Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Malawi

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Malawi

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Malawi made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government expanded the Malawi Social Action Fund and other social programs to address child labor, particularly in the tobacco sector. The Government also hired and trained 21 new labor inspectors. However, children in Malawi continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of tobacco and in commercial sexual exploitation. The Government has not finalized or fully implemented key legislation or policies protecting children from the worst forms of child labor, including the Child Labor Policy and the Child Protection Policy. In addition, gaps continue to exist in labor law enforcement related to child labor.

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Children in Malawi engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of tobacco and in commercial sexual exploitation.(1) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Malawi.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

34.0

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

89.6

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

39.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

79.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(2)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from MICS 5 Survey, 2014.(3) Data on working children, school attendance, and children combining work and school are not comparable with data published in the previous version of this report because of differences between surveys used to collect the data.

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting and harvesting tea, cotton, and sugar (4, 5)

Planting and harvesting tobacco, clearing land, building tobacco-drying sheds, cutting and bundling, weeding, and plucking raw tobacco† (1, 6-12)

Fishing (4, 13)

Herding livestock (4, 14)

Industry

Quarrying,† mining,†collecting sand, and brickmaking (14-16)

Construction,† activities unknown (15)

Services

Domestic work in third-party homes (10, 15)

Ganyu (a form of casual labor) (17, 18)

Begging† (19)

Vending and wholesaling (10, 15, 20)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 10, 15, 19, 21)

Herding goats and cattle; farming (predominantly tobacco); fishing; domestic work; and work in small businesses such as rest houses and bars, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (10, 13, 16, 22-26)

Forced begging (16, 22)

Use in crimes (16, 17, 22)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children in Malawi are engaged in hazardous work in the production of tobacco.(9, 15, 22) Children who handle tobacco risk illness from nicotine absorption, including green tobacco sickness.(9) They are also exposed to pesticides and chemicals.(6) Some children work alongside family members who are tenants on tobacco farms.(1) In the tenancy system, tenants’ pay is based on the quantity and quality of tobacco sold to farm owners after the harvest season. Tenants must also pay off loans incurred during the growing season, and when some are unable to repay these debts, their entire families may be placed in debt bondage.(1, 27-29)

Most human trafficking of children for labor in Malawi is internal.(16, 22) Children, typically boys, are trafficked from southern Malawi to work on tobacco farms in Malawi’s northern and central regions; they are also forced to work as cattle herders and in the brickmaking industry.(16, 22, 30, 31) Children also are trafficked from Malawi to Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zambia, often for use as child labor in the fishing industry.(13, 26, 30, 32) Children who are trafficked may be charged for their clothing, food, housing, and transport. They may also be forced to work in debt bondage and be unable to return home or support themselves.(22)

Girls from rural areas are sometimes promised clothing and lodging from brothel owners. They are later coerced to engage in commercial sexual exploitation to pay off their debts.(16, 22, 30) Girls who work in rest houses or bars are often coerced to engage in commercial sexual exploitation for room and board.(1, 10)

Although primary education is free, considerable barriers to education exist, including families’ inability to pay required school-related fees and expenses such as books and uniforms.(1, 10, 26, 33)

Children with family members with HIV/AIDS may assume responsibility as heads of their households and need to work to support their families. These children, especially those who are orphaned, are at increased risk of entering into the worst forms of child labor.(34, 35)

Malawi has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Malawi’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

 Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

14

Section 21 of the Employment Act (36)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 22 of the Employment Act; Section 23 of the Constitution(36, 37)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Sections 1–9, and Paragraph 6, Sections 1–6 of the Employment (Prohibition of Hazardous Work for Children) Order (38)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Employment Act; Section 27 of the Constitution; Sections 140–147 and 257–269 of the Penal Code; Sections 79 and 82 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act; Section 15 of the Trafficking in Persons Act (36, 37, 39-41)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 140–147 and 257–269 of the Penal Code; Section 79 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act; Section 15 of the Trafficking in Persons Act (39-41)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 137 and 138, 140, 142, 147, and 155 of the Penal Code; Sections 23 and 84 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act; Sections 15 and 20 of the Trafficking in Persons Act (39-41)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 23 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act (39)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Section 19 of the Defense Force Act (42)

Non-State Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

 Yes

18

Article 13 of the Education Act (33)

Free Public Education

 Yes

 

Article 13 of the Education Act (33)

* No conscription (42)

Section 21 of the Employment Act sets the minimum age for employment at age 14 in agricultural, industrial, or nonindustrial work.(36) The minimum age is not extended to workers in third-party homes, such as in domestic work, or non-commercial agriculture in which children are known to work.(36, 43, 44) In addition, Malawi lacks a legal framework for the tenancy system used in tobacco production. This is of particular concern since children involved in the tenancy system can face debt bondage.(1, 27-29, 45) Athough non-state armed groups are not known to recruit children for military activities in the country, Malawi law does not meet international standards because it does not expressly prohibit this practice.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)

Perform inspections and investigate all labor complaints, including those related to child labor.(15) The Child Labor Unit (CLU) monitors and implements child labor law compliance through child labor monitoring visits.(46)

District Labor Offices

Enforce child labor laws at the district level.(15)

Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability and Social Welfare (MOG) Department of Child Development

Provide child protection and development services.(47)

Ministry of Home Affairs

Enforce human trafficking laws and prosecute human trafficking offenses.(32, 48)

Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs

Prosecute criminal offenders.(49)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Malawi took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

120 (50)

141 (1)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes

Yes (51)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

N/A (50)

Yes (1)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (50)

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

No (50)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

116 (50)

Unknown

Number Conducted at Worksite

116 (50)

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (50)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

148 (50)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

142 (50)

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

142 (50)

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (50)

Unknown

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (50)

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (50)

Yes (1)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (50)

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (50)

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (50)

Yes (1)

 

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor (MOL) recruited and trained 21 new labor inspectors. The MOL’s Child Labor Unit (CLU) had one full-time employee based in Lilongwe, down from three previously.(1, 52) Each of Malawi’s administrative districts employed a District Labor Officer (DLO), who was responsible for enforcing all labor laws including those related to child labor.(15, 19, 44) In previous years, the MOL reported an insufficient amount of funding to carry out the Ministry’s child labor monitoring and prevention mandate, and research has not found that the MOL budget for these activities has increased.(19, 52) According to MOL officials, DLOs were limited in their ability to carry out monitoring and reporting due to budget and resource constraints, including a lack of transportation.(15, 19, 44, 53)

The Government supports a child protection helpline operated by an NGO that identifies cases of child sexual and labor exploitation.(22) Research did not find information on the number of calls related specifically to child labor.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Malawi took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (50)

Yes (54)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (50)

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (50)

Unknown

Number of Investigations

Unknown (50)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (50)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (50)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown (50)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (50)

Yes (1)

 

The Government has a referral process in place to transfer human trafficking victims detained by law enforcement authorities to service providers, although services remain limited.(55) The Government operates a social rehabilitation center providing assistance to several child trafficking victims in Lilongwe, but the quality of the facility has been reported to be very poor, leading law enforcement officers to regularly refer victims to civil society organization-run shelters.(30, 55) The Government operationalized a text messaging system for sending and analyzing trafficking information from district offices monthly.(54)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Provide policy guidance to support the elimination of child labor and implementation of the National Action Plan on Child Labour (NAP). Chaired by the Ministry of Agriculture, members include representatives from government ministries, trade unions, employers, development partners, and civil society organizations.(19, 31, 35)

National Technical Working Group on Child Labor and Protection

Oversee child protection issues. Includes representatives from the Government, international organizations, development partners, and NGOs, and is chaired by the MOG.(15, 19, 22) The Technical Working Group on Child Labor met three times during the reporting period.(52, 54)

District Child Protection Committees

Coordinate all child protection activities at the district level and improve local coordination on child protection issues. The Government is considering combining these committees with district orphan and vulnerable child committees and district committees on child rights.(19, 22)

National Coordination Committee against Trafficking in Persons*

In 2016, the Trafficking in Persons Act of 2015 required the creation of the committee. In November 2016 its membership list appeared in the Government of Malawi Gazette and the committee met for the first time on December 12, 2016.(1)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.{Government of Malawi, 2013 #188;U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe,  #219}

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan on Child Labour for Malawi (2010–2016)

Assigns roles and responsibilities for each ministry in charge of implementing child labor policies, provides a comprehensive framework to reduce the worst forms of child labor, and proposes concrete activities to support policies that combat child labor.(56) In September 2016, an operational planning workshop was held to begin the process of revising the NAP.(57)

Child Protection Strategic Plan

Outlines the responsibilities of the MOL, Malawi Police Service, and MOG in coordinating efforts to combat child labor.(19)

National Action Plan for Vulnerable Children (2015–2019)

Provides a framework for the development of district implementation plans for assisting vulnerable children, including those vulnerable to child labor; coordinated by the MOG.(52, 58)

UN Development Assistance Framework (2012–2016)

Recognizes child labor as a common constraint to the creation of decent and productive employment. Proposes strategies to address child labor, including enforcement of existing labor laws and enactment of pending legislation and policies.(59, 60)

Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II (2011–2016)

Includes strategies to eliminate child labor, such as integrating child labor issues into development initiatives and interventions; highlights that poverty is the root cause of child labor.(15, 59) To ensure consistency across policies, the MOL is incorporating child labor into all the sectors of the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II.(15, 61)

 

In 2016, research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the key policies above. The draft National Child Labor Policy, which would provide the Government, civil society, and other partners with a framework to implement child labor prevention programs and activities, underwent national consultation that included circulation among ministries.(1, 15, 19, 52) The Government has not finalized or started implementing the Child Protection Policy, which outlines the Government’s child protection strategy.(19, 52) The Government has not integrated child labor elimination and prevention strategies into either the National Youth Policy or the National Education Sector Plan.(62, 63)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL-funded research projects implemented by ILO to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity to conduct research in this area. These projects include the Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP) (2013–2017) in 10 countries, including Malawi, and the Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project (2011–2016).(64-66) During the reporting period, the ILO and the National Statistical Office processed, analyzed, and drafted a report for the second National Child Labor Survey.(67) For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our Web site.

Achieving Reduction of Child Labor in Support of Education II (2015–2018)

$2 million Japan Tobacco International (JTI)-funded, 3-year project that provides strategies to promote economic empowerment, raise awareness of child labor, and provide education support.(68, 69)

Child Labor Monitoring System†

MOL system in pilot districts that identifies working children. Collects data on school attendance and other data points.(19)

National Social Cash Transfer Program†

MOG program that supports low-income families in high-risk districts to enable children to stay in school.(15, 47) In FY 2016, the Government maintained the program in 304,534 project participant households at an annual cost of $68 million.(70) Research has shown a decrease in child labor rates as a result of participation in this program.(71, 72)

Complimentary Basic Education Program†

$1.1 million Government-funded project that promotes school enrollment for children who are removed from child labor. To date, an estimated 11,000 children have graduated from this program.(52)

Malawi Decent Work Country Program (2011–2016)

ILO program that seeks the elimination of the worst forms of child labor and assists youth, women, and people with disabilities by creating additional income-generating opportunities.(59, 73)

Malawi Social Action Fund IV (2014–2019)

$70 million, World Bank-funded, 5-year project that provides loans for community development and social support programs, including work opportunities, skill-building, and cash transfers.(19, 52) During the reporting period, the project budget was increased from $32.8 million to $70 million and extended an additional year to 2019.(1)

Orphans and Vulnerable Children Intervention

$4.9 million President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded program that, in partnership with MOG, provides vulnerable children from birth to age 17 with education, child protection services, birth registration, and shelter and care through the establishment of Community Based Care Centers.(74)

Girls Empowerment Programs*

USAID-funded and Save the Children-implemented projects that focus on reducing structural and cultural barriers to girls’ access to education. These projects include Let Girls Learn (2016–2021) and Girls’ Empowerment through Education and Health Activity (2014–2018) in Balaka and Machinga districts.(1, 74)

Birth Registration Program†

EU- and UNICEF-funded program that ensures nearly all health facilities in Lilongwe register children at birth and supports government electronic storage of birth data collected at the district level. The Government’s National Registration Bureau initiated hospital birth registration in Zomba and Mulanje districts.(22) The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supported birth registration in Blantyre, Chitipa, and Ntcheu districts.(19) UNICEF supported birth registration in Lilongwe.(52)

National Registration and ID Program

$50 million Government and UNDP-cofunded program aiming to register all Malawians older than 16 by the end of 2017.(51)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Malawi.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(15, 32, 75)

Although Malawi has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem in all relevant sectors, including agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Malawi (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including Its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that all forms of children’s work, including work conducted by children in private homes (domestic service) and on noncommercial farms, receive legal protection, including a minimum age for work that complies with international standards.

2009 – 2016

Ensure legal protection for children working in the tenancy system.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Enforcement

Publish information about the labor inspectorate’s funding and information about the training system for labor inspectors.

2015 – 2016

Publish information on the number of labor inspections conducted, including at worksites and by desk review, as well as the number of child labor violations that were found and the number of penalties that were imposed and collected.

2016

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by initiating routine inspections rather than performing inspections solely based on complaints received.

2015 – 2016

Increase resources to the CLU and district labor inspectors to conduct regular child labor inspections.

2009 – 2016

Disaggregate data on child labor from child protection hotline calls and publish the information.

2014 – 2016

Publish information on the training system for criminal law investigators and the number of investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions.

2013 – 2016

Government Policies

Ensure activities are undertaken to implement key policies related to child labor.

2016

Finalize and implement the National Child Labor and Child Protection policies.

2009 – 2016

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Education Sector Plan and National Youth Policy.

2011 – 2016

Social Programs

Ensure that additional educational costs and the impact of HIV/AIDS do not serve as barriers to education.

2012 – 2016

Increase the scope of existing social programs to reach more children at risk of the worst forms of child labor, and develop specific programs to target children in the agriculture sector and commercial sexual exploitation.

2011 – 2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. reporting, January 10, 2017.

2.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

3.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014 Analysis received April 13, 2017. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

4.         Government of Malawi. "Outcome Document and Framework for Action," in Malawi National Conference on Child Labour in Agriculture; September 5-6, 2012; Lilongwe; http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---ipec/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_190327.pdf.

5.         U.S. Department of State. "Malawi," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015. p. 232-233; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243484.htm.

6.         AlJazeera. "Malawi's Children of Tobacco." aljazeera.com [online] January 16, 2014 [cited March 20, 2014]; http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/peopleandpower/2014/01/malawi-children-tobacco-2014114957377398.html.

7.         Winrock International. Prevention of Child Labor in Tobacco Farming, Winrock International, [online] [cited March 18, 2014]; [Hard Copy on File].

8.         Mambucha, T. "Winrock Against Child Labour in Tobacco Growing." manaonline.gov.mw [online] September 11, 2015 [cited November 13, 2015]; [source on file].

9.         Calkins, K. Tobacco and Child Labor in Malawi. Borgenmagazine.com. 2014 January 29,; http://www.borgenmagazine.com/tobacco-child-labor-malawi/.

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Malawi," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2015&dlid=252701.

11.       UN Development Group. Draft 2015 UNDAF Annual UN Report. New York; 2016. https://undg.org/home/country-teams/africa-eastern-southern/malawi/.

12.       Kang'ombe, B. "Magnitude of Child Labour Not Known in Malawi." capitalradiomalawi.com [online] May 24, 2016 [cited November 10, 2016]; http://www.capitalradiomalawi.com/news/item/6264-magnitude-of-child-labour-not-known-in-malawi.

13.       Mhango, H. "Malawi Children Fall Victim to Human Traffickers." The Guardian, New York, July 16, 2012; Global Development. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2012/jul/16/malawi-children-victim-human-traffickers

14.       Chitosi, K. "63 Per Cent of Households in T/A Chimutu Involved in Child Labour." allafrica.com [online] October 24, 2013 [cited 2012]; [hardcopy on file].

15.       U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. reporting, February 28, 2014.

16.       U.S. Department of State. "Malawi," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258813.htm.

17.       UNICEF. Malawi Child Watch: Impact of the Current Socio-Economic Situation on Children and Women in Malawi, March-April, 2013; June 2013. http://www.unicef.org/malawi/MLW_resources_childwatch4.pdf.

18.       Centre for Social Concern. Tobacco Production and Tenancy Labour in Malawi; 2015. http://www.laborrights.org/publications/tobacco-production-and-tenancy-labour-malawi

19.       U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. reporting, January 26, 2015.

20.       Chitosi, K. "Lilongwe and Kasungu in Joint Child Labour Sweeping Exercise." manaonline.gov.mw [online] August 27, 2015 [cited November 13, 2015]; [Source on file].

21.       Malawi News Now. "Lilongwe Registers Increase in Child Prostitution." malawinewsnow.com [online] August 1, 2015 [cited November 7, 2015]; http://malawinewsnow.com/2015/08/lilongwe-registers-increase-in-child-prostitution/.

22.       U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. reporting, March 7, 2014.

23.       Chimungu Phiri, C. "Law Fails to Protect Malawi Children." ipsnews.net [online] October 16, 2012 [cited March 24, 2014]; http://www.ipsnews.net/2012/10/law-fails-to-protect-malawi-children/.

24.       Kamakanda, G. "Malawi's Internal Human Trafficking is Higher than That of Transnational." allafrica.com [online] June 19, 2013 [cited March 24, 2014]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201306191324.html.

25.       Chirombo, S. "World Vision Advocates for Positive Change on Child Trafficking." allafrica.com [online] November 3, 2013 [cited March 24, 2014]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201311030162.html.

26.       UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. List of Issues and Questions in Relation to the Seventh Periodic Report: Malawi. Geneva; March 16, 2015. Report No. CEDAW/C/MWI/Q/7. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2fC%2fMWI%2fQ%2f7&Lang=en.

27.       UN Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food Mission to Malawi Geneva,  July 22, 2013. http://www.srfood.org/images/stories/pdf/officialreports/20130722_Malawi_en.pdf.

28.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Malawi (ratification: 1999) Published: 2014; accessed November 7, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3147017:NO.

29.       ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Malawi (ratification: 1999) Published: 2015; accessed November 12, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3176780:YES.

30.       U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 4, 2016.

31.       Government of Malawi. The Child Labour National Steering Committee Meeting @ (MIM) Lilongwe; January 31, 2013. [Source on file].

32.       U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. reporting, February 22, 2013.

33.       Government of Malawi. Education Act, enacted 2013. [Source on file].

34.       ILO-IPEC. Project of Support to the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labour in Malawi, Final Evaluation. Geneva; 2013.

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