Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Moldova

Moldova
2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Moldova made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government passed Law No. 137, which allows child victims of forced labor to receive financial compensation for damages caused to them. An investigative and prosecution unit within the Specialized Prosecution Office for Organized Crime and Special Cases was established, which includes formally designated trafficking in persons prosecutors. The government also expanded and increased funding for social services for children, including reopening the National Committee for Combating Trafficking in Persons shelter. However, children in Moldova engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. Funding for the State Labor Inspectorate was not sufficient, and the inspectorate can conduct unannounced inspections only in very limited circumstances. Furthermore, the judicial system failed to ensure that perpetrators of crimes related to the worst forms of child labor were properly convicted and sentenced according to the law.

Children in Moldova engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Moldova.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

24.3 (102,105)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

97.3

Industry

 

0.6

Services

 

2.2

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

92.1

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

29.0

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

90.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Labour Force Survey-Child Labour Survey, 2009. (7)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Agriculture,† including growing crops and raising farm animals (1; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13)

Forestry, including transporting heavy loads (13)

Fishing, including feeding fish (13)

Industry

Construction,† including carrying heavy loads and welding† (1; 14; 8; 9; 13)

Working in the garment sector (13)

Baking,† including confectionary and food preservation (13)

Services

Street work, including begging (8; 15; 16; 5)

Domestic work (8; 15; 13)

Working in wholesale, retail, restaurants, and transportation (14; 8; 9; 12; 13)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation and forced begging, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (17; 1; 3; 4; 8; 18; 13; 5)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Lack of information limits an assessment of the types of work that children perform and the sectors in which they work, including for the secessionist region of Transnistria. (1; 3; 8; 18; 13)

Both boys and girls are recruited for commercial sexual exploitation. (3; 4; 13; 5; 19) Traffickers recruited children as young as age 10 for prostitution and other forms of commercial sexual exploitation. (5) Moldova is also a destination for child sex tourism. (3; 4; 8; 9; 18; 13; 19) Sex tourists continue to target orphanages by bribing orphanage administration officials to obtain unsupervised access to children. (2)

Child trafficking, particularly of children suffering from familial neglect, continues to be a concern in Moldova. (3; 10; 20; 21; 13) The number of children left behind by migrant parents is increasing and these children may be particularly vulnerable to child labor and human trafficking, especially those who are in orphanages or boarding schools. (3; 15; 22; 23; 5; 24) Vulnerable children from Transnistria were at an increased risk of being trafficked through Ukraine’s Odessa region. (3; 25)

Although the Education Code provides for free and compulsory education until age 18, sometimes parents are asked to pay informal fees for supplies and gifts to teachers. (8; 26; 16) Children, especially Roma, who lack identity documents, may face increased vulnerability to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced begging. (15; 26; 27; 5; 19) Access to education by some Roma children may be challenging due to textbook costs, the lack of identity documents, and discrimination by school officials and other non-Roma students. (3; 15; 23; 28; 29; 19)

Moldova has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government’s laws and regulations are in line with relevant international standards (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 46 of the Labor Code (30)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 255 of the Labor Code; Article 3 of the Collective Convention on Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (30; 31)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Government Decision No. 541; Articles 2 and 3 of the Collective Convention on Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Articles 103, 105, and 255–256 of the Labor Code (30; 31; 32)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 44 of the Constitution; Article 168(b) of the Criminal Code; Article 7 of the Labor Code; Collective Convention on Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (30; 31; 33; 34)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 2 and 25–29 of the Law on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings; Collective Convention on Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (31; 35)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 175, 206, and 208 of the Criminal Code; Article 6 of the Law on the Rights of the Child; Collective Convention on Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Law No. 207 (31; 34; 36; 37)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 208 of the Criminal Code; Collective Convention on Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (31; 34)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 28 of Law No. 1245-XV on the Preparation of Citizens for Homeland Defense (38)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 12 of Law No. 162-XVI on the Status of Servicemen (39)

Non-state

Yes

 

Article 26 of the Law on the Rights of the Child; Article 206(d) of the Criminal Code (34; 36)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 13 and 152 of the Education Code of 2014 (40)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 35 of the Constitution; Article 9 of the Education Code of 2014 (33; 40)

 

Starting in 2018, under Law No. 137, child victims of forced labor will begin to receive financial compensation granted from the government for the damage caused to them. (13; 41)

Although Article 13 of the Education Code of 2010 states that education is compulsory until age 18, this provision did not enter into force until 2018. (9; 42; 40)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Social Protection that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Health, Labor, and Social Protection’s State Labor Inspectorate (SLI)

Enforce all labor laws, including child labor laws. (13) Manage the National Referral System to Protect and Assist Victims and Potential Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings (NRS), which has been implemented in all of Moldova’s regions; each regional coordinator works directly with law enforcement, NGOs, and schools, and leads victim rehabilitation efforts. (3) Build the capacity of multidisciplinary teams at the local level, which includes community social assistants, police officers, and NGO workers to improve victim identification and referral for crisis intervention and rehabilitation. (43) Through the National Coordination Unit and Child Labor Monitoring Unit (CLMU), coordinate activities related to the protection of victims and those vulnerable to human trafficking. In 2017, the CLMU had one inspector. (13; 42)

National Public Health Agency

Enforce all laws related to occupational safety and health, including hazardous work of children. (13)

Center for Combating Trafficking in Persons (CCTIP)

Lead criminal investigations and arrest perpetrators, including for the trafficking of children for both labor and sexual exploitation. Subdivision of the Ministry of the Interior with 11 criminal investigators. (8; 13)

Security and Intelligence Service

Enforce criminal laws against child trafficking and sexual exploitation through cooperation and information exchange with CCTIP, the Border Police, the National Corruption Center, and the Customs Service. Part of the CCTIP. (8; 44)

Prosecutor General’s Office (PGO) for Organized Crime and Special Cases (PCCOCS) and Anti-Trafficking Bureau

Conduct and oversee criminal investigations on the worst forms of child labor, including the commercial sexual exploitation of children, and prosecute cases. (13) In 2017, employed 11 prosecutors. (13; 45) In 2017, the PGO also launched an anti-trafficking Green Line Telephone, which encourages citizens to report trafficking in persons. (5) Monitor and analyze trafficking in persons cases in the Anti-trafficking Bureau within the PGO. (5) Includes an investigative and prosecution unit within the national-level Specialized Prosecution Office for Organized Crime and Special Cases (PCCOCS). Established in December 2017 and includes formally designated trafficking in persons prosecutors. (5) Focus on child pornography through a specialized unit of three officers at the Center for Combating Cyber Crime. (8; 46; 42) USDOS has donated specialized equipment to this center and supported the participation of two representatives at an INTERPOL meeting on criminal investigations of cybercrimes involving children. (3; 47; 46) In 2017, employed five prosecutors. (13)

People’s Advocate (Ombudsman)

Specialize in child protection issues, including child labor, and defend children’s constitutional rights. Public authorities, officials, and institutions are required to cooperate with the Ombudsman. (8)

Ministry of Justice (MOJ)

Enforce criminal laws against child trafficking and sexual exploitation. (44; 13) Draft, consult, and propose all processes related to criminal legislation for the government’s approval before they enter into force. (48)

Ministry of Information Technology

Assist in identifying victims of human trafficking and provide foreign victims with residence permits and identity cards. (3)

 

As a result of the government’s restructuring in 2017, the Ministry of Labor, Social Protection, and Family merged with the Ministry of Health to become the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Social Protection. Likewise, the Ministry of Education merged with the Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Youth and Sports to become the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Research. (13) Due to this restructuring, the authority to enforce occupational and safety (OSH) regulations was removed from the State Labor Inspection (SLI) and given to other agencies. (13; 42) In addition, the Child Labor Monitoring Unit (CLMU) structure has not been clearly defined, and its bureaucratic role has changed from coordinating child labor monitoring with the SLI to merely requesting a report of child labor from other agencies. (42)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Moldova took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Social Protection that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including authority to assess penalties.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$700,000 (9)

$850,000 (13)

Number of Labor Inspectors

87 (9)

87 (13)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (9)

No (13)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (9)

Yes (13)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (8)

Yes (13)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (8; 26)

Yes (46)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

4,048† (9)

3,295‡ (13)

Number Conducted at Worksites

4,048† (9)

3,295‡ (13)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

17† (9)

15‡ (13)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

17† (9)

11‡ (13)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

3 (8)

2‡ (13)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (9)

Yes (13)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (8)

No (13; 42)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (9)

Yes (13)

       Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (9)

Yes (13)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (9)

Yes (13)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (9; 49)

Yes (13)

† Data are from January 2016 to November 2016.
‡ Data are from January 1, 2017 to November 30, 2017.

 

The SLI inspects enterprises, institutions, and organizations, regardless of their type or legal form. (13; 50) SLI can inspect private farms but not homes. (13) There are 87 labor inspectors who are separated into those who specialize in labor law and those who inspect OSH. (13) The labor inspector’s strategy for conducting labor inspections is found in various regulations. (51; 52; 50) Law No. 140 and Law No. 131 outline the primary responsibilities of the SLI, including how and when labor inspections occur. (52; 50; 46) There are limitations on the conditions under which the SLI may conduct unannounced inspections, including that they cannot be carried out on the basis of unverified information and information received from anonymous sources. (53; 50) About 20 percent of all labor inspections were unannounced. In addition, the government’s existing mechanism for filing and responding to child labor complaints is generally regarded as inadequate. (13)

During the reporting period, labor inspector managers received trainings at the National Commission for Collective Bargaining on unreported labor. (46) Labor inspectors received trainings on trafficking in persons. (13) In addition, inspectors received trainings on OSH but did not execute OSH inspections from April to December 2017 due to government reforms. (42) This may have affected the number of child labor violations found in hazardous occupations in agriculture, a sector in which there is evidence that child labor occurs in Moldova. (42) The SLI also led public awareness campaigns and attended meetings with local public authorities on unreported labor and wages. (13)

Although the SLI reported that supplies and equipment for labor inspections were inadequate and trade unions reported that there was an insufficient number of child labor inspections conducted, the SLI removed two minors from labor situations as a result of labor inspections in 2017. (13) Both government and NGO sources reported that the confirmed child labor violations did not reflect the full scope of the problem in Moldova due to changes in the government’s ability to conduct inspections undergoing ongoing state reforms. (13; 46)

Although protections related to the minimum age for work and hazardous work also apply to employment in the informal sector, children working in the informal sector are unprotected due to law enforcement practices. (8; 46)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Moldova took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including prosecution planning and financial resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (25)

N/A (13)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No (8)

Yes (13)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (8)

Yes (13)

Number of Investigations

23† (8)

34‡ (13)

Number of Violations Found

23† (8)

34‡ (13)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

7† (8)

34‡ (13)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (8)

20‡ (13)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8; 49)

Yes (13)

† Data are from January 2016 to October 2016.
‡ Data are from January 1, 2017 to December 1, 2017.

 

Criminal investigators attended four trainings during the reporting period on topics such as investigation techniques related to human trafficking, best practices in combating commercial sexual exploitation, and victim centered approaches involving minors. (5) However, the number of trainings and trainees remains inadequate in identifying potential victims, according to NGOs. (13; 46) In addition, even though the overall government anti-human trafficking budget increased, CCTIP lacks sufficient vehicles and the Office for Organized Crime and Special Cases lacks resources, such as computers. (5; 13)

A source indicated that the government’s law enforcement personnel, particularly police officers who conduct foot patrols, lacked training in proper investigative techniques for child trafficking cases. (3; 46) In addition, CCTIP has not established child interview rooms in all of Moldova’s regions. Authorities also did not possess sufficient ability to identify potential victims, especially children left without parental supervision, and the National Referral Mechanism fails to properly identify victims of human trafficking. (5)

Local NGOs reported that weaknesses in the judicial system continue to hinder the government’s ability to enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor. (3; 25; 54; 55; 46) In addition, following the changes to the Prosecutor General’s Office in 2016 and 2017, while the number of prosecutors dedicated to human trafficking increased from the previous year, they are in charge of investigating cases under the criminal justice process, and they cannot bring human trafficking cases to court. (5; 45) Instead, they must rely on a different group of prosecutors if an organized crime element is present or have territorial prosecutors, who have less human trafficking experience, take the case. (5)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination efforts of the National Steering Committee on the Elimination of Child labor.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Steering Committee on the Elimination of Child Labor (NSC)

Coordinate work on child labor issues at the national level among representatives from workers’ organizations, NGOs, academia, and government agencies (13).

National Committee for Combating Trafficking in Persons (NCCTIP)

Coordinate efforts to prevent and combat child trafficking and child sexual exploitation. Members include the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Social Protection and other government ministries. (8; 25; 13) Through the Permanent Secretariat, monitor implementation of legal provisions on combating human trafficking as developed by the NCCTIP. (8; 13) Draft provisions on human trafficking, participate in anti-trafficking campaigns, and develop national action plans. (3) Held meetings in 2017. (5; 45) In 2018, it will include the Bureau for Migration and Asylum and the Public Service Agency. (13)

National Commission for Consultation and Collective Bargaining

Autonomous public body created to resolve issues related to labor, social, and economic issues. (13) Comprised 18 members. The Commission was active in 2017 and met several times. (13)

National Council for the Protection of Child Rights

Coordinate national efforts to combat child exploitation. (8) Chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister. Has a working group to discuss existing gaps in the current birth registration process and develop recommendations. (56; 57) It met once in 2017. (13; 58)

 

The National Steering Committee on the Elimination of Child Labor did not meet in 2017. (13)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including a national action plan to address all worst forms of child labor.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan for the Implementation of the Moldova-EU Association Agenda (2017–2019)

Commits Moldova to reform certain sectors to align with EU policies. Includes the elimination of child labor as a medium-term policy. (13; 59; 60) In 2017, additional data was added about vulnerable children. (46; 42; 60)

National Plan for Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings (2014–2017)

Aimed to improve anti-human trafficking efforts and reduce children’s vulnerability to child labor and sexual exploitation by improving data collection, referral mechanisms, public awareness, and training for government officials. (61) The Set of Measures for Priority Actions in the Field of Prevention and Control Trafficking in Human Beings (Roadmap)† outlines anti-human trafficking actions for 2017. (42)

Child Protection Strategy (2014–2020)

Includes the goals of preventing and combating violence, neglect, and the exploitation of children. (62; 63) The strategy was active in 2017 and implemented activities and actions according to the strategy. (13; 42)

Moldova Action Program (2016–2018)

Promotes the rights and protection of children, including preventing and combating violence, neglect, and exploitation. (64) Aims to increase the welfare, safety, and quality of life of citizens. (64) In 2017, government policies incorporated the program. (46)

Action Plan to Support the Roma People (2016–2020)

Aims to promote social inclusion of Roma. Includes the goals of education, social protection, and combating discrimination. (65) Funding received from the government, private partnerships, and the EU. (65; 66)

Action Plan on the Promotion of Internet Safety for Children and Teenagers (2017–2020)†

Encourages a safer digital environment for children and teenagers by reducing illegal content on the Internet and educating children about its dangers. (67) Yearly reports on implementing the Action Plan are to be submitted to the government. (67)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

 

The government had a National Action Plan on the Prevention and Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, but it expired in 2015. Research found no evidence of a policy to cover all worst forms of child labor.

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

ILO Projects

Decent Work Country Program (2016–2020) aims to strengthen available statistics on child labor and improve the labor inspectorate, with a focus on construction and agriculture. (68) In 2017, it undertook labor-related actions, such as in employment and trade unions. (46) Promoting Decent Work for Roma Youth in Moldova (2016–2017) focused on policies to address Roma youth labor market integration for 15- to 29-year-olds. (69) In 2017, it assisted Roma with labor market inclusion for Roma youth and conducted a baseline study on social and market inclusion. (46)

UNICEF-Government of Moldova Country Program (2013–2017)†

UNICEF and government program to improve the social inclusion of vulnerable children. Focused on migrant, Roma, and child victims of sexual exploitation and abuse. (70; 62) Program was active in 2017. (13)

Center for Protection and Assistance for Victims of Human Trafficking

Child victims of human trafficking are offered legal and social support, accommodation, psychological assistance, and family reunification services. (13) Assisted 21 children in 2017. (5)

Shelters for Victims of Human Trafficking†

Government-funded shelters for children from Moldova and Transnistria. (25) Offer accommodations, rehabilitation, and reintegration services. (54) Continued to operate in 2017 and NCCTIP reopened a shelter. (5; 45)

Child Helpline

Implemented by La Strada. (13) Provided psychological counseling and information to parents and children experiencing violence, neglect, or exploitation. In 2017, the Helpline received 6,382 calls and counselled 4,241 children. (13)

Conditional Cash Transfer Program†

Government allocated $640,000 in financial support for 86,000 vulnerable families with minor children in 2017. (13)

† Program is funded by the Government of Moldova.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (8; 47; 71; 72; 73; 8; 5)

 

During the reporting period, the government expanded and increased funding for social services for families and children, and continued funding the Social Assistance Program, which provides social assistance and help during the winter. (13; 74) However, existing social programs do not meet the current level of need, particularly for child victims of trafficking in persons requiring long-term care and children working in agriculture. (25; 46)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Moldova (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Authorize the State Labor Inspectorate to assess penalties.

2016 – 2017

Strengthen the labor inspection system by eliminating limitations on unannounced inspections and conducting unannounced inspections.

2017

Increase funding for the State Labor Inspectorate to ensure that it provides inspectors with the financial resources necessary to inspect child labor.

2012 – 2017

Ensure that the government mechanism for filing and responding to child labor complaints functions properly and strengthen the National Referral System to protect children from commercial sexual exploitation.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that training and funding are sufficient for CCTIP criminal investigators.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that investigators, including police officers who conduct foot patrols and CCTIP, receive training on laws and investigative techniques related to the worst forms of child labor, especially for children left behind without parental care.

2016 – 2017

Strengthen the judicial system to ensure that penalties imposed against perpetrators of crimes related to the worst forms of child labor are convicted and sentenced according to law.

2014 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure that the National Steering Committee on the Elimination of Child Labor meets and carries out their mandate.

2013 – 2017

Government Policies

Create and implement a National Action Plan on Child Labor.

2016 – 2017

Social Programs

Collect and publish data on the extent and nature of child labor to inform policies and programs, including for the secessionist region of Transnistria.

2013 – 2017

Institute targeted support programs that eliminate discrimination and violence against Roma children and promote equal access to education, and remove informal educational fees.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that administration officials in orphanages, who commit crimes, are punished according to the law.

2017

Ensure sufficient support for child trafficking victims and children working in agriculture.

2015 – 2017

1. U.S. Embassy- Chisinau. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

2. U.S. Department of State. Country Report on Human Rights Practices- 2014: Moldova. Washington, DC. June 25, 2015. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236766.pdf.

3. U.S. Embassy- Chisinau. Reporting, February 4, 2016.

4. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Moldova. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271244.htm.

5. U.S. Embassy- Chisinau. Reporting, February 9, 2018.

6. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original Data from Labour Force Survey-Child Labour Survey, 2009. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. U.S. Embassy- Chisinau. Reporting, January 17, 2017.

9. Government of Moldova. Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor. December 28, 2016: Written communication.

10. National Farmer's Federation of Moldova official. Interview with USDOL official. May 23, 2017.

11. CNPAC official. Interview with USDOL official. May 22, 2017.

12. UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Concluding observation on the third periodic report of the Republic of Moldova. October 17, 2017: E/C.12/MDACO/3. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E/C.12/MDA/CO/3&Lang=En.

13. U.S. Embassy- Chisinau. Reporting, January 23, 2018.

14. ILO-IPEC. Working Children in the Republic of Moldova: The Results of the 2009 Children's Activities Survey. July 2010. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_15016/lang--en/index.htm.

15. UN Women. Study on the Situation of Romani Women and Girls in the Republic of Moldova. 2014. http://www.md.undp.org/content/unct/moldova/en/home/publications/joint-publications/study-on-the-situation-of-romani-women-and-girls-in-the-republic.html.

16. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of the Republic of Moldova (continued). September 25, 2017: CRC/C/SR.2234. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fSR.2234&Lang=en.

17. Walk Free Foundation. The Global Slavery Index. 2013. https://assets.globalslaveryindex.org/content/uploads/2016/08/30110159/2013-Global-Slavery-Index.pdf.

18. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding Observations on the Initial Report of the Republic of Moldova Submitted Under Article 12 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography. October 29, 2013: Report No. CRC/C/OPSC/MDA/CO/1. http://www.refworld.org/docid/5280f80a4.html.

19. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2017. Moldova. Washington, DC. April 20, 2018. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/277439.pdf.

20. INFOTAG. Child Trafficking Statistics in Moldova Goes Up. September 30, 2015. http://www.infotag.md/populis-en/209766/.

21. TeleRadio Moldova. Moldova Continues To Be a Hotbed Country of Human Trafficking. July 30, 2015. http://www.trm.md/en/social/moldova-continua-sa-fie-o-sursa-a-traficului-de-fiin-e-umane/.

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