Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Mongolia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Mongolia

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Mongolia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government expanded its List of Prohibited Work for Children, which bars children under age 18 from working in construction and mining, as well as in horse racing during the winter and spring seasons. The Family, Child, and Youth Development Agency organized training on the National Action Plan on Eliminating the Hazardous Work of Children and the revised hazardous work list for 55 local police staff and social workers in 27 counties. In addition, the Government expanded a nationwide, toll-free Child Helpline that receives and refers child labor complaints. Children in Mongolia perform dangerous tasks in herding, mining, and horse racing. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Labor inspectors lack adequate training on laws related to child labor, and state funding provided for the General Agency for Specialized Inspection is insufficient. The Government also lacks social programs to address child labor in certain relevant sectors.

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Children in Mongolia perform dangerous tasks in herding, mining, and horse racing. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. The Mongolia National Child Labor Survey 2011–2012, published in 2013, indicates that 7.4 percent of 589,076 Mongolian children ages 5 to 17 engage in child labor, of which 11.1 percent, or 10,398 children, are involved in hazardous work. Nine out of 10 children exploited in situations of hazardous work are boys.(1, 2) According to the survey, children’s employment is more prevalent in rural areas than in urban areas.(1, 3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Mongolia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5-14

13.8 (60,246)

Attending School (%)

5-14

87.6

Combining Work and School (%)

7-14

15.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

98.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Labor Force Survey-National Child Labor Survey, 20112012.(5) Data on working children, school attendance, and children combining work and school are not comparable with data published in the previous version of this report because of differences between surveys used to collect the data.

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Herding† and animal husbandry†(1, 6-8)

Industry

Construction,† including carrying and loading bricks, cement, and steel framework, mixing construction solutions such as lime or cement,† binding steel framework, and cleaning at the construction site† (1, 9, 10)

Mining† coal, gold, and fluorspar (1, 8, 11-14)

Services

Horse jockeying† (8, 13, 15-17)

Scavenging in garbage dumpsites (1, 8, 13)

Handling freight† (1)

Domestic work† (10)

Ticket-taking for public transportation† (8, 18)

Street work, including vending† and washing cars (1, 8)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, (8, 13, 14, 19)

Forced labor in begging (8, 13, 14, 19)

Forced labor in construction, mining, agriculture, horse jockeying, animal husbandry, industrial sectors, and contortionist work, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (13, 14, 19)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Mongolian children are generally trafficked internally for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation in saunas, bars, hotels, karaoke clubs, and massage parlors.(6, 14, 19, 20) In addition, the Family, Child, and Youth Development Agency (FCYDA), formerly the National Authority for Children, estimates that Mongolia has 10,699 registered child jockeys, and nearly all of them (96 percent) are boys younger than age 18.(21) Child jockeys face a number of health and safety hazards, including exposure to extremely cold temperatures, risk of brain and bone injuries, and fatal falls.(16, 17) Participation in pre-training and spring racing may also negatively impact a child’s school attendance, particularly when children as young as age 7 can participate in horse racing.(16, 17)

During the reporting period, government agencies collected data on exploitative child labor in Mongolia’s capital city. The Ulaanbaatar FCYDA identified 78 children engaged in begging and referred them to social service providers.(8) In addition, the FCYDA identified 1,498 children ages 8 to 18 working in informal artisanal mining and removed 44 children from hazardous work to be assisted by Legal Assistance Centers.(8)

Mongolia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Mongolia’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 109 of the Law on Labor (22)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

List of Jobs and Occupations Prohibited to Minors (18, 23)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

List of Jobs and Occupations Prohibited to Minors; Law on the National Naadam Holiday (18, 24)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

No

 

Articles 113, 121, and 124 of the Criminal Code; Article 7 of the Law on Labor; Article 7 of the Law on the Rights of the Child (2, 22, 23)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons; Article 113 of the Criminal Code (2, 25)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Articles 115, 123, and 124 of the Criminal Code; Combating Pornography and Prostitution Act (2, 26)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

Articles 114 and 192 of the Criminal Code (2)

Minimum Age for  Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Law on Civil Military Duties and Law on the Legal Status of Military Personnel (27, 28)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Law on Civil Military Duties and Law on the Legal Status of Military Personnel (27, 28)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 46 of the Law on Education (29, 30)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 16 of the Constitution of Mongolia; Article 5 of the Law on Education (31, 32)

In February 2016, the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection (MLSP) issued an order that expanded the types of hazardous work prohibited to children, including working and training as a horse jockey in winter and spring races, construction, and mining and exploration.(8, 18, 33, 34) In addition, the Government amended Article 109 of the Law on Labor to raise the minimum age for engaging in “light work” from 14 to 15 years, cap the workweek at 30 hours for children age 15 and under and 36 hours for children ages 16 and 17, prohibit children from engaging in irregular work conditions and work that affects their mental development and health, and extend labor protections to children working without employment contracts.(8, 22)

Mongolia’s Criminal Code does not sufficiently prohibit child trafficking, or the use, procurement, or offering of a child for commercial sexual exploitation or illicit activities, in accordance with international recommendations, as it leaves children age 16-17 vulnerable to involvement in the worst forms of child labor, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(2, 35) In addition, laws related to forced labor are not sufficient, as debt bondage is not criminally prohibited.(2) Mongolia’s laws related to military service are not sufficient, as they do not prohibit non-state armed groups from recruiting children under 18.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

General Agency for Specialized Inspection (GASI)

Enforce labor laws, including child labor. Conduct inspections at registered businesses.(20) As independent agency, reports to the Deputy Prime

Minister.(8)

Family, Child, and Youth Development Agency (FCYDA)

Implement programs directed toward families and children for the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection and other government agencies. Perform secretarial duties of the National Committee on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(8)

National Police Agency (NPA)

Maintain primary responsibility for investigating criminal cases. Report to the Ministry of Justice and Internal Affairs (MOJIA).(8)

Organized Crime Department

Operate under the NPA, receive referrals, and open formal criminal investigations of human trafficking and sexual exploitation cases.(19) Work with the Prosecutor’s Office to decide whether to take a case to court and initiate subsequent prosecution.(8, 36)

Metropolitan Police Department

Operate under the NPA and oversee  police operations in Ulaanbaatar’s 17 district police offices.(8) Enforce labor laws and identify children in hazardous labor.(20)

Division for the Prevention of Domestic Violence and Crimes Against Children

Operate under the Metropolitan Police Department and protect unattended children on the streets. Identify and refer children to their parents or to Child Care and Protection Centers.(37)

General Authority for Citizenship and Migration

Register Mongolian citizens who enter and exit the country. Track children who leave Mongolia and do not return, as well as pregnant Mongolian women who leave Mongolia to give birth and return without their child.(19) Follow up with law enforcement as necessary.(19)

Marshal (Takhar) Service

Provide protection to victims and witnesses throughout the judicial process. Work toward establishing shelters throughout the country.(37, 38) Abolished in July 2016; responsibilities assumed by the National Police Agency.(8)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Mongolia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

 Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (10)

$23,657(8)

Number of Labor Inspectors

88 (10)

63 (8)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

2 (10)

0 (8)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (10)

Yes (8)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (39)

Yes (8)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

No (8)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (10)

Unknown (8)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown* (10)

Unknown* (8)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown* (10)

Unknown* (8)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown* (10)

Unknown* (8)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (10)

Unknown* (8)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (10)

Unknown* (8)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown*  (10)

Unknown* (8)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (10)

Yes (8)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (10)

Yes (8)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

No (10)

No (8)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

N/A

N/A

Complaint Mechanism Exists

No (10)

Yes (8)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (37, 39)

Yes (8)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

NGOs and government officials reported that the enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the legal requirement to provide 48 hours advance notification for inspections and the lack of resources for inspections, including the number of inspectors and the state funding provided to the General Agency for Specialized Inspection (GASI). In 2016, GASI employed 63 labor inspectors, a decrease from 88 in the previous year as a result of administrative restructuring.(8) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Mongolia’s workforce, which includes over 1,164,000 workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Mongolia should employ roughly 78 labor inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.

While new inspectors receive an initial training course that includes a component on child labor, existing labor inspectors last received training in 2014.(8) Research indicates that employers often disregard the law and require minors to work over 40 hours per week and pay them less than the minimum wage.(13)

In 2016, GASI conducted an unspecified number of horse racing inspections in 20 of Mongolia’s 21 provinces to verify that riders met the minimum age requirement and used proper safety equipment. During these visits, GASI inspectors imposed a total of 105 fines, prevented 212 underage children from participating in the races as jockeys, and corrected 932 safety equipment violations.(8) In addition, GASI worked with provincial governments to increase public awareness of horse racing safety, provided hand-outs to horse trainers, and conducted a joint training with FCYDA in Omnogovi province for 130 children at a summer camp; however, FCYDA reports that some individuals avoid regulations by registering their races as family gatherings.(8)

Child labor and child rights violations can be reported to the FCYDA through a nationwide, toll-free Child Helpline commonly known as “108,” which is staffed with 22 dedicated employees as well as a social worker and response team who are available 24 hours.(8, 40) During the reporting period, the Child Helpline received 1,069 calls, of which 48 calls were related to child labor.(41

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Mongolia took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (10)

Yes (8)

Number of Investigations

8 (33)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

4 (33)

9 (8)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (33)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

3 (33)

75 (8)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (42)

Yes (8)

 

In 2016, several entities provided training to law enforcement officials on combating human trafficking and child labor laws. The National Police Agency (NPA) reported that 191 officers received training on the new laws on child rights and child protection.(8) The FCYDA organized training on the National Action Plan on Eliminating the Hazardous Work of Children and the revised hazardous work list for 55 local police staff and social workers in 27 counties.

However, despite these capacity-building efforts, police officers reported that there is a general lack of knowledge and training on how to apply criminal trafficking laws to cases of commercial sexual exploitation of children. Authorities use provisions of the Criminal Code that carry less stringent penalties when boys are the victims of human trafficking due to the misconception among government officials that only girls can be victims of human trafficking.(14) As a result, many cases that could have been prosecuted under the human trafficking article of the Criminal Code were instead prosecuted under related articles of the Criminal Code that carry lighter penalties.(20, 42, 43)

NPA investigators use an 11-question risk assessment checklist to help them accurately identify human trafficking victims. Investigators refer victims who meet more than five of the criteria to short- or long-term care facilities.(8)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Coordinating Council to Implement the National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (Coordinating Council)

Guide government efforts on child labor and implementation of the National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Chaired by the MLSP, with the FCYDA as the lead implementing agency.(8) Comprises 21 organizations.(20, 44)

Anti-Trafficking Sub-Council

(Sub-Council)

Coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking and monitor implementation of anti–trafficking legislation. Function as a part of the Council on Crime Prevention under the MOJIA.(19, 20) Currently has 15 members representing 12 different organizations, including two NGOs.(19)

Following the June 2016 parliamentary elections, personnel changes and government restructuring prevented further meetings of the Coordinating Council to Implement the National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor until 2017.(8)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Program for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2011–2016) and National Action Plan (2014–2016)

Identifies specific actions to combat child labor through 2016 in a National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Aims to improve legal protection for children and increase children’s access to health care and education.(11) Will be included as sub-programs in the new Child Protection Strategy (2017-2020).(8)

State Policy on Herders

Describes the conditions and criteria for engaging children in herding, to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in that sector.(45, 46) Activities include projects to improve housing and access to information for herders and to ensure that herder children receive an education. Each year, the Government sets aside one percent of its budget for implementation of the policy.(39)

National Development Strategy

Calls for improvements in education, health, social welfare, and labor policies through 2020. Priorities include the education, safety, and health of vulnerable children.(47)

Child Protection Strategy

(2011–2016)

Aims to provide child welfare programs at the local level in collaboration with NGOs and local government offices. Includes a component related to child labor prevention and elimination.(20, 48)

During the reporting period, the Ministry of Justice and Internal Affairs submitted a draft National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Persons for 2017–2021 to the cabinet, which aims to strengthen efforts to prevent and combat different types of human trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation.(49)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL-funded projects that aim to promote the safety and health of young workers on the job; build the capacity of the national government and legislation; conduct research and data collection; strengthen legal protections and social services delivery for child domestic workers; and increase the public’s awareness of children engaged in hazardous work and its negative consequences through posters and television. These projects include Building a Generation of Safe and Healthy Workers: Safe and Healthy Youth, implemented by the ILO with Mongolia as one of the countries, and the Global Action Program (GAP) on Child Labor Issues, implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries, including Mongolia. For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our Web site.

Children’s Money Program†

General Agency for Social Welfare and Service, General Agency for State Registration, and Human Development Fund program that distributes approximately $12 per month to children under age 18 from families in need.(10) Partial continuation of a former program that distributed national profits from mineral resources to funding for health insurance, pensions, and education tuition.(20, 50-52)

School Lunch Program†

Government program that subsidizes meals to encourage low-income children to attend school, particularly at the secondary level.(20)

† Program is funded by the Government of Mongolia.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(8)

In 2016, the MLSP and FCYDA distributed $64,104 to local governments in Mongolia for programs aimed at preventing and reducing child labor and supporting the employment of adult family members.(8)

During the previous two reporting periods, two programs that formerly provided shelter and social services to children working on the street were discontinued. The Address Identification Center was converted to a shelter for victims of domestic violence, and the Child Development and Protection Center became an orphanage.(37) This reduction in care centers leaves street children vulnerable to involvement in child labor. Although the Government continued to operate mining, cash transfer, and school lunch programs, research found no evidence that the Government carried out programs specifically designed to assist children working in herding and those working on the street.(8)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Mongolia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including Its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws clearly and comprehensively prohibit the use, procurement, and offering of all children under age 18 for prostitution, the production of pornography, and pornographic performances.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the use, procuring or offering of children under age 18 in illicit activities, including in the production and trafficking of drugs.

2016

Ensure that laws criminally prohibit child trafficking for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that debt bondage is criminally prohibited.

2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors and investigators responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor, including its worst forms, in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2014 – 2016

Institutionalize child labor training for labor inspectors, including by providing refresher courses for current inspectors.

2015 – 2016

Continue to enforce safety standards for child jockeys, particularly at the community level.

2013 – 2016

Strengthen the inspection system by permitting the General Agency for Specialized Inspections to conduct unannounced inspections.

2013 – 2016

Ensure that violations of child labor laws are investigated and charged according to appropriate law articles, and that offenders are promptly prosecuted.

2011 – 2016

Publish information on the number of labor inspections conducted, the number of child labor violations found, and the number of child labor violations for which penalties were imposed and collected.

2015 – 2016

Social Programs

Restore programs that provide support services, and shelter to children found working on the streets.

2014 – 2016

Institute programs to address child labor in relevant sectors, including in herding.

2012 – 2016

1.           ILO, National Statistical Office of Mongolia. Report of National Child Labour Survey 2011-2012. Ulaanbaatar; 2013. [Source on file].

2.           Government of Mongolia. Criminal Code of Mongolia (Revised), enacted (2002). http://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/mng/2001/criminal_code_of_mongolia_html/Mongolia_Criminal_Code_2002.pdf.

3.           Understanding Children's Work. The Twin Challenges of Child Labor and Educational Marginalisation in the East and South-East Asia Rregion. Rome; June 2015. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/child_labour_education_southEast_East_Asia20150604_160451.pdf.

4.           UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5.           UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Labour Force Survey - National Child Labour Survey, 2011-2012. Analysis received April 13, 2017. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.           U.S. Department of State. "Mongolia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm.

7.           UNICEF. UNICEF Research for Children 2013: From Evidence to Action. Florence, UNICEF Office of Research; July 2013. https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/unicef%20research-gb-web.pdf.

8.           U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. reporting, January 13, 2017.

9.           National Authority for Children. Rapid Assessment on Child Labor in the Construction Sector. Ulaanbaatar; 2015. [Source on file].

10.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. reporting, January 15, 2016.

11.         National Human Rights Commission of Mongolia. 12th Report on Human Rights and Freedoms in Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar; 2013. [Source on file].

12.         UCW. Understanding Children's Work and Youth Employment Outcomes in Mongolia. Rome; June 2009. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/child_labour_youth_employment_Mongolia20110627_163644.pdf.

13.         U.S. Department of State. "Mongolia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265568.pdf.

14.         U.S. Department of State. "Mongolia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf.

15.         Info Mongolia. Female Representatives of the State Great Khural to Protect Children-Jockeys' Rights. Ulaanbaatar, Info Mongolia; March 27, 2013. [Source on file].

16.         Brown, A. In Mongolia, Bringing Attention to the Plight of Child Jockeys., UNICEF, [online] November 3, 2014 [cited November 13, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/mongolia_76668.html.

17.         Legal Research Center. The rights of child horse jockeys in spring horse racing. Ulaanbaatar; 2015. [Source on file].

18.         Government of Mongolia. The List of Jobs Prohibited to Minors (unofficial translation), enacted (2016). [Source on file].

19.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. reporting, February 14, 2014.

20.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. reporting, January 17, 2014.

21.         Azjargal, J. Mongols are Born in the Saddle. National Authority for Children, [online] [cited May 25, 2017]; http://www.mfa.gov.mn/?p=29283.

22.         Government of Mongolia. Law of February 5, 2016, Amending the Labor Code of Mongolia, No. 25, enacted (1999). [Source on file].

23.         Government of Mongolia. Law on the Protection of the Rights of the Child with Amendments, enacted (1996) (Amended 2003). [Source on file].

24.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 5, 2013.

25.         Government of Mongolia. Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons, enacted (2012). [Source on file].

26.         Government of Mongolia. Combating Pornography and Prostitution Act, enacted (1998). [Source on file].

27.         Child Soldiers International. Louder than words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers. London; 2012. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

28.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 8 (1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict : initial reports of States parties due in 2008 : Mongolia. 2008. Geneva; http://repository.un.org/handle/11176/277422.

29.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Mongolia (ratification: 2002) Published: 2015; accessed November 9, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3176824:NO.

30.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 12, 2015.

31.         Government of Mongolia. Constitution of Mongolia, enacted (1992). http://www.crc.gov.mn/en/k/xf/1q.

32.         Government of Mongolia. Law of Mongolia on Education, enacted (2002). http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=71503.

33.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 13, 2016.

34.         ILO. Mongolia Policy Brief: Child Labour. Geneva; 2016 June 2016. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-beijing/documents/publication/wcms_491324.pdf.

35.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Mongolia (ratification: 2001) Published: 2016; accessed February 3, 2017; http://bit.ly/2qT9rUa.

36.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 13, 2014.

37.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. reporting, January 30, 2015.

38.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. reporting, February 17, 2015.

39.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 23, 2016.

40.         Byambajav, E. "New Child Helpline Launched.", [cited February 8, 2017]; http://www.wvi.org/mongolia/article/new-child-helpline-launched.

41.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 6, 2016.

42.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. reporting, February 2, 2016.

43.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Mongolia (ratification: 2001) Published: 2012; accessed February 20, 2013; http://bit.ly/2qT9rUa.

44.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 2, 2015.

45.         ILO-IPEC. Support to the Proposed National Sub-programme to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour: Timebound Measures. Final Technical Progress Report. Geneva; December 2010. [Source on file].

46.         Government of Mongolia. Approval of Government Policy on Herders. Ulaanbaatar: 2009. [Source on file].

47.         Government of Mongolia. Resolution for the Endorsement of the Millenium Development Goals-Based Comprehensive National Development Strategy of Mongolia, enacted (2008). http://www.carecprogram.org/uploads/docs/MON-National-Development-Strategy-en.pdf.

48.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. reporting, February 25, 2013.

49.         U.S. Embassy- Ulaanbaatar. reporting, February 13, 2017.

50.         Weidemann Associates, IaU. Mongolia Economic Growth Assessment. Ulaanbaatar; October 2010. [Source on file].

51.         Campi, A. "Mongolia’s Quest to Balance Human Development in its Booming Mineral-Based Economy." brookings.edu [online] January 10, 2012 [cited February 20, 2013]; http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2012/01/10-mongolia-campi.

52.         The Business Council of Mongolia, Oxford Business Group. "Mongolia: Investing in health." oxfordbusinessgroup.com [online] February 10, 2012 [cited February 20, 2013]; http://www.oxfordbusinessgroup.com/economic_updates/mongolia-investing-health.

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