Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Lesotho

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Lesotho

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2016, Lesotho made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Multi-Sectoral Committee on Combating Trafficking in Persons developed draft victim identification and referral guidelines, drafted standard operating procedures for the guidelines, and built a shelter for victims of human trafficking. However, children in Lesotho continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in herding cattle and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Lesotho's compulsory education age is below the minimum age for work, leaving children between these ages vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. The Government also lacks resources for labor law enforcement and social programs to combat child labor.

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Children in Lesotho engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in herding cattle and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Lesotho.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

28.1 (124,632)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

80.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

25.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

76.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2, 2000.(5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Herding animals, including cattle† (1, 6, 7)

Farming, including planting, applying pesticides, and harvesting (8, 9)

Services

Domestic work (1, 7, 10)

Street work, including vending, and trading (11)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 2)

Use in illicit activities, including burglary and theft (11)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

UNDP reported in 2015 that Lesotho's HIV rate in adults (ages 15–24) is 25 percent. Many children in Lesotho become orphans due to the high rate of HIV among adults.(7, 8, 12-15) Children, mostly HIV orphans driven by poverty, migrate from rural to urban areas to engage in commercial sexual exploitation for survival.(8, 16, 17) In addition, children with disabilities are vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor as they encounter difficulties accessing education due to ill-equipped educational facilities and untrained teachers.(18, 19)

Lesotho has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Lesotho's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 124(1) of the Labour Code (1992); Article 228(1) of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act (20)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 125(1) of the Labour Code; Article 230(1) of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act (20)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 230(3) and 231 of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act (20)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 9(2) of the Constitution; Article 7(1) of the Labour Code; Article 5 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (21-23)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (23)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 77 of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act; Articles 10–14 of the Sexual Offenses Act (24)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 45(b) of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act (20, 25)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

Article 22(o) of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act (20)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Section 26 of the Lesotho Defence Force Act (26)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 22(o) of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act (20)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

13‡

Article 3 of the Education Act (9, 27)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Education Act; Article 22(k) of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act (20)

* No conscription (20, 28)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (9, 27)

Education is compulsory in Lesotho through age 13, which makes children age 14 particularly vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to be in school and have not reached the minimum age for work.(7, 22) The ILO Committee of Experts urged the Government to collaborate with the Ministry of Education and Training to equate the compulsory education age and the minimum age for work.(7, 29)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law enforcement remain.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE)

Enforce child labor laws, including hazardous child labor. Assess compliance with child labor laws as part of general labor inspections.(6)

National Police, Child and Gender Protection Unit (CGPU)

Investigate child labor violations and work in conjunction with MOLE to enforce child labor laws, including those related to hazardous and forced child labor, commercial sexual exploitation, and child trafficking.(6)

Public Prosecutor's Office

Prosecute child labor law offenders.(6)

Children's Court

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(6) During the year, there were no prosecutions of child labor cases.

 

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE) reviewed the Labor Code with the aim of making revisions that would authorize labor inspectors to conduct child labor investigations in the informal sector on private farms and in homes. In 2016, MOLE submitted a report to the ILO on labor, including informal work, in rural sections of the country.(7)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Lesotho took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (7)

Unknown (30)

Number of Labor Inspectors

38 (7)

32 (30)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

3 (7)

2 (30)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (7)

Yes (30)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (7)

No (30)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (7)

No (30)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (7)

No (30)

Number of Labor Inspections

1,813† (31)

1,324‡ (31)

Number Conducted at Worksite

1,813† (31)

1,324‡ (31)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

N/A (7)

N/A (30)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (7)

1 (30)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (7)

0 (30)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A (7)

N/A (30)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (7)

Yes (30)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (7)

No (30)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (7)

Yes (30)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (7)

Yes (30)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (7)

Yes (30)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (7)

Yes (30)

† Data are from April 1, 2015 to March 31, 2016.
‡ Data are from April 1, 2016 to March 31, 2017.

According to the ILO standard of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Lesotho should employ approximately 61 inspectors.(32-34) Reports indicate that there is inadequate funding for the labor inspectorate to carry out investigations.(7, 30)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Lesotho took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (7)

Yes (30)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No (7)

No (30)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (7)

No (30)

Number of Investigations

0 (7)

0 (30)

Number of Violations Found

0 (7)

0 (30)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (7)

1 (30)

Number of Convictions

0 (7)

0 (30)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (7)

Yes (30)

 

Reports indicate that the National Police Child and Gender Protection Unit receives inadequate or no funding to carry out child labor investigations.(6, 7) During the year, the Government ratified a special permit system with South Africa to allow Basothos to legally work in South Africa as a mechanism to curb human trafficking. The Government also incorporated human trafficking in the primary school curriculum (Standard 7) and held cross-border awareness campaigns with South African officials on identifying and documenting potential trafficking victims.(35)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Program Advisory Committee on Child Labor/National Task Team

Implement the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor. Led by MOLE's Child Labor Unit, the team includes representatives from government ministries, trade unions, NGOs, and international organizations.(6, 16) Met twice during the year.

Multi-Sectoral Committee on Combating Trafficking in Persons

Spearhead anti-trafficking in persons initiatives and approve legislation and policies to prevent human trafficking. Chaired by the Commissioner of Refugees and also includes government ministries; local government members; and representatives from NGOs, international organizations, and faith-based organizations.(36) The committee met during the year and developed draft victim identification and referral guidelines.(3)

District Child Protection Teams

Coordinate child protection matters, including child labor, at the district level. Led by the Ministry of Social Development, the teams include representatives from the Government, private sector, NGOs, and community support groups.(6) Research was unable to determine whether these teams met during the year.

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies on Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor (APEC)

Ensures that all major interventions regarding child labor are in place while preventing duplication of efforts. Constitutes a strategic program framework based on existing and planned interventions in relevant social and economic sectors, some linked to other program initiatives.(37)

National Anti-Trafficking in Persons Strategic Framework and Action Plan

Supports the national and international obligations and commitments by strengthening approaches to protect children against the worst forms of child labor in support of the vision to "eradicate all forms of trafficking in persons in Lesotho, protect victims of trafficking in persons, arrest and successfully prosecute offenders and put in place preventative measures."(37)

National Policy on Orphans and Vulnerable Children

Safeguards the rights of orphans and vulnerable children to an education, promotes access to apprenticeships and vocational and life skills programs for orphans and vulnerable children, and implements child labor prevention programs.(38)

Lesotho United Nations Development Assistance Framework (2013–2017)

Includes strategies to reduce poverty in Lesotho.(39) Framework promotes education for children, supports youth employment, and builds the Government's capacity to provide social welfare services to vulnerable children.(39)

Kingdom of Lesotho: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper—National Strategic Development Plan (2012/2013–2016/2017)

Outlines prevention measures and identifies child protection services (CGPU/police, social welfare, health, and the justice system) and their capacity to respond adequately to cases of violence, abuse, and exploitation of children, including child labor.(40)

 

In September 2016, the Government released a draft labor policy that proposes harmonizing existing legislation with international labor standards regarding child labor. Although government agencies disseminated information about child labor and human trafficking, research found no information that the Government took meaningful steps to implement the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor.(41) The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the Education Sector Strategic Plan.(42)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

ILO Decent Work Country Program (2012–2017)

ILO-funded program supported by MOLE that includes objectives on creating youth employment as a poverty-reduction strategy, establishing social protection coverage for citizens, and facilitating social dialogue among employers and workers.(8)

Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) Scholarships Program†

Government program that pays for tuition, uniforms, supplies, and boarding fees for 15,002 OVCs.(6)

† Program is funded by the Government of Lesotho.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(37)

During 2016, the Government signed an MOU with an NGO, Beautiful Dream Society, to reestablish a shelter for victims of trafficking. The shelter opened in December 2016.(3) Lesotho participated in the Regional Inter-Agency Standing Committee (RIASCO) Action Plan for Southern Africa (December 2016 through April 2017), which resulted in 15 schools (3,750 learners) receiving access to clean water and toilets through the installation of new systems or the rehabilitation of existing systems.(43) Although Lesotho has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

Based on the reporting above, the following actions would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Lesotho (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish 15 as the age up to which education is compulsory to match the minimum age for full-time work.

2010 – 2016

Enforcement

Provide adequate funding for labor inspectors and adequate funding and training for criminal investigators to address the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that labor inspections are conducted in all relevant sectors allowed by law to facilitate enforcement of child labor laws.

2014 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO recommendation.

2016

Government Policies

Implement the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor.

2016

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing youth policies, such as the Education Sector Strategic Plan.

2012 – 2016

Social Programs

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2015 – 2016

1.           U.S. Department of State. "Lesotho," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/index.htm.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Lesotho," in Country Report on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Maseru. reporting, January 3, 2017.

4.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics From National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2, 2000. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         U.S. Embassy- Maseru. reporting, January 7, 2014.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Maseru. reporting, January 15, 2016.

8.         Government of Lesotho and ILO. Lesotho Decent Work Country Programme, Phase II: 2012 to 2017. Maseru; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/lesotho.pdf.

9.         U.S. Department of State official. Email communication to USDOL official. May 20, 2014.

10.       ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request (CEACR) - adopted 2013, published 103rd ILC session (2014) Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) - Lesotho (Ratification: 2001); accessed January 27, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3112797:NO.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Maseru. reporting, January 20, 2012.

12.       Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. "UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic: 2013." (2013); http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2013/gr2013/UNAIDS_Global_Report_2013_en.pdf.

13.       UNICEF. Eastern and Southern Africa, HIV and AIDS - Overview, [online] [cited February 17 2017]; http://www.unicef.org/esaro/5482_HIV_AIDS.html.

14.       UNICEF. Lesotho Country Programme Document 2013–2017. New York; September 14, 2012. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Lesotho-2013-2017-final_approved-English-14Sept2012.pdf.

15.       UNDP. Lesotho National Human Development Report. Geneva; November 2015. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/final_lesotho_high_res_single_pages.pdf.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Maseru. reporting, February 5, 2013.

17.       U. S. Department of State. "Lesotho," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226847.pdf.

18.       U.S. Department of State. "Lesotho," in Country Report on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 13, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265480.pdf.

19.       Lesotho National Federation of Organisations of the Disabled. "Disability in Lesotho." lnfod.org [online] 2016 [cited March 21, 2017]; http://www.lnfod.org.ls/burning-issues.html.

20.       Government of Lesotho. Children's Protection and Welfare Act, enacted 2011. http://jafbase.fr/docAfrique/Lesotho/children%20act%20lesotho.pdf.

21.       Government of Lesotho. The Constitution of Lesotho, enacted 1993. http://library2.parliament.go.th/giventake/content_cons/lesotho.pdf.

22.       Government of Lesotho. Labour Code Order, 1992, No. 24 of 1992, enacted 1992. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/31536/64865/E92LSO01.htm.

23.       Government of Lesotho. Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, 2011, enacted January 11, 2011. https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/anti-trafficking-in-persons-act--2011_html/Lesotho_TIP_Act_2011.pdf.

24.       Government of Lesotho. Sexual Offenses Act, 2003, enacted April 22, 2003. http://www.lesotholii.org/files/node/12528/lesotho_sexual_offences_act_2003_pdf_14292.pdf.

25.       ILO Committee of Experts. Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Lesotho (ratification 2001) Published: 2016; accessed October 27, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3247834.

26.       Government of Lesotho. Lesotho Defence Force Act 1996, enacted 1996. http://www.lesotholii.org/files/lesotho_defence_force_act_1996.pdf.

27.       Government of Lesotho. Education Act, 2010, enacted March 15, 2010. http://www.lesotholii.org/files/education_act_2010.pdf.

28.       Child Soldiers International. "Lesotho," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=da92581e-7130-40e6-bf3a-a86b944f17dd.

29.       ILO Committee of Experts. Observation (CEACR)–adopted 2013, published 103rd ILC session (2014) Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)–Lesotho (Ratification: 2001); accessed March 31, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3112758.

30.       U.S. Embassy- Maseru. reporting, January 13, 2017.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Maseru official. Email communication to USDOL official. July 12, 2017.

32.       CIA. The World Factbook, Country Comparison: Labor Force, [online] [cited January 19, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country's total labor force. This number is used to calculate a "sufficient number" of labor inspectors based on the country's level of development as determined by the UN.

33.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Report. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a "sufficient number" of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a "sufficient" number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

34.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor report, "developed economies" equate to the ILO's classification of "industrial market economies," "economies in transition" to "transition economies," "developing countries" to "industrializing economies," and "the least developed countries" equates to "less developed countries." For countries that appear on both "developing countries" and "least developed countries" lists, they will be considered "least developed countries" for the purpose of calculating a "sufficient number" of labor inspectors.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Maseru. reporting, November 13, 2015.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Maseru. reporting, February 14, 2014.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Maseru official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 15, 2015.

38.       Government of Lesotho. National Policy on Orphans and Vulnerable Children. Maseru, Department of Social Welfare, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare; 2007. http://www.africanchildforum.org/clr/policy%20per%20country/lesotho/lesotho_ovc_en.pdf.

39.       UN. Lesotho United Nations Development Assistance Plan (LUNDAP) 2013–2017. Maseru; December 14, 2012. https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/portal-document/Lesotho_UNDAP%202013-2017.pdf.pdf.

40.       Government of Lesotho. National Strategic Development Plan, 2012/13–2016/17. Maseru; May 2012. http://www.gov.ls/gov_webportal/important%20documents/national%20strategic%20development%20plan%20201213-201617/national%20strategic%20development%20plan%20201213-201617.pdf.

41.       ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Lesotho (ratification: 2001) Published 2016; accessed October 27, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3247831.

42.       Government of Lesotho. Education Sector Strategic Plan: 2005 to 2015. Maseru; March 2005. [source on file].

43.       Regional Inter-Agency Standing Committee for Southern Africa. Response Plan for the El Niño-Induced Drought in Southern Africa: May 2016–April 2017. Maseru; September 2016. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/RIASCO%20Action%20Plan%20Draft%20Document%20PDF%20version.pdf.

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