Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Mauritius

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Mauritius

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Mauritius made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government announced a new plan for poverty alleviation, hired additional labor inspectors, and increased funding for several programs to combat child labor and assist vulnerable households. However, children in Mauritius are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Limited resources for the systematic enforcement of criminal child labor laws impede government efforts to protect children from the worst forms of child labor. In addition, poor coordination continues to hinder the Government’s efforts to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

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Children in Mauritius are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Mauritius. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

Unavailable

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

Unavailable

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

Unavailable

Primary completion rate (%):

97.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(5)
Data were unavailable from Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis, 2015.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Producing* and harvesting* vegetables* (3, 4, 7-9)

Feeding livestock* (9)

Fishing,* including diving,* and casting nets* and traps* (3, 7, 10)

Industry

Working in factories* and masonry* (3, 7)

Services

Domestic work (3, 4, 7)

Working in apparel shops* (7)

 

Street work, including vending,* begging,* and carrying* goods in public markets (4, 7, 8)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (1-4, 8, 11)

Use in illicit activities, including selling drugs* (3, 7)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children in Mauritius are lured into commercial sexual exploitation by their peers, family members, or through false offers of other employment; however, the Ministry of Labor, Industrial Relations, Employment, and Training (MOLIRE) states that there is no child labor in the formal sector.(2, 3) Mauritius has never conducted a national child labor survey, and therefore information is limited about the prevalence of child labor in the country.(12)

Evidence suggests that incidents of physical and psychological abuse, including corporal punishment of students by teachers, prevent some children from attending school, which increases their risk of becoming victims of commercial sexual exploitation.(4, 11, 13-15) Because of discrimination, children with disabilities face serious barriers to access education.(4, 15, 16)

Mauritius has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Section 6 of the Employment Rights Act (17)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 12 of the Employment Rights Act (17)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Section 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (18)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 6 of the Constitution; Article 2 of the Combating Trafficking in Persons Act (19, 20)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 11 of the Combating Trafficking in Persons Act; Article 13A of the Child Protection Act (20, 21)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 14 of the Child Protection Act; Article 253 of the Criminal Code (21, 22)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 30.1b–e, 38a, 41.1f, and 41.2 of the Dangerous Drugs Act (23)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

N/A†

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 37.2 of the Education Act (24)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 35 of the Education Act (24)

* No conscription (25)
† No standing military (25)

The Government of Mauritius continues to work on a comprehensive bill designed to harmonize the existing legal framework related to children’s rights and ensure that it is consistent with the CEACR.(4, 26-28) Research, however, was unable to determine the timeline of its introduction to the National Assembly for consideration.(3)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Inspection and Enforcement Division of the Ministry of Labor, Industrial Relations, Employment, and Training (MOLIRE)

Enforce all labor laws, including those related to child labor.(29, 30)

Office of the Ombudsperson for Children

Investigate any suspected or reported case of child labor or violation of a child’s rights. Promote compliance with the CRC.(11, 31)

Police Brigade for the Protection of Minors (Minors’ Brigade)

Investigate reports of child or forced labor, sometimes in conjunction with routine police patrols.(1, 11, 28) Patrol arcades, bus terminals, and other areas in which youth are vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation.(1, 29) Maintain a database of all trafficking incidents of children and refer all cases of commercial sexual exploitation to the Child Development Unit (CDU).(26)

Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare (MOGE) Child Development Unit (CDU)

Enforce legislation related to children and implement policies and programs related to child development.(11, 28, 32) Receive tips on all forms of child abuse, including commercial sexual exploitation and child trafficking.(2, 29) Provide follow-up assistance to victims.(1, 11) Assign child welfare officers to accompany victims while they receive immediate medical care, and work in conjunction with the police if an official statement is needed.(2) Develop a central database and standard operating procedures for sharing information and taking action to address child labor.(26, 33)

 

In 2015, the Child Development Unit of the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare (MOGE) carried out three awareness campaigns on children’s rights and how to safeguard them and formed a committee to investigate complaints of poor conditions in residential care centers.(3) The Office of the Ombudsperson for Children appointed a new ombudsperson experienced in working with vulnerable children and advocating for children’s rights.(3, 34)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Mauritius took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$885,000 (3)

$1.1 million (3)

Number of Labor Inspectors

45 (9)

55 (3)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown

No (3)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (3)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (3)

Number of Labor Inspections

860 (9, 34)

479‡ (3)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

479‡ (3)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

0

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

1 (9)

2 (3, 12)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

0 (3)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

No (3)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Unknown

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (9)

Yes (3)

‡ Data are from January 1, 2015, to October 31, 2015.(34)

Although the MOLIRE works with the CDU and the Minors’ Brigade to refer victims to social service providers, research indicates that the MOLIRE does not coordinate with the Ministry of Education to ensure that victims have access to education.(3, 9, 35) During the reporting period, the police initiated investigations into two cases of child labor related to violations of the labor code, which are still ongoing.(35)

Criminal Law Enforcement

Research found no information on whether criminal law enforcement agencies in Mauritius took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (9)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (9)

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (9)

Unknown

Number of Investigations

Unknown (9)

Unknown  

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (9)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (9)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown (9)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (11, 28)

Yes (3)

 

The Minors’ Brigade, in cooperation with the CDU, manages the “119” and “113” hotlines to receive complaints about situations requiring child protection; however, it is not known how many cases of child labor were identified as a result of calls made to these hotlines.(11, 28)

Research revealed that criminal law enforcement agencies lacked staff, transportation, and other necessities to properly enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(2, 26, 36)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Child Protection Committee (NCPC)

Coordinate, monitor, and evaluate activities on children’s rights and welfare, including efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor. Chaired by MOGE and comprising representatives from more than 10 government Ministries.(11) Also known as the Working Together Committee and includes a subcommittee that coordinates efforts to combat commercial sexual exploitation.(33, 37).

National Children’s Council (NCC)

Serve as the executive of child protection programs and focuses on child protection issues in the country as an independent, paragovernmental entity under the auspices of MOGE.(1, 11)

 

In 2015, a lack of coordination hindered the Government’s efforts to address child labor and significant overlap continues to exist among the committees involved in child protection issues.(3, 11) The roles of the National Child Protection Committee (NCPC) and the National Children’s Council (NCC) are unclear in coordinating efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor.(11) In November 2015, the NCC participated in a month-long awareness-raising campaign on children’s rights in honor of Universal Children’s Day.(3) The NCPC met once during the reporting period.(12)

The Government of Mauritius has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Child Safety Online Action Plan

Prevents sexual exploitation of children on the Internet by strengthening the legal framework and raising awareness among parents and children.(38) Falls under the direction of the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology, and implemented in conjunction with other government agencies, including MOGE; the Minors’ Brigade; the Office of the Ombudsperson for Children; and the Ministry of Education, Culture and Human Resources.(11, 29) In 2015, as part of the Plan, the National Computer Board carried out several awareness-raising campaigns related to Internet safety for children, students, parents, and educators.(3)

National Policy Paper on the Family (2006–2015)*

Supports child welfare through holistic support for families, including job training for parents; led by MOGE.(11, 39)

Education and Human Resources Strategy Plan (2008–2020)*

Aims to improve equity of access to primary, secondary, and technical and vocational education, and to provide social services for youth. Overseen by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Human Resources.(40, 41)

UNDP Country Program for Mauritius (2013–2016)*

Improves access to education for vulnerable children by reducing inequality.(42)

Government Development Program—Achieving Meaningful Change (2015–2019)*†

Describes the overall development agenda. Aims to increase access to social protection services for vulnerable populations, including children.(27, 43, 44)

Marshall Plan Against Poverty for Mauritius*†

Ministry of Social Integration and Economic Empowerment policy addresses access to education, community development, and employment for vulnerable groups.(33) Receives technical assistance from UNDP.(3)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government of Mauritius funded programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Awareness-raising Programs in Schools, Community Centers, and in the Media on Commercial Sexual Exploitation†

Government program to educate the public on preventing sexual abuse and commercial sexual exploitation of children.(1, 2, 37) During 2015, educated 1,952 students on commercial sexual exploitation of children.(28)

Workshops on Commercial Sexual Exploitation†

Government workshops  that aim to raise awareness of commercial sexual exploitation of vulnerable groups.(1)

Drop-in Centers†

Government program that provides counseling and referrals to victims of sexual abuse, including commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking. Monitored by the CDU.(26, 28, 30)

Shelters and Institutional Care†

Government program that provides shelter and institutional care to victims who are referred to Government or NGO shelters. Through residential care centers, serve victims of child abuse, including victims of sexual abuse and prostitution.(3, 11, 28) In 2015, operated 21 shelters and served 567 children.(1, 28, 30)

Community Child Protection Program†

Government program that provides child protection services to at-risk youth in nine districts.(28)

Income Support Program†

Ministry of Social Security, National Solidarity and Reform Institutions program that provides money directly to 8,000 vulnerable families living below the Poverty Intervention Line.(32, 33)

Special Collaborative Program for Support to Women and Children in Distress†

MOGE program that provides funding to NGOs to implement programs to improve the lives of vulnerable women and children and reintegrate them into mainstream society.(34) Received $1.2 million from the Government from January 2015 to June 2016, a significant increase from the $484,000 received from January to December 2014.(34, 35)

Social Aid Program†

Government program that provides assistance to 20,000 families.(11, 32)

Eradication of Absolute Poverty Program†

Government program that aims to increase poor children’s access to education by expanding free public school education and providing school feeding support to more than 7,500 households in 229 geographic pockets of poverty.(41)

Education Priority Zones (ZEP)†

Government program that combats social inequalities by providing equal opportunities to all primary school children throughout the country. Has been shown to reduce school dropout rates through enhanced community participation in education.(11, 41) In 2015, received Government funding for low-performing schools.(3)

Child Mentoring Scheme†

Government program that provides one-on-one counseling to at-risk children through a government-selected mentor.(37, 45)

Summer and Winter School Program†

Government program that provides summer and winter schooling to enhance the successful transition of students from primary to secondary school.(29, 37)

Second Chance Program†

Government program to educate and provide vocational training and life skills to those who dropped out after age 16.(37)

† Program is funded by the Government of Mauritius.

The Government’s institutional care facilities, which house orphans, victims of commercial sexual exploitation, and victims of other types of abuses, are overcrowded and lack appropriate standards of care, leading to inadequate service provision.(1, 3, 35) Service providers are overtaxed and lack appropriate training.(3) Child victims of commercial sexual exploitation are sometimes placed by court order into probation centers, where they may not receive appropriate treatment.(1)

In addition, the Government of Mauritius does not fund or participate in programs to address child labor in domestic work or street work.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Mauritius (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by authorizing inspectors to assess penalties and conduct targeted routine inspections.

2015

Ensure that children identified during labor inspections receive all necessary social services, including access to education.

2015

Collect and make publicly available information on criminal law enforcement, including training for investigators, the number of investigations conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions obtained.

2014 – 2015

Establish a mechanism to log all calls to the child protection hotline and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social service providers.

2014 – 2015

Increase the amount of training, human resources, and funding for agencies responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor.

2011 – 2015

Coordination

Streamline coordination across agencies and encourage effective coordination between the NCPC and the NCC.

2012 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2010 – 2015

Adopt a policy that addresses the worst forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the prevalence of child labor in Mauritius to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that all children, including those with disabilities, can attend school without fear of physical or psychological abuse.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that victims of commercial sexual exploitation have access to comprehensive, quality services and refrain from placing victims in facilities designed for youth on probation.

2010 – 2015

Expand the scope of programs to address the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work and street work.

2014 – 2015

 

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2.         U.S. Department of State. "Mauritius," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243491.htm.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. reporting, January 15, 2016.

4.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Mauritius. Geneva; February 27, 2015. Report No. CRC/C/MUS/CO/3-5. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/MUS/CO/3-5&Lang=En.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         NGO Safire. Study on street children in Mauritius; February 2012. http://safire-ngo.org/assets/pdf/thematic/Report_on_Street_Children.pdf.

8.         Otieno, J. "Child labour in Africa: A worrying spike in numbers." africareview.com [online] August 7, 2013 [cited November 28, 2015]; http://www.africareview.com/Special-Reports/Child-labour-spike-worrying-in-Africa/-/979182/1940132/-/view/printVersion/-/g9yi8iz/-/index.html.

9.         U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. reporting, February 25, 2015.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Port Louis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 8, 2015.

11.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Periodic Reports of States Parties due in 2011: Mauritius. Prepared by Government of Mauritius, Article 44 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. October 28, 2013. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G13/478/85/PDF/G1347885.pdf?OpenElement.

12.       U.S. Embassy- Port Louis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 16, 2016.

13.       Buglow, Y. "Violence and antisocial behaviour in schools – How big is the problem?" halleymovement.org [online] October 19, 2012 [cited January 27, 2015]; http://halleymovement.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/defimedia_19Oct12.pdf.

14.       Pelerins, A. Children of Mauritius: Realizing Children’s Rights in Mauritius, Humanium, [online] October 23, 2012 [cited January 27, 2015]; http://www.humanium.org/en/mauritius/.

15.       Government of Mauritius. Annual Report 2013-2014. Port Louis, Ombudsperson for Children's Office; September 30, 2014. http://oco.govmu.org/English/Documents/Annual%20report%202014.pdf.

16.       UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Concluding Observations in relation to the initial report of Mauritius; September 4, 2015. Report No. CRPD/C/MUS/CO/1. http://www.refworld.org/docid/55eed7a94.html

17.       Government of Mauritius. Employment Rights Act, Act No. 33 of 2008, enacted September 19, 2008. [source on file].

18.       Government of Mauritius. The Occupational Safety and Health Act, Act No. 28 of 2005, enacted October 28, 2005. [source on file].

19.       Government of Mauritius. Constitution of the Republic of Mauritius, enacted March 12, 1968. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_126778.pdf.

20.       Government of Mauritius. The Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act 2009, Act No. 2 of 2009, enacted May 8, 2009. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_126787.pdf.

21.       Government of Mauritius. Child Protection Act, Act No. 30 of 1994, enacted April 1, 1995. [source on file].

22.       Government of Mauritius. Criminal Code, enacted December 29, 1938 [source on file].

23.       Government of Mauritius. The Dangerous Drugs Act 2000, Act No. 41 of 2000, enacted December 29, 2000. https://www.issafrica.org/cdct/mainpages/pdf/Organised%20Crime/Legislation/Mauritius/Mauritius%20Dangerous%20Drugs%20Act%2041%20of%202000.pdf.

24.       Government of Mauritius. Education Act, enacted December 28, 1957. [source on file].

25.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2013. http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

26.       U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. reporting, January 15, 2015.

27.       Government Information Service. Minister of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare calls for reforms, Government of Mauritius, [online] March 5, 2015 [cited November 28, 2015]; http://www.govmu.org/English/News/Pages/Minister-of-Gender-Equality,-Child-Development-and-Family-Welfare-calls-for-reforms.aspx.

28.       Government of Mauritius. Written communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Port Louis; January 4, 2016. [source on file].

29.       U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. reporting, January 29, 2013.

30.       U.S. Department of State. "Mauritius," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper.

31.       Government of Mauritius. The Ombudsperson for Children Act, Act No. 41 of 2003, enacted November 20, 2003. [source on file].

32.       U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. reporting, January 16, 2014.

33.       Government of Mauritius. Comments. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor publication "Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, September 30, 2013". Port Louis; January 11, 2013. [source on file].

34.       U.S. Embassy- Port Louis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 27, 2016.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Port Louis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 27, 2016.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. reporting, February 19, 2013.

37.       Mauritius Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment. Updated Report Following the 2010 US Report–Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labour; July 19, 2012. [source on file].

38.       Government of Mauritius. Child Safety Online Action Plan for Mauritius. Port Louis; January 2009. http://www.govmu.org/portal/sites/sid2010/files/Final%20Action%20Plan%20version.pdf.

39.       Government of Mauritius. National Policy Paper on the Family. Port Louis; 2010. [source on file].

40.       Government of Mauritius. Education and Human Resources Strategy Plan 2008-2020. Port Louis; October 2009. [source on file].

41.       UNESCO. Education for All 2015 National Review- Mauritius; May 2015. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002310/231077e.pdf.

42.       UNDP. Country Programme Document for the Republic of Mauritius (2013-2016). New York; June 25, 2013. http://www.undp.org/content/dam/rba/docs/Programme%20Documents/Mauritius%20CPD%202013-2016%20%28en%29.pdf.

43.       The President of the Republic of Mauritius, First Session of the Sixth National Assembly of Mauritius. Government Program - Achieving Meaningful Change (2015-2019). January 27, 2015; http://www.lexpress.mu/sites/lexpress/files/attachments/article/2015/2015-01/2015-01-27/govprog2015.pdf.

44.       Govenment of Mauritius. "Mauritius: Government Programme 2015-2019 - Emphasis On Development With a Human Dimension." allafrica.com [online] January 28, 2015 [cited November 28, 2015]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201501281495.html.

45.       U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. reporting, January 20, 2012.

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