Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Liberia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Liberia

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Liberia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government continued to redirect resources to address the aftermath of the Ebola Virus Disease outbreak. Thousands of children were orphaned, separated, or unaccompanied as a result of the outbreak. In March, the Government reopened schools after a six month closure, and in May, the World Health Organization declared the country Ebola free. Subsequently, in June, the Government passed the Decent Work Bill, which contained a list of hazardous work prohibited for children. However, children in Liberia are engaged in child labor, including in the production of rubber and mining diamonds, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in domestic work. The Liberia National Police’s Women and Children Protection Section continue to lack sufficient resources to conduct investigations and enforce child labor laws.

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Children in Liberia are engaged in child labor, including in the production of rubber and mining diamonds.(1, 2) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in domestic work.(3, 4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Liberia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

16.6 (136,340)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

78.4

Industry

4.2

Services

17.4

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

75.9

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

14.0

Primary completion rate (%):

58.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Labor Force Survey, 2010.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of rubber (2, 7, 8)

Production of charcoal* (7)

Farming activities,* including production of cocoa,* coffee,* and cassava* (7, 9-11)

Industry

Mining for diamonds‡ and gold*‡ (1, 2, 4, 9, 10, 12)

Cutting* and crushing stone (2, 4, 8, 10, 13-15)

Construction, activities unknown (2, 4)

Services

Domestic work* (4, 13, 14)

Street work, including vending,* begging,* hawking goods,* and carrying heavy loads* (2, 7, 8, 13, 16-18)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including selling drugs* (4, 19)

Forced labor in domestic work, street vending, farming, mining,  begging, and work on rubber plantations each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 4, 19)

Commercial sexual exploitation* sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (20)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children are trafficked within Liberia for commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, forced begging, and forced labor in street vending, alluvial diamond mines, and on rubber plantations. Children are also trafficked from Liberia to Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.(2, 3) Children in rural communities, like Margibi, engage in rubber tapping and coal burning activities. In contrast, children in urban cities, particularly Monrovia and the surrounding communities in Montserrado County, crush rocks near construction sites as a form of livelihood.(15)

According to the Children’s Law, primary education is free. However, in practice, many schools charge fees, which may prevent some children from attending school.(7) The limited number of schools in some areas also impedes access to education. In addition, sources indicate that girls may face barriers to accessing education due to sexual abuse by male teachers in schools. (11, 21, 22) All of these obstacles increase the risk of children engaging in the worst forms of child labor.(23, 24)  Liberian parents are required by law to register their infants within 14 days of birth.(25) However, fewer than 5 percent of births are registered. Unable to prove their citizenship, non-registered children may have difficulty addressing citizenship and nationality questions, which makes them vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(26, 27)

In 2015, the Government continued to focus its resources on addressing an outbreak of the Ebola Virus Disease, which may have impacted its ability to address the worst forms of child labor. The outbreak left thousands of children orphaned, separated, or unaccompanied, which makes them vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(2, 28) In March 2015, the Government reopened schools after a 6-month closure due to the Ebola outbreak. Teachers prepared themselves by carrying thermometers to test students’ temperatures and brought chlorinated water for the students to wash their hands.(29, 30) In May 2015, the WHO declared Liberia Ebola free.(31)

Liberia has ratified some key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

 

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Section 74 of the Labor Law (14, 32)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 7, Section 9.1 of the Children’s Law (13, 33)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 21.4 of the Decent Work Act (2, 34)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 12 of the Constitution; Article 2.2 of the Decent Work Act; Article 7, Section 8 of the Children’s Law; Article 1 and Section 5 of the Act to Ban Trafficking in Persons Within the Republic of Liberia (13, 33-36)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 7, Section 8 of the Children’s Law; Article 1 and Section 5 of the Act to Ban Trafficking in Persons Within the Republic of Liberia (33, 36)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 3, Section 21 of the Children’s Law; Article 2.3 of the Decent Work Act; Article 1 and Section 5 of the Act to Ban Trafficking in Persons Within the Republic of Liberia (33, 34, 36)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 2.3 of the Decent Work Act; Chapter 16 of the Penal Law (34, 37)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 3, Section 22 of the Children’s Law (33, 38)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 3, Section 9 of the Children’s Law; Chapter 4 of the Education Reform Act (10, 33, 39)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 3, Section 9 of the Children’s Law (33)

* No conscription (38)

In June 2015, the Government passed the Decent Work Act, which prohibits hazardous work for children under age 18. Section 21.4 of the Decent Work Act prohibits the use of children in work underground and under water, as well as work involving dangerous machines, carrying heavy loads, and exposure to hazardous substances, temperatures, noise levels, and vibrations.(34). Although Section 74 of the Labor Law prohibits employment of children under age 16, it minimally penalizes offenders with a fine of $1.18 USD (100 Liberian dollars).(32)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)

Enforce labor laws and refer suspected child labor cases to the National Commission on Child Labor (NACOMAL) for investigation. (2, 10)

 

Conduct child labor investigations. Determine validity of child labor allegations and refer cases for further investigation to the Liberia National Police’s Women and Children Protection Section (WCPS).(10)

WCPS

Enforce laws relating to violations involving the worst forms of child labor, including human trafficking.(40)

Liberia National Police’s Anti-Trafficking Unit

Ensure human trafficking training is integrated into police orientation to train officers on the enforcement of anti-human trafficking laws.(27)

Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization

Enforce human trafficking laws in international cases.(10)

Liberian Transnational Crime Unit

Coordinate responses to international organized crime, including monitoring and prosecuting criminal violations involving the worst forms of child labor, including human trafficking.(41)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Liberia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (42)

$1.8 million‡ (2)

Number of Labor Inspectors

39 (42)

39 (2)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (42)

No (2)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (42)

N/A (2)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (42)

N/A (2)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (42)

Yes (2)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown (42)

Unknown (2)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (42)

Unknown (2)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (42)

Unknown (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (42)

0 (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A (42)

N/A (2)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A (42)

N/A (2)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown (42)

Unknown (2)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (42)

Unknown (2)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (42)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (42)

Yes (2)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (42)

Yes (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (42)

Yes (2)

‡ Data are from the Government of Liberia for the period from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2016.

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor (MOL) employed 54 officials to work on labor issues, consisting of 1 inspector general, 14 labor commissioners, and 39 labor inspectors. Labor inspectors conducted unannounced inspections of construction companies and private businesses.(2) The MOL does not have any labor inspectors dedicated solely to child labor issues and refers suspected child labor cases to the National Commission on Child Labor (NACOMAL). The NACOMAL has the primary responsibility of conducting child labor investigations yet has no child labor investigators of its own. In addition, NACOMAL has a limited budget and limited staff. (2) NACOMAL’s child labor investigations are carried out with the assistance of the MOL, the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection, LNP, or WCPS and the three NACOMAL staff members that include the Director, Assistant Director, and the Filing Clerk. (2, 43)  During the year, the MOL, in collaboration with Winrock International’s Actions to Reduce Child Labor in Areas of Rubber Production Project, conducted a 5-day “Training of Trainers” for the National Steering Committee on Child Labor. The workshop focused on building the capacity of labor commissioners and inspectors to address child labor violations.(2, 44, 45)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Liberia took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (42)

Unknown (2)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (42)

Unknown (2)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (42)

Yes (2)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (42)

Unknown (2)

Number of Violations Found

0 (42)

0 (2)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (42)

Unknown (2)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (42)

Unknown (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (42)

Yes (2)

 

The Liberia National Police’s (LNP) Women and Children Protection Section reported having limited resources to conduct investigations, including a lack of vehicles, fuel, sufficient training, finances, communications equipment, and investigative equipment.(2, 46) The LNP refers child endangerment cases for prosecution to the Ministry of Justice. The data for child endangerment cases prosecuted through the Ministry of Justice are not disaggregated to determine the number involving child labor violations.(2) In 2015, the LNP referred 22 child endangerment cases for prosecution, but details about each case are limited. In addition, the LNP reported that enforcement efforts on child labor violations are still inadequate, despite employing 192 Women and Children Protection Section officers to investigate allegations of abuse against women and children.(2) During the year, the LNP had trainings that supported the drafting of the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor.(2)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

NACOMAL

Monitor child labor issues and develop child labor policies. Led by the MOL and comprised of representatives from 16 organizations, including NGOs and international and civil society organizations.(47) Objectives include reforming national child labor laws and creating a national child labor database to assist with conducting surveys to determine the magnitude of the child labor issue in the country.(47)

National Steering Committee  on Child Labor

Advocate for eliminating child labor, especially its worst forms. Chaired by the MOL and comprised of government officials and workers’ organizations.(2) Includes four subcommittees on resource mobilization, advocacy, training and legal development, and monitoring and evaluation. Met quarterly during the reporting period.(42, 43) During the reporting period, the NSC conducted two trainings. The first training was sponsored by the ILO and focused on developing goals for the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor.(43)  The first training included the following participants: Ministry of Internal Affairs, UNICEF, Ministry of Education, WCPS, Ministry of Lands Mines and Energy, Ministry of Youth and Sports, the Liberia Chamber of Commerce, Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection, Child Fund Liberia, Winrock, Liberian Children Representative Forum, and the Liberia Labor Congress.  The second training focused on the NSC’s mandate and discussions involved topics on child labor-related concepts and definitions on child labor. (43)The second training included the 38 members of the NSC.(43)

Child Protection Network

Coordinate child protection efforts through monthly meetings to discuss child protection issues, including child labor and human trafficking. Chaired by the Ministry of Gender and Development, and comprised of the MOL, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, the WCPS, civil society organizations, and several NGOs.(4) Also responsible for coordinating referrals of child victims of abuse to social services providers, with support from international and national organizations.(10, 14) Met on a monthly basis in 2015.(2)

Anti-Human Trafficking Task Force

Coordinate anti-human trafficking activities. Chaired by the MOL and includes the Commissioner of the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization; the Liberia National Police; and representatives from the Ministries of Justice, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Ministry of Internal Affairs.(40) Trained 160 law enforcement and community leaders on identifying victims of human trafficking and their perpetrators in 2015.(3)

 

The Government of Liberia has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan for Trafficking in Persons

Outlines the Government’s anti-human trafficking efforts, including for child victims.(10)

Direct Assistance and Support to Trafficked Victims Standard Operation Procedures

Establishes roles and responsibilities for coordinating government assistance to human trafficking victims.(27)

National Social Welfare Policy

Prioritizes the development of action plans and policies that target children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking.(48)

National Employment Policy*

Aims to provide vocational training for youth.(49)

Rubber Industry Master Plan (2010–2040)*

Prioritizes the development of the rubber industry and includes provisions for improving workers’ standard of living and access to credit, as well as children’s access to education.(50)

Education Sector Plan

(2010–2020)*

Aims to improve the education infrastructure, as well as the access to, and quality of, primary education.(51)

2030 Vision Policy

(2012–2017)*

Outlines the Government of Liberia’s goal to become a middle-income country by 2030 by increasing focus on education and livelihoods.(52)

Revised National Youth Policy (2012–2017)*

Outlines the Government of Liberia’s National Youth Policy, which includes employment and education components.(53-55)

 

National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan (2015–2020)*

Outlines strategy to prevent new HIV/AIDS infections in youth by promoting the use of condoms and providing HIV/AIDS counseling. The plan also targets vulnerable populations, including out-of-school youth.(56)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

During 2015, the Government did not renew child labor related policies, including the National Strategy for Child Survival, which aimed to improve the literacy rate of youth, and the National Health Policy, which sought to improve the health care delivery system in the country.(57, 58)

In 2015, the Government of Liberia participated in programs that may contribute to the prevention or elimination of child labor (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Anti-Trafficking Awareness Campaign†

Government of Liberia MOL program that uses radio and billboard messages to raise public awareness on human trafficking.(11, 27)

Liberia Agriculture Investment Program

$175 million, multi-donor program that aims to enhance household livelihoods in the agriculture sector by building linkages with markets and improving rural infrastructure, which may have a positive effect on reducing child labor.(59)

Actions to Reduce Child Labor in Areas of Rubber Production (2012–2016)

$6.2 million, USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by Winrock International to combat child labor in the rubber sector. Aims to withdraw or prevent 10,100 children from engaging in the worst forms of child labor by providing education, as well as livelihoods support to 3,700 vulnerable families. Implemented in collaboration with local rubber companies.(60) In 2015, the project enrolled 1,096 students in the Accelerated Learning Program, provided School Success Kits to 5,539 children, and trained child labor monitoring committee members on the dangers and effects of child labor, in 2015. During the Ebola outbreak, enrolled 230 students into the Model Farm School Program.(61).

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (2011–2017)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor in Liberia.(62) In 2015, worked on developing the National Action Plan on Child Labor by holding, several meetings witha group of government officials as well as an ILO national consultant. Government officials involved in the group included the MOL; the Ministry of Lands, Mines and Energy; the Liberia Labor Congress; the Liberia Chamber of Commerce; UNICEF; Winrock ; and the ILO.(63)

Social Cash Transfer Program

EU-funded program that provides regular payments to poor and “labor constrained” households (households in which the majority of household members are unable to work for reasons such as disability) in Bomi County, along with other counties.(64) Targets 5,000 households, and each beneficiary household receives between $10 and $25 per month.(64)

Fast Track Initiative Grant for Basic Education

$40 million, World Bank-funded project that aims to improve primary education access and quality.(65)$40 million, World Bank-funded project that aims to improve primary education access and quality.(65)

Feed the Future Project (2011–2015)

$75 million, USAID-funded project that aims to improve food security and nutrition among vulnerable populations.(66, 67)

Girls’ Opportunities to Access Learning Program

Funded by the Millennium Challenge Corporation’s Threshold Grant and led by USAID; focuses on increasing girls’ enrollment, attendance, and retention in primary schools in Bong, Grand Bassa, and Lofa counties.(68)

Youth and Workforce Development (Advancing Youth Project)

USAID-funded program that builds the capacity of the Ministry of Education and NGOs to address the needs of out-of-school youth by providing access to alternative basic education and providing sustainable livelihood opportunities.(68)

Refugee Camps and Services (2012–2015)

$42.5 million, UNHCR-funded project that maintains refugee camps and provides essential services to Ivorian refugees, including children.(69, 70)$42.5 million, UN High Commissioner for Refugees-funded project that maintains refugee camps and provides essential services to Ivorian refugees, including children.(69, 70)  There are currently 3 refugee camps with an estimated 21,000 refugees receiving assistance.(43)

† Program is funded by the Government of Liberia.

Although Liberia has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Liberia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that penalties for violating the employment minimum age requirements are sufficient to deter child labor violations.

2014 – 2015

Enforcement

Make information publicly available on the number of labor inspections conducted and whether inspections targeted relevant sectors in which there is evidence of labor violations.

2010 – 2015

Make information publicly available on whether criminal law enforcement officers received trainings, and publish data on the number of investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions.

2015

Fully fund child labor enforcement mechanisms and prosecution efforts, such as the MOL, the WCPS, and the Anti-Human Trafficking Task Force, and provide necessary training for such officials to enforce child labor laws.

2010 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing health, education, and youth policies.

2010 – 2015

Renew or develop policies that improve youth literacy rates, and that improve the health care delivery system, such as the National Strategy for Child Survival and the National Health Policy.

2015

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children working in farming and construction to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2015

Improve access to education by building additional schools, ensuring children are registered at birth, addressing sexual abuse in schools, and subsidizing the cost of school fees.

2012 – 2015

Expand existing social programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2009 – 2015

 

1.         Awoko Organization. "Liberian youths trapped in alluvial mining." awoko.org [online] 2011 [cited November 17, 2014]; http://www.awoko.org/2011/10/05/liberian-youths-trapped-in-alluvial-mining/.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Monrovia. reporting, December 29,2015.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Liberia " in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; June 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243560.pdf.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Monrovia. reporting, February 6, 2013.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Labour Force Survey, 2010. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         Winrock International. Actions to Reduce Child Labor Baseline Survey. Baseline Report. Little Rock, AR; 2013. [source on file].

8.         U.S. Department of State. "Liberia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236586.pdf

9.         U.S. Department of State. "Liberia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Monrovia. reporting, January 15, 2014.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Monrovia official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 27, 2015.

12.       Defense for Children International. Alternative Report on Liberia. Monrovia; February 2012. http://www.crin.org/resources/infodetail.asp?id=27824.

13.       U.S. Embassy- Monrovia. reporting, January 26,  2011.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Monrovia. reporting, January 19,  2012.

15.       Winrock International. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 7, 2016.

16.       Amnesty International. Amnesty International Annual Report 2011- Liberia. New York; 2011. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/publisher,AMNESTY,,LBR,4dce155a50,0.html.

17.       The Analyst. "Fan Milk Management Confirms Child Labour." Monrovia, February 3, 2012. http://www.analystliberia.com/.

18.       The Informer. "Liberia: No Selling, No Eating." Monrovia, July 9, 2012. http://allafrica.com/stories/201207111287.html?viewall=1.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Monrovia official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 13, 2012.

20.       U.S. Department of State. "Liberia " in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2014/?utm_source=NEW+RESOURCE:+Trafficking+in+Persons+R.

21.       Heritage. "Liberia: Laureate Gbowee Opens Up On 'Sexual Exploitation, Abuse of Girls' Here." Monrovia, April 10, 2012. http://allafrica.com/stories/201204100376.html?viewall=1.

22.       The New Dawn. "Liberia: Sexual Exploitations Not Only in Schools, Laymah." Monrovia, April 11, 2012. http://allafrica.com/stories/201204111096.html.

23.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Liberia (ratification: 2003) Submitted: 2011; accessed November 17, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

24.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Liberia. Geneva; September 24, 2012. Report No. CRC/C/LBR/CO/2-4. http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=29551&flag=legal.

25.       Plan- Promoting child rights to end child poverty. Universal Birth Registration Bears Fruit in Liberia. Report. Monrovia; 2014. https://plan-international.org/where-we-work/africa/liberia/what-we-do/our-successes/universal-birth-registration-bears-fruit-in-liberia-birth-certificates-now-being-issued/.

26.       UNICEF. Every Child's Birth Right Inequalities and Trends in Birth Registration. New York 2013. http://www.unicef.org/mena/MENA-Birth_Registration_report_low_res-01.pdf.

27.       U.S. Embassy- Monrovia. reporting, February 12, 2014

28.       UNICEF. "Impact of Ebola." [online] February 20, 2015 [cited April 7, 2016]; http://www.unicef.org/emergencies/ebola/75941_76129.html.

29.       Berehulak, D. "Back to School, Though Not Back to Normal, in a Liberia Still Fearful of Ebola." nytimes.com [online] March 4, 2015 [cited April 7, 2016]; http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/05/world/africa/trickle-of-liberian-children-returning-to-school-reflects-lingering-ebola-fears.html?_r=0#.

30.       BBC News. "Ebola outbreak: Liberia schools reopen after six months." BBC News [online] February 16, 2015 [cited April 7, 2016]; http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-31487988.

31.       World Health Organization. "The Ebola outbreak in Liberia is over." who.int [online] May 9, 2015 [cited April 7, 2016]; http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2015/liberia-ends-ebola/en/.

32.       Government of Liberia. Labor Law, Title 18 and 18A, enacted 1956. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=LBR&p_classification=01.02&p_origin=COUNTRY&p_sortby=SORTBY_COUNTRY.

33.       Government of Liberia. Children's Law, enacted October 13, 2011.

34.       Government of Liberia. Decent Work Act, enacted June 26, 2015. [source on file].

35.       Government of Liberia. Constitution of the Republic of Liberia, enacted January 6, 1986. http://www.tlcafrica.com/constitution-1986.htm.

36.       Government of Liberia. An Act to Ban Trafficking in Persons within the Republic of Liberia, enacted 2005. https://www.unodc.org/tldb/showDocument.do?documentUid=7975&node=docs&cmd=add&country=LIR.

37.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Liberia (ratification: 2003) accessed November 17, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3139023,102742,Liberia,2013.

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39.       Government of Liberia. Education Reform Act, enacted 2011.

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