Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Madagascar

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Madagascar

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Madagascar made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government increased the number of child labor inspectors from 4 to 15, launched a study with UNICEF to assess violence and exploitation of children in Madagascar, and expanded the implementation of the Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children in the Tourism Industry. In addition, the Government continued to participate in a number of programs targeting the worst forms of child labor. However, children in Madagascar perform dangerous tasks in agriculture, including the production of vanilla. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Limited resources for the systematic enforcement of child labor laws impede government efforts to protect children from the worst forms of child labor. Social programs to combat child labor are also insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Madagascar perform dangerous tasks in agriculture, including the production of vanilla.(1-6) Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(4, 7-12) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Madagascar.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

22.1 (1,206,992)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

87.4

Industry

 

4.2

Services

 

8.4

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

69.1

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

15.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

69.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(13)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from the National Survey of Child Labor (Enquête Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants), 2007.(14)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of tea, wine, coconut, hemp, rice, and peanuts (4, 15-17)

Production of vanilla, including working in the drying process, and transporting vanilla beans (1, 3, 5, 6, 18-21)

Fishing and deep-sea diving, including for crabs, lobster, and shrimp (4, 6, 16, 22, 23)

Herding cattle (zebu) and goats (6, 16, 24, 25)

Industry

Mining† gold, sapphires, crystal, quartz, and tourmaline, and transporting† blocks and stones at mining sites (10, 16, 22, 26-29)

Quarrying† and crushing stone and making gravel† (3, 10, 22-24, 26)

Production of salt (6, 22, 24)

Services

Street work, including begging, market vending, transporting goods by rickshaw, and scavenging garbage (4, 6, 10, 22-25)

Working in bars,† including as waitresses, maids, and masseuses (7, 8, 12, 25, 28, 30, 31)

Domestic work† (4, 8, 10, 12, 24)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 7-12)

Forced labor in mining, quarrying, begging, and domestic work (4, 8, 10, 12, 26, 31)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) – (c) of ILO C. 182.

Children in the mining sector suffer from respiratory problems and diseases such as diarrhea and malaria, and are also at risk of injury from collapsing mines. Children, as young as 10, dig pits up to 15 meters deep and carry plastic sacks filled with air to breathe.(4, 10, 23, 24, 26, 27) Most of the children involved in gold and sapphire mining are in the regions of Anlamanga, Anosy, Ilakaka, and Vakinankaratra.(4, 16, 27) In addition, children working in the production of vanilla in Madagascar are exposed to toxic substances, extreme temperatures, transport heavy loads, and work for long hours. (1-3, 5, 6, 18-21)

Although the Constitution guarantees free compulsory education, the lack of school infrastructure and qualified teachers, limited transportation services in rural areas with long distances to schools, cost of school fees and supplies, and reported school violence impede access to education in Madagascar, which leaves children vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(6, 23-25, 32-35)

Madagascar has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Madagascar’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 100 of the Labor Code (36)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 101 of the Labor Code; Articles 10 of Decree 2007-563 (36, 37)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 101 of the Labor Code; Articles 10, 12 and 16-22 of Decree 2007-563 (36, 37)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Labor Code; Article 8 of Law 2014-040; Article 15 of Decree 2007-563; Articles 333 and 335 of Law 2007-038; Article 1 of Law 2014-040 (36-39)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 15 of Decree 2007-563; Articles 333 and 335 of Law 2007-038; Articles 1 and 8 of Law 2014-040 (37-39)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 13 of Decree 2007-563; Article 335 of Law 2007-038; Article 1 of Law 2014-040 (37-39)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 11 and 14 of Decree 2007-563(37)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 11 of Ordinance No. 78-002 (40)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 15 of Decree 2007-563(37)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16‡

Article 24 of the Constitution; Article 39 of Law 2008-011 (34, 41)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 24 of the Constitution (34)

* No conscription (42)
‡Age calculated based on available information(41)

Malagasy law prohibits hazardous occupations and activities for children; however, these prohibitions do not cover deep-sea diving and fishing, areas in which there is evidence that Malagasy children work in dangerous conditions. A revised law that contains a more specific list of hazardous child labor activities in all relevant sectors, including underwater work, was developed, but it was not approved during the reporting period.(6, 23, 43, 44)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Civil Services and Labor Division for the Prevention, Abolition, and Monitoring of Child Labor (PACTE)

Enforce child labor laws and coordinate, train, and evaluate all activities in the context of the elimination of child labor.(6, 23, 33, 44)

Ministry of Justice 

Enforce laws pertaining to violence against children, including human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(12, 23)

National Police Force Morals and Minors Brigade (PMPM)

Investigate criminal cases involving minors, including issues pertaining to human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. Housed under the Ministry of Public Security. (4, 12, 23, 35, 45)

Department-level Courts

Prosecute child labor convictions.(23)

 Ministry of Population, Social Protection and the Promotion of Women 

Develop and implement programs to protect vulnerable children, including victims of the worst forms of child labor.(23) Manage 780 child protection networks to protect children from abuse and exploitation in all 22 regions of Madagascar. Approximately 450 of the networks are operational.(6, 12, 23, 35, 46)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Madagascar took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$41,000 (15, 47)

$49,000(15, 47)

Number of Labor Inspectors

142 (15)

132 (23)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

4 (15)

15 (23, 44)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (48)

Yes (48)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (48)

Yes (23)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (15)

N/A (23)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (48)

No (23)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown (15)

Unknown (23)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (15)

Unknown (23)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (15)

Unknown (23)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (15)

Unknown (23)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (15)

Unknown (23)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (15)

Unknown (23)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown (15)

Yes (44)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (15)

Yes (44)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (49)

Yes (23, 44)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (48)

Yes (23, 44)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (48)

Yes (23, 44)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (48)

Yes (23, 44)

 

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Madagascar’s workforce, which includes over 12 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Madagascar should employ roughly 325 labor inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(50-52). In addition, half of the employed labor inspectors work in the capital hampering the Government’s capacity to enforce child labor laws in rural areas, especially in the agricultural sector.(4, 6) During the reporting period, the Prevention, Abolition, and Monitoring of Child Labor (PACTE) conducted unannounced inspections of mines and quarries in four regions of the country; however the exact number of inspections is unknown.(4) In addition, PACTE trained civil society organizations in three regions to identify and report cases of child labor. However, reports indicate that PACTE lacked trained staff, equipment, and funding to manage existing child labor databases, and to conduct effective child labor inspections.(4, 23, 44)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Madagascar took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (48)

Unknown (48)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (48)

Yes (23)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (48)

Yes (23)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (48)

Unknown (48)

Number of Violations Found

60 (31)

41 (45)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (48)

Unknown (23)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (48)

Unknown (23)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (15)

Yes (23, 44)

 

In 2016, the National Police Force’s Morals and Minors Brigade (PMPM) had a headquarters and 15 regional units across Madagascar, employing a total of 118 agents.(23) In 2016, the National Police received a budget of approximately $29,400; however, research did not determine what proportion of the budget was available to conduct investigations related to the worst forms of child labor.(23) During the reporting period, the PMPM investigated an estimated 777 complaints that children were victims of crimes such as rape and violence. Of these cases, 41 were determined to be related to child labor in domestic work, but authorities did not gather sufficient evidence to determine whether any of the cases involved domestic servitude. Some of these cases were reported through the national child protection hotline.(23, 35, 45) It is unclear, however, how many child labor violations were found in areas beyond domestic work, how many prosecutions were initiated and whether these cases led to convictions.(31) Reports indicate a lack of trained staff, equipment, and transportation to effectively conduct criminal law enforcement efforts related to the worst forms of child labor.(4, 23, 53, 54)

In 2016, the overall budget allocation for the Ministry of Population, Social Protection and the Promotion of Women increased to 0.4% of the national budget from the previous year.(45) During the reporting period, the Ministry worked with Child Protection Networks in five targeted regions (Diana, Atsimo Andrefana, Boeny, Atsinanana and Analamanga) to provide legal, social, and medical care to 9,949 child victims of violence and exploitation. Of these, 22 percent, or 2,170, were victims of child labor.(23) In addition, each of these five Child Protection Networks developed 3-year action plans to improve reintegration and enforcement efforts related to the worst forms of child labor.(23)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee on the Fight Against Child Labor (CNLTE)

Coordinate programs, advise on child labor legislation and regulations, and implement the National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Led by the Ministry of Civil Services and Labor.(23, 55, 56) In 2016, appointed 11 labor inspectors to support CNLTE activities and implemented awareness-raising campaigns on commercial sexual exploitation of children in the tourism sector.(23, 44)

Regional Child Labor Committees (CRLTE)

Coordinate, monitor, and evaluate all regional activities relating to the elimination of child labor. Comprises 10 regional committees that identify activities to promote the elimination of child labor and to compile, analyze, and report child labor data to PACTE.(23, 44, 55, 57) In 2016, the committee in the Sava region organized workshops to raise awareness of child labor issues among vanilla producers, and the committees in the Atsimo-Andrefana and Diana regions conducted trainings on commercial sexual exploitation of children.(4, 20, 23, 44)

National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking

Coordinate human anti-trafficking efforts in Madagascar and responsible for implementing the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons.(12, 33, 38, 58) Chaired by the Office of the Prime Minister and includes representatives from the Ministries of Civil Services and Labor; Justice; and Population and Social Affairs.(15, 31, 58) Met twice during 2016.(35)

National Child Protection Committee (CNPE)

Guide and coordinate national child protection policy and programs. Chaired by the Minister of Population and Social Affairs and comprises a steering committee and a technical commission of specialists.(7, 59) In 2016, launched a study to assess violence and exploitation of children in Madagascar to be released in 2017.(23, 45)

 

In 2016, the National Committee on the Fight Against Child Labor (CNLTE) did not receive funding and the Regional Child Labor Committees (CRLTE) and the National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking lacked sufficient funding to effectively operate and coordinate efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms.(12, 23, 33, 35, 45)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2004–2019)  

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by strengthening child labor laws, conducting awareness-raising campaigns, mobilizing funds for social programs, and updating databases on child labor. Led by the CNLTE. (4, 26, 44, 55) In 2016, received $35,000 to implement the final phase of the plan, which aims to consolidate efforts to effectively remove children from exploitative labor conditions.(44)

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2015–2019)

Seeks to enhance the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, effectively implement human trafficking laws, and provide protection and care for victims. Overseen by the National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking.(8, 15, 58, 60) Reports indicated that the Government did not provide sufficient funding to implement the plan in 2016.(12, 23, 45)

Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children in the Tourism Industry

Aims to prevent commercial sexual exploitation of children in the tourism industry. Implemented by the Ministry of Tourism and supported by the ILO and UNICEF.(23, 61-64) As of 2016, over 900 tourism companies signed the code of conduct, and eight regional action plans have been developed to implement the provisions of the code.(23, 45)

National Social Protection Policy

Aims to protect children from abuse, violence, and exploitation and promotes improved access to education and livelihood services for vulnerable children. Led by the Ministry of Population, Social Protection and the Promotion of Women and supported by international donors.(33, 65-67) In 2016, implemented activities that benefitted over 500,000 individuals, mainly children.(68)

National Development Plan(2015–2019)

Aims to promote sustainable development and social equality. Overseen by the Ministry of Economy and Planning and supported by the ILO’s Decent Work Country Program.(33, 69, 70) Includes a budget of $83,000 to specifically combat commercial sexual exploitation of children and child labor in domestic work, mining, quarrying, and other hazardous sectors. (8, 33, 69-71)

‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(70, 72)

In 2016, the Government of Madagascar funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. (Table 10)

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Project Supporting Sustainable, Child Labor Free Vanilla-Growing Communities in Sava (2016 – 2020)*

USDOL-funded $4 million project implemented by the ILO that aims to reduce child labor in the vanilla-producing areas of the Sava region.(73) The project will build the capacity of the Government to enforce child labor laws and policies; work with the vanilla industry to implement the Code of Conduct of Vanilla Producers; raise community awareness on child rights and child labor; and promote livelihood services for households in the region.(73) For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our Web site.

UNICEF Country Program (2015 – 2019)

$197,815 UNICEF funded program that supports the Government’s efforts to improve education, health, nutrition, and protection for children in Madagascar.(74) In 2016, implemented projects to prevent violence and commercial sexual exploitation of children in the regions of Atsimo-Andrefana, Diana, Nosy Be, and Toliara; increase birth registration and school enrollment for the most vulnerable children; and improve the national database managed by the Ministry of Population, Social Protection and the Promotion of Women to gather data from nine regional child protection networks.(44, 74-78)

Social Support and Reintegration Centers†

Government program that provides social and reintegration services for victims of child labor, including its worst forms. Includes the Manjary Soa Center, the Vonjy Center in Antananarivo, and a newly opened center in Toamasina*.(12, 23, 45, 79, 80) In 2016, the Manjary Soa Center removed 35 children from exploitative child labor, and the Vonjy Center provided assistance to 667 child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.(23, 45)

Public Investment Program for Social Action†

$34,700 Ministry of Civil Services and Labor program that supports school attendance and training for street children. In 2016, the project removed 40 children from the worst forms of child labor.(10, 44)

Education for All Program (2015–2019)

$15 million Government of Norway-funded project that aims to improve the quality of, and access to, primary education and provide school feeding programs in the southern regions of Androy, Anosy, and Atsimo Andrefana. Led by the Ministry of Education.(44, 81, 82) In 2016, provided assistance to 10,193 schools reaching approximately 238,014 students.(44)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Madagascar.
‡The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(83-87)

Research found that basic health and social services available to victims of the worst forms of child labor are not adequate to meet current needs.(4, 12, 23) Although Madagascar has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to address the extent of the problem, particularly in agriculture, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, and mining.(4, 10, 44)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Madagascar (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the types of work that children perform in Madagascar that fall into an R.190 category, such as work underwater, are prohibited to children under 18.

2014–2016

Enforcement

Ensure that the number of labor inspectors conforms to the ILO recommendation of one for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, which is approximately 325 labor inspectors for Madagascar.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that labor and criminal law enforcement officials receive adequate funding and training to enforce child labor laws effectively, including in rural areas.

2009–2016

Publish enforcement information related to child labor, including the worst forms of child labor, including on the number of labor and criminal inspections conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions.

2013–2016

Ensure that existing databases function to gather enforcement data on child labor, including by providing adequate funding.

2009–2016

Coordination

Ensure that the CNLTE, CRLTE, and National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking receive adequate funding to effectively operate and coordinate to fulfill their missions.

2014–2016

 

Government Policies

Ensure that appropriate funding exists to effectively implement the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons.

2016

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, including those in rural communities, by removing supplies and school-related fees, increasing school infrastructure and transportation services, hiring sufficient qualified teachers, and ensuring children’s safety in schools.

2011–2016

Ensure that social protection systems have adequate funding and staff to provide appropriate services to victims of the worst forms of child labor.

2014–2016

Expand the scope of programs to address child labor in agriculture and the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, and mining.

2014–2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. reporting, May 15, 2015.

2.         All Africa. "Madagascar: Travail - Les enfants de la vanille à affranchir." [online] November 11, 2015 [cited http://fr.allafrica.com/stories/201511121131.html.

3.         Rabenaivo Herinjaka. "Vanille : l’exploitation des enfants mis à nue." April 12, 2014 [cited November 19, 2015]; http://www.tresorpublic.mg/?p=11984.

4.         ILO. Individual Case (CAS) - Discussion: 2016, Publication: 105th ILC session (2016), Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) - Madagascar (Ratification: 2001); accessed December 02, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3284607.

5.         Peter Lykke Lind. "Madagascar's £152m vanilla industry soured by child labour and poverty." The Guardian, December 8, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/dec/08/madagascar-152m-vanilla-industry-soured-child-labour-poverty?platform=hootsuite.

6.         U.S. Department of State. "Madagascar," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265272.

7.         UN General Assembly Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, Najat Maalla M’jid- Addendum: Mission to Madagascar. Geneva; December 23, 2013. Report No. A/HRC/25/48/Add.2. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session22/A-HRC/25/48/Add.2_en.pdf.

8.         ECPAT France. Contribution d’ECPAT France sur le suivi de la situation de l’exploitation sexuelle des enfants à des fins commerciales- Madagascar; 2015. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC-OP-SC/Shared%20Documents/MDG/INT_CRC-OP-SC_NGO_MDG_21425_F.pdf.

9.         Daily Nation. "Alarm over child sex exploitation in Madagascar." Nairobi, March 1, 2016. http://www.nation.co.ke/news/africa/Alarm-over-child-sex-exploitation-in-Madagascar/-/1066/3097532/-/format/xhtml/-/edjyfj/-/index.html.

10.       ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Madagascar (ratification: 2001) Published: 2016; accessed November 4, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3252830:NO.

11.       Ntsay, C. "Exploitation sexuelle des enfants: un phénomène inquiétant à Madagascar." linfo.re [online] February 25, 2016 [cited November 25,]; http://www.linfo.re/ocean-indien/madagascar/687972-exploitation-sexuelle-des-enfants-un-phenomene-inquietant-a-madagascar.

12.       U.S. Department of State. "Madagascar," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258812.htm.

13.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [accessed December 16, 2016]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

14.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquete Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants, 2007. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. reporting, February 5, 2016.

16.       PACT Inc. Combating Exploitive Child Labor Through Education in Madagascar ("KILONGA"). Technical Progress Report. Washington, DC; July 02, 2012.

17.       Vanilla collector. Interview with USDOL official. March 11, 2016.

18.       "Vanilla to Taste Even Sweeter." allafrica.com [online] November 22, 2012 [cited March 10, 2014]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201211240310.html.

19.       AFP. "20,000 children work in Madagascar vanilla production." moneyweb.co.za [online] December 4, 2012 [cited March 10, 2014]; http://www.moneyweb.co.za/moneyweb-africa/20000-children-work-in-madagascar-vanilla-producti.

20.       ILO. Eliminer le travail des enfants dans la chaîne de production de la vanille, c'est l'affaire de tous!, ILO,, [Online] [cited November 5, 2016]; http://www.ilo.org/global/docs/WCMS_496527/lang--fr/index.htm.

21.       Julie Hjerl Hansen, PLL, Amalie Linde,. "Vanilla Hidden Price - Bottomless debt and child labor " DanWatch, December 8, 2016. https://www.danwatch.dk/undersogelse/vaniljens-skjulte-pris-bundloes-gaeld-og-boernearbejde-ii/.

22.       Zegers, M. Independent Final Evaluation: Combating Exploitive Child Labor in Madagascar. Washington, DC; September 15, 2012. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/Madagascar_CECL_feval.pdf.

23.       U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. reporting, January 12, 2017.

24.       UNICEF Madagascar. L'enfance à Madagascar: Une promesse d'avenir; August 2014. http://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/web-SITAN-BOOK2014-20X30cm-28septembre2014_2.pdf.

25.       NGO official. Interview with USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

26.       UN General Assembly Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, Gulnara Shahinian - Addendum: Mission to Madagascar (10 to 19 December 2012). Geneva; July 24, 2013. Report No. A/HRC/24/43/Add.2. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session24/Documents/A-HRC-24-43-Add2_en.pdf.

27.       "Madagascar: Les Enfants des Mines," Arte. Madagascar: March 20, 2015; 3 min, online; [cited November 19, 2015]; http://info.arte.tv/fr/madagascar-les-enfants-des-mines.

28.       National Union of Social Workers member. Interview with USDOL official. February 12, 2016.

29.       Andrianaivo, M. "La situation des enfants à Madagascar." lecitoyen.mg [online] June 23, 2016 [cited November 5, 2016]; http://lecitoyen.mg/?p=5840.

30.       Razafison, R. "A ruined future: Madagascar robs her children." africareview.com [online] October 16, 2012 [cited March 10, 2014]; http://www.africareview.com/Special-Reports/Madagascar-and-her-child-labourers-and-prostitutes/-/979182/1534508/-/o8j6jdz/-/index.html.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. reporting, February 10, 2016.

32.       D'Aiglepierre, R. Primary School Exclusion and Ways to Improve Inclusion in Madagascar. New York, UNICEF; February 2012. http://www.unicef.org/madagascar/EXCLUSION-INCLUSION_ENG.pdf.

33.       ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Madagascar (ratification: 2001) Published: 2016; accessed November 4, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3252827:NO.

34.       Government of Madagascar. Loi Constitutionnelle, N2007, enacted April 27, 2007. http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_id=177213.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 17, 2017.

36.       Government of Madagascar. Labor Code, no. 2003-044, enacted June 10, 2004. http://www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Madagascar/Mada%20-%20Code%20du%20travail.pdf.

37.       Government of Madagascar. Decret relatif au travail des enfants, no.  2007-563, enacted July 03, 2007. http://www.justice.gov.mg/wp-content/uploads/textes/1TEXTES%20NATIONAUX/DROIT%20PRIVE/Textes%20sur%20le%20travail/Decret%202007-563.pdf.

38.       Government of Madagascar. La Lutte Contre la Traite des Etres Humains, enacted December 16, 2014. http://www.assemblee-nationale.mg/?loi=loi-n2014-040-traite-etres-humains&lang=en.

39.       Government of Madagascar. Modifying and Completing Some Provisions of the Penal Code on the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Sexual Tourism, No. 2007-038, enacted Janary 14, 2008.

40.       Government of Madagascar. Extrait de l’Ordonnance n°78-002 du 16 Février 1978 sur les Principes Généraux du Service National, enacted 1978.

41.       Government of Madagascar. Modifiant Certaines Dispositions de la Loi n° 2004-004 du 26 juillet 2004 portant Orientation Générale du Système d’Education, enacted June 20, 2008. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=fr&p_country=MDG&p_classification=09&p_origin=SUBJECT.

42.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2013. http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

43.       Government of Madagascar. Liste Validée des Types de Travail Dangereux à Madagascar (DRAFT). Antananarivo; 2013.

44.       Government of Madagascar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 14, 2017.

45.       U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. reporting, February 13, 2017.

46.       Ministry of Population and Social Affairs official. Interview with USDOL official. March 18, 2016.

47.       U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. reporting, February 07, 2017.

48.       U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. reporting, January 28, 2016.

49.       U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 20, 2016.

50.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

51.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited April 20, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

52.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

53.       National Police Force's Morals and Minors Brigade official. interview with USDOL official. March 8, 2016.

54.       Maholy, V. "Travail des enfants à Madagascar : la répression et la pénalisation ne progressent pas." La Tribune de Diego et du Nord de Madagascar, Diego Suarez, May 30, 2016; Société. http://latribune.cyber-diego.com/societe/2056-travail-des-enfants-a-madagascar-la-repression-et-la-penalisation-ne-progressent-pas.html

55.       Government of Madagascar. Decret portant création, missions et composition du Comité National de Lutte contre le Travail des Enfants (CNLTE), no.  2005-523, enacted July 03, 2007. http://www.edbm.gov.mg/content/download/744/3715/version/1/file/reglementationgenerale_decret_n_2005_523_du_9_aout_2005.doc.

56.       Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), 70th Session. Discours de Presentation. September 28, 2015; http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC-OP-SC/Shared%20Documents/MDG/INT_CRC-OP-SC_STA_MDG_21769_E.pdf.

57.       Ministry of Labor official. Interview with USDOL official. March 7, 2016.

58.       Primature Madagascar. Le Plan National de Lutte contre la Traite de Personnes valide officiellement par le Premier Ministre. La Direction de la Communication; March 05, 2015. http://www.primature.gov.mg/?p=5538.

59.       Government of Madagascar. Projet de décret portant institution d’un Comité National de Protection de l’Enfant (CNPE), no.  2012-858, enacted February 20, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/94708/111171/F647529721/MDG-94708.pdf.

60.       Government of Madagascar. Plan National de Lutte contre la Traite des Personnes, enacted 2015.

61.       UNICEF. Signature du Code de conduite des acteurs du tourisme à l’Ile de Sainte Marie pour renforcer la lutte contre l'exploitation sexuelle des enfants à des fins commerciales (ESEC) et le tourisme sexuel impliquant des enfants (TSIE), UNICEF, [Online] [cited November 4, 2016]; http://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/media_18208.htm.

62.       UNICEF. Les acteurs du tourisme réfléchissent ensemble sur la mise en place du Code de conduite national en matière de lutte contre l’exploitation sexuelle des enfants à des fins commerciales et le tourisme sexuel impliquant les enfants, UNICEF, [Online] [cited November 5, 2016]; http://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/media_17889.htm.

63.       Government of Madagascar, Ministry of Tourism. Lutte contre l’Exploitation Sexuelle des enfants à des fins Commerciales et le Tourisme Sexuel Impliquant les Enfants à Madagascar, Ministry of Tourism, [Online] [cited November 5, 2016]; http://www.tourisme.gov.mg/lutte-contre-lexploitation-sexuelle-des-enfants-a-des-fins-commerciales-et-le-tourisme-sexuel-impliquant-les-enfants-a-madagascar/.

64.       Government of Madagascar, Ministry of Tourism. Code de conduite des acteurs du Tourisme. Online; June 15, 2015. http://www.tourisme.gov.mg/code-de-conduite-des-acteurs-du-tourisme/.

65.       L'Express de Madagascar. "Face à la pauvreté – Des axes stratégiques pour renforcer la protection sociale." [online] September 25, 2015 [cited November 25, 2015]; http://www.lexpressmada.com/blog/actualites/face-a-la-pauvrete-des-axes-strategiques-pour-renforcer-la-protection-sociale-43920/.

66.       UNICEF. Cérémonie de Validation de la Politique nationale de Protection Sociale. September 18, 2015. http://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/media_17024.html.

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68.       World Bank. À Madagascar, les programmes de protection sociale permettent de promouvoir la nutrition, le développement de la petite enfance et l’appui aux activités productives des populations pauvres; September 19, 2016.

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72.       UNDAF. Plan-cadre des Nations Unies pour l’aide au développement- Madagascar; May 2014,. http://unctad.org/Sections/un_ceb/docs/ceb_2014_03_Madagascar_UNDAF2015-2019_fr.pdf.

73.       U.S. Department of Labor. US Department of Labor awards $4m project to address child labor in vanilla-growing areas of Madagascar. Washington, DC: November 14, 2016 https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/11142016-2.

74.       UNICEF. Madagascar Country programme document March 2015-2019; February 4, 2015. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2015-PL1-Madagascar_CPD-final_approved-EN.pdf.

75.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

76.       L'Express de Madagascar. "Violence sexuelle – Le centre «Vonjy» débordé." [online] June 06, 2015 [cited November 25, 2015]; http://www.lexpressmada.com/blog/actualites/violence-sexuelle-le-centre-vonjy-deborde-35894/.

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78.       UNICEF. La protection des droits des enfants contre la violence et l’exploitation et en particulier les pires formes de travail des enfants est intensifiée à Nosy-Be et à Mangily Toliara dans le cadre du projet financé pa l’UNICEF et mis en œuvre par BIT, UNICEF, [Online] [cited November 5, 2016]; http://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/media_18636.htm

79.       Le Centre Manjary SOA (C.M.S.), Government of Madagascar, [online] [cited March 10, 2014]; http://www.lcte.gov.mg/article.php?id_article=9.

80.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Madagascar (ratification: 2001) Published: 2013; accessed February 7, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:1:0::NO:::.

81.       UNICEF. "$15 millions pour soutenir une éducation de qualité pour tous dans le grand sud." [online] January 29, 2016 [cited https://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/media_17770.htm.

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