Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Madagascar

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Madagascar

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Madagascar made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government created the National Gendarmerie Child Protective Services to investigate criminal cases related to the worst forms of child labor in rural areas and adopted a decree providing the National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking with more autonomy to facilitate allocation of resources. In addition, the National Committee on the Fight Against Child Labor implemented awareness-raising campaigns on child labor in the regions of Atsinanana and Atsimo. The government also continued to participate in a number of programs targeting the worst forms of child labor, including a new cash transfer program that will benefit 3,500 households in the south of Madagascar. However, children in Madagascar engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and mining. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture, including in the production of vanilla. Although the government made meaningful efforts in all relevant areas during the reporting period, research could not determine if penalties were applied for violations related to the worst forms of child labor. In addition, limited resources for the systematic enforcement of child labor laws impede government efforts to protect children from the worst forms of child labor and social programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Madagascar engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and mining. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture, including in the production of vanilla. (6; 7; 8; 9; 10) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Madagascar.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

22.1 (1,206,992)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

87.4

Industry

 

4.2

Services

 

8.4

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

69.1

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

15.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

67.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (11)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from the National Survey of Child Labor (Enquête Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants), 2007. (12)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of vanilla, cloves, coconut, rice, and peanuts. (8; 13; 14; 15; 16; 7; 10; 17)

Fishing and deep-sea diving, including for lobster, and shrimp (8; 18; 19)

Herding cattle (17; 20)

Industry

Mining† gold, sapphires, crystal, quartz, and tourmaline, and transporting† blocks and stones at mining sites (21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 5)

Quarrying† and crushing stone† and making gravel (7; 21; 26; 17; 22)

Services

Street work, including begging, washing cars, market vending, transporting goods by rickshaw, and scavenging garbage (8; 21; 17; 20; 19; 27)

Working in bars,† including as waitresses, maids, and masseuses (1; 2; 20; 28; 19; 3)

Domestic work† (8; 2; 21; 17; 19; 15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (8; 1; 2; 29; 21; 30; 3)

Use in illicit activities such as selling drugs and vandalism (31; 27)

Forced labor in mining, quarrying, begging, and domestic work (8; 2; 21; 22; 19; 3)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children in Madagascar, predominantly girls, are lured by peers, family members, and pimps to engage in commercial sexual exploitation, particularly in tourist locations and mining areas. (19; 2; 3; 25) Children as young as age 10 are also involved in mining gold, stones, and sapphires in the regions of Analamanga, Anosy, Ilakaka, and Vakinankaratra. Children in the mining sector suffer from respiratory problems and diseases such as diarrhea and malaria, and are also at risk of injury from collapsing mines. (8; 21; 17; 22; 23; 19; 25; 5) In addition, children working in the production of vanilla in Madagascar are exposed to toxic substances and extreme temperatures, and transport heavy loads and work for long hours. (6; 7; 9; 16; 32; 15)

Although the Constitution guarantees free compulsory education, access to education is impeded due to a lack of school infrastructure and qualified teachers, limited transportation services in rural areas with long distances to schools, the cost of school fees and supplies, and reported school violence, which leaves children vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. (17; 33; 34; 19; 18; 35; 15) In addition, Madagascar was hit by Cyclone Enawo in March 2017 and experienced a pneumonic and bubonic plague outbreak in October 2017. Both humanitarian emergencies led to the closure of at least 3,600 schools, affecting attendance for an estimated 495,000 children, which, coupled with the suspension of other social services, increased children’s vulnerability to human trafficking and labor exploitation. (36; 37)

Madagascar has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government’s laws and regulations are in line with relevant international standards (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 100 of the Labor Code (38)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 101 of the Labor Code; Article 10 of Decree 2007-563 (38; 39)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 101 of the Labor Code; Articles 10, 12, and 16–22 of Decree 2007-563 (38; 39)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Labor Code; Articles 1, 8, and 18 of Law 2014-040; Article 15 of Decree 2007-563; Articles 333 and 335 of Law 2007-038 (38; 39; 40; 41)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 15 of Decree 2007-563; Articles 333 and 335 of Law 2007-038; Articles 1, 6, 8, 13, and 22 of Law 2014-040 (39; 40; 41)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 13 of Decree 2007-563; Article 335 of Law 2007-038; Article 1 of Law 2014-040 (39; 40; 41)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 11 and 14 of Decree 2007-563 (39)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 11 of Ordinance No. 78-002 (42)

Non-state

Yes

18

Article 15 of Decree 2007-563 (39)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16‡

Article 24 of the Constitution; Article 39 of Law 2008-011 (34; 43)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 24 of the Constitution (34)

* No conscription (44)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (43)

 

Malagasy law prohibits hazardous occupations and activities for children; however, these prohibitions do not cover deep-sea diving and fishing, areas in which there is evidence that Malagasy children work in dangerous conditions. However, the government adopted a decree after the reporting period that expands the list of occupations or activities prohibited for children under age 18 to include underwater work. (45; 46)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Civil Services and Labor Division for the Prevention, Abolition, and Monitoring of Child Labor (PACTE) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Civil Services and Labor Division for the Prevention, Abolition, and Monitoring of Child Labor (PACTE)

Enforce child labor laws and coordinate, train, and evaluate all activities toward the elimination of child labor. (33; 47; 18)

Ministry of Justice

Enforce laws pertaining to violence against children, including human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. (47; 3) Work with Department-level courts to prosecute child labor cases. (19; 48)

National Civil Police Force Morals and Minors Brigade

Investigate criminal cases involving minors, including issues pertaining to human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, mainly in urban areas. Housed under the Ministry of Public Security. (8; 19; 47; 3)

National Gendarmerie Child Protective Services*

Investigate criminal cases involving children, including those related to the worst forms of child labor, mainly in rural areas. Housed under the Ministry of National Defense. (19; 47; 49; 31)

Ministry of Population, Social Protection and the Promotion of Women

Develop and implement programs to protect vulnerable children, including victims of the worst forms of child labor. (19) In collaboration with UNICEF, manage 780 child protection networks to protect children from abuse and exploitation in all 22 regions of Madagascar. (50; 51; 3; 19)

* Agency responsible for child labor enforcement was created during the reporting period.

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Madagascar took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of PACTE that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including with penalty assessment authorization.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$49,000 (13; 52)

$41,000 (19; 47)

Number of Labor Inspectors

132 (26)

130 (19)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (19)

No (19)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (26)

Yes (19; 47)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (26)

N/A (19)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (26)

No (19; 47)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown (26)

Unknown (19; 47)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown (26)

Unknown (19; 47)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (26)

Unknown (19; 47)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown (26)

Unknown (19; 47)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown (26)

Unknown (19; 47)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (53)

Yes (19; 47)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (53)

Yes (19; 47)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (26; 53)

Yes (19; 47)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (26; 53)

Yes (19; 47)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (26; 53)

Yes (19; 47)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (26; 53)

Yes (19; 47)

 

In 2017, the government employed 130 labor inspectors, including 11 child-labor dedicated inspectors, which are disseminated in 18 regional offices to enforce labor laws, including those related to child labor. (19; 47) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Madagascar’s workforce, which includes more than 13.4 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Madagascar should employ about 335 labor inspectors. (54; 55; 56) In addition, half of the employed labor inspectors work in the capital, hampering the government’s capacity to enforce child labor laws in rural areas, especially in the agricultural sector. (8; 18; 19; 47; 4) During the reporting period, the Labor Inspectorate, with assistance from the ILO, disseminated a manual to improve enforcement of labor laws, including those related to child labor, in the informal sector, which employs more than 40 percent of the workforce. (19; 45; 57)

In 2017, PACTE received a budget of $66,000 to cover its operating expenses, including those associated with coordinating the National Committee on the Fight Against Child Labor (CNLTE). (45) Government officials have indicated that this amount was insufficient to carry out its mandate during the reporting period. In addition, reports indicate that PACTE lacked trained staff, equipment, and funding to manage existing child labor databases and conduct adequate child labor inspections. (8; 19; 47) During the reporting period, PACTE continued to train civil society organizations in the regions of Amoron’i Mania, Matsiatra Ambony, and Vakinankaratra to identify and report cases of child labor. (19)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Madagascar took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including financial and human resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (58)

Unknown (19)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (26)

N/A (19)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (26)

Yes (19)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (58)

778 (59)

Number of Violations Found

41 (60)

78 (59)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (26)

Unknown (19)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (26)

Unknown (19)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (26; 53)

Yes (26; 53)

 

In 2017, the National Civil Police Force Morals and Minors Brigade (PMPM) had its headquarters in Antananarivo and 15 regional units across Madagascar, employing 136 agents. (45) During the reporting period, the PMPM investigated an estimated 773 complaints of crimes against children, such as rape and violence. Of these cases, 52 were for exploitative domestic work and 19 for child trafficking. (19; 59) Some of these cases were reported through the national child protection hotline. (50; 19; 31) It is unclear, however, how many prosecutions were initiated from these complaints and whether these cases led to convictions. (19)

In 2017, the newly created National Gendarmerie Child Protective Services (SPEM) investigated two child trafficking cases, two cases related to commercial sexual exploitation, and one for forced begging. The SPEM referred all cases for prosecution. (31; 59) On March 2017, the Ministry of Justice, the PMPM, and the SPEM launched a case management system, with support from UNICEF, to improve coordination and tracking of criminal cases committed against children, including related to the worst forms of child labor. (48) In addition, the Ministry of Justice, with support from international donors, provided training on anti-trafficking legislation to law enforcement actors, including the PMPM and the SPEM, as well as civil society organizations based in Nosy Be, Ambositra, Mahajanga, Fianarantsoa, Antsiranana, Sambava, and Antananarivo. (48; 59) Despite these efforts, reports indicate a lack of trained staff, equipment, and transportation to adequately conduct criminal law enforcement efforts related to the worst forms of child labor. (8; 61; 62; 19)

In 2017 the overall budget allocation for the Ministry of Population, Social Protection and the Promotion of Women increased to 0.6 percent of the national budget from the previous year. (31) During the reporting period, the Ministry worked with child protection networks in five targeted regions (Diana, Atsimo Andrefana, Boeny, Atsinanana, and Analamanga) to provide legal, social, and medical care to 7,418 child victims of violence and exploitation. (63; 59) In addition, each of these five child protection networks implemented their 3-year action plans to improve reintegration and enforcement efforts related to the worst forms of child labor. (19)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including with funding.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Committee on the Fight Against Child Labor (CNLTE)

Coordinate programs, advise on child labor legislation and regulations, and implement the National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Led by the Ministry of Civil Services and Labor. (64; 65; 19; 4) In 2017, implemented awareness-raising campaigns on child labor in the regions of Atsinanana and Atsimo. (19)

Regional Child Labor Committees (CRLTE)

Coordinate, monitor, and evaluate all regional activities relating to the elimination of child labor. Comprises 10 regional committees that identify activities to promote the elimination of child labor and compile, analyze, and report child labor data to PACTE. (64; 66; 47) In 2017, the committees in the regions of Vakinankaratra and Amoron’i Mania organized workshops to raise awareness of child labor. (59)

National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking

Coordinate anti-human trafficking efforts in Madagascar and take responsibility for implementing the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Chaired by the Office of the Prime Minister, includes representatives from the ministries of Civil Services and Labor, Justice, and Population and Social Affairs. (40; 67; 4; 3) In 2017, the Bureau met to implement the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons. In addition, the government adopted a decree that provides more autonomy to the Bureau to facilitate allocation of resources. (19; 45)

National Child Protection Committee

Guide and coordinate national child protection policy and programs. Chaired by the Minister of Population and Social Affairs, comprises a steering committee and a technical commission of specialists. (1; 68; 47) In 2017, conducted a study to assess violence and exploitation of children in Madagascar, released in June 2018. (19; 69)

 

In 2017, the CNLTE, the Regional Child Labor Committees, and the National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking lacked sufficient funding to effectively operate and coordinate efforts to address child labor. (33; 48; 35; 15; 31)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including with funding and implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2004–2019)

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by strengthening child labor laws, conducting awareness-raising campaigns, mobilizing funds for social programs, and updating databases on child labor. Led by the CNLTE. (8; 22; 53; 64) In 2017, conducted workshops with civil society to improve child protection systems in the regions of Atsinanana and Atsimo-Andrefana, and implemented a nationwide media campaign to raise awareness of child labor. (45)

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2015–2019)

Seeks to enhance the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, effectively implement human trafficking laws, and provide protection and care for victims. Overseen by the National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking. (2; 67; 70; 19) In 2017, provided training on anti‐trafficking legislation, enforcement techniques, and victim identification to law enforcement agencies and civil society groups. (19; 48) However, reports indicated that the government did not provide sufficient funding to implement the plan in 2017. (19)

Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children in the Tourism Industry

Aims to prevent commercial sexual exploitation of children in the tourism industry. Implemented by the Ministry of Tourism and supported by the ILO and UNICEF. (71; 72; 73; 74) As of 2017, more than 1,000 tourism companies in 12 regions have signed the code of conduct, and eight regional action plans have been developed to implement the code. (19; 75; 59)

National Social Protection Policy

Aims to protect children from abuse, violence, and exploitation and promotes improved access to education and livelihood services for vulnerable children. Led by the Ministry of Population, Social Protection and the Promotion of Women and supported by international donors. (76; 77; 78; 4) In 2017, the government adopted a law that establishes a common fund to leverage public and private funding for social protection programs, including cash transfer programs to increase education for children from vulnerable households. (79; 80)

National Development Plan (2015–2019)

Aims to promote sustainable development and social equality. Overseen by the Ministry of Economy and Planning and supported by the ILO’s Decent Work Country Program. (81; 82; 4) Includes a budget of $83,000 to specifically combat commercial sexual exploitation of children and child labor in domestic work, mining, quarrying, and other hazardous sectors. (2; 33; 81; 82; 83)

Education Sector Plan (2018–2022)†

Aims to expand access to education and improve the quality of education. Overseen by the Ministry of Education. (47; 19; 10; 84)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (82; 85)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including with the adequacy to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Project Supporting Sustainable and Child Labor Free Vanilla-Growing Communities in Sava (2016–2020)

USDOL-funded $4 million project implemented by the ILO that aims to reduce child labor in the vanilla-producing areas of the Sava Region. (86; 4; 87) In 2017, convened key stakeholders from national- and local-level government and the vanilla industry to identify areas in which to improve implementation of the Code of Conduct of Vanilla Producers. (86; 19; 10) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

UNICEF Country Program (2015–2019)

$197,815 UNICEF-funded program that supports the government’s efforts to improve education, health, nutrition, and protection for children in Madagascar. (88) In 2017, worked with the Ministry of Population, Social Protection and the Promotion of Women to provide services to 1,500 vulnerable households with children who have been victims of exploitation, including 1,476 child labor victims, and with the Ministry of Education to expand access to education in areas affected by Cyclone Enawo and the pneumonic and bubonic plague outbreaks. (89; 19; 59) Also, implements a program to combat commercial sexual exploitation of children in the regions of Diana, Nosy Be, Atsimo-Andrefana, Toliara, and Mangily. (90)

Social Support and Reintegration Centers†

Government program that provides social and reintegration services for victims of child labor. Includes the Manjary Soa Center and the Vonjy Centers in Antananarivo, Toamasina, and two newly opened centers in Nosy Be and Mahajanga.* (91; 19; 3) In 2017, the Manjary Soa Center hosted 37 children withdrawn from exploitative child labor. (19; 59)

Public Investment Program for Social Action†

$34,700 Ministry of Civil Services and Labor program that supports school attendance and training for street children. In 2017, provided 35 children with educational and vocational services. (21; 53; 47)

Cash Transfer Program (2017–2019)*†

$35 million Ministry of Population, Social Protection and the Promotion of Women program, supported by the World Bank and UNICEF, that aims to provide cash assistance for families with school-age children, conditioned on children’s school attendance. Aims to benefit 3,500 households in the south of Madagascar. (19; 92; 93)

Education for All Programs (2015–2019)

Government of Norway- and World Bank-funded projects that aim to improve the quality of and access to primary education, and provide school feeding programs in the southern regions of Androy, Anosy, and Atsimo-Andrefana. Led by the Ministry of Education. (53; 94; 95) In 2017, built 230 schools and supported the development of the new Education Sector Plan. (96)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Madagascar.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (97; 98; 99; 90)

 

Research found that basic health and social services available to victims of the worst forms of child labor are not adequate to meet current needs. (8; 19; 47; 15; 3) Although Madagascar has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to address the extent of the problem, particularly in agriculture, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, and mining. (8; 21; 53; 35)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Madagascar (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Ensure that the number of labor inspectors conforms to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, which is approximately 335 labor inspectors for Madagascar.

2015 – 2017

Authorize the Labor Inspectorate to assess penalties.

2017

Ensure that labor and criminal law enforcement officials receive adequate funding and training to enforce child labor laws adequately, including in rural areas.

2009 – 2017

 Publish enforcement information related to child labor, including on the number of labor inspections conducted, violations found, penalties imposed, as well as the criminal law enforcement prosecutions initiated and convictions.

2013 – 2017

Ensure that existing databases function to gather enforcement data on child labor, including by providing adequate funding.

2009 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure that the CNLTE, the CRLTE, and the National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking receive adequate funding to effectively operate and coordinate to fulfill their missions.

2014 – 2017

Government Policies

Ensure that appropriate funding exists to effectively implement the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons.

2016 – 2017

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, including those in rural communities, by removing fees for supplies and school-related costs, increasing school infrastructure and transportation services, hiring sufficiently qualified teachers, and ensuring children’s safety in schools.

2011 – 2017

Ensure that social protection systems have adequate funding and staff to provide appropriate services to victims of the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2017

Expand the scope of programs to address child labor in agriculture and the worst forms of child labor in agriculture, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, and mining.

2014 – 2017

1. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, Najat Maalla M’jid- Addendum: Mission to Madagascar. Geneva. December 23, 2013: Report No. A/HRC/25/48/Add.2. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session25/Documents/A-HRC-25-48-Add2_en.doc.

2. ECPAT France. Contribution d’ECPAT France sur le suivi de la situation de l’exploitation sexuelle des enfants à des fins commerciales- Madagascar. 2015. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC-OP-SC/Shared%20Documents/MDG/INT_CRC-OP-SC_NGO_MDG_21425_F.pdf.

3. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Madagascar. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271233.htm.

4. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Madagascar (ratification: 2001) Published: 2017. Accessed November 10, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3297545.

5. RFI. Sortir les enfants des mines de saphirs du sud de Madagascar. September 25, 2017. http://www.rfi.fr/afrique/20170925-reportage-sortir-enfants-mines-saphirs-sud-madagascar.

6. Radasimalala, Vonjy. Madagascar: Travail - Les enfants de la vanille à affranchir. L'Express de Madagascar. November 11, 2015. http://fr.allafrica.com/stories/201511121131.html.

7. Herinjaka, Rabenaivo. Vanille: l’exploitation des enfants mis à nue. April 12, 2014. [Source on file].

8. ILO. Individual Case Discussion concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Madagascar (ratification: 2001). Published: 2016. Accessed December 2, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3284607.

9. Lind, Peter Lykke. Madagascar's £152m vanilla industry soured by child labour and poverty. The Guardian. December 8, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/dec/08/madagascar-152m-vanilla-industry-soured-child-labour-poverty?platform=hootsuite.

10. ILO. Supporting Sustainable, Child Labor Free Vanilla-Growing Communities in Sava. October 2017: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

11. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

12. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquete Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants, 2007. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

13. U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. Reporting, February 5, 2016.

14. Vanilla collector. Interview with USDOL official. March 11, 2016.

15. Centre for Civil and Political Rights. Madagascar: Rapport de la société civile sur la mise en œuvre du Pacte international relatif aux droits civils et politiques (PIDCP). June 2017. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CCPR/Shared%20Documents/MDG/INT_CCPR_CSS_MDG_27612_F.pdf.

16. ILO. Eliminer le travail des enfants dans la chaîne de production de la vanille, c'est l'affaire de tous! June 13, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/global/docs/WCMS_496527/lang--fr/index.htm.

17. UNICEF. L'enfance à Madagascar: Une promesse d'avenir. August 2014. http://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/web-SITAN-BOOK2014-20X30cm-28septembre2014_2.pdf.

18. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Madagascar. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265272.

19. U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. Reporting, January 18, 2018.

20. NGO official. Interview with USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

21. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Madagascar (ratification: 2001) Published: 2016. Accessed November 4, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3252830:NO.

22. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, Gulnara Shahinian - Addendum: Mission to Madagascar (10 to 19 December 2012). Geneva. July 24, 2013: Report No. A/HRC/24/43/Add.2. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session24/Documents/A-HRC-24-43-Add2_en.pdf.

23. ARTE G.E.I.E. Madagascar: Les Enfants des Mines. March 20, 2015. http://info.arte.tv/fr/madagascar-les-enfants-des-mines.

24. Andrianaivo, M. La situation des enfants à Madagascar. lecitoyen.mg. June 23, 2016. [Source on file].

25. de Grave, Arnaud. Qu’arrive-t-il après un boom minier ? Photographies à Madagascar. Mongabay. August 9, 2017. https://fr.mongabay.com/2017/08/quarrive-t-il-apres-un-boom-minier-photographies-a-madagascar/.

26. U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. Reporting, January 12, 2017.

27. ILO. Etude sur le phénomène de délinquance des enfants et des jeunes dans la ville d'Antsiranana. 2015. http://www.ilo.org/global/docs/WCMS_510729/lang--fr/index.htm .

28. National Union of Social Workers member. Interview with USDOL official. February 12, 2016.

29. Daily Nation. Alarm over child sex exploitation in Madagascar. Nairobi. March 1, 2016. http://www.nation.co.ke/news/africa/Alarm-over-child-sex-exploitation-in-Madagascar/-/1066/3097532/-/format/xhtml/-/edjyfj/-/index.html.

30. Linfo.re. Exploitation sexuelle des enfants: un phénomène inquiétant à Madagascar. February 25, 2016. http://www.linfo.re/ocean-indien/madagascar/687972-exploitation-sexuelle-des-enfants-un-phenomene-inquietant-a-madagascar.

31. U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. Reporting, February 12, 2018.

32. Hansen, Julie Hjerl, et al. Vanilla Hidden Price - Bottomless debt and child labor. DanWatch. December 8, 2016. https://www.danwatch.dk/undersogelse/vaniljens-skjulte-pris-bundloes-gaeld-og-boernearbejde-ii/.

33. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Madagascar (ratification: 2001) Published: 2016. Accessed November 4, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3252827:NO.

34. Government of Madagascar. Loi Constitutionnelle, N° 2007. Enacted: April 27, 2007. http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_id=177213.

35. UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Human Rights Committee. Observations finales concernant le quatrième rapport périodique de Madagascar. August 22, 2017: CCPR/C/MDG/CO/4. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR/C/MDG/CO/4&Lang=En.

36. Watt, Ewan. Cyclone damage leaves 80,000 children out of school in Madagascar. Theirworld. March 20, 2017. http://theirworld.org/news/madagascar-cyclone-damages-thousands-of-schools.

37. UNICEF. Madagascar: Plague Outbreak Situation Report. October 30, 2017. https://reliefweb.int/report/madagascar/madagascar-plague-outbreak-situation-report-30-october-2017.

38. Government of Madagascar. Labor Code, No. 2003-044. Enacted: June 10, 2004. http://www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Madagascar/Mada%20-%20Code%20du%20travail.pdf.

39. —. Decret relatif au travail des enfants, No. 2007-563. Enacted: July 3, 2007. http://www.justice.gov.mg/wp-content/uploads/textes/1TEXTES%20NATIONAUX/DROIT%20PRIVE/Textes%20sur%20le%20travail/Decret%202007-563.pdf.

40. —. La Lutte Contre la Traite des Etres Humains. Enacted: December 16, 2014. http://www.assemblee-nationale.mg/?loi=loi-n2014-040-traite-etres-humains&lang=en.

41. —. Modifying and Completing Some Provisions of the Penal Code on the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Sexual Tourism, No. 2007-038. Enacted: January 14, 2008. [Source on file].

42. —. Extrait de l’Ordonnance N° 78-002 du 16 Février 1978 sur les Principes Généraux du Service National. Enacted: 1978. [Source on file].

43. —. Loi n° 2008-011 du 20 juin 2008 modifiant certaines dispositions de la Loi n° 2004-004 du 26 juillet 2004 portant orientation générale du Système d'Education, d'Enseignement et de Formation à Madagascar. Enacted: June 20, 2008. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/89306/102560/F754294269/MDG-89306.pdf.

44. Child Soldiers International. Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London. 2013. https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=da92581e-7130-40e6-bf3a-a86b944f17dd.

45. U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. Reporting, February 14, 2018.

46. Government of Madagascar. Decret N° 2018-009 modifiant et complétant certaines dispositions du Décret N°2007-563 du 03 juillet 2007 relatif au travail des enfants. Enacted: January 11, 2018.

47. —. Written Communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor's "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". January 3, 2018.

48. U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. Reporting, October 13, 2017.

49. Midi Madagasikara. Droit de l’enfant: Nouveau service de protection de l’enfant au sein de la gendarmerie. September 16, 2017. http://www.midi-madagasikara.mg/societe/2017/09/16/droit-de-lenfant-nouveau-service-de-protection-de-lenfant-au-sein-de-la-gendarmerie/.

50. U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 17, 2017.

51. Ministry of Population and Social Affairs official. Interview with USDOL official. March 18, 2016.

52. U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. Reporting, February 7, 2017.

53. Government of Madagascar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 14, 2017.

54. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

55. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed January 19, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

56. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

57. Medina, Leandro et al. The Informal Economy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Size and Determinants. IMF. July 10, 2017. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2017/07/10/The-Informal-Economy-in-Sub-Saharan-Africa-Size-and-Determinants-45017.

58. U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. Reporting, January 28, 2016.

59. U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 19, 2018.

60. U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. Reporting, February 13, 2017.

61. National Police Force's Morals and Minors Brigade official. Interview with USDOL official. March 8, 2016.

62. Andrianaivo, Maholy. Travail des enfants à Madagascar: La répression et la pénalisation ne progressent pas. La Tribune de Diego et du Nord de Madagascar, Diego Suarez. May 30, 2016. http://latribune.cyber-diego.com/societe/2056-travail-des-enfants-a-madagascar-la-repression-et-la-penalisation-ne-progressent-pas.html.

63. Kotoson, Cerveau. Madagascar en lutte contre la traite des personnes. La tribune de Diego et du Nord de Madagascar. La Tribune de Diego. September 6, 2017. http://latribune.cyber-diego.com/societe/2236-madagascar-en-lutte-contre-la-traite-des-personnes.html.

64. Government of Madagascar. Décret n° 2005-523 du 9 août 2005 portant modification de certaines dispositions des articles du décret n° 2004-985 du 12 octobre 2004 portant création, missions et composition du Comité National de Lutte contre le Travail des Enfants (CNLTE). Enacted: July 3, 2007. http://www.lexxika.com/lois-malagasy/droit-du-travail/decret-portant-modification-de-certaines-dispositions-des-articles-du-decret-n-2004-985-du-12-octobre-2004-portant-creation-missions-et-composition-du-comite-national-de-lutte-contre-le-travail/.

65. Ramanantsoa, Noeline. Soutenance des rapports initiaux de Madagascar sur l'application des deux protocoles facultatifen relatifes a la convention sur les droits de l'enfant. September 28, 2015. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC-OP-SC/Shared%20Documents/MDG/INT_CRC-OP-SC_STA_MDG_21769_E.pdf.

66. Ministry of Labor official. Interview with USDOL official. March 7, 2016.

67. Primature Madagascar. Le Plan National de Lutte contre la Traite de Personnes validé officiellement par le Premier Ministre. La Direction de la Communication. March 5, 2015. [Source on file].

68. Government of Madagascar. Projet de décret portant institution d’un Comité National de Protection de l’Enfant (CNPE), No. 2012-858. Enacted: February 20, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/94708/111171/F647529721/MDG-94708.pdf.

69. —. Etude sur le violence envers les enfants a Madagascar. June 2018. [Source on file].

70. —. Plan National de Lutte contre la Traite des Personnes. Enacted: 2015. [Source on file].

71. UNICEF. Signature du Code de conduite des acteurs du tourisme à l’Ile de Sainte Marie pour renforcer la lutte contre l'exploitation sexuelle des enfants à des fins commerciales (ESEC) et le tourisme sexuel impliquant des enfants (TSIE). May 11, 2016. http://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/media_18208.htm.

72. —. Les acteurs du tourisme réfléchissent ensemble sur la mise en place du Code de conduite national en matière de lutte contre l’exploitation sexuelle des enfants à des fins commerciales et le tourisme sexuel impliquant les enfants. February 24, 2016. http://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/media_17889.htm.

73. Government of Madagascar, Ministry of Tourism. Lutte contre l’Exploitation Sexuelle des enfants à des fins Commerciales et le Tourisme Sexuel Impliquant les Enfants à Madagascar. July 13, 2016. http://www.tourisme.gov.mg/lutte-contre-lexploitation-sexuelle-des-enfants-a-des-fins-commerciales-et-le-tourisme-sexuel-impliquant-les-enfants-a-madagascar/.

74. —. Code de conduite des acteurs du Tourisme. June 15, 2015. http://www.tourisme.gov.mg/code-de-conduite-des-acteurs-du-tourisme/.

75. Midi Madagasikara. Tourisme et voyage: Lutte renforcée contre l’exploitation sexuelle des mineurs. November 17, 2017. http://www.midi-madagasikara.mg/economie/2017/11/17/tourisme-et-voyage-lutte-renforcee-contre-lexploitation-sexuelle-des-mineurs/.

76. Radasimalala, Vonjy, and Michella Raharisoa. Face à la pauvreté – Des axes stratégiques pour renforcer la protection sociale. L'Express de Madagascar. September 25, 2015. http://fr.allafrica.com/stories/201509270025.html.

77. UNICEF. Cérémonie de Validation de la Politique Nationale de Protection Sociale. September 18, 2015. http://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/media_17024.html.

78. Government of Madagascar. Politique Nationale de Protection Sociale. Enacted: September 2015. [Source on file].

79. World Bank. À Madagascar, les programmes de protection sociale permettent de promouvoir la nutrition, le développement de la petite enfance et l’appui aux activités productives des populations pauvres. September 19, 2016. [Source on file].

80. Government of Madagascar. Loi n° 2017-028 relative à la politique nationale de protection sociale relative au régime non contributif à Madagascar. December 8, 2017. http://www.assemblee-nationale.mg/?loi=13703&lang=en.

81. —. Plan Nationale de Developpement Interimaire. Enacted: December 2014. [Source on file].

82. ILO. Decent Work Country Program - Madagascar (2015-2019). May 2015. [Source on file].

83. UNDP. Plan d’action pour la mise en oeuvre du programme de pays entre le gouvernement de Madagascar et le PNUD. 2015. http://www.mg.undp.org/content/dam/madagascar/docs/plancadre_MDG/CPAP-MEP-LOWDEF.pdf.

84. Government of Madagascar. Education Sector Plan. June 2017. [Source on file].

85. UNDAF. Plan-cadre des Nations Unies pour l’aide au développement - Madagascar. May 20, 2014. http://unctad.org/Sections/un_ceb/docs/ceb_2014_03_Madagascar_UNDAF2015-2019_fr.pdf.

86. USDOL. U.S. Department of Labor awards $4m project to address child labor in vanilla-growing areas of Madagascar. Washington, DC. November 14, 2016: ILAB Announcement. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/11142016-2.

87. ILO. The US Department of Labor supports the promotion of a sustainable vanilla sector. May 19, 2017: Press Release. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/news/WCMS_554426/lang--fr/index.htm.

88. UNICEF. Madagascar Country programme document: March 2015-2019. February 4, 2015. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2015-PL1-Madagascar_CPD-final_approved-EN.pdf.

89. —. La protection des droits des enfants contre la violence et l’exploitation et en particulier les pires formes de travail des enfants est intensifiée à Nosy-Be et à Mangily Toliara dans le cadre du projet financé pa l’UNICEF et mis en œuvre par BIT. Accessed November 5, 2016. http://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/media_18636.htm.

90. ILO-IPEC Geneva Official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 10, 2018.

91. Le Centre Manjary SOA (C.M.S.). Government of Madagascar. Accessed March 10, 2014. [Source on file].

92. World Bank. Social Safety Net Project (P149323). June 28, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report - Sequence 04. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/484521498660154325/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P149323-06-28-2017-1498660144678.pdf.

93. UNICEF. Vatsy Fiarovagnajaja : Une reponse pour reduire les risques d’exploitation et de violence a l’encontre des enfants du sud. June 12, 2017. https://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/media_20084.html.

94. —. $15 millions pour soutenir une éducation de qualité pour tous dans le grand sud. January 29, 2016. https://www.unicef.org/madagascar/fr/media_17770.htm.

95. Asoko Insight. Norway to give Madagascar $15 million education boost. February 1, 2016. https://asokoinsight.com/news/norway-to-give-madagascar-15-million-education-boost.

96. World Bank. Emergency Support to Education For all Project (P132616). September 6, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report - Sequence 08. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/527991504716252821/pdf/Disclosable-Version-of-the-ISR-Emergency-Support-to-Education-For-all-Project-P132616-Sequence-No-08.pdf.

97. ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 9, 2015.

98. World Bank. Madagascar Emergency Support to Critical Education, Health and Nutrition Services Project. Accessed February 20, 2016. [Source on file].

99. WFP. Country Programme Madagascar (2015-2019). 2015. http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/internal/documents/projects/wfp272074.pdf.

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