Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Mali

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Mali

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Mali made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government ratified the ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labor Convention, drafted a law that increases the minimum age for work to 15, and obtained its first conviction for child trafficking under the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Law. The National Unit to Fight Against Child Labor also drafted an amendment to the Hazardous Occupations List and conducted activities to raise awareness of child labor in the mining sector. In addition, the Government launched a National Strategic Education Sector Plan and participated in a number of programs targeting the worst forms of child labor, including a new program to support the implementation of the National Plan to Combat Child Labor. However, children in Mali perform dangerous tasks in agriculture, particularly in the production of cotton and rice. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in gold mining and in armed conflict. Laws related to the worst forms of child labor are insufficient, and gaps in enforcement have left children unprotected, especially in northern Mali.

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Children in Mali perform dangerous tasks in agriculture, particularly in the production of cotton and rice.(1-4) Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in gold mining and in armed conflict.(2, 4-13) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Mali.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

25.1 (1,216,300)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

46.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

13.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

50.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(14)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2012–2013.(15)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivating,† harvesting,† ginning,† transporting,† and applying chemical fertilizers,† particularly in the production of rice and cotton (1-4, 16, 17)

Raising livestock, including oxen and small ruminants (3, 5, 18, 19)

Fishing (3, 5)

Industry

Gold mining,† including digging shafts,† extracting ore from underground tunnels,† crushing ore,† and amalgamating ore with mercury† (2, 6-9, 20)

Assembling fishing canoes† (3)

Services

Domestic work (2, 4, 21-23)

Street work, including as market vendors, beggars,† and in the transportation sector (2, 3, 17, 23)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in mining, domestic work, commerce, and farming, including in the production of rice, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (10, 21, 24, 25)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 10, 26, 27)

Forced recruitment by armed rebel and extremist Islamic militia groups for use in armed conflict (2, 4, 10-13)

Hereditary servitude (4, 10, 23, 25, 28)

Forced labor in the production of salt (4, 10)

Forced begging by Koranic teachers, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 9, 10)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children, especially of the Bellah community (also known as black Tuaregs), who were former slaves, are subject to hereditary slavery in northern Mali.(10, 23, 25, 28) In addition, children, particularly those of Songhai ethnicity, work in debt bondage in the northern salt mines of Taoudenni.(4, 10) Some boys placed in the care of Koranic teachers for education are forced by their teachers to beg on the street or to work in fields; they must then surrender the money they have earned to their teachers.(4, 9, 10)

Intermittent fighting and violence in northern Mali continued throughout 2016, resulting in the killing and displacement of children.(4) Although the incidence of child soldiers decreased during the reporting period, children continued to be forcibly recruited and trained by non-state armed groups, including the Coordination of Azawad Movements (CMA), the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA), the High Council for the Unity of Azawad (HCUA), the Arab Movement of Azawad (MAA), and the Allies Tuareg Self-Defense Group (GATIA), all signatories of the 2015 Peace Accord.(2, 4, 13, 29, 30) Research found limited evidence of ties between the Government and GATIA, a non-state armed group headed by a Malian general, including the provision of some in-kind support to GATIA. (4, 10, 30-34) The UN verified that at least nine children were associated with GATIA in the Kidal region and 76 children were recruited during the reporting period.(4, 10, 30, 32-34)

Although the Constitution guarantees free and compulsory education, many children, especially girls, do not attend school because parents are expected to pay fees for registration, uniforms, books, and materials, costs which are prohibitive for many families.(2, 4, 23, 35, 36) Many children in Mali are not registered at birth. Unable to prove citizenship, unregistered children may have difficulty accessing services, including education.(4, 30, 37) In addition, evidence suggests that incidences of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, including corporal punishment, prevent some children from remaining in school.(4, 23, 38). During the reporting period, there were numerous incidents of attacks on schools in northern Mali that resulted in lootings, destruction of learning materials and infrastructure, and military occupancy.(13, 29) Many teachers and students remain displaced and some teachers in insecure areas felt that it was unsafe to return to school.(2, 4, 23, 39) The lack of access to education may increase the risk of children's involvement in the worst forms of child labor.

Mali has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

In April 2016, the Government of Mali ratified the ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labor Convention.(40)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Mali's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

14

Article L.187 of the Labor Code (41)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Hazardous Occupations List; Article D.189.14 of the Labor Code (41, 42)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Occupations List; Article 189 of the Labor Code (41, 42)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article L.6 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (41, 43)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 244 of the Penal Code; Article 7 of the Trafficking in Persons Law; Article 63 of the Child Protection Code (43-45)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 228 of the Penal Code; Article 1 of the Trafficking in Persons Law; Article 57 of the Child Protection Code (43-45)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 17 of the Child Protection Code; Articles 31.23 and 31.31 of the Penal Code (44, 45)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 17 of the Child Protection Code; Articles 31.23 and 31.31 of the Penal Code (44-46)

Non-state Compulsory

No

15

Articles 31.23, 31.31, and 32 of the Penal Code (44)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Articles 26 and 34 of the Law of Education (47)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 18 of the Constitution (48)

‡ Age calculated based on available information.(44)

The Labor Code allows children between the ages of 12 and 14 to perform domestic or light seasonal work, as long as it does not impede school attendance and it does not exceed four and a half hours of work per day.(41) However, the law does not specify the conditions under which light work may be undertaken.(49) The minimum age for work is not in compliance with international standards because it is less than 15.(39, 41) Although Mali's Hazardous Occupations List prohibits certain activities for children under age 18, Decree 96‑178 from June 1996, which remains in force, permits children ages 16 to 17 to perform certain hazardous activities. The decree conflicts with the protections provided in the Hazardous Occupations List, leaving the possibility for children to work in hazardous activities.(39, 42, 49) Moreover, Malian law does not prohibit using, procuring, or offering a child for the production and trafficking of drugs.(27, 45) In 2016, the Government drafted a law that increases the minimum age for work to 15, aligns Decree 96-178 with the Hazardous Occupations List, and prohibits the use, procurement, and offering of a child for the production and trafficking of drugs. However, the legislation was not adopted during the reporting period.(2, 39, 50)

The Child Protection Code provides protection for children under age 18, while the Penal Code establishes criminal penalties for several of the worst forms of child labor.(44, 45) For example, Articles 50 and 58 of the Child Protection Code identify begging as a form of economic exploitation of children, while Article 183 of the Penal Code specifies punishments for engaging a child in begging.(9) However, the Penal Code does not provide penalties for some of the prohibitions enumerated in the Child Protection Code.(44, 45) Specifically, Article 17 of the Child Protection Code prohibits children under age 18 from participating in armed conflicts or joining the armed forces, yet Articles 31.23 and 31.31 of the Penal Code provide criminal penalties only for those recruiting and enlisting children under age 15.(44-46)

The Inter-Ministerial Circular (Circular) references Article 28 of the Penal Code, which states that crimes committed out of self-defense or under a force that could not be resisted should not be penalized as prescribed by the Penal Code. Although the Circular states that Article 28 of the Penal Code is applicable to children involved in armed conflict, it does not define the age range of the children it covers.(44, 51) Considering the nonexistence of criminal penalties in the Child Protection Code and the lack of criminal penalties in the Penal Code for those who recruit and enlist children ages 15 and older, the absence of a defined age range in this Circular may leave children ages 15 to 17 unprotected.(51)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor

Enforce labor laws and investigate Labor Code infractions, including those regarding child labor, through its National Directorate of Labor.(2, 4, 52)

Ministry of Justice

Initiate and coordinate with courts the implementation of laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(2, 10)

Ministry of Internal Security

Investigate crimes against children, including human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, through the National Police Brigade for the Protection of Morals and Children.(2, 4, 10)

Ministry for the Promotion of Women, Children, and the Family (MPFEF)

Develop and implement programs to protect vulnerable children and monitor alleged violations of child labor laws, including those related to the worst forms of child labor.(2, 35, 52)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Mali took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$48,000 (16)

$48,000 (2)

Number of Labor Inspectors

60 (16)

100 (2)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

Unknown (16)

13 (2)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (16)

Yes (30)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (16)

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown (16)

Unknown (2)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (16)

Unknown (2)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (16)

Unknown (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (16)

Unknown (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (16)

Unknown (2)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown (16)

Unknown (2)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

 

In 2016, the National Directorate of Labor employed 60 full-time labor inspectors and 40 full-time labor controllers, of which 3 inspectors and 10 controllers are dedicated to child labor.(2) Despite increasing the number of inspectors by 40 in 2016, the number of labor inspectors remains insufficient for the size of Mali's workforce, which includes more than 6 million workers. According to the ILO's recommendation of one inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed countries, Mali should employ roughly 157 inspectors.(16, 53-55) During the reporting period, 24 labor inspectors received training on conducting labor inspections in the informal sector. One labor inspector in each region is designated as the point of contact for the National Unit for the Fight Against Child Labor.(2) Research shows that despite decentralization efforts, funds are rarely allocated to inspectorate regional offices.(2) In addition, reports indicate that a lack of trained staff, equipment, transportation, and funding hampered the Labor Inspectorate's ability to conduct effective child labor inspections and legal proceedings, especially in remote areas of northern Mali.(2, 4, 10, 39)

 

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Mali took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (16)

Unknown (2)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (16)

Unknown (2)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (16)

Unknown (2)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (16)

Unknown (2)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (16)

Unknown (2)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (16)

Unknown (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

 

In 2016, the Ministry of Security Morals Brigade employed 28 staff, including 2 captains, 7 investigators, and 18 officers.(2) Given the prevalence of the worst forms of child labor in the country, the number of criminal law enforcement agents is inadequate.(2, 16) Although the total number of investigations conducted during the reporting period is unknown, the Morals Brigade investigated one case of child trafficking and 13 cases of commercial sexual exploitation. Also, the Government achieved its first conviction for child trafficking under the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Law in December 2016.(30, 56) Despite these efforts, there is a lack of trained staff, equipment, transportation, and funding to effectively conduct criminal law enforcement efforts related to the worst forms of child labor. Reports indicate that because of political instability, which hinders law and judicial enforcement in northern Mali, the prevalence of hereditary slavery has worsened since the conflict began in 2012.(4, 57) In addition, evidence does not show that meaningful efforts were made by criminal law enforcement authorities to address the use of children in mining and forced begging.(2, 10)

Mali maintains an informal referral mechanism among NGOs, UN bodies, the police, and the Government to withdraw and provide social services to victims of the worst forms of child labor.(2, 10) During the reporting period, the Malian military transferred nine children associated with armed groups to the Ministry for the Promotion of Women, Children, and the Family (MPFEF), which provided medical and psychosocial support, and ultimately reunified them with their families.(2, 29) Despite these efforts, reports indicate that resources and facilities available to social services agencies are inadequate.(2, 4)

In 2016, Malian and international security detained individuals suspected of involvement with armed groups, including five children.(30) These children were held in state-owned adult detention centers and were not transferred to social services as required by the Inter-Ministerial Circular and the UN-signed Protocol.(4, 29, 30, 51) In addition, research found no indication that the Government either investigated or prosecuted individuals alleged to have recruited and used child soldiers.

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Unit to Fight Against Child Labor (CNLTE)

Coordinate Mali's efforts to eliminate child labor, especially its worst forms. Chaired by the Ministry of Labor.(27, 36, 58, 59) In 2016, drafted the legal amendment to the Hazardous Occupations List and conducted awareness campaigns about child labor in the mining sector.(2, 36)

National Coordinating Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Associated Practices

Coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking. Chaired by the Ministry of Justice and includes various government agencies and civil society groups.(10, 60, 61) In 2016, met to implement activities under the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons.(10, 60)

Inter-Ministerial Committee to Prevent Grave Violations Against Children

Conduct awareness-raising campaigns to prevent the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict and implement reintegration programs for former child soldiers. Led by the MPFEF.(2, 62) Conduct joint missions with international partners to determine the presence of children in armed conflict.(2, 62)

Artisanal Gold Mining Summit Committee

Comprises gold mining associations and local government officials that monitor the recommendations of a 2014 summit on artisanal mining, including the ban on child labor in artisanal gold mines. In 2016, met twice to develop measures that address the use of children in the gold mining sector.(4, 63, 64)

 

Reports indicate that there is confusion with regard to roles and a lack of coordination between the National Unit to Fight Against Child Labor (CNLTE) and the National Coordinating Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Associated Practices.(60) In addition, budget constraints hampered the effectiveness of the CNLTE as a whole.(2) There was no evidence that the Inter-Ministerial Committee to Prevent Grave Violations Against Children conducted meetings, took action to implement awareness-raising campaigns, or conducted joint missions to determine the presence of child labor in self-defense militias during the reporting period.

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Plan to Combat Child Labor (PANETEM) (2011–2020)

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by strengthening child labor laws, training relevant government officials, and mobilizing funds for social programs to withdraw children from child labor. Overseen by the CNLTE.(3, 39, 64) In 2016, contributed to drafting a legal amendment that increases the minimum age for work to 15, revises the Hazardous Occupations List, and prohibits the use of children in illicit activities.(2, 39, 50) Reports indicate that efforts to implement PANETEM have been slowed due to insufficient allocation of resources.(2, 23, 65)

Roadmap to Combat Child Labor in Agriculture (2015–2020)

Seeks to enhance the legal framework and build the capacity of the Government to prevent child labor in agriculture. Led by the Ministry of Agriculture and supported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.(64-68) In 2016, implemented capacity-building workshops for farmer organizations in the Ségou region on combatting child labor.(68, 69)

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Associated Practices (2015–2017)

Aims to enhance the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, effectively implement the laws, and provide effective protection and care for victims. Led by the National Coordinating Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Associated Practices.(10, 70). In 2016, received its first ever budget, $730,000, to implement activities for victims assistance.(10, 60)

Inter-Ministerial Circular

Provides a framework for the prevention, protection, and reintegration of children involved in armed conflict.(51, 62, 71) In 2016, distributed copies of the circular to all regions in Mali and trained relevant actors.(2)

Protocol on the Release and Transfer of Children Associated with Armed Groups and Armed Forces

UN-signed protocol agreement that highlights the responsibility of the Government to transfer children associated with armed groups to either social services or UNICEF.(72) In 2016, trained child protection actors in northern Mali on best practices for referrals of former child soldiers.(2)

National Strategic Education Sector Plan (PRODEC II) (2017–2026)†

Sets out a comprehensive map to improve the quality of and access to basic and secondary education, especially in conflict-affected areas of northern Mali. Led by the Ministry of Education and supported by international donors.(2, 39, 73)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(74, 75)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (2011–2016)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor in Mali.(76) During 2016, supported activities under the Roadmap to Combat Child Labor in Agriculture.(67) For additional information about USDOL's work, please visit our Web site.

South-South Cooperation for the promotion of decent work in cotton-producing countries (2015–2019)

$6.2 million Government of Brazil-funded project that aims to improve working conditions in the cotton sector, including by combatting child labor.(77, 78)

Decent Work Country Program (2016–2018)*

Identifies two objectives of decent work: (1) to create jobs and guarantee rights at work for vulnerable populations, and (2) extend social protection and promote social dialog.(64) Includes activities that support the implementation of PANETEM. Overseen by the Ministry of Labor and supported by the ILO.(64)

Stop Child Labor: School is the best place to work (2012–2017)†

Government initiative aims to eliminate child labor by increasing access to primary education. Implemented by the Ministries of Labor and Education.(39)

USAID Country Program* (2016–2020)

$600 million USAID-funded program that supports the Government's efforts to improve education, food security, and health, and to provide humanitarian assistance in crisis areas. Includes projects that provide quality basic and secondary education to vulnerable communities in northern Mali, including by building schools, training teachers, and providing school kits for students.(2, 79)

UNICEF Country Program (2014–2017)

UNICEF-funded program that supports the Government's efforts to improve education, birth registration rates, social inclusion, and strengthen child protection programs, including for children in conflict-affected areas of northern Mali.(80) In 2016, provided reintegration services to 2,436 children at risk of exploitation, including those formerly associated with armed groups, and education services to 157,873 children in crisis-affected areas.(80, 81)

National Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) Program*

$25 million UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA)-implemented program that aims to provide reintegration services to former combatants in Mali, including children.(29)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Mali.

Although Mali participates in some programs to reduce the worst forms of child labor, these programs are insufficient to fully address the scope of the problem, especially in artisanal gold mining. In addition, Mali does not fund or participate in programs to address child labor in domestic work, fishing, forced begging, commercial sexual exploitation, slavery, or debt bondage.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Mali (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws prohibit children from being used, procured, or offered for the production and trafficking of drugs.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the Labor Code's light work provisions are sufficiently specific to prevent children from involvement in child labor.

2015 – 2016

Establish minimum age for work of at least 15 years.

2016

Ensure that Decree 96-178 aligns with the Hazardous Occupations List.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 into non-state armed groups.

2016

Enact laws to provide penalties for violations of the worst forms of child labor, including for use of children under age 18 in armed conflict.

2009 – 2016

Specify the ages of children protected by the Inter-Ministerial Circular on the Prevention, Protection, and Reintegration of Children in Armed Conflict and ensure that the defined age range complies with international standards.

2013 – 2016

Enforcement

Publish complete information on the number and type of labor inspections, violations, and penalties related to child labor, and the number of criminal law investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2016

Increase the resources, training, and number of labor inspectors, in accordance with ILO's recommendation, and the number of criminal investigators and regional offices responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2012 – 2016

Take measures to effectively enforce laws related to child labor, particularly in northern Mali.

2013 – 2016

Increase efforts to ensure that perpetrators of the worst forms of child labor, including the use of child soldiers, hereditary slavery, mining, and forced begging, are prosecuted in accordance with the law.

2012 – 2016

Ensure that government social services have sufficient resources and facilities to provide the necessary care for victims of the worst forms of child labor.

2016

Implement the provisions of the Inter-Ministerial Circular and the UN-signed Protocol, which require that children in detention for their association with armed groups be handed over to social services or to UN child protection actors for appropriate reintegration and social protection services.

2013 – 2016

Coordination

Streamline coordination across government agencies, including by ensuring effective coordination among the CNLTE, the National Coordinating Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Associated Practices, and other overlapping agencies.

2010 – 2016

Ensure that the CNLTE has appropriate funding to implement the National Plan to Combat Child Labor.

2012 – 2016

Ensure that the Inter-Ministerial Committee to Prevent Grave Violations Against Children meets regularly and takes action to fulfill its mission.

2013 – 2016

Government Policies

Ensure that appropriate funding exists to effectively implement the National Plan to Combat Child Labor.

2012 – 2016

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, including girls and those living in conflict-affected areas, by removing supply and school-related fees, increasing school infrastructure, teacher availability, and the provision of school supplies, increasing birth registration rates to ensure that children have access to services such as education, as well as taking measures to ensure the safety of children and teachers in schools.

2010 – 2016

Expand existing programs to fully address child labor, especially in artisanal gold mining.

2014 – 2016

Institute programs to address child labor in domestic work, fishing, forced begging, commercial sexual exploitation, slavery, and debt bondage.

2009 – 2016

1.         World Vision. Forced and Child Labour in the Cotton Industry- Don't Trade Lives Factsheet, [online] [cited http://campaign.worldvision.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Forced-and-child-labour-in-the-cotton-industry-fact-sheet.pdf.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Bamako. reporting, January 19, 2017.

3.         Government of Mali. Plan d'Action National pour l'Elimination du Travail des Enfants au Mali. Bamako; 2010. [Source on file].

4.         U.S Department of State. "Mali," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265276.

5.         UCW. The Twin Challenges of Child Labour and Educational Marginalisation in the ECOWAS Region: An Overview. Report. Rome July 1, 2014. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/ECOWAS_child_labour_educational_marginalisation20140709_130339.pdf

6.         N’Diaye, F. C. Genre et travail des enfants dans les mines et carrières au Burkina Faso, au Mali et au Togo,. Geneva, ILO; October 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-addis_ababa/---sro-dakar/documents/publication/wcms_228135.pdf.

7.         Hilson, G. "Family Hardship and Cultural Values: Child Labor in Malian Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities." World Development, 40(no. 8)(2012); [Source on file].

8.         Human Rights Watch. "Recommendations on the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Small-Scale Gold Mining for OECD Conference on Due Diligence." hrw.org [online] November 12, 2013 [cited November 28, 2013]; http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/11/12/recommendations-worst-forms-child-labor-small-scale-gold-mining-oecd-conference-due-.

9.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Mali (ratification: 2000) Published: 2016; accessed October 22, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3245461:NO.

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Mali," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

11.       Kidal : De nouveaux enfants soldats aperçus dans la région, Bamada.net, [online] August 25, 2016 [cited October 23, 2016]; https://bamada.net/kidal-de-nouveaux-enfants-soldats-apercus-dans-la-region.

12.       Sangare, A. "Mali: Enfants soldats: l’arme des barbares de Kidal." maliactu.net [online] August 16, 2016 [cited October 23, 2016]; http://maliactu.net/mali-enfants-soldats-larme-des-barbares-de-kidal/.

13.       UN Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict. Global Horizontal Note for July-September 2016; December 23, 2016. [Source on file].

14.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [accessed December 16, 2016]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

15.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-2013, Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Bamako. reporting, January 14, 2016.

17.       Dune Voices. "Le travail des enfants à Tombouctou, un danger pour des générations d’élèves." dune-voices.info [online] February 22, 2016 [cited October 23, 2016]; http://www.dune-voices.info/public/index.php/fr/soci%C3%A9t%C3%A9-mali/item/677-le-travail-des-enfants-%C3%A0-tombouctou,-un-danger-pour-des-g%C3%A9n%C3%A9rations-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9l%C3%A8ves

18.       UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Children’s Work in the Livestock Sector: Herding and Beyond. Rome; 2013. http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i3098e/i3098e.pdf.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Bamako. reporting, January 22, 2015.

20.       DanWatch. Child mined gold in your gadgets? Child labour in Ghana and Mali and sourcing policies of IT brands. Copenhagen; 2013. http://www.danwatch.dk/sites/default/files/child_labour_in_ghana_and_mali._english._final.pdf.

21.       Srikanthan, S. "Out of School and at Risk: The Drought's Hidden Impact on Mali's Children." huffingtonpost.com [online] June 7, 2012 [cited January 8, 2013]; http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sanj-srikanthan/out-of-school-and-at-risk_b_1653865.html.

22.       Doumbia, A. "Mali : Travail des enfants : Le combat de l’Ong ‘GRADEM’ pour l’application des textes." maliactu.net [online] April 19, 2016 [cited October 23, 2016]; http://maliactu.net/mali-travail-des-enfants-le-combat-de-long-gradem-pour-lapplication-des-textes/.

23.       UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Concluding observations on the combined sixth and seventh periodic reports of Mali. Geneva; July 25, 2016. Report No. CEDAW/C/MLI/CO/6-7. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW/C/MLI/CO/6-7&Lang=En.

24.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Mali (ratification: 2000) Published: 2012; accessed April 3, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3083661.

25.       Hicks, C. "Families in Mali splintered by slavery as culture and conflict converge." The Guardian, London, April 3, 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/apr/03/families-mali-slavery-culture-conflict.

26.       L'Indicateur du Renouveau. "Mali: Les vacances boostent le travail des enfants." malijet.com [online] June 19, 2013 [cited November 28, 2013]; http://www.malijet.com/la_societe_malienne_aujourdhui/education_et_formation_au_mali/74472-mali-les-vacances-boostent-le-travail-des-enfants.html.

27.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Mali (ratification: 2000) Published: 2015; accessed October 26, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3083661.

28.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Mali (ratification: 1960) Published: 2015; accessed October 26, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3276821:NO.

29.       UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali. New York; December 30, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/N1646932.pdf.

30.       U.S. Embassy- Bamako official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 29, 2017.

31.       RFI. "Mali: le général El Hadj Ag Gamou affirme appartenir au Gatia." rfi.fr [online] September 23, 2016 [cited June 23, 2017]; http://www.rfi.fr/afrique/20160923-mali-general-el-hadj-ag-gamou-affirme-appartenir-gatia-touareg.

32.       UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali. New York; September 29, 2016. https://minusma.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/n1629765.pdf.

33.       Voice of America. "US Calls on Mali Government to Sever Ties with Northern Militia." VOA [online] September 28, 2016 [cited May 24, 2017]; http://www.voanews.com/a/us-calls-on-mali-government-sever-ties-militia/3529188.html.

34.       U.S Department of State. "Mali," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017. Washington, DC; June 27, 2017; https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271237.htm.

35.       Ministère de la Promotion de la Femme, de l’Enfant et de la Famille. Exposé liminaire De Madame la ministre de la promotion de la femme de l’enfant et de la famille. Geneva; July 15, 2016. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CEDAW/Shared%20Documents/MLI/INT_CEDAW_STA_MLI_24543_F.pdf.

36.       Studio Tamani. Au Mali, deux enfants sur trois travaillent, Studio Tamani, [online] June 12, 2016 [cited October 23, 2016]; http://www.studiotamani.org/index.php/politique/7981-au-mali-deux-enfants-sur-trois-travaillent.

37.       Isabelle Michal, and Kelly Sipp. "Birth certificates issued by Mali open doors for Mauritanian refugee children." UNHCR.org [online] April 20, 2015 [cited April 21, 2015]; http://www.unhcr.org/5534fc0f1b.html.

38.       Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children. Corporal punishment of children in Mali; June 2015. http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/assets/pdfs/states-reports/Mali.pdf.

39.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Mali (ratification: 2002) Published: 2016; accessed October 22, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3083576.

40.       50forFreedom. "Mali becomes the third African country to ratify the Protocol,." 50forfreedom.org [online] April 12, 2016 [cited April 12, 2016]; http://50forfreedom.org/blog/stories/mali-becomes-the-third-african-country-to-ratify-the-protocol/.

41.       Government of Mali. Code du Travail, Loi N° 92-020, enacted September 23, 1992. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/1328/Mali%20-%20Code%20du%20Travail.pdf.

42.       Government of Mali, Ministry of Labor, Civil Service, and State Reforms. Arrete N° 9-0151-MTFPRE/DG du 4 fevrier 2009 completant la liste des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants de moins de 18 ans, enacted February 4, 2009. [Source on file].

43.       Government of Mali. Projet de loi relatif a la lutte contre la traite des personnes et les pratiques assimilees, Depot N°20 10 I 51 I 4L, enacted 2012.

44.       Government of Mali. Code pénal, Loi N° 01-079, enacted August 20, 2001. http://www.justicemali.org/code%20penal.pdf.

45.       Government of Mali. Code de protection de l'enfant, Loi N° 02-062/P-RM, enacted June 5, 2002. http://www.unesco.org/education/edurights/media/docs/c1c5d5eb0edb7d18bb8134184f16acf64533fe9b.pdf

46.       Child Soldiers International. "Louder than words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers," in. London; September 2012; https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

47.       Government of Mali. Portant loi d’orientation sur l’éducation, Loi 99 – 046, enacted December 29, 1999. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/97009/114926/F-568307560/MLI-97009.pdf.

48.       Government of Mali. The Constitution of the Republic of Mali, enacted 1992. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/cafrad/unpan002746.pdf.

49.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Mali (ratification: 2002) Published: 2012; accessed October 26, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3083576.

50.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Mali (ratification: 2000) Published: 2016; accessed January 26, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

51.       Republique du Mali. Circulaire Interministérielle Relative à la Prévention, la Protection, et le Retour en Famille des Enfants associe aux Forces et Groupes Armes. Bamako; 2013. [Source on file].

52.       Organisation internationale du Travail. Combattre le travail des enfants par l’éducation et la formation professionnelle au Mali; April 2015.

53.       CIA. The World Factbook, [Online] [cited 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

54.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

55.       UN. The World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

56.       U.S. Embassy- Bamako. reporting, February 6, 2017.

57.       Tran, M. "Mali Conflict puts Freedom of 'Slave Decendants' in Peril." The Guardian [online] October 23, 2012 [cited December 20, 2012]; http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/oct/23/mali-conflict-freedom-slave-descendants-peril.

58.       Government of Mali. Fixant l'Organisation et les Modalities de Fonctionnement de la Cellule National de Lutte Contre le Travail des Enfants, Decret N° 10-474/P-RM, enacted September 20, 2010. [Source on file].

59.       Government of Mali. Portant Creation de la Cellule Nationale de Lutte Contre le Travail des Enfants, Ordonnance N° 10 036/ P-RM, enacted August 5, 2010. [Source on file].

60.       U.S. Embassy- Bamako. reporting, February 14, 2017.

61.       Bamako. Decree 2011-036 to create a National Coordinating Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Associated Practices, enacted 2011. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/mli152170.pdf.

62.       United Nations. Report of the Secretary General for Children in Armed Conflict, Sixty-Seventh Session. New York; May 15, 2013. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/67/845.

63.       U.S. Embassy- Bamako official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 5, 2016.

64.       ILO. Programme pour la relance durable du Mali; June 2015. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/mali_2016-2018.pdf.

65.       Government of Mali- official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 17, 2015.

66.       Government of Mali. Roadmap to Combat Child Labor in Agriculture, 2015-2020. Bamako; 2015. [Source on file].

67.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; April 2015. [Source on file].

68.       UN Food and Agriculture Organization Rome official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 11, 2017.

69.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; April 2016. [Source on file].

70.       Government of Mali. National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Associated Practices. Bamako; December 2014. [Source on file].

71.       UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in Mali. New York; April 14, 2014. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=s/2014/267

72.       UNICEF. "Annual Report 2013 – Mali." unicef.org [online] 2013 [cited January 8, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Mali_COAR_2013.pdf.

73.       UNESCO. Technical workshop on the appropriation and planning of activities of the project empowering adolescent girls and young women through education in Mali. Concept Note; November 30, 2016. http://en.unesco.org/system/files/2a.en_concept_note_technical_workshop_koica_mali_bamako_28-30nov2016_0.pdf.

74.       International Development Association, and IMF. The Republic of Mali Joint IDA-IMF Staff Advisory Note on the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper 2012-2017. Washington, DC; 2012. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2013/04/25/000356161_20130425121752/Rendered/PDF/768310PRSP0P11040Box374388B00OUO090.pdf.

75.       Government of Mali. National Policy for Child Promotion and Protection (2015-2019). Bamako,  July, 2014.

76.       U.S. Department of Labor. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues(GAP); 2011. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GAP_FY11.pdf.

77.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 9, 2017.

78.       ILO. South-South Cooperation for the promotion of decent work in cotton-producing countries in Africa and Latin America. 2016. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/WCMS_390006/lang--en/index.htm.

79.       USAID Mali. "Country Development Cooperation Strategy-Mali Forward 2015-2020." [online] 2016 [cited February 16, 2017]; https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1860/Mali_CDCS_2015-2020.pdf.

80.       UNICEF. "Mali," in UNICEF Annual Report 2015. New York City; May 6, 2016; https://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Mali_2015_COAR.pdf.

81.       UNICEF. Mali Humanitarian Situation Report 2017. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/2017_Mali_HAC.pdf.

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