Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Montenegro

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Montenegro

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2015, Montenegro made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare adopted the Code of Rules, which prescribes minimum workplace protections for employers and employees, specifically emphasizing protections for underage workers. The Police Directorate formed a three-member trafficking in persons team that focuses on all forms of trafficking in persons, including child labor. The National Trafficking in Persons Office provided technical assistance to the Ministries of Health and Education to create guidance on trafficking in persons and adopted an action plan to combat human trafficking in 2016. Additionally, the Government of Montenegro signed a memorandum of understanding with the ILO to conduct a study of the child labor situation. However, children in Montenegro are engaged in child labor, including in begging, and in the worst forms of child labor, including being subjected to commercial sexual exploitation. In addition, the Government has no social programs to address child labor in street work, forced begging, or commercial sexual exploitation of children.

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Children in Montenegro are engaged in child labor, including in begging.(1-5) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Montenegro.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

12.9 (12,867)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

87.7

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

14.4

Primary completion rate (%):

92.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2005.(10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Services

Street work, including collecting scrap metal,* vending small goods and food items,* washing car windows,* and begging (1-3, 5, 11-13)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking* (2, 4, 14)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-5, 13)

Domestic work as a result of human trafficking* (4)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Child begging remains the predominant child labor issue in Montenegro.(1-3, 5, 11) Organized forced begging involving children remains a problem, especially among children from the Roma community.(1-4, 13)

Montenegro is a source, destination, and transit country for children trafficked for forced labor, including forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation. Children are trafficked internally and transnationally from and to other Balkan countries and Western Europe.(4, 13, 15) Some Romani girls from Montenegro are sold into servile marriages in both Montenegro and Kosovo, where they are also forced into domestic servitude.(4) Children from the Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian populations are at a higher risk of human trafficking due to lower rates of birth registration and school attendance, and higher rates of participation in street work.(6, 11-16) Both boys and girls from these communities are vulnerable to forced begging, while trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is more common among girls.(4, 15)

Although the Government adopted the Strategy for the Improvement of the Position of Roma and Other Minorities in 2012, which includes the goal of increasing birth registration among minorities, many Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian children continue to lack birth registration. In addition to problems accessing basic education, the lack of birth registration also makes accessing social services and health care challenging for minority groups.(2, 11, 12, 17-19) The higher rate of unregistered children in these communities appears to be related to insufficient awareness of the importance of civil registration, a lack of identity documents among the adults, and the costs associated with the registration process.(2)

Although the number of children with disabilities studying in mainstream schools has dramatically increased over the past five years, children with disabilities continue to experience difficulty accessing education, especially in rural areas. A source reported that these children also experience difficulty accessing social services made available by the Government, including services provided to victims of human trafficking.(20, 21)

Montenegro has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 16 of the Labor Law of 2008 (22)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 17 of the Labor Law of 2008 (22)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 104 of the Labor Law of 2008; Articles 7 and 8 of the Regulations on Measures of Protection in the Workplace (22)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 63 of the Constitution (23)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 444–446 of the Criminal Code (24)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 209–211 of the Criminal Code (24)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 300 of the Criminal Code (24)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Articles 162 and 163 of the Law on the Armed Forces of Montenegro (25, 26)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 4 of the Law on Primary Education (27)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 75 of the Constitution of Republic of Montenegro (23)

* No conscription (28)

During the reporting period, the Government began implementing amendments to the Foreigners Act, such as to ensure that children who are victims of human trafficking or domestic violence or are unaccompanied receive a temporary residence permit, depending on the status of one or both of a child’s parents. The Foreigners Act can also be used by human trafficking victims to acquire a temporary residence permit in the country, which is valid for between 3 months to 1 year, but can be extended further, as necessary.(20)

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare adopted the Code of Rules for Occupational Safety, which introduced prohibitions of specific hazardous activities for children, and prescribes minimum workplace protections for all employers and employees.(3) The Code of Rules prohibits the employment of children in workplaces that would expose them to physical biological or chemical hazards, as well as an additional list of activities such as handling explosives, working with poisonous animals, and jobs that would expose them to high voltage electricity.(29)

Despite these efforts, gaps in the legal framework still exist. Although the Labor Law prohibits children under age 18 from performing overtime and night work, Article 106 of the Labor Law allows employees between ages 15 and 18 to work at night in circumstances in which it is necessary to continue work interrupted by natural disasters or to mitigate damage to raw or other materials.(22, 30) In addition, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover street work, an area in which there is evidence of children engaged in carrying heavy loads by collecting scrap metal and by vending goods and food items.(3, 22)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Labor Inspectorate

Monitor the enforcement of labor law, which also contains child labor regulations, and monitor working conditions in workplaces throughout the country.(3) Lead efforts, as an independent agency, in enforcing labor laws, including those that protect working children.(26, 31, 32)

Supreme State Prosecutor

Investigate and enforce criminal laws on forced labor and human trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.(7, 31) Collect data on court rulings and crime convictions and submit them to the Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator (TIP Office).(7)

Police Directorate within the Ministry of Interior

Enforce laws against sex trafficking and forced labor. Coordinate law enforcement actions on a national level.(7) Be responsible for proactive identification of the victims of human trafficking. Collect data on the number of police investigations and submit them to the TIP Office.(7)

Ministry of Justice

Enforce the Criminal Code by prosecuting crimes against children, including human trafficking, child begging, and child abuse.(32)

Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MLSW)

Protect children and families by providing social, child, and family protection in its Social Welfare Centers. Identify potential victims of human trafficking.(7)

Ombudsman’s Deputy for the Rights of the Child

Monitor the situation of children in the country, using strategies such as visiting schools and institutions, holding focus groups, and creating e-mails and social blogs for children of various ages.(31)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Montenegro took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

34 (33)

34 (3)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (8)

Yes (3)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (33)

Yes (33)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (8)

Yes (3)

Number of Labor Inspections

11,844 (34)

10,806 (33)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

10,806 (33)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

0 (33)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

11 (8)

25 (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

11 (8)

25 (33)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

11 (8)

25 (33)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (8)

Yes (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (8)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (8)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (3, 8)

Yes (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (33)

Yes (33)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (33)

Yes (33)

 

Labor Inspectorate officials have stated that the number of inspectors is inadequate to conduct inspections across the entire country. However, the funding and resources allocated for inspections were reportedly sufficient during the reporting period.(3, 31) Although the Labor Law does not cover issues related to trafficking in persons, labor inspectors received training during the reporting period on how to identify human trafficking for labor exploitation, which included discussions about child labor. In July and September 2015, the Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator (TIP Office) and the State Agency for Social and Child Protection organized training seminars for participants from government institutions, including the Centers for Social Welfare and the Prosecutor’s Office, on strategies to address child trafficking, child begging, and forced child marriages. Some of the attendees then trained their colleagues on the strategies they had learned.(3, 20) Separately, the State Human Resources Agency and the TIP Office collaborated to host a seminar on strategies related to the early identification of victims of trafficking in persons, which five labor inspectors and two officials from the Center for Support of Children and Families attended.(3, 20)

The Labor Inspectorate proactively plans labor inspections on annual and monthly bases, and also conducts complaint-based inspections.(3, 34) The inspectorate increases its inspections of specific sectors, such as trade and catering industries, during the summer tourist season. As part of their regular labor inspections in 2015, inspectors found 25 cases of informal labor in the trade sector by children on the Montenegrin coast.(3) In all 25 cases, the inspectorate found that the employer had not provided children with employment contracts.(3)

The Government does not collect or publish information on the number of child labor law violations; however, the Government does maintain a database on children involved in begging.(31, 33)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Montenegro took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (33)

Yes (20)

Number of Investigations

156 (33)

122 (33)

Number of Violations Found

156 (33)

125 (33)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (8)

1 (33)

Number of Convictions

0 (8)

0 (3, 20)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (33)

Yes (20)

 

In 2015, criminal law enforcement personnel, members of the judiciary, and health and social workers received training on issues related to trafficking in persons, including best practices on early identification of victims and the legal aspects of combating human trafficking. For example, the TIP Office, partnering with the Ministry of the Interior and the OSCE Mission to Montenegro, provided 18 training sessions to 239 border police officers across the country as part of a 2-year border police training plan that began in 2014.(3, 20) Additionally, the Police Directorate established a three-member trafficking in persons team to focus on all forms of trafficking in persons, including child labor. The TIP Office also collaborated with the UNODC, with funding from USDOS, to host a four-day seminar on best practices on how to protect victims of trafficking in persons during criminal trials. Eight representatives of the Supreme State Prosecutor’s office, eight representatives from the judiciary, one official from the Police Directorate, and one NGO representative attended the seminar.(3, 20)Despite these efforts, victim identification remained an area requiring improvement in order for the Government to combat human trafficking effectively.

Criminal law enforcement personnel conducted 96 investigations related to begging, which led to 407 people being apprehended; of these, 122 were children. During these investigations, the authorities removed beggars from the streets and issued citations to them.(3) The police also initiated four new trafficking in persons cases, in which 16 individuals, some of them minors, were victims of commercial sexual exploitation. Prosecutors filed criminal charges against six individuals in relation to those four cases for brokering in prostitution, including one person charged with brokering in prostitution involving minors.(20)

Some of the children police remove from begging on the street and whose parents cannot be located immediately are placed in the public institution for social and child care named Ljubovic. This institution provides these children with housing, protection, educational services, and therapeutic treatment.(3) Children can stay in this institution for up to 30 days. However, children typically stay in a public institution for social and child care for a day or less, while the police search for their parents in order to return them to their families.(3) In 2015, police sent two children to Ljubovic; they were later released to their families.(3) When parents are not available, children are referred to local Social Welfare Centers upon completing a temporary stay in Ljubovic.(35) Under Article 37 of the Law on Protection from Family Violence, a public institution for social and child care can also charge the parents with neglect of their parental obligations; however, no such charges were made during the reporting period.(3, 36)

The Ombudsman for Human Rights has criticized the Police and Social Welfare Centers for insufficiently and inconsistently tracking information on children caught begging. The Ombudsman also noted that many child beggars were treated as delinquents rather than victims, that Social Welfare Centers only provided services to a small minority of child beggars who are registered citizens of Montenegro, and that there is a systemic lack of specialized services for the reintegration of children into society.(31, 37)

During the reporting period, the Government provided both verified and potential human trafficking victims with a number of free services, including protection, medical and psychological assistance, and legal advice, regardless of whether victims were Montenegrin citizens. Individuals who received these services met minimum identification requirements.(20) The Government used the priority principle, based on a variety of factors, such as the victim’s vulnerability, age, gender, and exposure to physical and sexual abuse, to prioritize the provision of these services. However, sources reported that although free legal services were provided to potential victims, the lawyers assigned to their cases often had inadequate training in representing victims of human trafficking.(20)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Office of the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator (TIP Office)

Coordinate efforts against trafficking in persons among relevant government institutions and international organizations and ensure their cooperation.(7, 20) Present results of the efforts against human trafficking through participation in domestic and international events. Harmonize domestic legislation with international standards.(7) Oversee projects and initiatives for implementation of the main objectives from the National Strategy and Action Plans. Collect and maintain data on police investigations, court rulings, and verdicts that relate to human trafficking and victims of trafficking.(7) Fund hotline and shelters for victims of human trafficking.(20) In 2015, the TIP Office conducted training on identifying victims of trafficking in persons and the legal aspects of combating this issue for law enforcement and members of the judiciary, as well as health and social workers. Additionally, this office provided technical assistance to the Ministries of Health and Education to create guidance on trafficking in persons.(20) The Government appropriated approximately $160,000 from the state budget to fund the TIP Office, which marks a decrease of less than 1 percent as compared to its budget in 2014. After accounting for operational expenses, the office used 50 percent of its total budget for activities to combat trafficking in persons, such as developing and implementing training and educational modules, operating the shelter for human trafficking victims, and setting up a hotline.(20)

Trafficking in Persons Task Force

Operate under the TIP Office. Monitor and promote activities related to combating human trafficking, and assess and approve semiannual reports on the progress of objectives established in the trafficking in persons action plans.(7, 20) Includes the representatives from the Ministries of Interior, Justice, Foreign Affairs and European Integration, Minority and Human Rights, Health, Labor and Social Welfare, and Culture; Police Directorate; Supreme Court; Supreme State Prosecutors; and Inspectorate Authority, as well as NGOs and international organizations.(20) Schedules meetings twice a year on a regular interval and when a potential victim of human trafficking is identified. In 2015, this task force met six times.(20)

Council for the Rights of the Child

Implement and monitor the National Plan for Children and the Government’s commitments pursuant to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, initiate the adoption of legislation to promote and protect the rights of children, and improve cooperation with NGOs to achieve these goals. Chaired by the Minister of Labor and Social Welfare.(8, 38) The council met several times in 2015, and discussed the issue of child begging during at least one session.(33)

 

The Government of Montenegro has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action for Children (2013–2017)

Defines and protects children’s rights in the areas of social services, child protection, health services, and education.(31) Outlines a strategy to fulfill obligations arising from ratification of the CRC. Includes goals such as improving prevention of hazardous and exploitative child labor and child trafficking, protecting children from commercial sexual exploitation, increasing birth registration, ensuring education access for all children, and improving social services for street children.(38)

Strategy for the Improvement of the Position of Roma and Other Minorities (2012–2016)

Addresses such issues as the legal framework, education, employment, child protection, housing, and participation in public life for Roma and other minorities. Implemented by the Ministry for Minority and Human Rights.(31, 32) Includes the goals of increasing birth registration among minority communities through an information and awareness campaign and eliminating begging among Roma and Egyptian children.(19) Achievements attributable to the Strategy include a 50 percent increase in Roma children in primary and secondary schools, introduction of Romani language classes and the provision of assistance to Roma IDPs in need of identity documents.(33)

UNICEF Country Program (2012–2016)

Addresses disparities in access to quality social services for children and families, harmonizes the country’s legal framework with EU and UN standards, implements and monitors policies relevant to child-focused governance and social inclusion, and applies the principles and standards of the CRC and facilitates independent monitoring.(18, 39)

National Strategy for Combating Human Trafficking (2012–2018)

Outlines Montenegro’s objectives and goals for combating human trafficking and defines measurements for improvement. Goals include raising public awareness of human trafficking, strengthening the Government’s capacity for victim identification and service provision, improving interagency coordination, and raising the efficiency of prosecutions.(20, 40) This strategy and its yearly Action Plan for implementation are both evaluated in semiannual reports, which are prepared through the collaboration of government agencies and civil society, and then adopted by the Government. In September 2015, the Government adopted the first semiannual report for the period of January 1–June 31, 2015.(20) Additionally, the TIP Office drafted an Action Plan for 2016 during the reporting period.(20)

Strategy for the Development of Social and Child Protection

(2013–2017)*

Builds an integrated social and child protection system, including monthly social assistance, health care, and a child allowance that is conditional on school attendance.(30, 41)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

The strategy coordinator for the Strategy for the Improvement of the Position of Roma and Other Minorities noted that the policy lacked sufficient funding in 2015.

In 2015, the Government of Montenegro funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Social Welfare and Child Care System Reform: Enhancing Social Inclusion

(2013–2017)†

$4.5 million, 4-year project sponsored by the Ministry of Education (MOE) and MLSW. Implemented by the Government, in cooperation with the UNDP and UNICEF, to strengthen protection for children under the Strategy for the Development of Social and Child Protection. Composed of three phases: Inclusive Education, which has been completed, Reform of Social Protection, and Child Care System Reform.(30, 33)  

Social Card – Social Welfare Information System Program†

Project to build a shared social welfare information system to facilitate information exchange among social services providers. Project provides a unique Social Card to each beneficiary family to make eligibility information for each family easily available to all relevant institutions.(8, 26, 33) Through these reforms to the social and child protection system, aims to develop adequate social services at the local level. Implementation began in January 2015, when social centers started collecting information into consolidated databases.(3)

Institute for Social and Child Protection

Administer the issuance of licenses for social workers and other competent personnel; conduct research, including through surveys, about approaches to social and child protection; provide counseling and technical assistance; and oversee the provision of child protection services.(8, 26)

One of Five†

The Council of Europe campaign to reduce and stop sexual violence against children, including commercial sexual exploitation.(42, 43) Led to the development of the Action Plan against the Sexual Abuse of Children.(32)

Shelter for Human Trafficking Victims†

During the reporting period, the TIP Office allocated $27,500 to cover operational costs of the shelter, including the salaries of shelter employees, and some basic food, clothing, and medical assistance for victims, which marks a 14 percent decrease in funding as compared to 2014.(20, 32) The NGO Montenegrin Women’s Lobby and the Government jointly run this shelter, which can provide accommodations for children who are separated from adults. In 2015, this shelter housed four female children who were victims of human trafficking.(20)

Social Welfare Centers†

Government-supported centers that provide social, child, and family protection, including to victims of child trafficking.(20, 32, 44)

Group Children Center

UNICEF- and EU-supported program focused on creating a framework for the foster care system as an alternative to placement in government institutions. The MLSW collaborated with UNICEF to pilot this Group Children Center in the northern region of the country.(31)

Training for Public Workers and Public Awareness Campaigns on Trafficking in Persons Issues†

In 2015, the Government cosponsored training to educate public workers and implemented campaigns to raise the public’s awareness about trafficking in persons issues.(20) Public awareness campaigns that took place in 2015 include the national STOP TIP campaign, which featured a video that public and commercial television stations broadcasted and efforts to promote the Government’s hotline for potential victims of human trafficking, as well as a campaign that ran in July and August. The Government also used posters at all border crossings to advertise the number of the hotline to potential trafficking in persons victims.(20) The Ombudsman for Human Rights not only conducted a public awareness campaign regarding the prevention of child begging, commercial sexual exploitation of children, and Internet-based child abuse, it also hosted workshops with children to educate them about these issues.(20)

MOE Guidelines on Trafficking in Persons

In 2015, the MOE partnered with the TIP Office to publish guidelines for education providers about how to teach children about the issue of trafficking in persons.(20)

Hotline for Victims of Human Trafficking†

Funded by the TIP Office, this hotline provides advice, connects actual and potential victims with service providers, and educates the public on information about human trafficking. Also assists victims with their reintegration into society by providing  vocational training.(7, 20) In 2015, the hotline received 540 calls, of which the TIP Office identified 45 as calls from potential victims of human trafficking.(33)

† Program is funded by the Government of Montenegro.

Although the Government of Montenegro has implemented programs for the general protection of children and for child trafficking victims, research found no evidence of programs to specifically and systematically address child labor in street work and in the worst forms of child labor in forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation of children.

During the reporting period, the Government of Montenegro signed a memorandum of understanding with the ILO to conduct a study of the child labor situation.(3)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Montenegro (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the types of work prohibited for children are comprehensive, and include night work and carrying heavy loads.

2012 – 2015

Enforcement

Make information about the Labor Inspectorate’s funding and the training system for labor and criminal law enforcement personnel publicly available.

2015

Ensure that all children removed from street work are treated as victims and are provided with specialized social services to prevent reentry into begging or street work, regardless of citizenship or birth registration.

2012 – 2015

Build enforcement capacity to effectively identify child trafficking victims.

2015

Provide comprehensive training on effectively representing potential trafficking in persons victims to lawyers assigned to these cases through the free legal services program.

2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into national policies, including the Strategy for the Development of Social and Child Protection.

2013 – 2015

Fully fund and implement the National Strategy for the Improvement of the Position of Roma and Other Minorities in Montenegro.

2010 – 2015

Social Programs

Build the capacity of schools and other government service providers to accommodate and provide services to children with disabilities.

2015

                  

Strengthen efforts to inform all citizens and those seeking to become citizens, particularly Roma, about how to register and receive access to education, health care, and other social services.

2012 – 2015

Institute programs to specifically and systematically address child labor in street work and the worst forms of child labor in forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2013 – 2015

 

 

1.         Ombudsman for Human Rights. Annual Report 2012. Podgorica, Government of Montenegro; March 2013. http://www.ombudsman.co.me/docs/izvjestaji/19112013_Final_Izvjestaj.pdf.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Montenegro," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2014&dlid=236558.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Podgorica. reporting, January 15, 2016.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Montenegro," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243496.htm.

5.         Drazen Remikovic. Experts urge action to help child beggars, Southeast European Times, [onilne] March 3, 2014 [cited January 28, 2015]; http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/articles/2014/03/03/reportage-01.

6.         U.S. Department of State. "Montenegro," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2014/.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Podgorica. reporting, March 6, 2014.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Podgorica. reporting, January 14, 2015.

9.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

10.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2005. Analysis received December 18, 2015.

11.       UN Human Rights Committee. Concluding observations on the initial report of Montenegro; November 21, 2014. Report No. CCPR/C/MNE/CO/1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR/C/MNE/CO/1&Lang=En.

12.       UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Concluding observations on the combined second and third periodic reports of Montenegro; March 13, 2014. Report No. CERD/C/MNE/CO/2-3. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CERD/C/MNE/CO/2-3&Lang=En.

13.       UN Committee on Economic, SaCR. December 15, 2014. Report No. E/C.12/MNE/CO/1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E/C.12/MNE/CO/1&Lang=En.

14.       GRETA. Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Montenegro. Strasbourg; September 13, 2012. http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/trafficking/Docs/Reports/GRETA_2012_9_FGR_MNE_en.pdf.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Podgorica. reporting, February 5, 2015.

16.       ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Montenegro (ratification: 2006) Submitted: 2013; accessed March 21, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3077175:NO.

17.       European Commission. Commission Staff Working Document Montenegro 2012 Progress Report. Brussels; October 10, 2012. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2012/package/mn_rapport_2012_en.pdf.

18.       UNICEF. Montenegro: Country Programme Document: 2012-2016. New York; September 15, 2011. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Montenegro_final_approved_2012-2016_20_Oct_2011.pdf.

19.       Government of Montenegro. Strategy for Improving the Position of Roma and Egyptian in Montenegro 2012-2016. March 2012 2012. http://www.romadecade.org/cms/upload/file/9310_file2_strategy-for-improving-the-position-of-roma-and-egyptia.pdf.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Podgorica. reporting, January 29, 2016.

21.       UNICEF. It's about ability campaign improves lives of children with disability in Montenegro, [onilne] June 5, 2014 [cited June 6, 2016]; http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/media_26187.html.

22.       U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi. reporting, February 22, 2012.

23.       Government of Montenegro. Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro, enacted October 22, 2007. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=MGO&p_classification=01.01&p_origin=COUNTRY&p_sortby=SORTBY_COUNTRY.

24.       Government of Montenegro. Criminal Code of the Republic of Montenegro, No. 70/2003, and correction, no. 13/2004, enacted 2004. http://legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes.

25.       UNICEF. Summary Results Matrix:  Government of Georgia UNICEF Country Programme, 2011-2015. 2011. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Georgia_SRM_version_120310_froml_from_RO.pdf.

26.       U.S. Embassy- Podgorica official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 10, 2015.

27.       Government of Georgia. Information on Government actions to eliminate worst forms of child labor. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 6, 2014) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Tbilisi; January 26, 2015.

28.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary Table on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words:  An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

29.       Government of Montenegro. Regulations on Measures of Protection in the Workplace, enacted 2015.

30.       Government of Montenegro. Written Communication Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Request for Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor. Podgorica; December 14, 2012.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Podgorica. reporting, January 17, 2014.

32.       U.S. Embassy- Podgorica official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 2, 2014.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Podgorica official. Email communication to USDOL official. May 26, 2016.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Podgorica official. Email communication to USDOL official. March 3, 2015.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Podgorica. reporting, April 2, 2013.

36.       Government of Montenegro. Law on Domestic Violence Protection, enacted August 6, 2010. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwirtbitgbzNAhUGXD4KHdbEDQoQFggeMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.me.undp.org%2Fcontent%2Fdam%2Fmontenegro%2Fdocs%2Fprojectdocs%2Fsi%2FGender%2FLaw%2520on%2520Domestic%2520Violence%2520Protection.pdf%3Fdownload&usg=AFQjCNECUx1lup0G3CW_kgRSzqA99XsIlA.

37.       Ombudsman for Human Rights. Special Report on Child Beggary in Montenegro. Podgorica; November 2011. http://www.ombudsman.co.me/djeca/docs/naucimo_ih_nesto_drugo.pdf.

38.       Government of Montenegro. 2013-2017 National Plan of Action for Children; 2013. http://www.minradiss.gov.me/ResourceManager/FileDownload.aspx?rid=178608&rType=2&file=National%20plan%20of%20action%20for%20children.docx.

39.       Government of Montenegro. Montenegro Champion of UN Reform, Government of Montenegro, [online] [cited April 22, 2014]; http://www.gov.me/en/News/111030/Montenegro-champion-of-EU-reform-UN-official-says-at-signing-of-cooperation-action-plans.html.

40.       Government of Montenegro. Strategy for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings; 2012. http://www.legislationline.org/documents/id/18669.

41.       European Commission. 2015-2017 Sectoral Operational Programme for Montenegro on Employment, Education and Social Policies. Brussels; October 2015. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/montenegro/ipa/2015/ipa_2015_2017_037895_me_sectoral_operational_programme.pdf.

42.       Government of Montenegro. Montenegro initiates preparations for participation in CoE campaign “One in five”, Government of Montenegro, [online] [cited April 23, 2014]; http://www.gov.me/en/News/112301/Montenegro-initiates-preparations-for-participation-in-CoE-campaign-One-in-five.html.

43.       Council of Europe. One in Five Campaign, Council of Europe, [online] [cited January 28, 2015]; http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/children/1in5/default_en.asp.

44.       U.S. Embassy- Podgorica. reporting, February 15, 2013.

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