Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports
In 2022, Mongolia made moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Mongolia's revised Labor Law includes a formal prohibition of child labor exploitation and sets the minimum age for work at age 15. The National Human Rights Commission of Mongolia also published a qualitative study on child labor with support from the International Labor Organization. In addition, under the Child Protection Compact Partnership, the government trained community social workers and educators on trafficking in persons prevention and victim identification. Children in Mongolia are subjected to the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation. Children also engage in dangerous tasks in horse jockeying and mining. The revised Labor Law legalized unannounced labor inspections that can result in sanctions. However, confusion remains amongst inspectors on whether unannounced inspections are permitted, which may impede enforcement of child labor laws. Lastly, due to a lack of training and formalized screening procedures, criminal law enforcement officials sometimes detain child victims of prostitution rather than referring them to social services.
Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Mongolia. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.
|Working (% and population)||5 to 14||11.4 (Unavailable)|
|Attending School (%)||5 to 14||94.8|
|Combining Work and School (%)||7 to 14||12.6|
|Primary Completion Rate (%)||97.7|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2022, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2023. (1)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 6 (MICS 6), 2018. (2)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Animal husbandry,† including herding† (3,4)|
|Services||Working in restaurants/canteens,† bars,† and food processing facilities.† (5)|
|Horse jockeying† (3,6,7)|
|Scavenging in garbage dumpsites (3,4)|
|Handling freight† (3,5)|
|Domestic work† (3-5)|
|Ticket-taking for public transportation† (3)|
|Street work and begging (3)|
|Mining† coal,† gold, and fluorspar (3,8)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3-5,9)|
|Forced labor in begging and stealing (4)|
|Forced labor in construction, mining, horse jockeying, animal husbandry, and contortionist work (4)|
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.
In 2022, the National Human Rights Commission of Mongolia published a qualitative study on child labor and included information about the results of the study in its 21st Annual Status Report on Human Rights and Freedom. (3,5,10) This study included a survey on work hazardous to the health of a child, which confirmed that children continue to be working at night, carrying loads, and working in construction, in bars and restaurants, and in food processing. (5) In 2022, at least 34,051 children were horse jockeys in Mongolia, with more than 32,000 not meeting safety requirements. Research indicates that 330 children fell off their horses between May 1 and November 1 of the reporting period, and 3 children died falling during races. (3,11) Races also continued through the winter despite a ban. (5)
Mongolian children are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation in saunas, bars, hotels, karaoke clubs, and massage parlors. (4,7) Mongolian girls are vulnerable to sexual exploitation in communities near mining towns or are recruited through social media. They are also forced to work as contortionists, domestically and in Turkey. (4,5,8,9,11)
Poverty, family debt, and a lack of educational opportunities are major reasons that children engage in child labor. (9,12,13) Roughly one-fourth of Mongolia's population live in poverty, and two-fifths of poor people in Mongolia are children under the age of 15. (14) Mongolian children encounter numerous education barriers due to an insufficient number of schools, overcrowding, a lack of trained teachers, inadequate school dormitories in rural areas, and a lack of accessibility for children with disabilities. (3,8,11,15)
Mongolia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✓|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✓|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✓|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✓|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✓|
The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Mongolia's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including a minimum age for work that is lower than the compulsory school age.
|Standard||Meets International Standards||Age||Legislation|
|Minimum Age for Work||No||15||Articles 2, 3, 142.1, and 165 of the Revised Labor Law (16)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Article 2, 3, and 142.2 of the Revised Labor Law; List of Jobs and Occupations Prohibited to Minors; Article 16.10 of the Criminal Code (16-18)|
|Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children||Yes||Articles 2 and 3 of the List of Jobs and Occupations Prohibited to Minors; Article 8 of the Law on the National Naadam Holiday (17,19)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Article 142.2 of the Revised Labor Law; Articles 13.1, 16.4, and 16.10 of the Criminal Code; Articles 2, 3, 15, and 17 of the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons; Article 7 of the Law on Labor; Article 7 of the Law on the Rights of the Child (16,20-23)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Article 3 of the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons; Article 13.1 of the Criminal Code (18,23)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Articles 12.3, 13.1, 16.8, 16.9, and 115 of the Criminal Code; Articles 8.1.3 and 10.2 of the Combating Pornography and Prostitution Act; Article 3 of the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons (21,23,24)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Article 142.2 of the Revised Labor Law; Article 192 of the Criminal Code (16,18)|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment||Yes||18||Article 12 of the Law on Military (25)|
|Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military||Yes||Article 12 of the Law on Military (25)|
|Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups||No|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||15||Article 46 of the Law on Education (26)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||Article 16 of the Constitution of Mongolia; Articles 6.1–6.3 of the Law on Education (26,27)|
Mongolia's revised Labor Law of January 1, 2022, sets the minimum age for work at 15, with light work permitted for children ages 13 and older. It also allows unannounced labor inspections in the formal sector. (3,16,28) The minimum age for work provisions do not meet international standards because they do not provide penalties for violations of these provisions. (16)
During the reporting period, the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection (MLSP) issued decree No. A/123 that outlines the type of light work allowed for children between the ages of 13 and 15 years. (29) In June 2022, the Law on Naadam Festival was also amended to raise the minimum age for horse jockeying from 7 to 8 years old and requires all child jockeys to have 1-year accident insurance to cover their time spent training and racing. (3) While this law makes it illegal for children younger than 8 to race horses, this age is far below the minimum age for hazardous work, which is set at 18. (16,19,20,30)
The government has other established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.
|Organization/Agency||Role & Activities|
|General Agency for Specialized Inspection||Was the central agency for inspections, including labor inspections. It also previously enforced labor laws, including those related to child labor. (9,28) In November 2022, Mongolia moved its labor inspectorate from the General Agency for Specialized Inspection to the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection (MLSP). (3,31)|
|Criminal Police Department (CPD)||Oversees several specialty units that enforce child labor laws. (32) CPD oversees the Anti-Trafficking Unit and the Organized Crime Division which uses an 11-question risk assessment to accurately identify human trafficking victims and uses referrals to open criminal investigations into human trafficking and sexual exploitation cases. (3,15) The Division for Combating Against Domestic Violence and Crimes Against Children comprises 10 officers who provide guidance to police units and protection services for survivors of child labor. (31) The National Police Agency assigned 53 police officers nationwide to exclusively mitigate crimes against children. (9,31) Cybercrimes involving children are investigated by the Division to Combat Cyber Crimes. (3) This includes cases of online sexual exploitation of children. (31)|
|MLSP||In November 2022, the labor inspectorate was moved to MLSP. In April 2022, it adopted guidelines for identifying and referring victims of human trafficking. (3) The Family, Child, and Youth Development Agency (FCYDA) within the MLSP employs 41 child rights officers who oversee child protection issues, including child labor. They can identify and remove children working under hazardous conditions. (3,10) FCYDA also runs a child safety complaint hotline, helped translate an online training package on child labor, and maintains a database that tracks the case status and social service needs of vulnerable children. (3)|
Labor Law Enforcement
In 2022, labor law enforcement agencies in Mongolia took actions to address child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including a lack of training on collecting data that would be useful for prosecutors.
|Overview of Labor Law Enforcement||2021||2022|
|Labor Inspectorate Funding||Unknown (28)||Unknown (3)|
|Number of Labor Inspectors||86 (28)||86 (3)|
|Mechanism to Assess Civil Penalties||Yes (20)||Yes (33)|
|Training for Labor Inspectors Provided||Yes (28)||Yes (3)|
|Number of Labor Inspections Conducted at Worksite||1,364 (28)||1,874† (3,31)|
|Number of Child Labor Violations Found||Unknown (28)||Unknown† (3)|
|Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed||Unknown (28)||Unknown† (3)|
|Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected||Unknown (28)||Unknown† (3)|
|Routine Inspections Conducted||Unknown (28)||Yes† (3)|
|Routine Inspections Targeted||Yes (28)||Yes† (3)|
|Unannounced Inspections Permitted||No (34)||Yes† (16)|
|Unannounced Inspections Conducted||No (28)||Yes† (3,31)|
|Complaint Mechanism Exists||Yes (28)||Yes (3)|
|Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services||Yes (28)||Yes (3)|
† Data are from March 1, 2022, to November 1, 2022. (3)
In 2022, there were 1,835 agricultural labor inspections that could only result in recommendations and educating employers on child labor regulations. Inspectors found 1,074 children working during these inspections. (31) The inspectors issued 29 recommendations and wrote 64 letters to employers requesting that they address child labor issues. In addition, 39 labor inspections conducted by the Family, Child, and Youth Development Agency (FCYDA) were specific to child labor and resulted in sanctions. (31) Research found that the FCYDA and the General Agency for Specialized Inspection (GASI) collected approximately $11,888 (41,000,000 MNT) in fines from child labor penalties from March 1 to November 1, 2022. (3)
Mongolia’s revised Labor Law permits its labor inspectorate to conduct unannounced inspections. This law supersedes the Law on State Inspections, which prohibited unannounced inspections, but confusion remains amongst inspectors on whether unannounced inspections are permitted. (16,31,34) In addition, GASI inspectors lacked training on what labor inspection information to collect that would be useful to prosecutors. This may have impeded the number of penalties imposed related to labor law violations. (31,35) After GASI was dismantled, research could not confirm whether labor inspections were conducted by the FCYDA, the Criminal Police Department, or the labor inspectorate recently moved to the MLSP. (3,31) In addition, there is a lack of information about labor law enforcement efforts that were undertaken before GASI was dismantled. (3)
Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2022, criminal law enforcement agencies in Mongolia took actions to address child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including a lack of training for criminal investigators.
|Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement||2021||2022|
|Training for Criminal Investigators Provided||Unknown (28)||Yes (3)|
|Number of Investigations||23 (28)||75 (3,31)|
|Number of Prosecutions Initiated||Unknown (28)||Unknown (3)|
|Number of Convictions||0 (28)||0 (31)|
|Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor||Unknown (28)||Unknown (3)|
|Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services||Yes (28)||Yes (31)|
In January 2022, 40 criminal investigators attended a training called Ending Online Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, conducted by the International Center for Missing and Exploited Children. (9,36) While the number of prosecutions related to child labor is unknown, the Prosecutor General reported prosecuting crimes involving children in sexual exploitation, prostitution, pornography, and human trafficking. The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Unit found 22 children involved in commercial sexual exploitation and 52 children involved in pornography. (3)
While the Criminal Police Department has a risk assessment checklist to identify survivors of human trafficking, district police officers have not been trained to use this checklist to identify potential cases that should be referred to specialized investigators. There are concerns that many cases of child trafficking have been dropped at the district police level for this reason. (3) Research indicates that perpetrators are able to evade punishment due to a lack of training relating to the Child Protection Law and the Criminal Code. (3,37,38) Additionally, criminal Investigators lack sufficient funding and training focused on child labor. (3) Mongolia has a mechanism for referrals between authorities and social services, but it is ineffective. (31) Formal labor inspections regularly include both the police and the FCYDA, so referrals usually occur informally while they are working together. (3)
There continues to be a misconception among many government officials that only girls can be victims of human trafficking. As a result, many cases involving boys are not prosecuted under the human trafficking article of the Criminal Code, but instead under other offenses that carry lighter penalties. (4,8) No boys have been identified as victims of human trafficking in 10 years, despite continued reports that Mongolian boys are being trafficked. (4) Research noted that complex case initiation and referral procedures, coupled with restrictions on contact between anti-trafficking police and prosecutors, at times hindered investigations and prosecutions. (4,15,39) Due to a lack of understanding of victim protection in relation to the Law on Petty Offenses, research found that police reportedly continued to detain child victims as a direct result of the unlawful acts they were forced to commit. (3,9,40,41) The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Unit acknowledged that underage girls are sometimes arrested and detained for prostitution due to a lack of formalized screening procedures and undertrained new police officers. (4,9)
The government has established a key mechanism to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including a lack of formal guidelines and referral procedures.
|Coordinating Body||Role & Activities|
|Multidisciplinary Task Force (MDTF)||Coordinates inter-agency efforts on child protection, investigates cases of child labor, and prosecutes criminals. (9,42) Includes 18 representatives from key government ministries and 1 NGO. (3,4) Supported NGOs and the Ministry of Education in training teachers from high-risk schools to implement after-school programs that helped high schoolers recognize and prevent child forced labor and sex trafficking. (3,9) Opened three safe spaces for children in police stations and provided guidelines for the use of those spaces. The government reported that more than 100 children benefited from these spaces during 2022. (3,9) Members of the MDTF participated in training on trauma-informed, child-friendly approaches to human trafficking cases. (9) The success of this task force was hindered by a lack of formal guidelines and referral procedures. This inhibited referrals for criminal investigation, social services, and reintegration assistance for cases involving children. (3)|
In February 2022, the Prime Minister issued an order to renew the mandate of the National Committee for Children, which serves as the coordinating body for child protection efforts. (3,43) The National Anti-Trafficking Sub-Council and the Crime Prevention Coordination Council continue to address human trafficking, including the trafficking of children. (3,9)
The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including the lack of a policy to address child labor in all its forms.
|Policy||Description & Activities|
|Child Protection Compact Partnership (2020–2024)||$5 million USD cooperative agreement between the Government of Mongolia, the United States Government, and NGOs. (42,44,45) Consists of 18 governmental and non-governmental organizations to fund victim-centered, collaborative, and sustainable approaches to identify child trafficking victims. (28,46) Created the Multidisciplinary Task Force (MDTF) under the National Sub-Council on Trafficking in Persons. (3,42) Works with the Crime Prevention and Coordinating Council and National Sub-Council on Trafficking in Persons. (42,45) They also trained 200 Home Visitors who will educate communities on human trafficking prevention and victim identification. (3)|
Research was unable to determine whether a policy exists that address child labor in all its forms.
In 2022, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the lack of programs to address child protection and raise awareness on child labor.
|Program||Description & Activities|
|Enabling Equity to Advance Learning (EQUAL) (2022–2025)*||Supports children with disabilities in schools and improves school lunches and education. The Global Partnership for Education awarded this grant to the Ministry of Education. (47)|
|Children’s Money Program†||Distributes a monthly stipend to vulnerable children under age 18 and aims to prevent child labor by offsetting costs related to food, school, and clothing. Operated by the General Agency for Social Welfare and Service, the General Agency for State Registration, and the Human Development Fund. (48,49) This program accounts for 3 percent of the GDP. Remained active during the reporting year. (50)|
For information about USDOL’s projects to address child labor around the world, visit https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/ilab-project-page-search
* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Mongolia.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (9,51)
During the reporting period, the government has been implementing plans and programs to help children reintegrate into school and deter them from dropping out. (30) The Minister of Education and Science created a plan for the 2021–2022 school year, which resulted in students returning to the classroom who had been considered at risk of dropping out. The Green Light action plan was also implemented in the 2021–2022 academic year, and it focused on supporting the reintegration of children back into school who had suffered due to the COVID-19 pandemic. (30) In 2022, the social programs run by the government faced challenges due to inflation and increased unemployment. (3)
The government collaborates with NGOs to provide survivors with victim services. (3,4) The government ran at least two shelters that housed children who had been trafficked, but these children were not separated from the general population. Multiple children have been sexually abused at these shelters due to poor oversight. (4,52) The shelters that can accept child victims of child labor and sexual exploitation are temporary and can house children for 6 months at most. Additionally, all shelters are inaccessible for people with disabilities. (9)
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Mongolia (Table 11).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Legal Framework||Establish legal penalties for violations of minimum age restrictions.||2022|
|Ensure that laws adequately prohibit children under age 18 from horse racing at all times of the year.||2017 – 2022|
|Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.||2016 – 2022|
|Enforcement||Ensure that labor inspectors are authorized to enforce labor laws and receive training on data collection, the revised Labor Law, and the legalization of unannounced inspections that can result in sanctions.||2022|
|Establish a functional, formalized mechanism for referrals between enforcement authorities and social services.||2022|
|Allow anti-trafficking police and prosecutors to work with one another and ensure that evidence related to human trafficking cases is collected to support investigations.||2020 – 2022|
|Ensure that the procedural checklists used to identify human trafficking victims are used consistently.||2019 – 2022|
|Provide adequate funding for law enforcement agencies.||2022|
|Strengthen the inspection system by conducting unannounced inspections and imposing penalties for any violations found.||2022|
|Ensure that child trafficking victims are not fined, arrested, detained, or charged with crimes and administrative offenses as a result of having been subjected to human trafficking.||2020 – 2022|
|Ensure that criminal law enforcement officials receive training on new laws related to child labor.||2018 – 2022|
|Provide trainings for police officers and government officials on criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor, including the Child Protection Law and the Law on Petty Offenses, to ensure that child labor offenses are prosecuted fully, convicted traffickers are appropriately punished, and police discontinue the practice of detaining child victims.||2011 – 2022|
|Publish criminal law enforcement data, including the number of investigations, prosecutions, and convictions, and whether penalties are imposed for violations relating to the worst forms of child labor.||2017 – 2022|
|Coordination||Create formal guidelines and referral procedures for the Multidisciplinary Task Force.||2022|
|Government Policies||Implement a policy to address child labor in all its forms.||2020 – 2022|
|Social Programs||Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem and ensure that they are sufficiently funded and staffed.||2020 – 2022|
|Increase the number of schools to help eliminate overcrowding, increase the number of trained teachers, ensure that appropriate technology is available to all students, and provide infrastructure to allow full accessibility options for children with disabilities.||2019 – 2022|
|Increase the length of stay available for children in shelter homes.||2019 – 2022|
|Ensure that all government-run and -funded shelter homes separate children from adults, are provided proper oversight so children are protected from sexual abuse, and are accessible to children with disabilities.||2019 – 2022|
- UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 15, 2023. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 6 (MICS 6), 2018. Analysis received March 2023. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting. January 30, 2023.
- U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2022: Mongolia. Washington, D.C., July 19, 2022.
- National Human Rights Commission of Mongolia. A Qualitative Study on Child Labour. Ulaanbaatar, Published 2022. Source translated into English on file.
- Hogan, Libby. Mongolia's child jockeys risk injury and death to race, but is it tradition or just child labour?. ABC News, October 14, 2019.
- ILO CEACR. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Mongolia (ratification: 2001). Published: 2021.
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 12, 2020.
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting. February 16, 2023.
- National Human Rights Commission of Mongolia. Монгол Улс дахь хүний эрх, эрх чөлөөний байдлын талаарх илтгэл. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 2022.
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting. January 21, 2020.
- World Vision. Child labor: Facts, FAQs, and how to help end it. Accessed March 1, 2023.
- ILO. Child Labour and Education. Accessed March 29, 2023.
- The World Bank. Mongolia’s 2020 Poverty Rate Estimated at 27.8 Percent. December 30, 2021.
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting. January 21, 2021.
- Government of Mongolia. Revised Labor Law. July 2, 2021. Source on File.
- Government of Mongolia. The List of Jobs Prohibited to Minors (unofficial translation). Enacted: 2016. Source on file.
- Government of Mongolia. Criminal Code (Amended). Enacted: July 1, 2017. Source on file.
- Government of Mongolia. Law on the National Naadam Holiday. Enacted: June 19, 2003.
- Government of Mongolia. Law of February 5, 2016, Amending the Labor Code of Mongolia, No. 25. Enacted: 1999. Source on file.
- Government of Mongolia. Criminal Code of Mongolia (Revised). Enacted: 2002. Source on file.
- Government of Mongolia. Law on the Protection of the Rights of the Child with Amendments. Enacted: 1999. Amended: 2003. Source on file.
- Government of Mongolia. Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons. Enacted: 2012. Source on file.
- Government of Mongolia. Combating Pornography and Prostitution Act. Enacted: 1998. Source on file.
- Government of Mongolia. Law on Military. Enacted: September 1, 2016.
- Government of Mongolia. Law on Education. Enacted: May 3, 2002.
- Government of Mongolia. Constitution of Mongolia. Enacted: 1992. Source on file.
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting. January 27, 2022.
- The Ministry of Labor and Social Protection. Types and conditions of light work permissible for children aged 13 years. Enacted June 10, 2022. Source on file.
- ILO Committee of Experts. Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (No.182) direct request and observation. Published: 2022. Source on File
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 16, 2023.
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting. February 19, 2021.
- Government of Mongolia. Civil Code. Ulaanbaatar City. Enacted January 10, 2002.
- Government of Mongolia. Law of Mongolia on State Inspection. Ulaanbaatar, January 3, 2003.
- U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 5, 2023.
- United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Ending Online Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse. December 2021.
https://www.unicef.org/media/113731/file/Ending Online Sexual Exploitation and Abuse.pdf
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 6, 2020.
- Government of Mongolia. Law on Child Protection. Enacted: February 5, 2016. Source on file.
- U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2020: Mongolia. Washington, D.C., June 25, 2020.
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 18, 2021.
- U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2021: Mongolia. Washington D.C., July 1, 2021.
- U.S. Department of State. Child Protection Compact Partnership Between the United States of America and Mongolia. April 2, 2020.
- iVoice. Хүүхдийн төлөө үндэсний зөвлөлийн ээлжит хуралдаан зохион байгуулагдлаа. March 11, 2022.
- Unurzul, M. Mongolia-U.S. Child Protection Compact Partnership launches. Ulaanbaatar: Montsame, October 27, 2020.
- U.S. Department of State. Child Protection Compact Partnerships – Mongolia. October 27, 2020.
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting. February 9, 2022.
- Global Partnership for Education. Mongolia: The Ministry of Education and Science and Save the Children Launch a New Program to Improve Access and Quality of Learning with Support from the Global Partnership for Education. September 1, 2022.
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting. January 30, 2018.
- U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 22, 2018.
- NewsMN. Mongolia to implement Child Money Programme for targeted groups. October 26, 2022.
- Ministry of Education and Science “2021-2022 оны хичээлийн жилийн бэлтгэл ажил” хэлэлцүүлэг зохион байгуулж байна August 5, 2021
- U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. Reporting. February 18, 2020.