Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Mozambique

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Mozambique
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Mozambique made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government amended the Law on the National System of Education, raising the compulsory education age to 15. The government also drafted a revision to the Labor Law establishing 15 as the minimum age for work and eliminating the exception that allows children as young as age 12 to work. Furthermore, the Attorney General's Office significantly increased its training capacity and expanded training for law enforcement officers, including a series of workshops for journalists focusing on victim identification and reporting methods that ensure victim safety and improve the government's ability to prosecute human trafficking cases. However, children in Mozambique engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work. Children also perform dangerous tasks in the production of tobacco. Labor inspectors do not receive sufficient training, and the government lacks both the appropriate resources to enforce child labor laws and a coordination mechanism to address child labor. In addition, existing programs are insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem in Mozambique.

Children in Mozambique engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work. (1-5) Children also perform dangerous tasks in the production of tobacco. (6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Mozambique. Data on some of these indicators are not available from sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

22.5 (1,526,560)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

69.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

22.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

46.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019.(7)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2008. (8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cashews, coconuts, cotton,† sesame, sugarcane,† tea, tobacco,† and tomatoes (1,2,6,9-15)

Fishing,† including preparing nets† (1,6,11)

Forestry,† activities unknown (6,11)

Herding livestock,† including cattle (1,6)

Hunting, including small and wild animals (1,6,15,16)

Industry

Mining,† including gold and gemstones† (1,3,4,6,14,17-20)

Construction,† including crushing stone† and making bricks† (1,6)

Services

Domestic work,† including caring for babies and other children† (1,3,6,9,10,13,19-21)

Street work, including car washing,† street vending, and garbage scavenging† (1,2,6,11,13,14,20-23)

Selling alcoholic beverages in markets† (13,22)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1,5,6,14,24,25)

Forced labor in agriculture, domestic work, mining, and vending, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-5)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking, stealing, and assisting poachers in the illegal poaching industry (1,6,13)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Mozambican children, lured from rural areas with promises of work and educational opportunities, are subjected to forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation in urban areas in Mozambique and South Africa. (2,3,5) Research indicates that Mozambican children are also trafficked to South Africa for forced labor in agriculture, street vending, and commercial sexual exploitation. (2,5)

Reports indicate cases of children in situations of debt bondage in the artisanal mining sector. Several accidents, including some that resulted in deaths, have been documented by local authorities in this sector. (26,27)

Although primary education is free, families must provide school supplies and uniforms. (28,29) Moreover, barriers to education for children include lack of schools, classroom space, and trained teachers. Many students, particularly in rural areas, face difficulties traveling long distances to get to school. (28,30-32) In addition, physical and sexual abuse is common in schools. Research found that some male teachers demand sex from female students. (1,29)

Mozambique has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Mozambique’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the minimum age for work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

15

Article 26 of the Labor Law; Article 4 of the Regulations on Domestic Work (33,34)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 23 of the Labor Law (34)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

18

Hazardous Work List (35)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 10–11 of the Trafficking in Persons Law; Articles 196 and 198 of the Penal Code (36,37)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 10–11 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (36)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 10–11 of the Trafficking in Persons Law; Articles 226–227 of the Penal Code (36,37)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 33 and 40 of the Law on Drugs (38)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 23 of the Law on Military Service (39)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Law on Military Service (39)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 10 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (36)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 6 of the Law on the National System of Education; Article 41 of the Law of Basic Child Protection (40,41)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 41 of the Law of Basic Child Protection (40)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (40,41)

In November 2018, the government amended the Law on the National System of Education, raising the minimum compulsory education age to 15. The law was signed by the President and became effective in March 2019. (16,41)

The Regulations on Domestic Work allow children ages 12 to 15 to conduct domestic work with the permission of their legal guardian. (33) The Labor Law also states that children ages 12 to 15 may work under certain conditions defined by the Council of Ministers. (34) The minimum age of 12 for light work is not in compliance with international standards. (42) However, in 2018 the government drafted a revision to the Labor Law establishing 15 as the minimum age for work, which would eliminate the current exception that allows children as young as age 12 to work; the draft was submitted to Parliament for consideration. (16,43)

The Labor Law’s minimum age protections do not apply to children working outside of formal employment relationships; however, the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security began developing new regulations to protect children working in the informal sector. (34,42,44,45)

In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Mozambique took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including training for labor inspectors.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown

Unknown

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (18)

Yes (16)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Unknown

Yes (16)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (47)

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (18)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown (16)

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown (16)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (16)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown (16)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown (16)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (18)

Yes (16)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (18)

Yes (16)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes(16)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (18)

Yes (16)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (18)

Yes (16)

Reports indicate that the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Mozambique’s workforce, which includes approximately 13 million workers. (18,48,49) According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed countries, Mozambique would employ about 325 labor inspectors. (50,51) Insufficient training and limited financial resources may also hamper the labor inspectorate’s ability to enforce child labor laws. (45,48) The government does not publicly release information on its labor law enforcement efforts. (16)

The National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor requires training for inspectors and law enforcement officials; however, research was unable to verify whether these trainings took place during the reporting period. (16)

Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security officials can refer victims of child labor to either the police or social workers from the Ministry of Gender, Children, and Social Action (MGCAS) for family assessments and potential placement of these children in foster homes. (52)

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Mozambique took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including allocating financial resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (18)

Yes (16)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Investigations

Unknown

10 (45)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

7 (45)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (18)

Yes (16)

Although the government did not provide disaggregated data on child trafficking, reports indicate that there were cases of child trafficking, which resulted in arrests and the initiation of prosecutions. (16,53,54) In November 2018, in Zambézia Province, 3 traffickers were taken into custody after attempting to sell a 17-year-old boy; the case is being processed through the courts. During a raid by police, 2 children under age 16 were found being trafficked to work in the agricultural sector in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (54) Due to an increase in human trafficking activity, police strengthened border security and worked with community leaders to raise awareness in the province. (54) In the capital city of Maputo, two suspects were apprehended after attempting to traffic a large number of children to South Africa. (53)

In 2018, the Attorney General's Office significantly increased its training capacity, expanded the training of law enforcement officers, and developed for journalists a series of workshops emphasizing victim identification and proper reporting methods to safeguard the victims and improve the government's ability to prosecute human trafficking cases. (45)

Criminal law enforcement officials work with the MGCAS and the National Reference Group for the Protection of Children and Combating Trafficking in Persons to coordinate referrals of children to social service providers. (18) Furthermore, the MGCAS has a standard operating procedure for handling victims of domestic abuse, including human trafficking victims. This procedure incorporates an intake form used nationwide by law enforcement officials, including border officials, to collect the necessary data from victims and ensure that they receive professional care and referrals to appropriate services. (45)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including efficacy in accomplishing mandates.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Reference Group for the Protection of Children and Combating Trafficking in Persons

Coordinates efforts to combat all forms of human trafficking. Led by the Attorney General’s Office. (55) Provincial-level groups coordinate regional efforts to combat human trafficking. (48) During the reporting year, groups were expanded to all provinces and districts in the country, with improvements in areas of protection, assistance and reintegration of victims. (56) Conducted training for media, magistrates and other professionals combating human trafficking, including examination of current policies and laws with the aim of providing better coverage of the situation in the country. (57)

National Commission on Children’s Rights

Oversees and reports on children’s rights in Mozambique to the African Charter and other international bodies and performs consultations and deliberations on national action plans and legislation. Led by the Ministry of Gender, Children, and Social Action. (52) Research was unable to determine whether the National Commission on Children's Rights was active during the reporting period.

Ministry of the Interior’s Women and Children's Victim Assistance Units

Provides services to children who have been victims of crimes, including human trafficking. Operates countrywide through facilities in more than 215 police stations. (48,58) Research was unable to determine whether Ministry of the Interior's Women and Children's Victim Assistance Units were active during the reporting period.

Ministry of Gender, Children, and Social Action (MGCAS)

Operates three dedicated centers for human trafficking victims, providing support and reintegration services, including to child trafficking victims. In 2018, reintegrated seven child trafficking victims with their families. (45,59) In addition, launched a campaign to remove children from the streets of the city of Maputo and began a study to estimate the number of street children. As of May 2018, removed 65 children from the streets. (60)

Research did not find a coordination mechanism dedicated solely to addressing child labor beyond the scope of human trafficking.

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including lack of implementation of existing policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2017–2022)

Aims to map 70 percent of occurrences of worst forms of child labor by province and activity by 2019, and to withdraw 20,000 children from the worst forms of child labor and enroll them in the Basic Social Subsidy program. (46) Mandates the coordination of several key government agencies, including the Attorney General's Office and MGCAS. A multi-sector group comprising representatives from government, civil society, employers, and unions, including the informal sector, was also created in the plan to address child labor issues. (16) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor during the reporting period.

National Action Plan for Children II (2013–2019)

Establishes four priority areas for government action against child labor: child survival, child development, child participation, and child protection. (61) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Action Plan for Children II during the reporting period.

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (62)

Although the National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons was not approved during the reporting period, the outline of both the action plan and its referral mechanism, which contains provisions that address victim identification, have been in widespread use by law enforcement for more than 2 years. (45)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Basic Social Subsidy Program†

Government and donor-funded program that provides financial subsidies to orphaned children living in poor and vulnerable households, and child heads of households. Aimed at improving secondary school attendance, and reaching more than 3.3 million direct program participants by 2024. (64,65) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Basic Social Subsidy Program during the reporting year.

Programs for Street Children†

Government and civil society operate 176 shelters that provide education, occupational training activities, and health and psycho-social care for street children. (66,67) Active in 2018. (16)

Victims of Violence Centers†

Government-funded program implemented by the Ministry of the Interior’s Women and Children's Victim Assistance Units that provide temporary shelter, food, limited counseling, and monitoring for victims of crime following reintegration. Includes 22 centers located throughout the country. (48,59) Active in 2018. (16)

Speak Child-116

NGO-funded program that works with the government to run a hotline to receive complaints of child abuse, including those related to child labor and sexual exploitation. (44) In September 2018, participated in a collaborative workshop with SMS Biz, a hotline for adolescents led by a local NGO. The workshop focused on improving victim care and inter-organizational cooperation. (68)

Memorandum of Understanding to Combat Child Labor in Tobacco Growing (2018–2021)*

$1.2 million, 3-year project, funded by the Eliminating Child Labor in Tobacco Growing Foundation, focusing on education, awareness raising, institutional capacity-building, and revision of the government's legal framework. Incorporates training for law enforcement officials. (69-71)

Internet Watch Foundation Website*

Internet Watch Foundation launched a dedicated website, established by the government, to report suspected cases of online commercial sexual exploitation of children, including their use in the production of pornography. (72-74)

Trafficking in Persons Awareness Campaign*†

The Attorney General's Office launched several campaigns aimed at raising public awareness of human trafficking during the reporting period. Conducted numerous awareness-raising activities at the central and provincial levels aimed at informing the public about the various manifestations of human trafficking, and equipping communities with defensive strategies and prevention methods. (45,75)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Mozambique.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (76)

Although a draft report on the analysis of national child labor data from the Integrated Household Survey was completed in 2017, the government has not yet published the study’s findings. (63)

Research found no evidence that the government has carried out programs to assist children engaged in domestic work. The scope of existing programs is also insufficient to fully address the extent of the child labor problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Mozambique (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that all children are protected under the law, including children working outside of formal employment relationships.

2015 – 2018

Approve a revision to the Labor Law establishing 15 as the minimum age for work.

2018

Enforcement

Make law enforcement information publicly available, including labor inspectorate’s funding, number and training of labor inspectors, type of labor inspections conducted, child labor violations found, and number of child labor penalties imposed and collected, as well as the training of investigators responsible for enforcing laws related to the worst forms of child labor and the number of violations found and convictions achieved.

2009 – 2018

Allocate sufficient resources for law enforcement agencies, including by increasing the number of labor inspectors to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2009 – 2018

Provide labor inspectors with sufficient training and financial resources to ensure their capacity to enforce child labor laws.

2009 – 2018

Coordination

Ensure the operational functionality of the National Commission on Children's Rights and the Ministry of the Interior's Women and Children's Victim Assistance Units.

2017 – 2018

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat all worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2018

Government Policies

Implement the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor and National Action Plan for Children II, including providing training for inspectors and law enforcement as mandated in the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor.

2018

Approve the National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons.

2018

Social Programs

Take measures to ensure that all children have access to education by providing supplies and establishing an adequate number of schools. Take preventative steps to protect children from physical and sexual abuse in schools.

2010 – 2018

Publish the results of the child labor study and use the findings to inform policies and programs.

2015 – 2018

Implement the Basic Social Subsidy Program, institute programs to address child labor in domestic work, and expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2010 – 2018

  1. Rede CAME official. Interview with USDOL official. August 31, 2015.

  2. Save the Children Mozambique official. Interview with USDOL official. September 1, 2015.

  3. Magode, José, et. al. Tráfico de Pessoas em Mocambique, em Particular, de Crianças. Instituto Superior de Relações Internacionais, November 2014.
    http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se/sites/default/files/documents/manual_trafico-last.pdf.

  4. Ministry of Education official. Interview with USDOL official. September 2, 2015.

  5. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018: Mozambique. Washington, DC. June 27, 2018.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/mozambique/.

  6. Government of Mozambique. ESTUDO QUALITATIVO SOBRE O FENÓMENO DO TRABALHO INFANTIL E O SEU IMPACTO EM MOÇAMBIQUE (2014-2016). Ministério do Trabalho, Emprego e Segurança Social. July 2016.
    http://www.mitess.gov.mz/sites/default/files/documents/files/RELATORIO FINAL ESTUDO TRABALHO INFANTIL PDF.pdf.

  7. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed: March 16,2019. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  8. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Clustery Survey 3, 2008, Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  9. ROSC. Dia Mundial de Luta Contra o Trabalho Infantil. June 12, 2015.
    http://www.rosc.org.mz/index.php/noticias/item/258-dia-mundial-de-luta-contra-o-trabalho-infantil.

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  11. U.S. Embassy- Maputo. Reporting. January 17, 2014.

  12. Bernardo, Carlos. Procura-se Combater Trabalho Infantil em Tete. Jornal Noticias, October 23, 2014.
    http://www.jornalnoticias.co.mz/index.php/provincia-em-foco/25369-tete-procura-se-combater-trabalho-infantil-em-tete.

  13. Liga dos Direitos da Criança official. Interview with USDOL official. September 2, 2015.

  14. Organização dos Trabalhadores de Moçambique official. Interview with USDOL official. September 4, 2015.

  15. Government of Mozambique. ESTUDO SOBRE AS LACUNAS (GAPS OU DEFICITS) DE TRABALHO DIGNO NA CADEIA DE VALOR DA PRODUÇÃO E COMERCIALIZAÇÃO DO ALGODÃO EM MOÇAMBIQUE, 2016. Ministério do Trabalho, Emprego e Segurança Social. February 2017. Source on file.

  16. U.S. Embassy- Maputo. Reporting. January 14, 2019.

  17. Schipper, I., et al. Gold from Children's Hands. SOMO, November 2015.
    https://www.somo.nl/gold-from-childrens-hands/.

  18. U.S. Embassy- Maputo. Reporting. January 16, 2018.

  19. Alberto, Dércio. O recurso à mão-de-obra infantil na mineração artesanal em Mambadine. @Verdade, January 16, 2018.
    http://www.verdade.co.mz/vozes/37-hora-da-verdade/64621-selo-o-recurso-a-mao-de-obra-infantil-na-mineracao-artesanal-em-mambadine-por-dercio-alberto.

  20. Madime, Berta. Maputo no golden lining for Mozambique’s child labourers. CAJ News Africa, August 4, 2017.
    http://cajnewsafrica.com/2017/08/04/maputo-no-golden-lining-for-mozambiques-child-labourers/.

  21. Maquitela, Anchieta. Trabalho Infantil: O Retrocesso nas Possibilidades de Desenvolvimento da Criança. Moçambique Media Online, March 3, 2015.
    http://noticias.mmo.co.mz/2015/03/trabalho-infantil-o-retrocesso-nas-possibilidades-de-desenvolvimento-da-crianca.html.

  22. Fernando, Sérgio. Menores são Privados dos Seus Direitos em Mecubúri. @Verdade, October 2, 2014.
    http://www.verdade.co.mz/nacional/49387-menores-sao-privados-dos-seus-direitos-em-mecuburi.

  23. O País. Desmantelada Suposta Rede de Exploração de Trabalho Infantil no Bairro de Xipamanine. O País, February 24, 2015.
    http://opais.sapo.mz/index.php/sociedade/45-sociedade/34537-desmantelada-suposta-rede-de-exploracao-de-trabalho-infantil-no-bairro-de-xipamanine.html.

  24. Brock, Joe. Mozambique gas projects raise risk of resource "curse." Reuters. October 26, 2015.
    http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFKCN0SK1L320151026?utm_source=October+27,+2015+EN&utm_campaign=10/27/2015&utm_medium=email&pageNumber=4&virtualBrandChannel=0&sp=true.

  25. Bolacha, Cristóvão. Aumenta a prostituição infantil em Mocuba. @Verdade, August 7, 2014.
    http://www.verdade.co.mz/nacional/48059-aumenta-a-prostituicao-infantil-em-mocuba-.

  26. U.S. Embassy Maputo official. Email communication to USDOL official. March 4, 2019.

  27. Miguel, Ramos. Crianças trocam escola por garimpo em Moçambique. Voice of America. April 9, 2018.
    https://www.voaportugues.com/a/criancas-minas-mocambique-escola/4338976.html.

  28. Mohamed, Hamza. In Mozambique, the Children Too Poor to Learn. Al Jazeera, April 9, 2016.
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  29. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2018: Mozambique. Washington, DC. March 13, 2019.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/.

  30. Macanandze, Coutinho. A Educação Básica Está Longe de Ser Abrangente no País. @Verdade, August 21, 2014.
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  31. Caldeira, Adérito. Fraca conclusão do ensino primário em Moçambique também deve-se a distância entre casa e escola. @Verdade, October 2, 2017.
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  32. RFI. Início do ano lectivo em Moçambique. February 2, 2018.
    http://pt.rfi.fr/mocambique/20180202-inicio-do-ano-lectivo-em-mocambique.

  33. Government of Mozambique. Regulamento do Trabalho Doméstico, Decreto n.º 40/2008. Enacted: November 26, 2008.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/355/Domestic Workers regulation.pdf.

  34. Government of Mozambique. Lei do Trabalho, n.º 23/2007. Enacted: August 1, 2007.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/696/Lei_do_Trabalho.pdf.

  35. Government of Mozambique. Decreto n.º 68/2017. Enacted: December 1, 2017.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/106420/130543/F-8034023/MOZ106420 Port.pdf.

  36. Government of Mozambique. Lei n.º 6/2008. Enacted: April 23, 2008. Source on file.

  37. Government of Mozambique. Lei da Revisão do Código Penal, Lei n.º 35/2014. Enacted: December 31, 2014. Source on file.

  38. Government of Mozambique. Lei n.º 3/97. Enacted: March 13, 1997. Source on file.

  39. Government of Mozambique. Lei n.º 32/2009. Enacted: November 18, 2009. Source on file.

  40. Government of Mozambique. Lei de Bases de Protecção da Criança. Enacted: 2006. Source on file.

  41. Government of Mozambique. Lei do Sistema Nacional de Educação na República de Moçambique, Lei n.º18/2018. Enacted: December 28, 2018. Source on file.

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