of coordination efforts on child labor.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Reference Group for the Protection of Children and Combating Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate efforts to combat all forms of human trafficking. Led by the Attorney General’s Office. (52) Provincial-level groups coordinate regional efforts to combat human trafficking. (2) Research was unable to determine accomplishments during the year.

National Commission on Children’s Rights

Oversee and report on children’s rights in Mozambique to the African Charter and other international bodies. Perform consultations and deliberations on national action plans and legislation. Led by the Ministry of Gender, Children, and Social Action (MGCAS). (50) Research was unable to determine accomplishments during the year.

The Ministry of Interior’s Women and Children Victim Assistance Units (GAMC)

Provide services to children who have been victims of crimes, including human trafficking. Operates countrywide through facilities in more than 215 police stations. (53; 2) Research was unable to determine accomplishments during the year.

MGCAS

Provide support and reintegration services to victims of human trafficking. (45) Research was unable to determine accomplishments during the year.

 

Research found there is no coordination mechanism dedicated solely to address child labor, outside of the scope of human trafficking.

The government has established policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2017–2022)†

Aims to map 70 percent of the worst forms of child labor occurring by province and activity by 2019, and to withdraw 20,000 children from the worst forms of child labor and enroll them in the Basic Social Subsidy program. (42)

National Action Plan for Children II (2013–2019)

Establishes four priority areas: child survival; child development; child participation; and child protection, which aims to reduce child labor. (54)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (55)

 

In 2017, the government drafted a National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons. (47)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of efforts to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (GAP)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. (56) In 2017, completed a draft report on the analysis of national child labor data from the Integrated Household Survey; however, the government has not yet published the study’s findings. Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Trafficking in Persons Project (2014–2017)

$750,000 USDOS-funded, 3 year project implemented by the IOM to support the establishment and institutionalization of services for victims of human trafficking. (57)

Basic Social Subsidy Program†

Government- and donor-funded program that provides cash transfers to child heads of households until age 18. (7; 58)

Programs For Street Children†

Government and civil society operate 176 shelter centers that provide education, occupational training activities, health, and psychosocial care for street children. (58; 59)

Victims of Violence Centers†

Government-funded program implemented by the GAMC that provides temporary shelter, food, limited counseling, and monitoring for victims of crime following reintegration. Includes 22 centers located throughout the country. (45; 2)

Speak Child-116

NGO-funded program that works with the government to run a hotline to receive complaints of child abuse, including those related to child labor and sexual exploitation. (40) Research found that the hotline lacks adequate equipment and human resources and has not received sufficient support from the government to respond to complaints. (60; 18)

† Program is funded by the Government of Mozambique.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (61; 62)

 

Research found no evidence that the government has carried out programs to assist children engaged in domestic work. The scope of existing programs is also insufficient to fully address the extent of the child labor problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Mozambique (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that all children are protected under the law, including children working outside of formal employment relationships.

2015 – 2017

Raise the minimum age for light work to age 13 to comply with international standards. Establish the activities, number of hours per week, and conditions under which light work may be undertaken.

2015 – 2017

Raise the age of compulsory education to be consistent with the minimum age for employment.

2009 – 2017

Enforcement

Make law enforcement information publicly available, including the Labor Inspectorate’s funding, the number and training of labor inspectors, the number and type of labor inspections conducted, the number of child labor violations found, and the number of child labor penalties imposed and collected, as well as the training of investigators responsible for enforcing laws related to the worst forms of child labor and the number of investigations conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions achieved.

2009 – 2017

Allocate sufficient resources for law enforcement agencies, including by increasing the number of labor inspectors to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2009 – 2017

Provide labor inspectors with adequate training on child labor and provide adequate training to criminal law enforcement officials to ensure that violators are prosecuted.

2009 – 2017

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat all worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2017

Ensure coordination mechanisms related to child labor are active during the year.

2017

Social Programs

Take measures to ensure that all children have access to education by providing supplies and establishing an adequate number of schools. Take preventative steps to protect children from physical and sexual abuse in schools.

2010 – 2017

Make the results of the child labor study publicly available and use the findings to inform policies and programs.

2015 – 2017

Increase support for the Speak Child-116 hotline to ensure that child labor complaints are investigated.

2016 – 2017

Institute programs to address child labor in domestic work and expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2010 – 2017

1. Ministério do Trabalho, Emprego e Segurança Social. ESTUDO QUALITATIVO SOBRE O FENÓMENO DO TRABALHO INFANTIL E O SEU IMPACTO EM MOÇAMBIQUE (2014-2016). July 2016. http://www.mitess.gov.mz/sites/default/files/documents/files/RELATORIO%20FINAL%20ESTUDO%20TRABALHO%20INFANTIL%20PDF.pdf.

2. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Mozambique, Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/271343.pdf.

3. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed: March 8, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

4. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Clustery Survey 3, 2008. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5. ROSC. Dia Mundial de Luta Contra o Trabalho Infantil. June 12, 2015. http://www.rosc.org.mz/index.php/noticias/item/258-dia-mundial-de-luta-contra-o-trabalho-infantil.

6. Correio da Manhã. Moçambique é o País da SADC com Mais Crianças a Trabalhar. @Verdade. May 8, 2014. http://www.verdade.co.mz/economia/46038-oit-coloca-mocambique-como-pior-da-sadc.

7. U.S. Embassy- Maputo. Reporting, January 17, 2014.

8. Bernardo, Carlos. Procura-se Combater Trabalho Infantil em Tete. Jornal Noticias. October 23, 2014. http://www.jornalnoticias.co.mz/index.php/provincia-em-foco/25369-tete-procura-se-combater-trabalho-infantil-em-tete.

9. Rede CAME official. Interview with USDOL official. August 31, 2015.

10. Save the Children Mozambique official. Interview with USDOL official. September 1, 2015.

11. Liga dos Direitos da Criança official. Interview with USDOL official. September 2, 2015.

12. Organização dos Trabalhadores de Moçambique official. Interview with USDOL official. September 4, 2015.

13. Ministério do Trabalho, Emprego e Segurança Social. ESTUDO SOBRE AS LACUNAS (GAPS OU DEFICITS) DE TRABALHO DIGNO NA CADEIA DE VALOR DA PRODUÇÃO E COMERCIALIZAÇÃO DO ALGODÃO EM MOÇAMBIQUE, 2016. February 2017. [Source on file].

14. Magode, José, et. al. Tráfico de Pessoas em Mocambique, em Particular, de Crianças. Instituto Superior de Relações Internacionais. November 2014. http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se/sites/default/files/documents/manual_trafico-last.pdf.

15. Ministry of Education official. Interview with USDOL official. September 2, 2015.

16. Schipper, I., et al. Gold from Children's Hands. SOMO. November 2015. https://www.somo.nl/gold-from-childrens-hands/.

17. ROSC. Mais de um Milhão de Crianças no Trabalho Infantil. June 27, 2016. http://www.rosc.org.mz/index.php/noticias/item/294-mais-de-um-milh%C3%A3o-de-crian%C3%A7as-no-trabalho-infantil.

18. U.S. Embassy- Maputo. Reporting, January 16, 2018.

19. Alberto, Dércio. O recurso à mão-de-obra infantil na mineração artesanal em Mambadine. @Verdade. January 16, 2018. http://www.verdade.co.mz/vozes/37-hora-da-verdade/64621-selo-o-recurso-a-mao-de-obra-infantil-na-mineracao-artesanal-em-mambadine-por-dercio-alberto.

20. Madime, Berta. Maputo no golden lining for Mozambique’s child laborurers. CAJ News Africa. August 4, 2017. http://cajnewsafrica.com/2017/08/04/maputo-no-golden-lining-for-mozambiques-child-labourers/.

21. Maquitela, Anchieta. Trabalho Infantil: O Retrocesso nas Possibilidades de Desenvolvimento da Criança. Moçambique Media Online. March 3, 2015. http://noticias.mmo.co.mz/2015/03/trabalho-infantil-o-retrocesso-nas-possibilidades-de-desenvolvimento-da-crianca.html.

22. Fernando, Sérgio. Menores são Privados dos Seus Direitos em Mecubúri. @Verdade. October 2, 2014. http://www.verdade.co.mz/nacional/49387-menores-sao-privados-dos-seus-direitos-em-mecuburi.

23. O País. Desmantelada Suposta Rede de Exploração de Trabalho Infantil no Bairro de Xipamanine. O País. February 24, 2015. http://opais.sapo.mz/index.php/sociedade/45-sociedade/34537-desmantelada-suposta-rede-de-exploracao-de-trabalho-infantil-no-bairro-de-xipamanine.html.

24. Brock, Joe. Mozambique Gas Projects Raise Risk of Resource "Curse". Reuters. October 26, 2015. http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFKCN0SK1L320151026?utm_source=October+27%2C+2015+EN&utm_campaign=10%2F27%2F2015&utm_medium=email&pageNumber=4&virtualBrandChannel=0&sp=true.

25. Bolacha, Cristóvão. Aumenta a prostituição infantil em Mocuba. @Verdade. August 7, 2014. http://www.verdade.co.mz/nacional/48059-aumenta-a-prostituicao-infantil-em-mocuba-.

26. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Mozambique. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265494.pdf.

27. Macanandze, Coutinho. A Educação Básica Está Longe de Ser Abrangente no País. @Verdade. August 21, 2014. http://www.verdade.co.mz/nacional/48379-a-educacao-basica-esta-longe-de-ser-abrangente-no-pais.

28. Mohamed, Hamza. In Mozambique, the Children Too Poor to Learn. Al Jazeera. April 9, 2016. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2016/03/mozambique-children-poor-learn-160308104006411.html.

29. Caldeira, Adérito. Fraca conclusão do ensino primário em Moçambique também deve-se a distância entre casa e escola. @Verdade. October 2, 2017. http://www.verdade.co.mz/tema-de-fundo/35-themadefundo/63573-fraca-conclusao-do-ensino-primario-em-mocambique-tambem-deve-se-a-distancia-entre-casa-e-escola.

30. UN Human Rights Committee. Consideration of Reports of States Parties: Concluding Observations: Mozambique. November 19, 2013: CCPR/C/MOZ/CO/1. [Source on file].

31. Government of Mozambique. Regulamento do Trabalho Doméstico, Decreto n.º 40/2008. Enacted: November 26, 2008. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/355/Domestic%20Workers%20regulation.pdf.

32. —. Lei do Trabalho, n.º 23/2007. Enacted: August 1, 2007. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/696/Lei_do_Trabalho.pdf.

33. —. Decreto n.º 68/2017. Enacted: December 1, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/106420/130543/F-8034023/MOZ106420%20Port.pdf.

34. —. Lei n.º 6/2008. Enacted: April 23, 2008. [Source on file].

35. —. Lei da Revisão do Código Penal, Lei n.º 35/2014. Enacted: December 31, 2014. [Source on file].

36. —. Lei n.º 3/97. Enacted: March 13, 1997. [Source on file].

37. —. Lei n.º 32/2009. Enacted: November 18, 2009. [Source on file].

38. —. Lei de Bases de Protecção da Criança. Enacted: 2006. [Source on file].

39. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Mozambique (Ratification: 2003) Published: 2016. Accessed: April 18, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3254790,102964,Mozambique,2015.

40. U.S. Embassy- Maputo. Reporting, January 14, 2015.

41. —. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

42. Government of Mozambique. Plano de Acção Nacional para o Combate às Piores Formas do Trabalho Infantil Em Moçambique (2017-2022). 2017. http://www.mitess.gov.mz/sites/default/files/documents/files/Plano%20para%20o%20Combate%20as%20%20Piores%20Formas%20do%20Trabalho%20Infantil%20Em%20Moz.pdf.

43. U.S. Embassy- Maputo. Reporting, January 11, 2017.

44. Baptista, André. Autoridades moçambicanas combatem prostituição infantil em Manica. Voice of America. September 20, 2017. https://www.voaportugues.com/a/autoridades-mocambique-combatem-prostituicao-infantil-manica/4037219.html.

45. U.S. Embassy- Maputo. Reporting, February 17, 2015.

46. U.S. Embassy Maputo official. E-mail communiction to USDOL official. April 11, 2017.

47. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 15, 2018.

48. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed: February 20, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

49. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

50. U.S. Embassy Maputo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 2, 2015.

51. U.S. Embassy- Maputo. Reporting, February 13, 2017.

52. —. Reporting, February 1, 2016.

53. —. Reporting, March 6, 2014.

54. Government of Mozambique. Plano Nacional de Acção para a Criança 2013-2019 (PNAC II). December 2012. [Source on file].

55. —. Proposta do Programa Quinquenal do Governo 2015-2019. February 2015. http://www.portaldogoverno.gov.mz/por/Governo/Documentos/Planos-e-Programas-de-Governacao/Plano-Quinquenal.

56. ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. October 2016: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

57. U.S. Department of State. Reporting, October 9, 2014.

58. U.S. State Department official. Personal communication to USDOL official. May 14, 2014.

59. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Mozambique (Ratification: 2003) Published: 2016. Accessed: October 31, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3254798:NO.

60. Sambo, Emildo. Instituições do Estado Negligenciam Queixas de Crianças Através da “Linha Fala Criança” em Moçambique. @Verdade. March 10, 2016. http://www.verdade.co.mz/tema-de-fundo/35-themadefundo/57153-instituicoes-do-estado-negligenciam-queixas-de-criancas-atraves-da-linha-fala-crianca-em-mocambique.

61. ILO-IPEC. South-South Cooperation for the promotion of decent work in cotton-producing countries in Africa and Latin America. Accessed: February 16, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/WCMS_390006/lang--en/index.htm.

62. Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing (ECLT) Foundation. Mozambique. Accessed: January 15, 2018. http://www.eclt.org/impact/mozambique/.

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