Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Mali

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2014, Mali made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted the National Policy for Child Promotion and Protection, which aims to strengthen national policies and programs to protect children from violence, human trafficking, and exploitative work. The Government also participated in several programs to combat the worst forms of child labor and assist vulnerable households. In northern Mali, the Government made progress in providing access to education by returning 83 percent of children to school and reopening 74 percent of schools for the 2013/2014 academic year. However, children in Mali are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in gold mining. Children were also abducted and forcibly recruited by armed rebel and extremist Islamic militia groups and some of these children were detained and charged with crimes for their association with these groups. Laws relating to the worst forms of child labor do not provide adequate coverage and gaps in enforcement have left children unprotected.

 

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Children in Mali are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture.(1-4) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in gold mining.(2, 4-7) Children were also abducted and forcibly recruited for use in armed conflict in northern Mali by armed rebels and extremist Islamic militia groups.(4, 8-13) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Mali.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

25.1 (1,216,300)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

46.0

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

13.4

Primary completion rate (%):

58.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(14)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-2013.(15)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Seeding,† weeding,† plowing,† harvesting,† transporting,† and applying chemical fertilizers,† particularly in the production of rice and cotton (1, 3, 4, 16)

Raising livestock,* including oxen,* and small ruminants* (3, 4, 7, 17)

Capturing and processing fish* (4, 7, 18)

Industry

Gold mining,† including digging shafts,† extracting ore from underground tunnels,† crushing ore,† and amalgamating ore with mercury† (2, 4-6, 16, 19-21)

Assembling fishing canoes*† (7, 18)

Services

Domestic work* (2, 16, 22, 23)

Begging*† (2, 16, 24)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Mining, domestic work,* begging,* commerce,* and farming,* including in the production of rice, each as a result of human trafficking (2, 16, 22, 24-28)

Commercial sexual exploitation,* sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (2, 4, 16, 29-32)

Used in armed conflict as a result of forced recruitment by armed rebel and extremist Islamic militia groups* (8-12)

Forced labor in the production of salt* and agriculture* (2, 4, 16, 18)

Forced begging by Koranic teachers* (3, 4, 16, 25)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children, especially of the Bellah community (also known as black Tuaregs, who were former slaves), are subject to hereditary slavery in northern Mali.(2, 16, 26) In addition, children, particularly those of the Songhai ethnicity, work in debt bondage in the northern salt mines of Taoudenni.(2, 16) Boys, placed in the care of Koranic teachers for the purpose of education, are forced by their teachers to beg on the street or to work in fields; they must then surrender the money they have earned to their teachers.(2, 4, 25, 33) Other Koranic teachers force the boys to perform agricultural labor on their land.(3, 4, 25)

The Government engaged in peace negotiations with the armed groups of northern Mali after signing a ceasefire agreement in May 2014.(8, 34-36) Despite this progress, intermittent fighting and violence continued throughout 2014, resulting in the killing and displacement of children.(8, 12, 13, 36-38) Children were also abducted; forcibly recruited; and trained by armed rebel and extremist Islamic militia groups, including the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA), the High Council for the Unity of Azawad (HCUA), the Arab Movement of Azawad (MAA), the Allies Tuareg Self-Defense Group (GATIA), al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), Ansar al-Dine, and the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO) in northern Mali.(8-13) Former child combatants who were reunited with their families suffered from psychological trauma and physical ailments.(38, 39) Reports also indicate that in 2014, children have been kept in state-owned adult prisons and charged with committing terrorism against the Government due to their past involvement with extremist groups during the 2012-2013 armed conflict.(8, 12, 13, 38, 40)

In northern Mali, the Government made progress in providing access to education by returning 83percent of children to school and reopening 74 percent of schools for the 2013/2014 academic year.(8, 39, 41) However, educational infrastructure is still damaged as a result of the conflict; many teachers and students remain displaced; some teachers in insecure areas feel it is unsafe to return to school; and schools in some areas have not paid teachers.(8, 39, 41-43)

The Constitution provides free and compulsory education.(2, 44) However, parents are expected to pay school fees for registration, uniforms, books, and materials. These expenses may deter families from sending their children to school.(2) In addition, evidence suggests that incidences of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, including corporal punishment and the rape of students by teachers, prevent some children from remaining in school.(45, 46) Due to societal discrimination at the local level, some Arab, Peul, and Bellah children are denied access to school based on their ethnicity.(2, 47)

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Mali has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article L. 187 of the Labor Code (48)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Hazardous Occupation List; Article 189.14 of the Labor Code (48, 49)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Occupation List; Article 189 of the Labor Code (48, 49)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article L.6 of the Labor Code (48)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 244 of the Penal Code; Article 7 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (50, 51)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 228 of the Penal Code (50)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 17 of the Child Protection Code; Articles 31.23 and 31.31 of the Penal Code (44, 50)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 17 of the Child Protection Code; Articles 31.23 and 31.31 of the Penal Code (44, 52)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Articles 26 and 34 of the Law of Education 99-046 (53)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 18 of the Constitution (54)

Malian law is not completely consistent with international standards regarding child labor. For example, article 189.35 of the Labor Code allows children under the minimum age to work with the approval of the Minister of Labor.(48, 55) In addition, children working in the informal sector, including in non-contractual agricultural and domestic work, do not benefit from the same protections under the Labor Code as children working in the formal sector.(56)

Although Mali's Hazardous Occupations List prohibits activities for children under age 18, Decree 96‑178 from June 1996, which is still in force, permits children ages 16 to 17 to perform certain hazardous activities. The decree conflicts with the protections provided in the Hazardous Occupations List, leaving the possibility for children to work in hazardous activities.(49, 55)

The Child Protection Code provides protection for children under age 18, while the Penal Code establishes criminal penalties for several of the worst forms of child labor.(44, 50) For example, articles 50 and 58 of the Child Protection Code identify begging as a form of economic exploitation of children, while article 183 of the Penal Code provides for punishment for engaging a child in begging. However, the Penal Code does not provide penalties for some of the prohibitions enumerated in the Child Protection Code.(44, 50) For example, although article 17 of the Child Protection Code prohibits children from participating in armed conflicts or joining the armed forces, articles 31.23 and 31.31 of the Penal Code only provide penalties for those recruiting and enlisting children under age 15.(44, 50) Moreover, although article 18 of the Child Protection Code prohibits the use of children in organized crime, no law prohibits the use of a child for other illicit activities.(28, 33, 44)

Article 228 of the Penal Code prohibits the moral corruption of children; however, this prohibition only applies to children under age 13.(50) Article 225 of the Penal Code forbids third-party involvement in prostitution (pimping) and the sexual slavery of children; however, the law that prohibits these acts is only applicable to girls.(50) Furthermore, since provisions of the Penal Code only apply to cases of pimping, those soliciting or purchasing sex from minors are not punishable under this law. Article 57 of the Child Protection Code explicitly broadens the definition of sexual exploitation, including prostitution, to encompass both girls and boys.(44, 50) However, there are no penalties prescribed by this Code.(50)

Although the Penal Code bans slavery, no penalties are outlined for this offense.(4, 50) Forced labor is prohibited under the Labor Code; however, the punishment for forced labor is only a fine and/or imprisonment for 15 days to 6 months.(48) Although the exploitation of children, including slavery and commercial sexual exploitation is prohibited by article 7 of the Trafficking in Persons Law, it is unclear if these acts are prohibited as standalone offenses, outside of the context of human trafficking.(51)

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The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Youth, Labor, Employment, and Professional Training/ National Directorate of Labor

Enforce child labor laws, investigate complaints, and perform unannounced labor inspections.(2, 4, 30)

Ministry of Justice

Initiate and coordinate the implementation of child labor laws, together with the Ministries of Internal Security, Defense, Territorial Administration, and the Promotion of Children.(4, 57)

Morals Brigade of the National Police

Enforce laws relating to human trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Housed under the Ministry of Internal Security.(4, 30)

Judicial Police

Enforce laws relating to the use of children in illicit activities. Housed under the Ministry of Internal Security.(30)

Ministry for the Promotion of Women, Children, and the Family

Develop and implement programs to protect vulnerable children and monitor alleged violations of child labor laws, including those related to the worst forms of child labor.(4, 58)

Areas of northern Mali were under rebel control through early 2014, before the Government assumed control as a result of the May 2014 ceasefire agreement.(34, 35) During that time, the Government of Mali was unable to enforce laws in the northern, rebel-controlled areas.(59-61) Criminal law enforcement agencies in Mali took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms. However, research found no evidence that labor law enforcement agencies took such actions.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the National Directorate of Labor employed 54 labor inspectors. Given the prevalence of child labor in the country, the number of labor inspectors is inadequate.(4, 30) Labor inspectors did not receive training on child labor issues during 2014.(62) In addition to inspection duties, inspectors provide dispute settlement and conciliation. These additional responsibilities detract from labor inspectors' abilities to complete workplace inspections.(63) The additional responsibilities also make it difficult for the small number of labor inspectors to enforce child labor laws effectively.(48, 55) None of the labor inspectors specialize in child labor. However, one person in each region is designated as the point of contact for the National Unit to Fight Against Child Labor.(4) Research shows that, despite decentralization efforts, funds are rarely allocated to regional offices.(4) Information on the number, type and quality of inspections and child labor law violations found, and whether appropriate penalties were applied is unavailable. Labor inspections typically are limited to large firms in the formal employment sector. The majority of children work outside the formal sector, including in agriculture.(4) Research did not find a referral mechanism between the National Directorate of Labor and the Ministry for the Promotion of Women, Children, and the Family to ensure victims of child labor receive appropriate social services. Reports indicate there is a lack of trained staff, equipment, transportation, and funding to conduct effective child labor inspections and legal proceedings.(4)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Morals Brigade employed 28 staff, including two captains and nine investigators.(4) Given the prevalence of child labor in the country, the number of criminal law enforcement agents is inadequate. Morals Brigade officers did not receive training on the worst forms of child labor in 2014.(4) Although the Morals Brigade was created to handle criminal affairs involving children, the main police force has no explicit obligation to turn children's cases over to the Morals Brigade. As a result, many children's issues are handled by members of the general police force who may not have received special training on children's affairs.(64) In 2014, the Morals Brigade received 120 liters of fuel every three months and a budget of $1,200.(4) Provisions were insufficient. For example, the 120 liters of fuel typically covered two months of transportation.(4)

In 2014, the Morals Brigade did not report cases involving child labor, although it investigated 114 cases of child related offenses, including 51 cases of child sexual exploitation.(4) The Morals Brigade generally conduct inspections based on complaints received; however, investigators also conducted unannounced inspections in bars and brothels. The Morals Brigade rescued three children who were victims of forced labor perpetrated by Koranic teachers.(4) However, information on the number of arrests, convictions and penalties assessed during the reporting period is unavailable. In addition, the Trafficking in Person's Law, adopted in 2012, has yet to be distributed to judges to ensure their knowledge of the law.(65) Reports indicate that, because of the political instability hindering law and judicial enforcement in northern Mali, the prevalence of hereditary slavery has worsened since the conflict began.(66)

Mali maintains an informal system through which the police transfers children to NGOs and records such transfers. However, Mali does not have a formal method for transferring vulnerable children who are detained by the police and the Morals Brigade to NGOs.(16, 67) The Ministry for the Promotion of Women, Children, and the Family participates in a network of NGOs and of UN bodies that coordinate to provide care specifically to human trafficking victims. Organizations within the network provide transportation, food, housing, counseling, training, repatriation, and reintegration services.(68) In 2014, three children linked to extremist Islamic militia groups were rescued by international forces and placed in a UNICEF-supported center for care.(4, 57). However, some children in the shelter are facing charges for rebellion, criminal association, threatening state security, and conspiring against the state.(69) In addition, as of January 2014, nine children remained in detention. Some children were detained with adults.(70-72) Evidence does not reveal any efforts made by the Government of Mali to prosecute offenders of or enforce laws relating to the use of child soldiers.

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The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Unit to Fight Against Child Labor (CNLTE)

Coordinate Mali's efforts to eliminate child labor, especially its worst forms .(73, 74) The Committee is chaired by the Ministry of Labor and includes representatives from the Ministries of Economy and Finances; for the Promotion of Women, Children, and Family Affairs; of Education; of Public Works; and of Employment and Professional Training.(73, 75)

National Coordinating Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Associated Practices

Coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking. Has 43 members, comprising various government agencies, civil society groups, and NGOs.(16, 30, 76)

Inter-Ministerial Committee to Prevent Grave Violations Against Children.

Conduct awareness-raising campaigns to prevent the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict. Conduct joint missions with international partners to determine the presence of children in armed conflict.(77)

In 2014, the National Unit to Fight Against Child Labor (CNLTE), in collaboration with international partners, organized a training on child labor with local NGOs in Mopti.(4) CNLTE member agencies under the National Plan to Combat Child Labor (NAP) held regular meetings. However, the effectiveness of such mechanism was hampered by budget constraints.(4) Additionally, although the CNLTE is the official coordinating body for child labor issues, complex divisions and lack of coordination between government structures complicated the efforts to address child labor. Currently, the Ministry of Justice; the Ministry for the Promotion of Women, Children, and the Family; the Ministry of Internal Security; and the Ministry of Labor share this responsibility.(30, 78) The National Coordinating Committee for the Fight against Trafficking in Persons and Associated Practices met throughout the year to draft a national strategy to combat trafficking in persons.(65) There is no evidence that the Inter-Ministerial Committee to Prevent Grave Violations Against Children conducted meetings, took action to implement awareness-raising campaigns, or conducted joint missions to determine the presence of child labor in self-defense militias during the reporting period.(57)

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The Government of Mali has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan to Combat Child Labor (NAP) (2011–2021)

Aims to eradicate the worst forms of child labor by 2015, and all exploitative child labor by 2020.(18, 24, 79) Calls for improving the judicial framework; increasing awareness on child labor; withdrawing children from the worst forms of child labor; providing these children with appropriate remediation services; and improving the livelihoods of families.(18) Falls under the direction of the National Unit to Fight Against Child Labor and is to be implemented in conjunction with 14 other ministries, including the Ministries of Education; Agriculture; Mining; Justice; and for the Promotion Women, Children, and the Family.(18)

National Policy for Child Promotion and Protection (2015–2019)†

Aims to enhance the legal framework to protect children from violence, human trafficking, and exploitative work.(80, 81) The National Policy is overseen by the Ministry for the Promotion of Women, Children, and the Family and includes a National Action Plan that will be implemented in 2015.(80, 82)

PRSP (2012–2017)*

Provides a framework for Mali's growth and poverty reduction agenda.(83) Aims to improve access to and the quality of education; increase food security; increase employment opportunities for youth; and increase protection for and programs to assist women, children, and vulnerable groups. Contains specific plans to develop an emergency plan for children involved in armed conflict.(83)

Inter-Ministerial Circular*

Provides a framework for the Government of Mali on the prevention, protection, and reintegration of children in armed conflict.(77, 84)

Protocol on the Release and Transfer of Children Associated with Armed Groups and Armed Forces*

A UN-signed protocol agreement that highlights the responsibility of the Government of Mali to transfer children associated with armed groups to either the Social Services Department or to UNICEF.(30, 85)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

Although the National Plan to Combat Child Labor was launched in 2011, there is no evidence that implementation of the plan has begun.(4) The Inter-Ministerial Circular (Circular) references article 28 of the Penal Code, which states that penalties prescribed by the Penal Code are not applicable to crimes committed out of self-defense or under a force that could not be resisted. The Circular states that article 28 of the Penal Code is applicable to children involved in armed conflict. (50, 86). However, the Circular does not define the age range of children it covers. Given the discrepancy between the Penal Code and the Child Code regarding the definition of children involved in armed conflict, the lack of a defined age range in this Circular may leave children ages 16-17 unprotected.(86) The Circular calls on families, local authorities, and child protection agencies to work together to ensure children withdrawn from armed forces are disarmed, demobilized, and reintegrated or placed in another location of their choosing.(86) However, these efforts are insufficient to fully address the scope of the problem. The Government of Mali also drafted a National Strategy to Combat Trafficking in Persons; however, it was not approved during the reporting period.(65)

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In 2014, the Government of Mali funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms. (Table 8)

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Back to School Campaign*

$4 million, UNICEF-implemented project to return children and teachers to school following the 2012-2013 violence. Supports 500,000 students and 9,000 teachers with school kits and teacher training as they return to school.(87-89)

Out of School Youth Program (2010–2015)

$30 million, USAID-funded, 5-year project implemented by the Education Development Center.(90) Provides education and technical and work readiness training to approximately 10,000 out-of-school youth (ages 14 — 25). Aims to improve youth employment prospects and currently operates in Kayes, Sikasso, and Timbuktu regions. Implemented in partnership with the private sector and the Ministries of Youth, Education, and Employment.(87, 91)

Action Plan for the Prevention, the Retrieval from, and the Social and Professional Reinsertion of Thousands of Children at Risk or Victims of the Worst Forms of Labor in Small Artisanal Mining in the Sikasso Region

$120,000, 2-year, ILO-implemented project to partially implement one of six components of Mali's NAP. Targeted child labor in artisanal gold mining in the Sikasso region.(57)

Support Program to Expand the Observation and Monitoring of the Work and Trafficking System of Children in the Sikasso Region of Mali‡

$120,000, 2-year, ILO-implemented project that provides support to the CNLTE to implement a Child Labor Monitoring System in the districts of Bougouni, Kolondieba, and Sikasso. These funds complement the $150,000 provided by the Government of Mali for this purpose.(57)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (2011–2015)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national Government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor in Mali.(92) During 2014, three workshops were held to train agricultural extension services on child labor.(92)

Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa and Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS I and II

USDOL-funded regional projects that supported ECOWAS to strengthen its role in combating the worst forms of child labor in the West Africa sub-region by providing policy and capacity building support for all ECOWAS states.(93, 94)

Tackling Child Labor through Education (TACKLE) Project

Jointly launched by the European Commission and the ILO to combat child labor through education in 12 African and Caribbean countries and the Pacific group of states.(92) Aims to improve country-level child labor and education legal framework, strengthen institutional capacity to formulate, and implement child labor strategies and programs to combat child labor in Mali.(92)

Combating Child Labor through Skills Training for Older Children (2014–2015)†

Government of Netherlands-funded, 1-year, $2.6 million project to combat child labor by improving access to education. The project includes a component on design of skills and livelihoods training programs for out-of-school youth.(95)

Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor in West Africa (2009–2014)

Government of Spain-funded, 5-year, $5.4 million project to combat child labor by strengthening national public sector institutions, private, and civil society organizations.(95)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
† Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Mali.

Although Mali participates in some programs to reduce the worst forms of child labor, these programs are insufficient to fully address the scope of the problem, especially in artisanal gold mining. In addition, Mali does not fund or participate in programs to address child labor in domestic work, fishing, forced begging, commercial sexual exploitation, slavery, or debt bondage.

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Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Mali (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure the law does not allow children under the minimum age to work outside of light work.

2013–2014

Ensure that the law's minimum age provisions and protections apply to children in unpaid, temporary, or noncontract work.

2010–2014

Ensure that the decree that permits certain hazardous activities for children ages 16 and 17 align with the Hazardous Occupations List.

2009–2014

Enact laws to provide penalties for violations of the worst forms of child labor, including for all children under age 18 who are involved in armed conflict, and to ensure that the use, procurement, or offering of a child for prostitution and moral corruption is prohibited for both girls and boys.

2009–2014

Create meaningful penalties against slavery and forced labor to deter law violations.

2009–2014

Ensure the law prohibits the worst forms of child labor, including slavery and commercial sexual exploitation, in all instances, including outside of the context of human trafficking.

2009–2014

Enforcement

Ensure that law enforcement agencies, including regional offices, have adequate training and resources to conduct inspections and investigations.

2012–2014

Increase the number of labor inspectors and Morals Brigade officers responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2012–2014

Take measures to enforce laws relating to child labor effectively, particularly in northern Mali.

2013–2014

Collect and make public information on the number, type, and quality of labor inspections; law violations and penalties assessed, as well as criminal prosecutions and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2010–2014

Establish a referral mechanism between the National Directorate of Labor and the Ministry for the Promotion of Women, Children, and the Family to ensure victims of child labor receive appropriate social services.

2014

Ensure that a formal mechanism is established to transfer vulnerable children who are detained by the police and the Morals Brigade to appropriate services.

2011–2014

Enforce laws relating to child soldiers, including the prosecution of offenders; and enforce laws relating to slavery, including hereditary slavery.

2012–2014

Implement the provisions of the Inter-Ministerial Circular and the UN-signed Protocol which requires that children in detention for their association with armed groups be handed over to the Social Services Department or to UN child protection actors to provide appropriate reintegration and social protection services to these children.

2013–2014

Distribute the Trafficking in Persons Law to judges so they are aware of the requirements of the law.

2013–2014

Coordination

Streamline coordination across agencies, including by ensuring coordination between the CNLTE and other overlapping agencies.

2010–2014

Ensure CNLTE has appropriate funding to implement the National Plan to Combat Child Labor.

2012–2014

Ensure the Inter-Ministerial Committee to Prevent Grave Violations Against Children meets regularly and takes action to fulfill its mission.

2013–2014

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2013–2014

Take measures to implement the National Plan to Combat Child Labor.

2012–2014

Define the age of children protected by the Inter-Ministerial Circular on the Prevention, Protection, and Reintegration of Children in Armed Conflict and ensure the defined age range complies with international standards.

2013–2014

Social Programs

Take measures to ensure safety of children and teachers in schools, and to make sure all children have access to education, no matter their ethnicity.

2010–2014

Improve access to education by establishing and implementing a program to address the lack of teachers and schools, and subsidizing or defraying the cost of school fees and supplies.

2010–2014

Expand existing programs to fully address child labor, especially in artisanal gold mining.

2014

Institute programs to address child labor in domestic work, informal sector, fishing, forced begging, commercial sexual exploitation, slavery, and debt bondage.

2009–2014

Expand and improve programs targeting children in armed conflict, including programs targeting the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of child soldiers.

2012–2014

Assess the impact that existing social programs may have on addressing child labor.

2013–2014

 

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1.World Vision. "Forced and Child Labour in the Cotton Industry- Fact Sheet." [online] 2013 [cited December 1, 2014];

2.U.S. Department of State. "Mali," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014;

3.Ministere de l'Agriculture, and Institut d'Economie Rurale. Le Travail des Enfants dans l'Agriculture au Mali: Etude de Cas dans les Filieres Riz et Coton. Bamako; December, 2011.

4.U.S. Embassy- Bamako. reporting, January 22, 2015.

5.Human Rights Watch. A Poisonous Mix: Child Labor, Mercury, and Artisanal Gold Mining in Mali. Geneva; December, 2011.

6.Human Rights Watch. "Recommendations on the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Small-Scale Gold Mining for OECD Conference on Due Diligence." [online] November 12, 2013 [cited November 28, 2013];

7.UCW. The Twin Challenges of Child Labour and Educational Marginalisation in the ECOWAS Region: An Overview. Report. Rome July 1, 2014.

8.United Nations Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Mali September 22, 2014

9.Radio Adrar. "Mali Ansar al-Din Movement Reportedly Trains Child Soldiers in Abeibara, Tinassako To Lay Mines." November 14, 2014 [cited December 15, 2014];

10.Radio Hanna. "Mali Jihadist Set up Child Soldier Training Camps in Kidal." November 21, 2014 [cited December 15, 2014];

11.Al Jazeera. "Children 'killed and snatched by Mali rebels'." [online] November 23, 2014 [cited 12/15/2014];

12.United Nations. Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM) of grave violations against children in situations of armed conflict April- June 2014.

13.UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and armed conflict. New York; 2015.

14.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

15.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-2013, Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

16.U.S. Department of State. "Mali," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 2014;

17.FAO. Children's Work in the Livestock Sector: Herding and Beyond. Rome; 2013.

18.Government of Mali. Plan d'Action National pour l'Elimination du Travail des Enfants au Mali. Bamako; 2010.

19.Hilson, G. "Family Hardship and Cultural Values: Child Labor in Malian Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities." World Development, 40(no. 8)(2012);

20.Kippenberg, J. "New UNICEF Guidelines on Children Will Fall Flat Without Backing from Business." [online] March 12, 2012 [cited January 29, 2013];

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