Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Mongolia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Mongolia

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Continued Practice that Delayed Advancement

In 2017, Mongolia made minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Despite new initiatives to address child labor, Mongolia is receiving this assessment because the government did not permit the Labor Inspectorate to conduct unannounced inspections, which impeded the enforcement of child labor laws. Otherwise, the government amended the Criminal Code to prohibit and provide penalties for child trafficking. The Family, Child, and Youth Development Agency also organized trainings on child labor in 19 of Mongolia’s 21 provinces for more than 1,200 government officials. In addition, the government adopted the National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Persons, which strengthens efforts to combat child trafficking. Children in Mongolia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation. Children also perform dangerous tasks in mining and horse jockeying. Labor inspectors lack adequate training on laws related to child labor, and the number of labor inspectors in the General Agency for Specialized Inspection is insufficient.

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Children in Mongolia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation. Children also perform dangerous tasks in mining and horse jockeying. (1; 2; 3; 4) Furthermore, 9 out of 10 children exploited in situations of hazardous work are boys. (2; 5) According to Mongolia’s National Child Labor Survey, children’s employment is more prevalent in rural areas than in urban areas. (2; 6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Mongolia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5-14

13.2(60,246)

Attending School (%)

5-14

96.3

Combining Work and School (%)

7-14

14.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

93.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Labor Force Survey-National Child Labor Survey, 20112012. (8)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Animal husbandry,† including herding† (2; 9; 4; 3)

Industry

Construction,† including carrying and loading bricks, cement, and steel framework, mixing construction solutions such as lime or cement,† binding steel framework, and cleaning at the construction site† (2; 10; 4; 3)

Mining† coal,† gold, and fluorspar (2; 11; 4; 12; 3)

Services

Horse jockeying† (13; 14; 15; 4; 1; 3)

Scavenging in garbage dumpsites (2; 4)

Handling freight† (2; 4)

Domestic work† (4; 16)

Ticket-taking for public transportation† (4; 16)

Street work, including vending† and washing cars (17; 18)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography (4; 19; 3)

Forced labor in begging (4; 3)

Forced labor in construction, mining, agriculture, horse jockeying, animal husbandry, industrial sectors, and contortionist work (20; 21)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Mongolian children are generally trafficked internally for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation in saunas, bars, hotels, karaoke clubs, and massage parlors. (4; 22; 3) Children also work as horse jockeys and face a number of health and safety hazards, including exposure to extremely cold temperatures, risk of brain and bone injuries, and fatal falls. (14; 15; 1; 23) Participation in pre-training and horse racing during the November 1–May 1 racing season may also negatively impact children’s school attendance, particularly when children as young as age 7 can participate in horse racing. (14; 15)

During the reporting period, the Family, Child, and Youth Development Agency (FCYDA) collected data on exploitative child labor in Mongolia. The agency identified 99 children engaged in various forms of child labor in Ulaanbaatar, and registered 10,453 children in a nationwide database for child horse jockeys. (4)

Mongolia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Mongolia’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 109 of the Law on Labor (24)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 141 of the Law on Labor; List of Jobs and Occupations Prohibited to Minors (25; 24)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

List of Jobs and Occupations Prohibited to Minors; Law on the National Naadam Holiday (25; 26)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

No

 

Articles 12.3, 13.1, 16.4, 16.10 of the Criminal Code; Article 7 of the Law on Labor; Article 7 of the Law on the Rights of the Child (5; 24; 27; 28)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons; Article 13.1 of the Criminal Code (5; 29; 28)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Articles 12.3, 13.1, 16.8–16.10 of the Criminal Code; Combating Pornography and Prostitution Act (30; 5; 28)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

Articles 16.1–16.4 and 16.8–16.10 of the Criminal Code (5; 28)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 12 of the Law on Military (31; 32)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 12 of the Law on Military (31; 32)

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 46 of the Law on Education (33)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 16 of the Constitution of Mongolia; Articles 6.1-6.3 of the Law on Education (34; 35)

 

In 2017, the government amended its Criminal Code to prohibit and criminalize child trafficking. (22; 4; 28) However, Mongolia’s legal framework is lacking several international standards to protect children. (28; 5; 29) The minimum age for work does not apply to children in the informal sector or those that are self-employed (24). During the reporting period, the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection changed the prohibition on working and training as a horse jockey from being prohibited between November 1 and May 1 to only being prohibited during the winter season. This change leaves children unprotected from work as horse jockeys during more months of the year. (25; 36; 4; 23; 37; 16)

Laws related to forced labor are not sufficient, as neither forced labor nor debt bondage is specifically criminalized. (28; 5; 24; 27) Laws relating to the commercial sexual exploitation of children do not meet international standards because they do not create criminal penalties for the use of children engaged in prostitution. (30; 28; 5) Additionally, the laws prohibiting the use of children in illicit activities are not sufficient as they do not criminally prohibit the use, procurement, or offering of a child for the production and trafficking of drugs. (28; 5)

Mongolia’s laws related to military service are not sufficient, as they do not prohibit non-state armed groups from recruiting children under age 18. (32)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the General Agency for Specialized Inspection (GASI) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

General Agency for Specialized Inspection (GASI)

Enforce labor laws, including those related to child labor. Conduct inspections at registered businesses. (18) As an independent agency, reports to the Deputy Prime Minister. (17)

Family, Child, and Youth Development Agency (FCYDA)

Implement programs directed toward families and children for the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection and other government agencies. Perform secretarial duties for the National Committee on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor. (17) Manage the national Child Helpline, the government-run shelter for children, and child protection services. (4; 32)

National Police Agency (NPA)

Maintain primary responsibility for investigating criminal cases. Provide protection to victims and witnesses throughout the judicial process. Report to the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs. (17)

Organized Crime Division

Operate under the NPA, receive referrals, and open formal criminal investigations into human trafficking and sexual exploitation cases. (20) Work with the Prosecutor’s Office to decide whether to take a case to court and initiate subsequent prosecution. (17; 38)

Metropolitan Police Department

Operate under the NPA and oversee police operations in Ulaanbaatar’s nine district police offices. (17) Enforce labor laws and identify children in hazardous labor. (18)

Division for the Prevention of Domestic Violence and Crimes Against Children

Operate under the Metropolitan Police Department to protect unattended children on the streets. Identify and refer children to their parents or to Child Care and Protection Centers. (39)

General Authority for Citizenship and Migration

Register Mongolian citizens who enter and exit the country. Track children who leave Mongolia and do not return, as well as pregnant Mongolian women who leave Mongolia to give birth and return without their child. (20) Follow up with law enforcement as necessary. (20)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Mongolia took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of GASI that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including inspection planning. (17; 32)

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$23,657 (19)

Unknown (4)

Number of Labor Inspectors

63 (19)

63 (4)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (19)

Yes (4)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (19)

Yes (4)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (19)

N/A (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (19)

Yes (4)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown (19)

Unknown (4)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown (19)

Unknown (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (19)

Unknown (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown (19)

Unknown (4)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown (19)

Unknown (4)

Routine Inspections Conducted

 Yes (19)

Yes (4)

Routine Inspections Targeted

 Yes (19)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

 No (19)

No (4)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

 No (19)

No (4)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

 Yes (19)

Yes (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

 Yes (19)

Yes (4)

 

NGO and government officials reported that the enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the legal requirement that GASI give employers 48 hours advance notification before conducting an inspection, which provides employers enough time to conceal violations. (4)

During the reporting period, GASI employed 63 labor inspectors. (4) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Mongolia’s workforce, which includes about 1.2 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Mongolia would employ 83 labor inspectors – which would require the hiring of 20 additional inspectors to meet this threshold. (40; 41)

In 2017, the FCYDA organized training on child labor in 19 of Mongolia’s 21 provinces for 1,245 government officials, including GASI labor inspectors. In addition, FCYDA conducted joint trainings with GASI, the National Emergency Management Agency, and medical providers in 11 provinces with small-scale mining sites. (4)

Child labor and child rights violations can be reported to the FCYDA through a nationwide, toll-free Child Helpline commonly known as “108,” which is staffed with 22 dedicated employees, as well as a social worker and response team who are available 24 hours a day; complaints can be accessed through its database by the police. (42; 4; 43) During the reporting period, the FCYDA assumed responsibility for the Child Helpline, the government-run shelter for children, and child protection services. (4)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Mongolia took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

No (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (19)

No (4)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

9 (19)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

75 (19)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (19)

Yes (4)

 

In 2017, law enforcement agencies did not conduct training on child labor laws; however, law enforcement officials and cadets attended training on human trafficking organized by the IOM, The Asia Foundation, the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs, and the National Police Agency. (22)

Despite these capacity-building efforts, police officers reported a general lack of knowledge and training on how to apply criminal trafficking laws to cases of commercial sexual exploitation of children. Authorities use provisions of the Criminal Code, which carry less stringent penalties when boys are the victims of human trafficking due to the misconception among government officials that only girls can be victims of human trafficking. (21) As a result, many cases that could have been prosecuted under the human trafficking article of the Criminal Code were instead prosecuted under related articles of the Criminal Code that carry lighter penalties. (18; 44)

The National Police Agency’s investigators use an 11-question risk assessment checklist to help them accurately identify human trafficking victims. Investigators refer victims who meet more than five of the criteria to short- or long-term care facilities. (4)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Anti-Trafficking Sub-Council

Coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking and monitor implementation of anti-trafficking legislation. Function as part of the Council on Crime Prevention under the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs. (20; 18) Currently has 15 members representing 12 different organizations, including two NGOs. (20)

 

In 2017, the Coordinating Council to Implement the National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor was dismissed, and its responsibilities were incorporated into the National Program on Child Development and Protection. (4)

The government has established policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Program on Child Development and Protection (2017 – 2021)†

Incorporated the National Program for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and National Action Plan. (4) Coordinates child labor and child protection issues through the Ministries of Labor and Social Protection; Education, Culture, Science and Sports; and Health. (4) In 2017, established an interagency permanent working group to institute programs to address child labor in certain sectors, including herding. (4; 16; 32)

National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Persons (2017 – 2021)†

Aims to strengthen efforts to prevent and combat different types of human trafficking, including the commercial sexual exploitation of children and improve protective services for victims. (4; 22)

State Policy on Herders

Describes the acceptable minimum conditions and criteria for employing children in herding. (45) Activities include projects to improve housing and access to information for herders, and ensure that children engaged in herding receive an education. Each year, the government allocates 1 percent of its budget to implement the policy. (46)

National Development Strategy

Calls for improvements in education, health, social welfare, and labor policies through 2020. Priorities include the education, safety, and health of vulnerable children. (47)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

 

Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the State Policy on Herders or the National Development Strategy during the reporting period. (16)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating child labor, which cover the main sectors where child labor has been identified in the country (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL-funded projects that aim to promote the safety and health of young workers on the job, build the capacity of the national government and legislation, conduct research and collect data, strengthen legal protections and social services delivery for child domestic workers, and increase the public’s awareness of children engaged in hazardous work and its negative consequences through posters and television. These projects include the Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (GAP), implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries, including Mongolia. Additional information is available on the USDOL website. (48; 49)

Children’s Money Program†

General Agency for Social Welfare and Service, General Agency for State Registration, and Human Development Fund program that distributes approximately $8 per month to children under age 18 whose families meet certain economic criteria. (4; 32)

School Lunch Program† Program is funded by the Government of Mongolia.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (17) †

Government program that subsidizes meals to encourage low-income children to attend school, particularly at the secondary level. (18)

 

 

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Mongolia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws clearly and comprehensively prohibit using, procuring, and offering of all children under age 18 for prostitution, the production of pornography, and pornographic performances.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits using, procuring or offering of children under age 18 in the production and trafficking of drugs.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that all forms of forced labor are criminally prohibited.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that laws adequately prohibit children from horseracing at all times of the year.

2017

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors and investigators responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor, including its worst forms, in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2014 – 2017

Publish information on the number of Labor Inspections conducted, the Labor Inspectorate funding, the number of child labor violations found, and the number of child labor violations for which penalties were imposed and collected.

2015 – 2017

Publish criminal law enforcement data, including the number of investigations, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions achieved.

2017

Ensure that investigators receive training on new laws and refresher courses related to the worst forms of child labor.

2017

Strengthen the inspection system by permitting the General Agency for Specialized Inspections to conduct unannounced inspections and provide adequate funding.

2013 – 2017

Ensure that violations of child labor laws are investigated and charged according to appropriate law articles, and that offenders are promptly prosecuted.

2011 – 2017

Policies

Ensure that the State Policy on Herders and the National Development Strategy are implemented.

2017

1. Ambrose, Drew, and Daniel Connell. Mongolia's child jockeys risk death to race. Al Jazeera. August 28, 2017. https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2017/08/mongolia-child-jockeys-risk-death-race-170826063128607.html.

2. ILO, and National Statistical Office of Mongolia. Report of National Child Labour Survey 2011-2012. Ulaanbaatar. 2013. [Source on file].

3. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Person Report- 2017: Mongolia. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271245.htm.

4. U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting, January 30, 2018.

5. Government of Mongolia. Criminal Code of Mongolia (Revised). Enacted: 2002. http://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/mng/2001/criminal_code_of_mongolia_html/Mongolia_Criminal_Code_2002.pdf.

6. Understanding Children's Work. The Twin Challenges of Child Labor and Educational Marginalisation in the East and South-East Asia Rregion. Rome. June 2015. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/child_labour_education_southEast_East_Asia20150604_160451.pdf.

7. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed: March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Labour Force Survey - National Child Labour Survey, 2011-2012. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9. UNICEF. UNICEF Research for Children 2013: From Evidence to Action. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research. July 2013. https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/unicef%20research-gb-web.pdf.

10. National Authority for Children. Rapid Assessment on Child Labor in the Construction Sector. Ulaanbaatar. 2015. [Source on file].

11. UCW. Understanding Children's Work and Youth Employment Outcomes in Mongolia. Rome. June 2009. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/child_labour_youth_employment_Mongolia20110627_163644.pdf.

12. ILO. Children Exploited in Mongolian Gold Rush; YouTube. February 23, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qG-uQbyGBSw.

13. Info Mongolia. Female Representatives of the State Great Khural to Protect Children-Jockeys' Rights. Ulaanbaatar. March 27, 2013. [Source on file].

14. Brown, A. In Mongolia, Bringing Attention to the Plight of Child Jockeys. UNICEF. November 3, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/mongolia_76668.html.

15. Legal Research Center. The rights of child horse jockeys in spring horse racing. Ulaanbaatar. 2015. [Source on file].

16. U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 4, 2018.

17. U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

18. —. Reporting, January 17, 2014.

19. —. Reporting, January 13, 2017.

20. —. Reporting, February 14, 2014.

21. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016: Mongolia. Washington, DC. June 2016. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf.

22. U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting, February 14, 2018.

23. The Straits Times. No joy ride: Mongolian child jockeys risk their lives in dangerous horse races despite ban. The Straits Times. March 10, 2017. http://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/no-joy-ride-mongolian-child-jockeys-risk-their-lives-in-dangerous-horse-races-despite.

24. Government of Mongolia. Law of February 5, 2016, Amending the Labor Code of Mongolia, No. 25. Enacted: 1999. [Source on file].

25. —. The List of Jobs Prohibited to Minors (unofficial translation). Enacted: 2016. [Source on file].

26. —. Law on the National Naadam Holiday. Enacted: June 19, 2003. http://legalinfo.mn/law/details/17?lawid=17.

27. —. Law on the Protection of the Rights of the Child with Amendments. Enacted: 1999, and Amended: 2003. [Source on file].

28. —. Criminal Code (Amended). Enacted: July 1, 2017. [Source on file].

29. —. Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons. Enacted: 2012. [Source on file].

30. —. Combating Pornography and Prostitution Act. Enacted: 1998. [Source on file].

31. —. Law on Military. Enacted: September 1, 2016. http://legalinfo.mn/law/details/12124?lawid=12124.

32. U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 22, 2018.

33. Government of Mongolia. Law on Education. Enacted: May 03, 2002. http://legalinfo.mn/law/details/9020?lawid=9020.

34. —. Constitution of Mongolia. Enacted: 1992. http://www.crc.gov.mn/en/k/xf/1q.

35. —. Law of Mongolia on Education. Enacted: 2002. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=71503.

36. ILO. Mongolia Policy Brief: Child Labour. Geneva. June 2016. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-beijing/documents/publication/wcms_491324.pdf.

37. Baatar, Tungalag. Child jockeys shouldn’t race in winter horse races. The UB Post. February 23, 2017. http://theubpost.mn/2017/02/23/child-jockeys-shouldnt-race-in-winter-horse-races/.

38. U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 13, 2014.

39. U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting, January 30, 2015.

40. CIA. The World Factbook. March 26, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

41. UN. 2017 World Economic Situation and Prospects. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf.Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

42. Byambajav, E. New Child Helpline Launched. Cited: February 8, 2017. http://www.wvi.org/mongolia/article/new-child-helpline-launched.

43. U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting, January 13, 2017.

44. —. Reporting, February 2, 2016.

45. Government of Mongolia. Approval of Government Policy on Herders. Ulaanbaatar. 2009. [Source on file].

46. U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 23, 2016.

47. Government of Mongolia. Resolution for the Endorsement of the Millenium Development Goals-Based Comprehensive National Development Strategy of Mongolia. Enacted: 2008. http://www.carecprogram.org/uploads/docs/MON-National-Development-Strategy-en.pdf.

48. ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labour Issues - Technical Progress Report. April 2017. [Source on file].

49. —. SafeYouth@Work Project . October 2017: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

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