Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Malawi

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Malawi

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Malawi made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed the Trafficking in Persons Act, which will address key gaps in its legal framework. The Government also increased funding for its Social Cash Transfer Program and supported other social programs to address child labor, particularly in the tobacco sector. However, children in Malawi continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of tobacco and fishing. The Government has not finalized or fully implemented key legislation or policies protecting children from the worst forms of child labor, including the Child Labor Policy and the Child Protection Policy. Gaps continue to exist in labor law enforcement related to child labor.

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Children in Malawi are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of tobacco and fishing.(1, 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Malawi.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

20.6 (885,333)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

81.3

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

22.2

Primary completion rate (%):

79.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Integrated Household Survey 3, 2010–2011.(4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting and harvesting tea, cotton,* and sugar* (5, 6)

Planting and harvesting tobacco,† clearing land, building tobacco-drying sheds, cutting and bundling, weeding and plucking raw tobacco (7-13)

Catching, processing,*† and selling fish* (1, 14, 15)

Herding livestock* (5, 16, 17)

Industry

Quarrying*† and mining*† (2)

Construction,*† activities unknown (2)

Services

Domestic work in third-party homes* (2, 12)

Ganyu* (a form of casual labor) (17, 18)

Begging*† (17, 19)

Vending and wholesaling* (2, 12, 17, 20)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 12, 19, 21)

Herding goats* and cattle;* farming (predominantly tobacco); fishing*; domestic work; and work in small businesses such as rest houses* and bars,* each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (6, 14, 22-26)

Forced begging* (6, 22)

Use in illicit activities, including crimes (6, 18, 22)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children are engaged in hazardous work in the production of tobacco.(2, 13, 22) Children who handle tobacco risk illness from nicotine absorption, including green tobacco sickness.(8, 13) They are also exposed to pesticides and chemicals.(7, 8) Some children work alongside family members who are tenants on tobacco farms.(17) In the tenancy system, tenants’ pay is based on the quantity and quality of tobacco sold to farm owners after the harvest season. Tenants must pay off loans incurred during the growing season, and those who are unable to repay these debts may face debt bondage.(27-29)

Most human trafficking of children for labor in Malawi is internal.(6, 22) Children, typically boys, are trafficked from southern Malawi to work on tobacco farms in Malawi’s northern and central regions; they are also forced to work as cattle herders and in the brickmaking industry.(6, 22, 30) Additionally, children are trafficked from Malawi to South Africa, Tanzania, and Zambia for use as child labor in the fishing industry.(14, 30, 31) Children who are trafficked may be charged for their clothing, food,  housing, and transport. They may also be forced to work in debt bondage and be unable to return home or support themselves.(22)

Girls from rural areas are sometimes promised clothing and lodging from brothel owners. They are later coerced to engage in commercial sexual exploitation to pay off their debts.(6, 22, 30) They may also be promised well-paid jobs as domestic workers, but end up working in rest houses or bars, ultimately being coerced to engage in commercial sexual exploitation for room and board.(12)

Although primary education is free, considerable barriers to education exist, including families’ inability to pay required school-related fees and expenses such as books and uniforms.(12, 26, 32)

Children with family members with HIV/AIDS may assume responsibility as head of their households and have to work to support their families. These children, especially those who are orphaned, are at increased risk of entering into the worst forms of child labor.(33, 34)

Malawi has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Section 21 of the Employment Act No. 6 of 2000 (35)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

16/18

Section 22 of the Employment Act No. 6 of 2000; Section 23 of the Constitution; Section 2 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act, 2010 (35-37)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Sections 1–9, and Paragraph 6, Sections 1–6 of the Employment (Prohibition of Hazardous Work for Children) Order, 2012 (38)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Employment Act No. 6 of 2000; Section 27 of the Constitution; Sections 140–147 and 257–269 of the Penal Code; Sections 79 and 82 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act, 2010; Section 15 of the Trafficking in Persons Act, 2015 (35-37, 39, 40)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 140–147 and 257–269 of the Penal Code; Section 79 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act, 2010; Section 15 of the Trafficking in Persons Act, 2015 (37, 39, 40)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 137–138, 140, 142, 147, and 155 of the Penal Code; Sections 23 and 84 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act, 2010; Sections 15 and 20 of the Trafficking in Persons Act, 2015 (37, 39, 40)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 23 of the Child Care, Protection and Justice Act, 2010 (37)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Section 19 of the Defense Force Act (41)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18

Article 13 of the Education Act, 2013 (32)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 13 of the Education Act, 2013 (32)

* No conscription (41)

In 2015, the Government passed the Trafficking in Persons Act, which will address previous gaps in the legal framework related to protecting all children under age 18 from trafficking in persons, including protection from commercial sexual exploitation regardless of gender.(40)

While Section 23 of the Constitution states that children under age 16 are entitled to protection from hazardous work, Section 22 of the Employment Act sets the minimum age for hazardous labor at age 18.(35, 36, 42, 43) Consequently, there is some confusion regarding the legal minimum age for engaging in hazardous work.(37, 42)

Section 21 of the Employment Act sets the minimum age for employment at age 14 in agricultural, industrial, or nonindustrial work.(35) The minimum age is not extended to workers in third-party homes, such as in domestic work, or non-commercial agriculture in which children are known to work.(35, 42, 44) In addition, Malawi lacks a legal framework for the tenancy system used in tobacco production. This is of particular concern, considering that children involved in the tenancy system can face debt bondage.(17, 27-29)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)—Child Labor Unit (CLU)

Monitor and implement child labor law compliance through child labor monitoring visits.(45)

MOL

 

Perform inspections and investigate all labor complaints, including those related to child labor.(2)

Ministry of Home Affairs

Enforce human trafficking laws and prosecute trafficking in persons.(31, 46)

District Labor Offices

Enforce child labor laws at the district level.(2)

Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability and Social Welfare—Department of Child Development

Provide child protection and development services.(47)

Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs

Prosecute criminal offenders.(48)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Malawi took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

120 (49)

120 (49)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes

Yes

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

N/A (49)

N/A (49)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (49)

No (49)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (49)

No (49)

Number of Labor Inspections

215† (49)

116 (49)

Number Conducted at Worksite

215 (49)

116 (49)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (49)

0 (49)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

145 (49)

148 (49)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

142 (49)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

142 (49)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (49)

No (49)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (49)

No (49)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (49)

Yes (49)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (49)

Yes (49)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (49)

Yes (49)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (49)

Yes (49)

† Data are from the Government of Malawi for the period from January 2014 to May 2014.

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor’s (MOL) Child Labor Unit (CLU) had one full-time employee based in Lilongwe, down from three last year.(50) Each of Malawi’s administrative districts employed a District Labor Officer (DLO), who was responsible for enforcing all labor laws including those on child labor.(2, 19, 44) The MOL was allocated roughly $2.65 million for recurrent expenses and capital expenditure funding for a new community college initiative. Of this amount, $11,262 was allocated for the CLU, which was a considerable reduction from the previous year, and the MOL reported it was an insufficient amount to carry out the Ministry’s child labor monitoring and prevention mandate.(19, 50) According to MOL officials, DLOs were limited in their ability to carry out monitoring and reporting due to budget and resource constraints, including a lack of transportation.(2, 19, 44, 51) The MOL advocated for the CLU to be upgraded from a unit into a child labor department, which would enable it to have staff members focused on enforcing laws related to child labor in each of the country’s districts.(44)

The Government supports a child protection helpline operated by an NGO that identifies cases of child sexual and labor exploitation. Another child helpline covering the Kasungu District was run by NGOs but uses Lilongwe-based government employee operators.(22) Research did not find information on the number of calls related specifically to child labor.

Of the 148 child labor violations found, the MOL required employers to pay back wages but did not assess additional fines or penalties. A total of 210 children were removed from child labor a result of inspections and referred to social services.(50)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Malawi took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (49)

Yes (49)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No (49)

Unknown (49)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (49)

Unknown (49)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (49)

Unknown (49)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (49)

Unknown (49)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (49)

Unknown (49)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (49)

Unknown (49)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (49)

Yes (49)

 

The Government has a referral process in place to transfer human trafficking victims detained by law enforcement authorities to service providers, although services remain limited.(52) The Government operates a social rehabilitation center providing assistance to several child trafficking victims in Lilongwe, but the quality of the facility has been reported to be very poor, leading law enforcement officers to regularly refer victims to civil society organization-run shelters.(30, 52)

While criminal law enforcement data related to the worst forms of child labor are unknown, the Malawi Police Service provided trafficking in persons data from five police stations. In 2015, 142 victims were rescued and 58 suspects were convicted.(46) In addition, during 2015, Phalombe District Police reported 55 trafficking victims and five cases resulting in conviction, with prison sentences ranging from 18 to 24 months with hard labor.(46)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Provide policy guidance to support the elimination of child labor and implementation of the National Action Plan on Child Labour (NAP). Chaired by the Ministry of Agriculture, members include representatives from government ministries, trade unions, employers, development partners, and civil society organizations.(19, 34, 53) The National Steering Committee on Child Labor met one time.(50)

National Technical Working Group on Child Labor and Protection

Oversee child protection issues. Includes representatives from the Government, international organizations, development partners, and NGOs and is chaired by the Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability, and Social Welfare.(2, 19, 22) The National Technical Working Group on Child Labor met for the first time during the reporting period.(50)

District Child Protection Committees

Coordinate all child protection activities at the district level and improve local coordination on child protection issues. May be combined with a district orphan and vulnerable child committee and a district committee on child rights.(19, 22)

 

In 2015, the National Steering Committee on Child Labor met one time, and the National Technical Working Group on Child Labor met for the first time during the reporting period.(50)

The Government of Malawi has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan on Child Labour for Malawi (2010–2016)

Assigns roles and responsibilities for each ministry in charge of implementing child labor policies, provides a comprehensive framework to reduce the worst forms of child labor, and proposes concrete activities to support policies to combat child labor.(54)

Child Protection Strategic Plan

Outlines the responsibilities of the MOL, Malawi Police Service, and the Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability, and Social Welfare to coordinate efforts combating child labor.(19)

National Action Plan for Vulnerable Children† (2015–2019)

Coordinated by the Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability, and Social Welfare, was launched in 2015 and provides a framework for the development of district implementation plans for assisting vulnerable children.(50, 55)

National Youth Policy*

Includes strategies targeting youth ages 14 to 25, including creating more educational and training opportunities.(56)

UN Development Assistance Framework (2012–2016)

Recognizes child labor as a common constraint to the creation of decent and productive employment. Proposes strategies to address child labor, including enforcement of existing labor laws and enactment of the pending legislation and policies.(57, 58)

Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II (2011–2016)

Includes strategies to eliminate child labor, such as integrating child labor issues into development initiatives and interventions; highlights that poverty is the root cause of child labor.(2, 57) To ensure consistency across policies, the MOL is incorporating child labor into all the sectors of the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II.(2, 59)

National Education Sector Plan (2008–2017)*

Provides a framework for quality and relevant education to Malawians, including providing technical and vocational training and education for youth.(60)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was launched during the reporting period.

In 2015, the National Child Labor Policy, which will focus on the issue of child labor and provide the Government, civil society, and other partners with a framework to implement child labor programs and activities, awaited Cabinet approval and was not yet in effect.(2, 19, 50) Additionally, the Government has not finalized or fully implemented the Child Protection Policy, which outlines the Government’s child protection strategy.(19, 50)

In 2015, the Government of Malawi funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP) (2013–2017)

USDOL-funded, research project implemented by ILO in 10 countries, including Malawi, to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity to conduct research in this area.(61) During the reporting period, the ILO and the National Statistical Office collected data for the second National Child Labor Survey.(62)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project (2011–2016)

USDOL-funded project implemented by ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor through data collection and research in Malawi.(63)

Child Labor Elimination Actions for Real Change (2011–2015)

$8 million Eliminating Child Labor in Tobacco Growing (ECLT)-funded, 4-year project that contributes to the elimination of hazardous child labor in tobacco-growing areas in Malawi within the context of the Child Labor NAP for Malawi. Targets 10,000 children for prevention from child labor.(2, 19, 64)

Achieving Reduction of Child Labor in Support of Education II* (2015–2018)

$2 million Japan Tobacco International (JTI)-funded, 3-year project that provides strategies to promote economic empowerment, raises awareness on child labor, and provides education support.(65, 66)

Program to Reduce the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Tobacco-Growing Communities in Malawi (2011–2015)

Combined $4.5 million JTI-funded, 4-year project to reduce child labor in tobacco communities in Brazil, Malawi, and Zambia.(67) In Malawi, the project budget is $1.3 million.(66)

Project on Combating Child Labor in the Tobacco Industry

$3 million JTI-funded project in partnership with UNDP and the African Development Bank that addresses child labor in the tobacco industry through public-private partnerships.(2)

Child

Labor Monitoring System†

MOL system in pilot districts to identify working children and collect data on school attendance and other data points.(19)

National Social Cash Transfer Program†

Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability, and Social Welfare program that supports low-income families in high-risk districts to enable their children to stay in school.(2, 47, 68) In FY 2015, the Government maintained the program at 304,534 beneficiary households at an annual cost of $68 million, which represents a $3 million increase from FY 2014.(69) Research has shown a decrease in child labor rates as a result of participation in this program.(70, 71)

Complimentary Basic Education Program†

$1.1 million Government-funded project that enrolls children withdrawn from child labor into school. To date, an estimated 11,000 children have graduated from this program.(50)

Malawi Decent Work Country Program (2011–2016)

ILO program that seeks the elimination of the worst forms of child labor and targets youth, women, and people with disabilities through creating additional income-generating opportunities.(57, 72)

Malawi Social Action Fund IV (2014–2018)

$32.8 million, World Bank-funded, 4-year project that provides loans for community development and social support programs, including work opportunities, skill-building, and cash transfers.(19, 50)

Anti-Human Trafficking Project

Salvation Army-implemented project that provides shelter, rehabilitation, and training for victims of human trafficking.(22)

Shelter Program†

Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability, and Social Welfare program that provides shelter for children in Lilongwe and takes in trafficked and street children.(2)

Orphans and Vulnerable Children Intervention

$4.9 million President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded program in partnership with the Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability, and Social Welfare that provides vulnerable children from birth to age 17 with education, child protection services, birth registration, and shelter and care through the establishment of Community Based Care Centers.(73)

Girls’ Empowerment through Education and Health Activity

USAID and Save the Children-funded project that focuses on reducing structural and cultural barriers to girls’ access to education in Balaka and Machinga districts.(73)

School Feeding Program

World Food Program and U.S. Department of Agriculture-funded program that provides meals to help keep children in school.(2, 74)

Birth Registration Program†

EU- and UNICEF-funded program that ensures nearly all health facilities in Lilongwe register children at birth and supports government electronic storage of birth data collected at the district level. The Government’s National Registration Bureau initiated hospital birth registration in Zomba and Mulanje districts.(22) The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supported birth registration in Blantyre, Chitipa, and Ntcheu districts.(19) UNICEF supported birth registration in Lilongwe.(50)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Malawi.

Although Malawi has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem in all relevant sectors, including agriculture and fishing.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Malawi (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including Its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Address the inconsistency in the law for the minimum age for hazardous work in compliance with international standards.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that all forms of children’s work, including children working in private homes (domestic service) and on noncommercial farms, receive legal protection, including a minimum age for work that complies with international standards.

2009 – 2015

Ensure legal protection for children working in the tenancy system.

2009 – 2015

Enforcement

Make the labor inspectorate’s funding publicly available.

2015

Institutionalize training for labor inspectors, including by training new labor inspectors at the beginning of their employment on new laws related to child labor, and provide refresher courses.

2015

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by initiating routine inspections rather than performing inspections solely based on complaints received.

2015

Increase resources to the CLU and district labor inspectors to conduct regular child labor inspections.

2009 – 2015

Disaggregate data on child labor from child protection hotline calls and make data available to the public.

2014 – 2015

Make information publicly available on the training system for criminal law investigators and the number of investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions.

2013 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Education Sector Plan and National Youth Policy.

2011 – 2015

Finalize and implement the National Child Labor and Child Protection policies.

2009 – 2015

Social Programs

Ensure that additional costs to education and the impact of HIV/AIDS do not serve as barriers to education.

2012 – 2015

Increase the scope of existing social programs to reach more children at risk of the worst forms of child labor, and develop programs to target children in the fishing and agriculture sectors, specifically.

2011 – 2015

 

 

1.         FAO-ILO. FAO-ILO Good Practice Guide for Addressing Child Labour in Fisheries and Aquaculture: Policy and Practice. Rome; December 2011. http://www.fao-ilo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/fao_ilo/pdf/FAO-ILOGuidelines_child_labour_in_fisheries_and_aquaculture_Policy_practice_Preliminary_version.pdf.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. reporting, February 28, 2014.

3.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

4.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

5.         Government of Malawi. "Outcome Document and Framework for Action," in Malawi National Conference on Child Labour in Agriculture; September 5-6, 2012; Lilongwe; http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---ipec/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_190327.pdf.

6.         U.S. Department of State. "Malawi," in Trafficking In Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015. p. 232-233; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243484.htm.

7.         AlJazeera. "Malawi's Children of Tobacco." aljazeera.com [online] January 16, 2014 [cited March 20, 2014]; http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/peopleandpower/2014/01/malawi-children-tobacco-2014114957377398.html.

8.         Palitza, K. "Tobacco Poisons Malawi's Children." mg.co.za [online] May 6, 2011 [cited March 24, 2014]; http://mg.co.za/article/2011-05-06-tobacco-poisons-malawis-children.

9.         Mumba, M. Tackling Child Labour on Malawi's Tobacco Farms, PLAN, [blog] June 6, 2011 [cited March 24, 2014]; http://plan-international.org/about-plan/resources/blogs/tackling-child-labour-on-malawis-tobacco-farms.

10.       Winrock International. Prevention of Child Labor in Tobacco Farming, Winrock International, [online] [cited March 18, 2014]; http://www.winrock.org/project/achieving-reduction-child-labor-support-education.

11.       Mambucha, T. "Winrock Against Child Labour in Tobacco Growing." manaonline.gov.mw [online] September 11, 2015 [cited November 13, 2015]; [source on file].

12.       U.S. Department of State. "Malawi," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2014&dlid=236378.

13.       Kelley Calkins. "Tobacco and Child Labor in Malawi." [online] January 29, 2014 [cited January 15, 2015]; http://www.borgenmagazine.com/tobacco-child-labor-malawi/.

14.       Mhango, H. "Malawi Children Fall Victim to Human Traffickers." The Guardian, New York, July 16, 2012; Global Development. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2012/jul/16/malawi-children-victim-human-traffickers

15.       Nina Louise Frankel, Archangel Bakolo. USDOL-Funded ILO-IPEC, Project Support to National Action Plan to Reduce Child Labour in Malawi, Independent Mid Term Evaluation (draft); September 2011. [hardcopy on file].

16.       Kondwani Chitosi, Malawi News Agency. "63 Per Cent of Households in T/A Chimutu Involved in Child Labour." allafrica.com [online] October 24, 2013 [cited [hardcopy on file].

17.       ILO-IPEC, Ministry of Labor. Child Labor in Kasungu Baseline Survey Report. Lilongwe; July 2011.

18.       UNICEF. Malawi Child Watch: Impact of the Current Socio-Economic Situation on Children and Women in Malawi, March-April, 2013; June 2013. http://www.unicef.org/malawi/MLW_resources_childwatch4.pdf.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. reporting, January 26, 2015.

20.       Chitosi, K. "Lilongwe and Kasungu in Joint Child Labour Sweeping Exercise." manaonline.gov.mw [online] August 27, 2015 [cited November 13, 2015]; [source on file].

21.       Malawi News Now. "Lilongwe registers increase in child prostitution." malawinewsnow.com [online] August 1, 2015 [cited November 7, 2015]; http://malawinewsnow.com/2015/08/lilongwe-registers-increase-in-child-prostitution/.

22.       U.S. Embassy- Lilongwe. reporting, March 7, 2014.

23.       Chimungu Phiri, C. "Law Fails to Protect Malawi Children." ipsnews.net [online] October 16, 2012 [cited March 24, 2014]; http://www.ipsnews.net/2012/10/law-fails-to-protect-malawi-children/.

24.       Kamakanda, G. "Malawi's Internal Human Trafficking is Higher than That of Transnational." allafrica.com [online] June 19, 2013 [cited March 24, 2014]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201306191324.html.

25.       Chirombo, S. "World Vision Advocates for Positive Change on Child Trafficking." allafrica.com [online] November 3, 2013 [cited March 24, 2014]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201311030162.html.

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