Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Malawi

Tea
Tea
Child Labor Icon
Tobacco
Tobacco
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Forced Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Malawi
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Malawi made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government debated an amendment to the Employment Act that would prohibit tenancy farming, and passed the Tobacco Industry Bill of 2018, which requires tobacco growers to report on efforts to eliminate child labor in tobacco farming. It also finalized the National Children's Policy, which will begin implementation in 2019. In addition, government inspectors also facilitated the removal of more than 1,000 victims of child labor and referred them to social services provided by the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Welfare. However, children in Malawi continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of tobacco and in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as the result of human trafficking. In addition, gaps continue to exist in labor law enforcement related to child labor, including financial resource allocation.

Children in Malawi engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of tobacco and in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as the result of human trafficking. (1) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Malawi.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

43.2 (1,965,690)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

67.7

Industry

 

1.4

Services

 

30.9

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

89.9

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

45.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

76.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (2)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization’s analysis of statistics from National Child Labour Survey, 2015. (3)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of tea and sugar (4,5)

Planting and harvesting tobacco, clearing land, building tobacco-drying sheds, cutting and bundling, weeding, and plucking raw tobacco† (1,4-12)

Herding livestock (13)

Industry

Quarrying,† mining,† collecting sand, and brickmaking† (13,14)

Construction,† activities unknown (14)

Domestic work in third-party homes (14,15)

Services

Ganyu (a form of casual labor) (16)

Begging† (13,17)

Vending and wholesaling (14,18)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1,4,6,13,14,17,19)

Herding goats and cattle; farming (predominantly tobacco); fishing; brickmaking; domestic work; and work in small businesses such as rest houses and bars, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4,13,20,21)

Forced begging (13,20)

Use in crimes (13,20)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children in Malawi are engaged in hazardous work in the production of tobacco. (9,14,20,22) Children who handle tobacco risk illness from nicotine absorption, including green tobacco sickness. They are exposed to pesticides, chemicals, and harsh weather conditions; they also utilize sharp tools. (7,9,23) Some children work alongside family members who are tenants on tobacco farms. (1,5,23,24) In the tenancy system, tenants’ pay is based on the quantity and quality of tobacco sold to farm owners after the harvest season, and parents have an incentive to use their children to increase their earnings. Tenants often incur loans during the growing season; in many cases, they are unable to repay these debts, resulting in entire families being placed in debt bondage. (1,25,26) Many children working under these conditions do not attend school. (5,23)

Most child trafficking for labor in Malawi takes place internally. (13,20) Boys from southern Malawi are particularly vulnerable, and are forced work on tobacco farms in Malawi’s northern and central regions; they are also forced to work as cattle herders and in the brickmaking industry. (13,20,27) Child trafficking also takes place from Malawi to other countries, including Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zambia. (21,27) Child victims of human trafficking may be charged for their clothing, food, housing, and transport. They may also be forced to work in debt bondage because of these charges and be unable to return home or support themselves. (20,28)

Girls from rural areas sometimes move to larger cities in search of work. In some cases, they are provided clothing and lodging from brothel owners and, if unable to find other work, engage in commercial sexual exploitation to pay off their debts. (1,13,20,27)

Primary education is tuition-free, and in September 2018, the government abolished secondary school fees to facilitate access to secondary education. However, considerable barriers to education exist, including families' inability to pay required school-related expenses, such as books and uniforms. (1,21,29-31) Long distances, poor school infrastructure, and the lack of water, electricity, and sanitation facilities also negatively impact children's attendance at school. In addition, safety concerns may negatively affect attendance; reports indicate that children are sometimes victims of sexual assault at school. (5,7,15,21,29,32,33) Additionally, many girls in grades six to eight are pulled from school to perform domestic work at home. (29)

Children with family members with HIV/AIDS may need to assume responsibility as heads of their households; including working to support their families. These children, especially those who are orphaned, are at increased risk of entering into the worst forms of child labor. (34)

Malawi has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Malawi’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the minimum age for work and the military recruitment by non-state actors.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

14

Section 21 of the Employment Act (35)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 22 of the Employment Act; Section 23 of the Constitution (35,36)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Sections 1–9, and Paragraph 6, Sections 1–6 of the Employment (Prohibition of Hazardous Work for Children) Order (37)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Employment Act; Section 27 of the Constitution; Sections 140–147 and 257–269 of the Penal Code; Sections 79 and 82 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act; Section 15 of the Trafficking in Persons Act (35,36,38-40)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 140–147 and 257–269 of the Penal Code; Section 79 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act; Section 15 of the Trafficking in Persons Act (38-40)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 137–138, 140, 142, 147, and 155 of the Penal Code; Sections 23 and 84 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act; Sections 15 and 20 of the Trafficking in Persons Act (38-40)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 23 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act (38)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Section 19 of the Defense Force Act (41)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

N/A*

   

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

No

   

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18

Article 13 of the Education Act (30)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 13 of the Education Act (30)

* No conscription (41)

Malawi currently lacks a legal framework for the tenancy system which is often used in tobacco production, and leaves children vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. Families working under the tenancy system are particularly vulnerable to debt bondage because loans advanced to farmers operating under this arrangement are often of a higher value than the profits farmers receive from crop yields. (1,25,26,42,43) In 2018, the Cabinet debated an amendment to the Employment Act that would prohibit tenancy farming. However, the government decided to defer consideration of the amendment until the ILO completes a study on the extent of tenancy farming in Malawi. (29)

The government also passed the Tobacco Industry Bill 2018 which requires tobacco growers to report on issues of child labor. (44,45) Growers found using child labor may be subject to a fine of $2,800 or imprisonment for up to one year. The Commissioner may also cancel the registration of a tobacco grower if the grower fails to submit a report that is satisfactory. (46)

Section 21 of the Employment Act sets the minimum age for employment at age 14 in agricultural, industrial, or non-industrial work. (35) The minimum age is not extended to workers in third-party homes, such as in domestic work, or non-commercial agriculture in which children are known to work. (35) Although non-state armed groups are not known to recruit children for military activities in the country, Malawi law does not meet international standards because it does not explicitly prohibit this practice.

During the reporting period the government reviewed categorizations of hazardous work under the Occupational Safety, Health and Welfare Act, and determined that tasks associated with domestic work and non-commercial agriculture will not be categorized as hazardous. (29,46)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor (MOL) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)

Performs inspections and investigates all labor complaints, including those related to child labor. (14) The Child Labor Unit monitors and implements child labor law compliance through child labor monitoring visits. (6,47)

District Labor Offices

Enforces child labor laws at the district level. (14)

Malawi Police Service

Investigates suspected cases involving the worst forms of child labor. Analyzes and operationalizes systems to track trafficking trends. (48)

Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability and Social Welfare (MOG) Department of Child Development

Provides child protection and development services. (32)

Ministry of Homeland Security

Enforces human trafficking laws and prosecutes human trafficking offenses. (49)

Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs

Prosecutes criminal offenders. (50)

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Malawi took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of MOL that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including financial resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

$98,000 (29)

Number of Labor Inspectors

122 (1)

65 (47)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (1)

Yes (46)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (51)

Yes (46)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (1)

N/A (46)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (29)

Yes (29)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown

1,324 (29)

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

556 (29)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

1,085 (29)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown (29)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown (29)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (29)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Yes (29)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (1)

Yes (29)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (29)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (1)

Yes (29)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (1)

Yes (29)

During the reporting period, inspectors facilitated the removal of 1,085 victims of child labor and referred them to social services provided by the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Welfare. Social services providers facilitated counseling for sexually abused chikdren, placement in school for school-aged children, and vocational skills training for others. (29,46)

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Malawi’s workforce, which includes more than 7 million workers. (51) According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in least developed economies, Malawi would employ about 175 labor inspectors. (52,53) Enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the lack of resources for inspections. (1,29,54)

In December 2018, the Employers Consultative Association of Malawi partnered with the MOL to develop and adopt a child labor code of conduct to better ensure private sector compliance with the government's efforts on the elimination of child labor. (29,46) The government supports a child protection helpline operated by an NGO that identifies cases of child sexual and labor exploitation. (20) Research did not find information on the number of calls related specifically to child labor.

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Malawi took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, training for criminal investigators.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (51)

Unknown (29)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (1)

Unknown (29)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (1)

Unknown (29)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown (29)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (29)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown (29)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown (29)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (55)

Unknown (55)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (1)

Yes (46)

Specialized units for child labor issues do not exist within the Malawi Police Service or the Directorate of Public Prosecutions, which may impede the ability of the government to enforce criminal laws related to child labor. (29) In addition, children who are the victims of commercial sexual exploitation are sometimes arrested by the police and detained alongside adults. In some instances, these children fall victim to abuse, including sexual extortion, by the police. (29)

Many children in Malawi lack birth certificates. The inability of law enforcement officials to verify the ages of child victims may have impeded efforts to prosecute traffickers under the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act and the Trafficking in Persons Act. (54)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including a lack of coordination efforts.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Provides policy guidance to support the elimination of child labor and implementation of the National Action Plan on Child Labor. Chaired by the Ministry of Agriculture, includes representatives from government ministries, trade unions, employers, development partners, and civil society organizations. (17,34) The National Steering Committee on Child Labor did not meet in 2018. (55)

National Technical Working Group on Child Labor and Protection

Oversees child protection issues. Chaired by the MOG, includes representatives from the government, international organizations, development partners, and NGOs. (14,17,20) The National Technical Working Group met once during the reporting period. (55)

District Child Protection Committees

Coordinates all child protection activities at the district level and improve local coordination on child protection issues. (17,20) The District Child Protection Committees met regularly during the reporting period, and provided recommendations to District Executive Committees, which met once a month. (55)

National Coordination Committee Against Trafficking in Persons

Mandated by the Trafficking in Persons Act of 2015. (6) Coordinates and oversees investigations and prosecutions, training, victim care, and human trafficking data collection. (56) Met once in 2018. (54)

Although the government has established coordinating bodies to address child labor, research was unable to determine outcomes of coordination efforts and found no evidence that these bodies function as meaningful coordinating mechanisms.

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Children's Policy

Aims to facilitate the coordination of all policies related to the needs of children to ensure child protection, including the prevention of child labor and trafficking. (57) The policy was finalized during the reporting period, and approved in January 2019. (47)

Child Protection Strategic Plan (2012–2018)

Outlines the responsibilities of MOL, Malawi Police Service, and MOG in coordinating efforts to combat child labor. (12,17,58) Between April and November 2018, an evaluation of the Child Protection Strategic Plan was conducted with support from UNICEF. The findings and recommendations from the evaluation will be used to develop a new child protection strategy, and refine UNDAF. (12,55)

National Action Plan for Vulnerable Children (2015–2019)

Provides a framework for the development of district implementation plans. (59,60) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Action Plan for Vulnerable Children during the reporting period.

National Plan of Action Against Trafficking in Persons (2017–2022)

Outlines objectives to counter trafficking in persons: strengthen prevention; provide support and protection for victims; strengthen detection, investigation, and prosecution of offenses; encourage partnership and coordination; and conduct research, monitoring, and evaluation. (61,62) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Plan of Action Against Trafficking in Persons during the reporting period.

UNDAF (2019–2023)

Recognizes child labor as a common constraint to the creation of decent and productive employment. Signed between the government and the UN in September 2018, proposes strategies to address child labor, including prioritizing investments in child education, ensuring schools are safe from violence, and providing vocational skills for out-of-school children. (12,63,64)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.

In 2018, the government began reviewing the National Action Plan on Child Labor with technical assistance from the ILO, and anticipates launching the plan in 2019. (29,46) An evaluation concluded in November 2018 found that the Child Protection Strategic Plan target for reducing the prevalence of child labor has not been achieved. (12) The draft National Child Labor Policy, which would provide the government, civil society, and other partners with a framework to implement child labor prevention programs and activities, is still undergoing national review that includes circulation among ministries. (1,6,14,17,30)

The government has not integrated child labor elimination and prevention strategies into either the National Youth Policy or the National Education Sector Plan. (65,66)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including implementation.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP)

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in 10 countries to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity of governments to conduct research in this area. (67) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Achieving Reduction of Child Labor in Support of Education II (ARISE) (2015–2018)

$4.7 million Japan Tobacco International (JTI)-funded, 3-year project to promote economic empowerment, raise awareness of child labor, and provide education support. (68) In July 2018, the project partnered with Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources to incorporate child labor issues into the curriculum. In October 2018, in conjunction with the Ministry of Education, developed a guide on establishing anti-child labor clubs, and trained teachers and established anti-child labor clubs in 18 schools reaching 5,789 children. (69) Supported the development of a code of conduct for employers on the elimination of child labor in Malawi, which was published in December 2018. (70) Project ended in December 2018. (29)

Child Labor Monitoring System†

MOL system in pilot districts that identifies working children. Collects various data including school attendance. (17) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Child Labor Monitoring System during the reporting period.

National Social Cash Transfer Program†

MOG program that supports low-income families in high-risk districts to enable children to stay in school. As of September 2017, 430,000 children participated in the program. (51) Research has shown a decrease in child labor rates among participants of this program. (71,72) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Social Cash Transfer Program during the reporting period.

Complimentary Basic Education Program†

$1.1 million government-funded project that promotes school enrollment for children who are removed from child labor. To date, an estimated 11,000 children have graduated from this program. (59)

Malawi Social Action Fund IV (2014–2019)

$70 million, World Bank-funded, 5-year project that provides loans for community development and social support programs, including work opportunities, skill-building, and cash transfers. (17,59) To date the program has established 2 integrated and functional safety net delivery systems; reached 985,635 regular participants and 225,000 emergency response participants under the public works program; trained 24,208 people in livelihood and skills development activities; and formed and strengthened 5,241 Community Savings and Investment Promotion and other livelihood groups. (51)

Orphans and Vulnerable Children Intervention†

$4.9 million, USAID and President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded program that, in partnership with MOG, provides education, child protection services, birth registration, and shelter and care to vulnerable children from birth to age 17 through the establishment of Community Based Care Centers. (73) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Orphans and Vulnerable Children Intervention during the reporting period.

Girls Empowerment Programs

USAID-funded and Save the Children-implemented projects that focus on reducing structural and cultural barriers to girls’ access to education. Projects include Let Girls Learn (2016–2021) and Girls’ Empowerment through Education and Health Activity (2014–2018) in Balaka and Machinga districts. (6,73) In 2018, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, in conjunction with Save the Children, hosted a conference highlighting progress made in the implementation of the Inclusive Education in Malawi Program. (74) In 2018, with U.S. Government support, the Government of Malawi adopted an Adolescent Girls and Young Women strategy focusing on health, education, gender equality, and economic empowerment. (55,75)

Birth Registration Program†

EU and UNICEF-funded program that ensures nearly all health facilities in Lilongwe register children at birth and supports government electronic storage of birth data collected at the district level. The government’s National Registration Bureau supports hospital birth registrations in Zomba and Mulanje districts. (20) The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention supports birth registration in Blantyre, Chitipa, and Ntcheu districts. (13) UNICEF supports birth registration in Lilongwe. (59) To date, efforts made to link national identification registration and birth registration databases to facilitate birth registration for children under age 16 have resulted in the registration of 4.5 million children. (55)

National Registration and ID Program†

$50 million government and UNDP co-funded program that aims to register all Malawians. (76) In 2017, 9 million people over the age of 16 and 4.5 million under the age of 15 were registered. By July 2018, 90 percent of the national registration identity cards were distributed. (56,77)

 † Program is funded by the Government of Malawi.
 ‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (14,78)

Although Malawi has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem in all relevant sectors, including agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Malawi (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that all forms of children’s work, including work conducted by children in private homes (domestic service) and on non-commercial farms, receive legal protection, including a minimum age for work that complies with international standards.

2009 – 2018

Raise the minimum age for work from 14 years to the age up to which education is compulsory.

2018

Ensure legal protection for children working in the tenancy system.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2018

Enforcement

Publish information on the number of penalties that were imposed and collected for child labor violations.

2016 – 2018

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice.

2017 - 2018

Increase resources to the labor inspectorate to conduct regular child labor inspections.

2009 – 2018

Disaggregate data on child labor from child protection hotline calls and publish the information.

2014 – 2018

Publish information on training for criminal law investigators and the number of investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions.

2013 – 2018

Ensure that children who are engaged in commercial sexual exploitation are not arrested and detained.

2018

Coordination

Ensure all coordinating bodies are able to carry out their intended mandates.

2018

Government Policies

Ensure that activities are undertaken to implement key policies related to child labor.

2016 – 2018

Renew the National Action Plan on Child Labor for Malawi.

2017 – 2018

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Education Sector Plan and the National Youth Policy.

2011 – 2018

Social Programs

Ensure that additional educational costs, exposure to sexual violence, and the impact of HIV/AIDS do not serve as barriers to education.

2012 – 2018

Ensure that activities are undertaken to implement key programs related to child labor.

2017 – 2018

Increase the scope of existing social programs to reach more children at risk of the worst forms of child labor, and develop specific programs to target children in agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation.

2011 – 2018

Ensure all children are registered at birth, and increase efforts to register children who were not issued birth certificates at birth.

2018

  1. U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe official. Email communication to USDOL official. January 16, 2018.

  2. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  3. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Child Labour Survey, 2015. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  4. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Form of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Malawi (ratification: 1999). 2019.
    https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3963492.

  5. Malawi Congress of Trade Unions. Position Paper on: Child Labour and Forced Labour in the Tobacco and Tea Growing Area. May 21, 2018. Source on file.

  6. U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. Reporting. January 10, 2017.

  7. Al Jazeera. Malawi's Children of Tobacco. January 16, 2014.

  8. Mambucha, Tiyanjane. Winrock Against Child Labour in Tobacco Growing. Malawi News Agency, September 11, 2015.
    http://allafrica.com/stories/201509140884.html.

  9. Calkins, Kelley. Tobacco and Child Labor in Malawi. Borgen Magazine, January 29, 2014.
    http://www.borgenmagazine.com/tobacco-child-labor-malawi/.

  10. UN Development Group. Draft 2015 UNDAF Annual UN Report. New York, 2016. Source on File.

  11. Kang'ombe, B. Magnitude of Child Labour Not Known in Malawi. Capital Radio Malawi. May 24, 2016.
    http://www.capitalradiomalawi.com/news/item/6264-magnitude-of-child-labour-not-known-in-malawi.

  12. Zegers, Mei. Evaluation of Malawi Child Protection Strategy 2012-2018. UNICER Malawi. November 2018.
    https://www.unicef.org/evaldatabase/files/Malawi-2018-001-CPS_Final_Evaluation_Report.pdf.

  13. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018. Malawi. Washington, DC, June 28, 2018.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/malawi/.

  14. U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. Reporting. February 28, 2014.

  15. ILO, Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work Branch. Understanding child labour and youth employment in Malaqi. Geneva: ILO, September 2018.
    https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---ipec/documents/publication/wcms_651037.pdf.

  16. Centre for Social Concern Malawi. Tobacco Production and Tenancy Labour in Malawi. January 12, 2015.
    http://www.laborrights.org/publications/tobacco-production-and-tenancy-labour-malawi.

  17. U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. Reporting. January 26, 2015.

  18. Chitosi, Kondwani. Lilongwe and Kasungu in Joint Child Labour Sweeping Exercise. Malawi News Agency, August 27, 2015.
    http://www.manaonline.gov.mw/index.php/component/k2/item/3497-lilongwe-and-kasungu-in-joint-child-labour-sweeping-exercise.

  19. Malawi News Now. Lilongwe Registers Increase in Child Prostitution. August 1, 2015.
    http://malawinewsnow.com/2015/08/lilongwe-registers-increase-in-child-prostitution/.

  20. U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. Reporting. March 7, 2014.

  21. UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. List of Issues and Questions in Relation to the Seventh Periodic Report: Malawi. Geneva, March 16, 2015. CEDAW/C/MWI/Q/7.
    http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW/C/MWI/Q/7&Lang=en.

  22. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Malawi (ratification: 1999). Published: 2018.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3339648:NO.

  23. Boseley, Sarah. The children working the tobacco fields: 'I wanted to be a nurse'. The Guardian, June 25, 2018.
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2018/jun/25/tobacco-industry-child-labour-malawi-special-report.

  24. Chirambo, Rodrick. The Burley Tobacco Value Chain Analysis Report. Centre for Social Concern, January 2018. Source on file.

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