Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Mozambique

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Mozambique

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Mozambique made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government launched the National Reference Group for the Protection of Children and Combating Trafficking in Persons and sustained provincial-level reference groups throughout the country. The Government also launched the Five Year Government Plan to address and prevent violence against children, including the worst forms of child labor. However, children in Mozambique are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture and domestic work. The law does not prohibit hazardous occupations or activities for children, and education is only compulsory until age 13, leaving children ages 13 and 14 vulnerable to child labor. Law enforcement agencies lack the capacity to adequately address the scope of child labor in the country, including its worst forms.

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Children in Mozambique are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture and domestic work.(1-9) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Mozambique.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

22.5 (1,526,560)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

69.5

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

22.4

Primary completion rate (%):

47.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(10)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Clustery Survey 3, 2008.(11)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cotton,* sesame,* tea,* cashews,* sugarcane,* and tobacco (1, 4-9, 12-17)

Fishing, including preparing nets* (1, 5, 13)

Forestry,* activities unknown (1)

Cattle herding* (5)

Industry

Mining, including gold* and gemstones* (5, 8, 17-20)

Construction,* including crushing stone* and making bricks* (5)

Services

Domestic work (4, 5, 7, 9, 12, 13, 15, 19, 21, 22)

Street work, including car washing,* street vending, garbage scavenging,* collecting scrap metal,* and begging* (1, 4-8, 17, 22-27)

Selling alcoholic beverages in markets* (7, 26)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 5, 8, 17, 28-35)

Forced labor in agriculture* and domestic work, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4-6, 20, 31, 34)

Use in illicit activities, including stealing and assisting poachers in the illegal poaching industry* (5, 7)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Girls from Malawi, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe voluntarily migrate to Mozambique, where they subsequently become victims of commercial sexual exploitation and forced domestic work, particularly in Manica province.(4, 31, 32, 34) Mozambican children, lured from rural areas with promises of work and education opportunities, are subjected to forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation in urban areas within Mozambique and in South Africa.(4, 6, 19, 28, 34, 36-38) Within Mozambique, the commercial sexual exploitation of children is especially prevalent in the urban regions of Beira, Chimoio, Maputo, and Nacala.(4, 28-30, 34) Commercial sexual exploitation of girls occurs in bars, in roadside clubs, and at restaurants in border towns and overnight stopping points along the southern transport corridor that links Mozambique, Swaziland, and South Africa.(4, 34) Research indicates that Mozambican children, particularly boys, are sometimes trafficked to South Africa for forced labor in agriculture, mining, and street vending.(6, 34)

Although tuition for primary education is free, families must provide supplies and uniforms.(4) Moreover, there are not enough schools to cover the population, and many students face difficulties traveling long distances to get to school, particularly in rural areas.(25, 39) In addition, physical and sexual abuse is common in schools; research found that some teachers demand sex from female students to promote them to the next grade.(2, 4)

It is estimated that more than two million children are orphaned, many as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.(40) Additionally, the Government estimates that nearly 20,000 children are heads of households responsible for supporting their younger siblings.(41, 42) As a result, many children stop attending school in order to work, putting them at risk of engaging in the worst forms of child labor.(43)

Mozambique has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 26 of the Labor Law; Article 4 of the Regulations on Domestic Work (44, 45)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 23 of the Labor Law (45)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

No

 

 

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 5, 10, and 11 of the Trafficking in Persons Law ; Articles 196 and 198 of the Penal Code (43, 46)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 5, 10, and 11 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (46)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 5, 10, and 11 of the Trafficking in Persons Law; Articles 226 and 227 of the Penal Code (43, 46)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

The Law on Drugs (47)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 1 of the Law on Compulsory Military Service (48)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Law on Compulsory Military Service (48, 49)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

13

Article 41 of the Law of Basic Child Protection (50, 51)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 41 of the Law of Basic Child Protection (50)

 

The Labor Law’s minimum age protections do not apply to children working outside of formal employment relationships.(3, 45, 51)

The Labor Law states that employers may not engage children under age 18 in unhealthy or dangerous work, but Mozambique has not determined by national law or regulation the types of hazardous work prohibited for children.(45, 47)

The Regulations on Domestic Work allow children ages 12 to 15 to conduct domestic work with the permission of their legal guardian.(44) Additionally, the Labor Law states that children ages 12 to 15 may work under certain conditions defined by the Council of Ministers.(45) However, the law does not determine the activities in which light work may be permitted, prescribe the number of hours per week for light work, or specify the conditions under which light work may be undertaken.(51)

While the Law on Drugs appears to contain provisions relating to the use of children for the production and trafficking of drugs, research did not uncover a public version of the Law on Drugs for review.(47)

The Government has reported that education is compulsory until age 13.(51) The gap between the end of compulsory education and the minimum age for work leaves children ages 13 and 14 vulnerable to child labor, including its worst forms.(51)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MITESS)

Enforce laws and regulations on child labor.(52) The Labor Inspectorate works with the National Police Force to enforce criminal law.(1)

The National Police Force

Enforce all criminal laws, including those related to the worst forms of child labor.(1) The Criminal Investigation Branch has a seven-person unit devoted to anti-human trafficking and violence against women and children; investigates cases and refers them to the Attorney General’s Office.(1)

Attorney General’s Office

Coordinate the Government’s efforts against human trafficking and receive cases from the Criminal Investigation Branch of the National Police Force for prosecution.(1, 53) Lead the National Reference Group for the Protection of Children and Combating Trafficking in Persons and oversee the provincial-level human trafficking reference groups.(34, 54)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

Research did not find information on whether labor law enforcement agencies in Mozambique took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (3)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

135 (3)

Unknown (52)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (3)

Yes (52)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown (3)

Unknown

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (55)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (55)

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

No (52)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (3)

No (52)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (3)

Yes (52)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

No (3)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (55)

Yes (56)

 

Inspectors are poorly trained, which limits their ability to enforce labor laws effectively.(57) Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MITESS) officials can refer victims of child labor either to the police or to social workers from the Ministry of Gender, Children, and Social Action (MGCAS) for family assessment and potential placement of the children in a foster home.(55)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Mozambique took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (3)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (54)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Investigations

Unknown (3)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (3)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (3)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown (3)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (58)

Yes (56)

 

In October 2015, the Government trained 30 judges in anti-human trafficking legislation.(54) However, research found that law enforcement officials responsible for investigating and prosecuting criminal child labor cases are poorly trained.(5, 57) Many cases are of very low quality and lack appropriate evidence for prosecution.(1)

Standardized procedures are in place for courts to refer victims of human trafficking to MGCAS’ offices throughout the country, so they can receive support and reintegration services.(58) However, research did not find referral mechanisms for victims of other worst forms of child labor.

Although the Government has established a coordination mechanism on human trafficking, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Reference Group for the Protection of Children and Combating Trafficking in Persons*

Coordinate efforts to combat all forms of human trafficking. Led by the Attorney General’s Office and composed of representatives from MITESS; the Ministry of Gender, Children, and Social Action (MGCAS); the Ministries of Justice, Interior, Health, Immigration, and Education and Human Development; the Mozambican Human Rights League; Save the Children; the Association of Traditional Healers of Mozambique; IOM; and Mozambican media agencies.(54)

Human Trafficking Reference Groups

Coordinate provincial efforts to address human trafficking. Composed of local officials, the National Police Force, border guards, social workers, NGOs, and faith-based organizations.(34) In 2015, the Government established three additional groups, resulting in national coverage.(34)

National Council on the Rights of the Child

Coordinate efforts to promote the welfare of children. Led by MGCAS and composed of civil society representatives and the Ministries of Justice, Education and Human Development, Health, and Youth and Sports.(13)

National Commission on Children’s Rights

Oversee and report on children’s rights in Mozambique to the African Charter and other international bodies; and perform consultations and deliberations on national action plans and legislation.(55) Inter-ministerial body created in 2010; includes representatives from MGCAS, and from the Ministries of Education and Human Development, Health, Interior, and Justice; civil society organizations; and religious organizations.(1, 55)

The Ministry of Interior’s Women and Children Victim Assistance Units (GAMC)

Provide services to children who have been victims of crimes, including human trafficking, sexual abuse, domestic violence, and sexual assault. Officials operated facilities in more than 215 police stations and 22 victims of violence centers throughout the country.(34, 59)

MGCAS

Provide support and reintegration services to victims of human trafficking.(53)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

The Government of Mozambique has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan for Children II (2013–2019)

Establishes four priority areas: child survival, child development, child protection, and child participation. Aims to reduce child labor in the area of child protection.(60)

Five-Year Government Plan (2015–2019)†

Prioritizes the prevention of violence against children, including human trafficking and exploitative child labor.(61)

Employment and Vocational Training Strategy (2006–2015)

Reduces poverty and unemployment by working with employers, workers, and members of civil society. Conducts child labor research on different topics and sectors to help design and implement government interventions.(13) Establishes support for participating institutions; implements polices and legislation on child labor; and provides training on child labor for institutions, stakeholders, and civil society.(13)

Education Strategic Plan (2012–2016)*

Aims to guarantee that all children have the opportunity to complete a basic quality education of 7 years. The plan’s long term mission aims to build an education system based on 9 or 10 years of compulsory education for all children.(60)

Civil Registration and Vital Statistics Investment Plan*

Plans to strengthen legislation, raise awareness, and increase the registration of vital events, including birth registration.(43) Includes UNICEF and WHO in collaboration with the Ministries of Justice, Health, and Interior, as well as the National Institute of Statistics.(43, 62)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2014, MITESS submitted a draft National Action Plan on Child Labor to a consultative committee composed of representatives from various government ministries, unions, and the private sector. The draft remains under review.(3)

In 2015, the Government of Mozambique funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research in Mozambique.(63) In 2014, MITESS conducted a small-scale child labor study in partnership with the University of Eduardo Mondlane; however, the Government has not yet developed a final report presenting the study’s findings.(3)

Decent Work Country Program
(2011–2015)

ILO-implemented program in partnership with the Government that contributed to the national priorities of inclusive and sustainable growth and poverty reduction by providing opportunities for decent work for all. Special emphasis was placed on the most vulnerable groups in the labor market.(25) Provided the Labor Inspectorate with a mandate to focus on eliminating child labor.(25)

Strengthening Coordination to Respond to Trafficking in Persons and Ensure Justice and Protection for All Victims of Trafficking in Mozambique (2014–2017)

$750,000, USDOS-funded, 3-year project implemented by IOM to support the establishment and institutionalization of a national human trafficking referral mechanism, including for victims of child trafficking. Includes upgrading shelter facilities, training staff to meet the minimum requirements for offering aftercare services to victims of human trafficking, and providing comprehensive protection services.(64)

Cash Transfer Program for Children Heads of Households†

Government and USAID-funded program that provides cash transfers to children heads of households until age 18.(1, 65)

Programs For Street Children†

Government and civil society-organized programs that provide shelters and schooling to prepare street children for reintegration into society.(65)

Direct Support to Schools Program†

$17.3 million, Government-funded program that provides funds to school councils and parent associations for use in improving access to and quality of education.(55, 65)

UNICEF Radio Program

UNICEF program established in coordination with the Government to communicate issues of child abuse, including child labor, on national and community radio broadcasts.(55)

Victims of Violence Centers†

Government-funded program implemented by GAMC that provides temporary shelter, food, limited counseling, and monitoring following reintegration for victims of crime. There are 22 centers located throughout the country.(34, 53)

Speak Child-116

NGO-funded program that runs a hotline to receive complaints of child abuse, including those related to child labor and sexual exploitation.(3)

Permanent Shelter for Vulnerable Children†

Funded and operated by MGCAS and Save the Children, and staffed with two psychologists to provide services to vulnerable children, including trafficking victims.(59)

† Program is funded by the Government of Mozambique.

Although the Government has implemented programs that target street children and child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs to assist children engaged in agriculture and domestic work. Additionally, the scope of existing programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Mozambique (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that all children are protected by law, including children working outside of formal employment relationships.

2015

Determine the types of hazardous work prohibited for children, in consultation with employers' and workers' organizations.

2009 – 2015

Establish the activities, number of hours per week, and conditions under which light work may be undertaken.

2015

Make the Law on Drugs publicly available.

2015

Raise the age of compulsory education to be consistent with the minimum age for employment.

2009 – 2015

Enforcement

Make law enforcement information publicly available, including the Labor Inspectorate’s funding; the number and training of labor inspectors; the number and type of labor inspections conducted; the number of child labor violations, citations, and penalties; as well as the training of investigators responsible for enforcing laws on the worst forms of child labor; and the number of investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions.

2009 – 2015

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by initiating routine inspections and targeted inspections based on analysis of data on risk-prone sectors and patterns of serious incidents.

2015

Allocate sufficient resources to law enforcement agencies in order to:

  • Provide labor inspectors with adequate training on child labor;
  • Provide adequate training to criminal law enforcement officials to ensure violators are prosecuted.

2009 – 2015

Establish referral mechanisms to link all victims of the worst forms of child labor with the appropriate social services.

2014 – 2015

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including in all its worst forms.

2010 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2010 – 2015

Social Programs

Take measures to ensure all children have access to education, by providing supplies and establishing an adequate number of classrooms. Protect students from teachers who demand sex as a condition for advancement.

2010 – 2015

Make the results of the child labor study publicly available and use the findings to inform policies and programs.

2015

Institute programs to address child labor in agriculture and domestic work, and expand existing programs in order to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2010 – 2015

 

 

1.      U.S. Embassy- Maputo. reporting, January 17, 2014.

2.      UN Human Rights Committee. Consideration of Reports of States Parties: Concluding Observations: Mozambique. Geneva; November 19, 2013. Report No. CCPR/C/MOZ/CO/1.

3.      U.S. Embassy- Maputo. reporting, January 14, 2015.

4.      U.S. Department of State. "Mozambique," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236598.pdf.

5.      Rede CAME official. Interview with USDOL official. August 31, 2015.

6.      Save the Children Mozambique official. Interview with USDOL official. September 1, 2015.

7.      Liga dos Direitos da Criança official. Interview with USDOL official. September 2, 2015.

8.      Organização dos Trabalhadores de Moçambique official. Interview with USDOL official. September 4, 2015.

9.      "Dia Mundial de Luta contra o Trabalho Infantil." rosc.org.mz [online] June 12, 2015 [cited October 26, 2015]; http://www.rosc.org.mz/index.php/noticias/item/258-dia-mundial-de-luta-c....

10.     UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

11.     UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2008. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

12.     Diário de Moçambique. Trabalho infantil preocupa, Moçambique para todos, [blog] March 28, 2012 [cited http://macua.blogs.com/moambique_para_todos/2012/03/trabalho-infantil-pr....

13.     ILO-IPEC, and CPLP. Estudo sobre a aplicação das Convenções n. 138 e n. 182 da OIT e recomendações na legislação nacional dos países da CPLP: Moçambique. Geneva; December 2012. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=23180.

14.     Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco-Growing Foundation. Assessment of child labour in small-scale tobacco farms in Mozambique. Geneva; June 2, 2006. http://www.eclt.org/activities/research/mozambique.html.

15.     "Moçambique é o país da SADC com mais crianças a trabalhar." @Verdade, Maputo, May 8, 2014. http://www.verdade.co.mz/economia/46038-oit-coloca-mocambique-como-pior-....

16.     Bernardo, C. "Procura-se combater trabalho infantil em Tete." Notícias, Maputo, October 23, 2014. http://www.jornalnoticias.co.mz/index.php/provincia-em-foco/25369-tete-p....

17.     Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco-growing (ECLT) Foundation. Baseline Survey Implementation Final Report; June 2012.

18.     A. Consul, D. Mandevane, and I. Tankar. Impacto da Mineração Artesanal na Vida das Crianças & no Meio Ambiente. Maputo, Centro Terra Viva; 2012.

19.     José Magode, Patrício José, Frederico Congolo, Calton Cadeado, António Patrício, and Rafael Lindy. Tráfico de Pessoas Em Moçambique, Em Particular, De Crianças. Maputo, Instituto Superior de Relações Internacionais; November 2014. http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se/sites/default/files/documents/m....

20.     Ministry of Education official. Interview with USDOL official. September 2, 2015.

21.     Claudina, C. MITRAB Forma Técnicos para Inspecionarem Trabalho Infantil, Rede de Comunicadores Amigos da Criança, [online] December 13, 2012 [cited February 6, 2013]; [source on file].

22.     Maquitela, A. "Trabalho infantil: O Retrocesso nas possibilidades de desenvolvimento da criança." noticias.mmo.co.mz [online] March 3, 2015 [cited October 25, 2015]; http://noticias.mmo.co.mz/2015/03/trabalho-infantil-o-retrocesso-nas-pos....

23.     Abanês, N. Crianças com Sonhos Falecidos Deambulam sem Rumo nas Sombras do Trabalho Infantil, Rede de Comunicadores Amigos da Criança, [previously online] May 15, 2012 [cited February 6, 2013]; [source on file].

24.     Verdasco, A. Strengthening Child Protection Systems for Unaccompanied Migrant Children in Mozambique: A Case Study of the Border Town of Ressano Garcia. Florence, UNICEF Office of Research; 2013. http://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/705.

25.     ILO. Mozambique Decent Work Programme 2011-2015; February 2013. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/mozambiqu....

26.     Fernando, S. "Menores são privados dos seus direitos em Mecubúri." @Verdade, Maputo, October 2, 2014. http://www.verdade.co.mz/nacional/49387-menores-sao-privados-dos-seus-di....

27.     "Desmantelada suposta rede de exploração de trabalho infantil no bairro de Xipamanine." O País, Maputo, February 24, 2015; Society. http://opais.sapo.mz/index.php/sociedade/45-sociedade/34537-desmantelada....

28.     Swails, B. "Trafficking in Mozambique: 'Every minute was the worst'," The CNN Freedom Project. February 20, 2012; 3 min., 45 sec., television broadcast; [cited November 8, 2012]; http://thecnnfreedomproject.blogs.cnn.com/2012/02/20/trafficking-in-moza....

29.     Bernardo, C. TETE- Tráfico e Abuso Sexual de Menores: IPAJ Envolve Comunidades no Combate Aqueles Males, Rede de Comunicadores Amigos da Criança, [previously online] March 11, 2011 [cited February 6, 2013]; [source on file].

30.     "24% de Raparigas de Cabo Delgado, Tete e Manica envolvidas na prostituição." @Verdade, Maputo, March 7, 2012. http://www.verdade.co.mz/mulher/25552-24-de-raparigas-de-cabo-delgado-te....

31.     U.S. Embassy- Maputo. reporting, February 24, 2013.

32.     "Crianças moçambicanas na RAS e zimbabweanas em Manica tornam-se prostitutas." @Verdade, Maputo, September 2, 2011. http://www.verdade.co.mz/nacional/21956-criancas-mocambicanas-na-ras-e-z....

33.     Bolacha, C. "Aumenta a prostituição infantil em Mocuba." @Verdade, Maputo, August 7, 2014. http://www.verdade.co.mz/nacional/48059-aumenta-a-prostituicao-infantil-....

34.     U.S. Department of State. "Mozambique," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243560.pdf.

35.     Brock, J. "Mozambique gas projects raise risk of resource "curse"." af.reuters.com [online] October 26, 2015 [cited http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFKCN0SK1L320151026?utm_source=O....

36.     Fischer, V. Mozambique: The Child Trafficking Hub of Southern Africa [MPEG]: Deutsche Welle English; June 21, 2011, 06 min., 45 sec., November 16, 2012; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pe2n_2_bmf8.

37.     Club of Mozambique. "Mpumalanga man in court for alleged Mozambican sex slaves." clubofmozambique.com [online] October 3, 2014 [cited http://www.clubofmozambique.com/solutions1/sectionnews.php?secao=mozambi....

38.     Lusa. "Autoridades moçambicanas resgatam uma média de 20 crianças por ano das rotas de tráfico em Manica." @Verdade, Maputo, July 27, 2015. http://www.verdade.co.mz/newsflash/54200-autoridades-mocambicanas-resgat....

39.     Macanandze, C. "A educação básica está longe de ser abrangente no país." @Verdade, Maputo, August 21, 2014. http://www.verdade.co.mz/nacional/48379-a-educacao-basica-esta-longe-de-....

40.     UNICEF. State of the World’s Children 2015: Executive Summary- Reimagine the Future: Innovation for Every Child. New York; November 2014. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/SOWC_2015_Summary_and_Tables.pdf.

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