Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Madagascar

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Madagascar

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Madagascar made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government created the National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking to coordinate all human anti-trafficking efforts in Madagascar. The Government adopted the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, which will provide protection and social assistance to victims of human trafficking, including children. It also adopted both the National Social Protection Policy and a Decent Work Country Program, which include the objective of strengthening national policies and programs to protect children from violence and exploitative work. However, children in Madagascar are engaged in child labor, particularly in the production of vanilla, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Limited resources for the systematic enforcement of child labor laws impede government efforts to protect children from the worst forms of child labor. Social programs to combat child labor are also insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Madagascar are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture and particularly in the production of vanilla.(1-7) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(7-11) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Madagascar.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

22.1 (1,206,992)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

87.4

Industry

4.2

Services

8.4

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

69.1

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

15.4

Primary completion rate (%):

68.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(12)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from the National Survey of Child Labor (Enquête Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants), 2007.(13)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of tea,* grapes,* wine,* cocoa,* sisal,* copra (dried meat of the coconut),* hemp,* rice,* peanuts,* and cotton* (14-17)

Production of vanilla, including hand-pollinating flowers,* working in the triage* and drying process, and transporting vanilla beans* (1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 11, 18-21)

Production of charcoal* (16)

Fishing and deep-sea diving,* including for crabs,* sea cucumbers,* shrimp,* and oysters* (9, 11, 16, 22-24)

Herding cattle (zebu)* and goats* (7, 14, 16, 22, 25)

Industry

Mining† gold,* sapphires, crystal,* quartz,* and tourmaline,* and transporting blocks,*† stones,† and water at mining sites (6-9, 17, 22, 23, 26-30)

Quarrying and crushing stone and making gravel*† (8, 20, 23, 25, 30)

Production of salt* (14, 23, 25)

Services

Street work, including market vending,* transporting goods by rickshaw,* guarding vehicles,* and fetching water* (3, 7, 23, 25, 31)

Working in bars,† including as waitresses,* maids,* and masseuses (6, 7, 9-11, 28, 32, 33)

Domestic work† (6, 9-11, 25, 30, 34)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (6, 9-11, 17, 22, 25, 32, 33, 35)

 

Forced labor in mining, quarrying,* begging,* and domestic work (8-11, 25, 30)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) – (c) of ILO C. 182.

Girls are trafficked from Madagascar to the Middle East and China for forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.(6, 9, 11, 32) Informal employment agencies recruit children as young as age 10 into domestic work; these children are subsequently subjected to forced labor conditions in Madagascar, which entail long hours of work, fatigue and hunger, and sometimes abuse—including rape and sexual harassment—from their employers.(8, 11, 17, 23) Human trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation occurs in coastal cities, such as Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Nosy Be, Toamasina, and Toliara, and in the capital, Antananarivo.(9-11, 25, 32) Most child trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation occurs with the involvement of family members, but friends, transport operators, tour guides, and hotel workers are also involved. Parents may force their children into various forms of commercial sexual exploitation to earn money to support their families; in some cases, the parents directly negotiate prices with clients.(9, 11, 36) Some children are recruited for work in the capital as waitresses, maids, and masseuses before being coerced into commercial sexual exploitation.(9-11) The traditional practice of girl markets (tsenan’ampela), in which girls are sent to markets to attract a husband and arrange marriages, has led some girls into commercial sexual exploitation.(8, 10, 11, 25, 32)

Children in the mining sector suffer from respiratory problems and diseases such as diarrhea and malaria. Children are also at risk of injury from collapsing mines.(8, 22, 25, 29) Children dig pits up to 15 meters deep and carry plastic sacks filled with air to breathe. Boys as young as age 10 go down the pits to collect dirt that is sifted at nearby rivers.(8, 29) Most of the children involved in gold mining are in the regions of Anlamanga, Anosy, Ilakaka, and Vakinankaratra.(22, 26, 29)

Children in Madagascar face significant barriers to education, including a lack of school infrastructure, especially in rural areas.(7, 8, 25, 37) While the right to free education is enshrined in the Constitution, the Government of Madagascar was unable to fully subsidize students’ school fees and supplies; families unable to pay these additional costs either kept their children at home or sent them to work.(3, 7, 8, 37-39). In addition, although birth certificates are not required for children to enroll in primary school, birth certificates are required for children to sit and take national standardized examinations to graduate.(40)There is also evidence that incidences of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, including corporal punishment by teachers, prevent some children from remaining in school.(25, 37)

Madagascar has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 100 of the Labor Code (41)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 101 of the Labor Code; Articles 10 of Decree 2007-563 (28, 41)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 101 of the Labor Code; Articles 10 and 16-22 of Decree 2007-563 (28, 41)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Labor Code; Article 8 of Law 2014-040; Article 15 of Decree 2007-563; Articles 333 and 335 of Law 2007-038; Article 1 of Law 2014-040 (28, 41-43)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 15 of Decree 2007-563; Articles 333 and 335 of Law 2007-038; Articles 1 and 8 of Law 2014-040 (28, 42, 43)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 13 of Decree 2007-563; Article 335 of Law 2007-038; Article 1 of Law 2014-040 (28, 42, 43)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 11 and 14 of Decree 2007-563(28)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*†

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 11 of Ordinance No. 78-002 (44)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16‡

Article 24 of the Constitution; Article 39 of Law 2008-011 (45, 46)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 24 of the Constitution (45)

* No conscription (47)
† No standing military (47)
‡Age calculated based on available information(46)

Malagasy law prohibits hazardous occupations and activities for children; however, these prohibitions do not cover deep-sea diving and fishing, areas in which there is evidence that Malagasy children work. A more specific list of hazardous child labor activities that includes prohibitions of underwater work has been developed, but it was not approved during the reporting period.(17, 48) In addition, compulsory education extends for ten years and applies for children starting from the age of six.(46)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Civil Services and Labor Division for the Prevention, Abolition, and Monitoring of Child Labor (PACTE)

Enforce child labor laws and coordinate, communicate, train, engage in research and development, administer, finance, and evaluate all activities in the context of the elimination of child labor.(3, 24, 49)

Ministry of Justice 

Enforce all laws pertaining to violence against children, including human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(24)

National Police Force

Morals and Minors Brigade (PMPM)

Investigate criminal cases involving minors, including issues pertaining to human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(9, 14)

Department-level courts

Prosecute child labor convictions.(14)

Ministry of Population and Social Affairs

Develop and implement programs to protect vulnerable children and monitor alleged violations of child labor laws, including those related to the worst forms of child labor.(14) Manage more than 450 child protection networks, covering 22 regions in Madagascar, to protect children from abuse and exploitation.(9, 50)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Madagascar took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6.  Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (24)

$32,000 (17)

Number of Labor Inspectors

110 (24)

142 (17)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

3 (24)

4 (17)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown (51)

Yes (51)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (51)

Yes (51)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (24)

N/A (17)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (51)

Yes (51)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown (24)

Unknown (17)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (24)

Unknown (17)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (24)

Unknown (17)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (24)

Unknown (17)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown (24)

Unknown (17)

Number of Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown (24)

Unknown (17)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown (24)

Unknown (17)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (24)

Unknown (17)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (31)

Yes (31)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (51)

Yes (51)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (51)

Yes (51)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (51)

Yes (51)

 

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor employed 132 full-time labor inspectors and had 10 in training.(17) According to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Madagascar should employ roughly 315 labor inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(17, 52-54) The Ministry of Civil Services and Labor Division for the Prevention, Abolition, and Monitoring of Child Labor (PACTE) employed four labor inspectors dedicated to child labor and received $32,000 (100 million ariary) to fund its regular expenses and programs.(17) Reports indicate, however, a lack of trained staff, equipment, transportation, and funding to manage existing child labor databases and to conduct effective child labor inspections.(14, 17, 24, 55, 56)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Madagascar took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7.  Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown (51)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No (51)

Yes(51)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (51)

Yes (51)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (51)

Unknown (51)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (51)

60 (11)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (51)

Unknown (51)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (51)

Unknown (51)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (24)

Yes (17)

 

In 2015, the National Police Force Morals and Minors Brigade (PMPM) had a headquarters and 15 regional units across Madagascar, employing a total of 145 agents.(11, 14, 56) The Ministry of Justice trained criminal law enforcement officials on child protection and on the new Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law enacted in 2014.(11) In 2015, the overall budget allocation for the National Police decreased to 1.8% of the national budget from the previous year; however, research did not determine what proportion of the budget was available to conduct child-labor-related investigations.(17) During the reporting period, the National Police Force PMPM investigated an estimated 740 cases pertaining to children victims of crime, such as rape and violence, and 60 cases related to child labor in domestic work.(11) It is unclear, however, how many child labor violations were found in areas beyond domestic work, how many prosecutions were initiated and whether these cases led to convictions.(11) Reports indicate a lack of trained staff, equipment, and transportation to effectively conduct criminal law enforcement efforts related to the worst forms of child labor.(11, 57)  

In 2015, the NGO Union of Social Workers assisted 176 children who were exploited in domestic labor, and the Manjary Soa Center, managed by the Ministry of Civil Services and Labor, removed 35 children from exploitive child labor in Antananarivo.(17) However, research did not determine the total number of victims removed and assisted during the reporting period.(17) In addition, the National Police Force PMPM received 673 complaints through the national child protection hotline; however, the number of calls pertaining to child labor is unknown.(11, 31)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee on the Fight Against Child Labor (CNLTE)

Coordinate programs, advise on child labor legislation and regulations, and monitor and pursue the implementation of the National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(17, 58, 59) Led by the Ministry of Civil Services and Labor, with representatives from the Ministries of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries; Communication; Decentralization; Education; Energy; Foreign Affairs; Health; Interior; Justice; Mining; Population and Social Affairs; Public Security; Technical Education and Vocational Training; Tourism; and Youth and Sports.(60) In 2015, worked with child protection organizations in the Vakinankaratra region to reinforce the understanding of child labor laws and build capacity to assist victims and collect data.(17)

Regional Child Labor Committees (CRLTE)

Coordinate, monitor, and evaluate all regional activities relating to the elimination of child labor.(17, 55, 58) Comprises 10 regional committees that identify activities to promote the elimination of child labor and to compile, analyze, and report child labor data to PACTE.(24, 49, 55) In 2015, the Committee in the Sava region organized workshops to raise awareness of child labor issues among vanilla producers, in collaboration with the National Vanilla Platform (PNV), which resulted in the adoption of a code of conduct to address child labor in the vanilla sector.(5, 17, 61, 62)

National Child Protection Committee (CNPE)

Guide national child protection policy and programs. Chaired by the Minister of Population and Social Affairs and comprises a steering committee and a technical commission of specialists.(32, 63)

National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking*

Coordinate human anti-trafficking efforts in Madagascar and responsible for implementing the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons.(9, 11, 17, 42, 64) Chaired by the Office of the Prime Minister and comprises representatives from the Ministries of Civil Services and Labor; Education; Foreign Affairs; Health; Interior; Justice; and Population and Social Affairs. Also includes nongovernmental stakeholders such as civil society, international organizations, and NGOs.(11, 17, 64) In 2015, the Government officially appointed members to the National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking.(11)

Commission on Child Policy Reform (CRDE)

Coordinate and review national legislation and programs on children’s rights.(24, 25, 65) Chaired by the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Population and Social Affairs, and includes representatives from the Ministries of Education and Public Health. Also includes nongovernmental stakeholders such as international organizations, NGOs, and social partners.(60, 65)

National Independent Commission on Human Rights

Promote and protect human rights and investigate human rights abuses, including those related to child labor.(59) Chaired by the Office of the Prime Minister and includes representatives from the National Assembly, the Senate, and a technical group of human rights specialists.(66)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

The CNLTE continues to face severe limitations on its ability to follow the National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor; for example, several awareness-raising campaigns scheduled for  2015 were postponed due to a lack of resources.(14, 31) The National Child Protection Committee (CNPE) and the National Independent Commission on Human Rights were inactive during 2015. (51)

The Government of Madagascar has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2004–2019)  

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by strengthening child labor laws, conducting awareness-raising campaigns, mobilizing funds for social programs, and updating databases on child labor.(8, 67, 68) Led by the CNLTE. (58)

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons

(2015–2019)†

Seeks to enhance the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, effectively implement the law, provide protection and care for victims, and strengthen social and educational initiatives for vulnerable children. Overseen by the National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking.(10, 17, 64, 69)

National Social Protection Policy†

Aims to protect children from abuse, violence, and exploitation and promotes improved access to education and livelihood services for vulnerable children. Led by the Ministry of Population and Social Affairs and supported by international donors.(70-72)

Decent Work Country Program (2015–2019)†

Identifies two objectives of decent work: (1) to create jobs and guarantee rights at work for vulnerable populations, and (2) to extend social protection and promote social dialogue. Includes the improvement of the operational environment for the elimination of child labor and its worst forms.(73) Overseen by the Prime Minister’s Office and supported by the ILO.(74)

Education for All Program (2013–2015)

Set out a comprehensive map to improve the quality of, and access to, basic education and included child labor concerns. Led by the Ministry of Education and supported by international donors.(8, 75, 76)

Provisional Education Plan (2013–2015)

Integrated child labor issues into education policies. Developed by the Ministry of Education.(75)

UNDAF (2015–2019)†

Seeks to protect children from child labor, including its worst forms, through strategies such as promoting school attendance and training judges and police officials on child labor laws. Led by the Ministry of Economy and Planning.(37, 73, 77)

National Development Plan

(2015–2019)†

Aims to promote sustainable development and social equality. Overseen by the Ministry of Economy and Planning and includes a budget of $83,000 to specifically combat child labor.(10, 73, 78, 79)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government drafted a National Plan of Action against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children; however it had not been approved by the end of the reporting period.(10)

In 2015, the Government of Madagascar funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. (Table 10)

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Protect children’s rights, children from violence and the worst forms of child labor, and children who are victims of commercial sexual exploitation program

(2014–2015)

$150,000 UNICEF-funded program that aims to combat violence against children and the worst forms of child labor in the regions of Atsimo-Andrefana and Diana.(80) In 2015, provided vocational training to 100 victims of commercial sexual exploitation, developed a manual on the application of legal procedures to address child labor, and trained local government officials on child labor issues.(81)

Acceleration to reduce the worst forms of child labor, especially in the commercial sexual exploitation of children program

(2015–2016)*

$140,000 UNICEF-funded program that increases funding and extends activities to fight the worst forms of child labor, especially in commercial sexual exploitation, in the regions of Atsimo-Andrefana and Diana.(81)

Actions to combat child domestic work in Africa and in countries of the Mediterranean Union

(2011–2015) project

$1.3 million Government of France-funded, 3-year project that aims to combat child domestic labor in specific regions. Although the project removed or prevented an estimated 125 children from engaging in domestic work in Amoron’i Mania region, and provided them with professional training and assistance in finding decent work in 2014, research could not determine the major activities undertaken in 2015.(24, 80)

Manjary Soa Center†

Government program that provides support and services to child laborers in Antananarivo, including reintegrating children under age 16 into the public education system and providing tradecraft training to older children. In 2015, removed 35 children from exploitative child labor.(9, 11, 27, 82, 83)

Vonjy Center*

UNICEF-funded center in Antananarivo that provides services to child victims of sexual violence and human trafficking. In 2015, provided assistance to 185 children.(9, 11, 84)

World Bank Emergency Support for Critical Education, Health, and Nutrition Services Project

$65 million World Bank-funded, 4-year program to preserve critical education, health, and nutrition services in vulnerable areas.(17, 85) Preserves education services by paying the salaries of community teachers and the cost of school supplies.(17, 85, 86)

World Bank Emergency Support to Education For all Project

$85.4 million World Bank-funded, 4-year program to support the Government’s interim plan on education.(17, 87) Supports school feeding program, distribution of school kits and payments to teachers, institutional training, and building new classrooms.(17, 86, 87)

UNICEF Country Programme Education (2015–2019)*

$56 million UNICEF-funded program to support the Government’s interim plan on education.(88) Aims to increase school enrollment for the most vulnerable children, boost learning outcomes, and improve data collection.(88)

National Database

UNICEF-funded national database managed by the Ministry of Population and Social Affairs that gathers data from nine regional child protection networks.(14, 89)

Awareness Raising in Sakaraha†

Government program that raises awareness about the hazards children face while working in mines by using radio announcements and through talks with the local chief.(8)

Public Investment Program for Social Action†

Government program that supports school attendance and training for street children and aims to remove 40 children a year from the worst forms of child labor.(27, 90)

Inclusive Education Support†

Government programs to provide back-to-school grants, awareness-raising activities, in-kind support to schools, and access to income-generating activities that target children traditionally excluded from schools.(37

Vocational Training and Agricultural Productivity Improvement Program†

$35 million International Fund for Agricultural Development-funded loan and grant program that provides professional and vocational training to vulnerable groups, including uneducated young people and young women who are heads of households to income through improved productivity and the increased quality of agricultural products. Estimated government contribution of $7.9 million.(91, 92)

United Nations World Food Programme (2015–2019)*

$68 million UN-implemented program that provides school feeding support. In 2015, provided school feeding programs to nearly 250,000 children located in low income urban areas of Antananarivo, Toamasina, Tuléar, and in southern Madagascar.(93, 94)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Madagascar.

The Government does not have programs that promote awareness of the traditional practice of tsenan’ampela, which in some cases has led girls into commercial sexual exploitation.(32) Research found that basic health and social services available to victims of the worst forms of child labor are not adequate to meet current needs.(14) Although Madagascar has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to address the extent of the problem, particularly in agriculture, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, and mining.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Madagascar (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the types of work that children perform in Madagascar that fall into an R.190 category, such as work underwater, are prohibited to children under 18.

2014–2015

Enforcement

Ensure that the number of labor inspectors conforms to the ILO standard of one for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, which is approximately 315 labor inspectors for Madagascar.

2015

Ensure that labor and criminal law enforcement officials receive adequate funding and training to enforce child labor laws effectively.

2009–2015

Collect and make publicly available enforcement information related to the worst forms of child labor, including on the number of labor and criminal inspections conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions.

2013–2015

Disaggregate complaints made to child protection hotlines by number of children exploited in child labor.

2013–2015

Ensure that existing child labor databases function, including by providing adequate funding.

2009–2015

Coordination

Ensure that the CNLTE has the appropriate funds to effectively coordinate efforts to address child labor and implement the National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor.

2014–2015

 

Ensure that CNPE and the National Independent Commission on Human Rights are active to fulfill their mission.

2014–2015

Social Programs

Increase access to education by—

Eliminating school-related fees

Increasing school infrastructure, especially in rural areas

Ensuring that school administrators and teachers allow children without birth certificates to sit and take national standardized examinations to graduate

Ensuring children’s safety in schools

2011–2015

Increase awareness of the possible use of traditional cultural practices that might lead to commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2013–2015

Ensure that social protection systems have adequate funding and staff to provide appropriate services to victims of the worst forms of child labor.

2014–2015

Expand programs to address child labor in agriculture and the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, and mining.

2014–2015

 

 

1.         ILO-IPEC. Etat des Lieux du Travail des Enfants dans la Filiere Vanille dans la Region de la Sava. Status Report. Antananarivo; November 2011. http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/ilo/2012/112B09_259_fren.pdf.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. reporting, May 15, 2015.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Madagascar," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2014&dlid=236376

4.         U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. reporting, October 01, 2015.

5.         All Africa. "Madagascar: Travail - Les enfants de la vanille à affranchir." [online] November 11, 2015 [cited http://fr.allafrica.com/stories/201511121131.html.

6.         National Union of Social Workers member. Interview with USDOL official. February 12, 2016.

7.         NGO official. Interview with USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

8.         UN General Assembly Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, Gulnara Shahinian - Addendum: Mission to Madagascar (10 to 19 December 2012). Geneva; July 24, 2013. Report No. A/HRC/24/43/Add.2. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session24/Documents/A-HRC-24-43-Add2_en.pdf.

9.         U.S. Department of State. "Madagascar," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243483.htm.

10.       ECPAT France. Contribution d’ECPAT France sur le suivi de la situation de l’exploitation sexuelle des enfants à des fins commerciales- Madagascar; 2015. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC-OP-SC/Shared%20Documents/MDG/INT_CRC-OP-SC_NGO_MDG_21425_F.pdf.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. reporting, February 10, 2016.

12.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015] http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

13.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquete Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants, 2007. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. reporting, January 24, 2014.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 24, 2011.

16.       PACT Inc. Combating Exploitive Child Labor Through Education in Madagascar ("KILONGA"). Technical Progress Report. Washington, DC; September 2011.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Antananarivo. reporting, February 5, 2016.

18.       "Vanilla to Taste Even Sweeter." allafrica.com [online] November 22, 2012 [cited March 10, 2014]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201211240310.html.

19.       AFP. "20,000 children work in Madagascar vanilla production." moneyweb.co.za [online] December 4, 2012 [cited March 10, 2014]; http://www.moneyweb.co.za/moneyweb-africa/20000-children-work-in-madagascar-vanilla-producti.

20.       Rabenaivo Herinjaka. "Vanille : l’exploitation des enfants mis à nue." April 12, 2014 [cited November 19, 2015]; http://www.tresorpublic.mg/?p=11984.

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53.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

54.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

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