Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Mauritius

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Mauritius

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2017, Mauritius made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government established a mechanism to coordinate child labor efforts, obtained its first prosecution for child trafficking under the Combating Trafficking in Persons Act, and established a hotline to report cases of child labor. The government also established a mutual assistance agreement to improve services provided to victims of the worst forms of child labor, moved the national exam to graduate primary education from the sixth grade to the ninth grade to increase enrollment, and continued to fund programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. However, children in Mauritius engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. The government lacks a national policy to address all relevant worst forms of child labor, and social programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

Expand All

Children in Mauritius engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. (1; 3; 4; 6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Mauritius. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

Unavailable

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

101.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (7)
Data were unavailable from Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis, 2018. (8)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Producing and harvesting vegetables (1; 3; 4)

Feeding livestock (6)

Fishing, including diving, and casting nets and traps (9; 4)

Industry

Working in factories and masonry (10)

Services

Domestic work (1; 4)

Working in apparel shops and restaurants (4)

Street work, including vending, begging, and carrying goods in public markets (1; 3; 4; 11; 12)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 2; 3; 4; 5)

Use in illicit activities, including selling drugs (4)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Some children in Mauritius are lured into commercial sexual exploitation by their peers or family members, or through false offers of other employment. (10; 5; 1) Mauritius has never conducted a national child labor survey, and therefore information on the prevalence of child labor in the country is limited. (4)

Evidence suggests that incidents of physical and psychological abuse, including corporal punishment of students by teachers, prevent some children from attending school, which increases their risk of engaging in the worst forms of child labor. Because of discrimination, children with disabilities face serious barriers in accessing education. (1; 2; 13; 14)

Mauritius has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Mauritius’ legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including with the recruitment of children by non-state armed groups.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Sections 6 and 12 of the Employment Rights Act (15)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 12 of the Employment Rights Act (15)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Section 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (16)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 6 of the Constitution; Article 2 of the Combating Trafficking in Persons Act (17; 18)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 11 of the Combating Trafficking in Persons Act; Article 13A of the Child Protection Act (18; 19)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 14 of the Child Protection Act; Article 253 of the Criminal Code (19; 20)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 30.1b-e, 38a, 41.1f, and 41.2 of the Dangerous Drugs Act (21)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

N/A†

 

 

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 37.2 of the Education Act (22)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 35 of the Education Act (22)

* No conscription (23)
† No standing military (23)

 

During the reporting period, the government continued to draft a comprehensive bill aiming to harmonize the existing legal framework related to children’s rights and strengthen legal provisions for child protection. (24; 4; 11)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Labor, Industrial Relations, Employment, and Training (MOLIRE) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Industrial Relations, Employment, and Training (MOLIRE)

Enforce all labor laws, including those related to child labor. (25; 4)

Office of the Ombudsperson for Children

Investigate any suspected or reported case of child labor or violation of a child’s rights. Propose laws and policies to advance children’s rights. (2; 26; 27; 4)

Police Brigade for the Protection of Minors (Minors’ Brigade)

Investigate crimes related to the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. (2; 24; 4) Maintain a database of all trafficking incidents involving children and refer all cases of commercial sexual exploitation to the Child Development Unit. (28)

Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions

Undertake criminal proceedings on laws related to the worst forms of child labor, in coordination with the Minors’ Brigade and the judicial courts. (29; 30)

Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare’s (MOGE) Child Development Unit

Enforce legislation related to children and implement policies and social programs related to child development. Provide social services to victims of the worst forms of child labor, including human trafficking. (31; 32; 4; 33)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Mauritius took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of MOLIRE that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including with penalty assessment authorization.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1.2 million (34)

$1.5 million (4)

Number of Labor Inspectors

85 (35)

95 (4)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (34)

No (4)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (34)

Yes (4)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (34)

Yes (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (34)

Yes (4)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

1,848 (34)

3,012‡ (4)

Number Conducted at Worksites

1,848 (34)

3,012‡ (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (34)

0 (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

N/A (34)

0 (4)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

N/A (34)

0 (4)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (34)

Yes (4)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (34)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (34)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (34)

Yes (4)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (34)

Yes (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (34)

Yes (4)

‡ Data are from January 1, 2017 to October 31, 2017. (4)

 

In June 2017, MOLIRE organized a nationwide awareness-raising campaign as part of World Day Against Child Labor and established the 151 hotline to receive reports of child labor, as well as those related to the worst forms of child labor such as trafficking in persons.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Mauritius took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including with insufficient resource allocation.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (34)

Yes (4)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (34)

N/A (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (34)

Yes (4)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (34)

4 (37)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (34)

4 (37)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (34)

6 (38)

Number of Convictions

0 (34)

3 (37)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (34; 10)

Yes (4)

 

In 2017, the Minors’ Brigade maintained a staff of 54 agents who are distributed in five geographic police divisions. (39) During 2017, the first prosecution for child trafficking under the Combating Trafficking in Persons Act took place and was transferred to the court system, with a final resolution in March 2018 that resulted in a conviction with a 3-year imprisonment sentence. (38) Research indicates that the police were investigating 11 human trafficking cases by the end of the reporting period, although it is unknown how many of these cases involved children. (29) Research revealed that criminal law enforcement agencies lacked staff, transportation, and other resources to properly enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. (25; 40) In addition, reports indicate that coordination between the police and the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions has been limited, mainly due to a lack of training and insufficient case tracking, which hinders efforts to investigate and prosecute child trafficking cases. The government participated in a conference on human trafficking in November 2017 to address such gaps. (29; 38)

During 2017, MOGE’s Child Development Unit established a mutual assistance agreement to improve the referral process with the Minors’ Brigade to improve services to victims of the worst forms of child labor. (4; 38)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including with coordination among key mechanisms.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Coordinating Committee on Child Labor*

Elaborate policies, approve programs, and coordinate, monitor, and evaluate efforts to combat child labor in Mauritius. Chaired by the MOLIRE, comprises representatives from the Ministry of Education, the Minors’ Brigade, the Office of the Ombudsperson for Children, and local and international organizations. (4; 41)

Inter-Ministerial Committee on Human Trafficking

Coordinate anti-trafficking efforts in Mauritius. Chaired by the Attorney General’s Office comprises representatives from the MOLIRE, the MOGE, and other ministries. (35; 42; 5) In 2017, organized a workshop for government officials and civil society groups on the legal framework to combat human trafficking. (43)

National Child Protection Committee (NCPC)

Coordinate and implement activities on children’s rights, including efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor. Chaired by the MOGE, and also known as the High Powered and Working Together Committee. (31; 4; 33)

National Children’s Council (NCC)

Under the auspices of the MOGE, coordinate child protection efforts in Mauritius as an independent, para-governmental entity. (2; 25; 4) In 2017, organized awareness-raising campaigns on child protection and human trafficking. (4; 29)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

 

In 2017, a lack of coordination among key mechanisms hindered the government’s efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor. (4; 5) In addition, the National Child Protection Committee was inactive during the reporting period. (4)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including with the coverage of all the worst forms of child labor.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Child Safety Online Action Plan

Aims to prevent online sexual exploitation of children by strengthening the legal framework and developing awareness-raising programs. Implemented by the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology, in conjunction with the MOGE, the Minors’ Brigade, and the Office of the Ombudsperson for Children. (2; 44; 45) In 2017, organized workshops to raise awareness on social media and commercial sexual exploitation. (4)

Education and Human Resources Strategy Plan (2008–2020)

Aims to improve equity of access to primary, secondary, and technical and vocational education, and to provide social services for youth. Overseen by the Ministry of Education. (46; 47) In 2017, took a step to increase school enrollment and decrease truancy by changing the timing of the national examination for primary education completion from the sixth grade to the ninth grade. (4)

Government Development Program—Achieving Meaningful Change (2015–2019)

Aims to increase access to social protection services for vulnerable populations, including children, and emphasizes a zero tolerance policy for the use of children in drug trafficking. (48; 49; 50) In 2017, established a partership with the World Bank to provide funding for the implementation of the policy. (51)

 

Research found no evidence of policies to combat other worst forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation. In addition, the government did not adopt the National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking that was drafted in 2016. (32; 42; 4; 52; 39)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including with the adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Awareness-Raising Programs on Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking†

Educate the public on preventing commercial sexual exploitation of children and human trafficking. (5) In 2017, the police conducted awareness programs for 1,646 students in 96 primary and secondary schools. (4)

Community Child Protection Program†

Support child protection activities nationwide. In 2017, created School Child Protection Clubs in 22 schools throughout the country to raise awareness about child exploitation. (33; 4)

Drop-in Centers, Shelters, and Institutional Care†

Provide rehabilitation services to victims of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking. Monitored by the Child Development Unit. (2; 24; 29; 33) In 2017, provided reintegration services to over 500 child victims. (4)

IOM Country Program

IOM program to build capacity of relevant government agencies to protect children from exploitation and human trafficking. (32; 53)

Education Assistance Programs†

Increase access to quality primary education for vulnerable children, including the Eradication of Absolute Poverty Program to provide educational support to 7,500 households in 229 geographic pockets of poverty and in the Education Priority Zones to provide equal opportunities to primary school children throughout the country. (2; 47)

† Program is funded by the Government of Mauritius.

 

Although the government has established an oversight body to improve the effectiveness of institutional care facilities and shelters, evidence suggests that there continues to be a lack of appropriate standards of care, inadequate service provision, and overcrowding in some centers that house orphans, child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, and victims of other types of abuses. (34; 27; 54; 29; 5; 38)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Mauritius (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 into non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Enforcement

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by authorizing inspectors to assess penalties.

2015 – 2017

Increase the amount of training, human resources, and funding for agencies responsible for enforcing criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor.

2011 – 2017

Improve coordination between the police and the Director of Public Prosecutions to ensure that violations are adequately and prosecuted.

2017

Coordination

Streamline coordination between key mechanisms to combat the worst forms of child labor.

2012 – 2017

Ensure that the National Child Protection Committee is active and fulfills its mission.

2017

Government Policies

Adopt a policy that addresses the worst forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation.

2014 – 2017

Adopt the draft National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking.

2017

Social Programs

Collect and publish data on the prevalence of child labor in Mauritius to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2017

Ensure that all children, including those with disabilities, can attend school without fear of physical or psychological abuse.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that victims of commercial sexual exploitation have access to comprehensive and quality social services.

2010 – 2017

1. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Mauritius. February 27, 2015: CRC/C/MUS/CO/3-5. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/MUS/CO/3-5&Lang=En.

2. —. Periodic Reports of States Parties due in 2011: Mauritius. Prepared by Government of Mauritius, Article 44 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. October 28, 2013. http://www.refworld.org/docid/54ae68ad4.html.

3. Otieno, J. Child labour in Africa: A worrying spike in numbers. Africa Review. August 7, 2013. http://www.africareview.com/Special-Reports/Child-labour-spike-worrying-in-Africa/-/979182/1940132/-/view/printVersion/-/g9yi8iz/-/index.html.

4. U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. Reporting, January 24, 2018.

5. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Person Report- 2017: Mauritius. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/271343.pdf.

6. U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. Reporting, February 25, 2015.

7. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9. U.S. Embassy- Port Louis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 8, 2015.

10. U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

11. Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights. Human Rights Committee considers the report of Mauritius. October 24, 2017. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=22287&LangID=E.

12. Ramgulam, Anju. Célia, 12 ans: la petite fille qui vendait de l’eau. Lexpress.mu. November 04, 2017. https://www.lexpress.mu/article/320041/celia-12-ans-petite-fille-qui-vendait-leau.

13. UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Concluding Observations in relation to the initial report of Mauritius. September 4, 2015: CRPD/C/MUS/CO/1. http://www.refworld.org/docid/55eed7a94.html.

14. Government of Mauritius. Annual Report 2013-2014. Ombudsperson for Children's Office. September 30, 2014. http://oco.govmu.org/English/Documents/Annual%20Reports/Annual%20report%202014.pdf.

15. —. Employment Rights Act, Act No. 33 of 2008. Enacted: September 19, 2008. [Source on file].

16. —. The Occupational Safety and Health Act, Act No. 28 of 2005. Enacted: October 28, 2005. [Source on file].

17. —. Constitution of the Republic of Mauritius. Enacted: March 12, 1968. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_126778.pdf.

18. —. The Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act 2009, Act No. 2 of 2009. Enacted: May 8, 2009. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_126787.pdf.

19. —. Child Protection Act, Act No. 30 of 1994. Enacted April 1, 1995. [Source on file].

20. —. Criminal Code. Enacted: December 29, 1938. [Source on file].

21. —. The Dangerous Drugs Act 2000, Act No. 41 of 2000. Enacted: December 29, 2000. http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s18370en/s18370en.pdf.

22. —. Education Act. Enacted: December 28, 1957. [Source on file].

23. Child Soldiers International. Louder than words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. 2013. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

24. Government of Mauritius. Written communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Port Louis. January 4, 2016. [Source on file].

25. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Mauritius. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265280.

26. Government of Mauritius. The Ombudsperson for Children Act, Act No. 41 of 2003. Enacted: November 20, 2003. [Source on file].

27. —. Annual Report 2015-2016. Ombudsperson for Children's Office. 2016. http://oco.govmu.org/English/Documents/Annual%20Reports/Ombudsperson_Annual_report.pdf.

28. U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. Reporting, March 2, 2017.

29. —. Reporting, January 10, 2018.

30. Government of Mauritius. The Director of Public Prosecutions. Accessed February 12, 2017. http://dpp.govmu.org/English/AboutUs/Office%20of%20DPP/Pages/The-DPP.aspx.

31. —. Comments submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor publication "Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, September 30, 2013". Port Louis. January 11, 2013. [Source on file].

32. IOM. Mauritius Overview. October 2016. http://www.iom.int/countries/mauritius.

33. Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare. Child Development Unit Profile. Accessed June 22, 2018. http://gender.govmu.org/English/Pages/Units/Child-Development-Unit.aspx.

34. U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. Reporting, January 12, 2017.

35. —. Reporting, February 2, 2017.

36. Government of Mauritius. Labour Ministry organises activities to mark World Day Against Child Labour. Government Information Service. June 13, 2017. http://www.govmu.org/English/News/Pages/Labour-Ministry-organises-activities-to-mark-World-Day-Against-Child-Labour.aspx.

37. U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. Reporting, February 26, 2018.

38. U.S. Embassy- Port Louis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 19, 2018.

39. U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. Reporting, March 31, 2018.

40. —. Reporting, January 15, 2015.

41. Samoisy, Laura. Journée mondiale contre le travail des enfants | Rita Venkatasawmy, Ombudsperson for Children : «Un problème caché et difficile à combattre». 5plus. June 14, 2017. http://www.5plus.mu/actualite/journee-mondiale-contre-le-travail-des-enfants-rita-venkatasawmy-ombudsperson-children-un.

42. Government of Mauritius. Sixth National Assembly- Parliamentary Debates. July 19, 2016. http://mauritiusassembly.govmu.org/English/hansard/Documents/2016/hansard1716.pdf.

43. Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions. E-newsletter, No. 71. June 2017. http://dpp.govmu.org/English/Documents/Issue71.pdf.

44. U.S. Embassy- Port Louis. Reporting, January 29, 2013.

45. Governemnt of Mauritius, National Computer Board. Child Safety Online Action Plan for Mauritius. January 2009. http://www.govmu.org/portal/sites/sid2010/files/Final%20Action%20Plan%20version.pdf.

46. Government of Mauritius. Education and Human Resources Strategy Plan 2008-2020. October 2009. [Source on file].

47. UNESCO. Education for All 2015 National Review- Mauritius. May 2015. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002310/231077e.pdf.

48. Government of Mauritius. Minister of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare calls for reforms. Government Information Service. March 5, 2015. http://www.govmu.org/English/News/Pages/Minister-of-Gender-Equality,-Child-Development-and-Family-Welfare-calls-for-reforms.aspx.

49. The President of the Republic of Mauritius. Government Program - Achieving Meaningful Change (2015-2019). First Session of the Sixth National Assembly of Mauritius. January 27, 2015. http://www.lexpress.mu/sites/lexpress/files/attachments/article/2015/2015-01/2015-01-27/govprog2015.pdf.

50. Government of Mauritius. Mauritius: Government Programme 2015-2019 - Emphasis On Development With a Human Dimension. January 28, 2015: Press Release. http://allafrica.com/stories/201501281495.html.

51. World Bank. Country Partnership Framework for Mauritius. April 20, 2017: 112232-MU. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/648161499047236511/pdf/Mauritius-CPF-Final-05022017.pdf.

52. Government of Mauritius. Validation Workshop on Dev. of a Comprehensive Strategy on Street Children in Mauritius. 2017. http://gender.govmu.org/English/Events/Pages/Validation-Workshop-on-Dev.of-a-Comprehensive-Strategy-on-Street-Children-in-Mauritius.aspx.

53. IOM. IOM Builds Capacity to Combat Human Trafficking in Mauritius. January 29, 2016: Press Release. https://www.iom.int/news/iom-builds-capacity-combat-human-trafficking-mauritius.

54. U.S. Embassy- Port Louis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 27, 2016.

App

Want this report plus over a thousand pages of research in the palm of your hand? Download ILAB's Sweat & Toil App Today!