Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Lebanon

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Lebanon

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Lebanon made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Ministry of Labor released a guide for implementing Decree No. 8987 on hazardous work. The National Steering Committee on Child Labor developed a National Awareness Raising Strategy to increase public awareness and help enforce the hazardous work decree. In addition, the Ministry of Education and Higher Education launched a program to further expand children’s access to education. However, children in Lebanon engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation. Labor law enforcement needs further improvement, particularly an increase in resources for personnel and transportation to conduct labor inspections. Programs and services to address the extent of child labor, specifically domestic service and commercial sexual exploitation, remained insufficient.

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Children in Lebanon engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the forced labor in agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation.(1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Lebanon. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

Unavailable

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

71.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(6)
Data were unavailable from Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis, 2016.(7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including picking potatoes, cucumbers, almonds, plums, olives, citrus fruit, beans, figs, and grapes (1, 8-13)

Production of tobacco† (8, 14-17)

Fishing, activities unknown (4, 18)

Industry

Construction,† including carpentry and welding† (4, 8, 12, 16, 18-20)

Working in cement factories† (19, 21)

Painting furniture† and making handicrafts, including soap, souvenirs, and fishing nets (4, 8, 18)

Working in textile factories (22, 23)

Services

Street work,† including begging, street vending, portering, washing cars, scavenging garbage,† and shining shoes (1, 8, 9, 12, 18, 24, 25)

Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles,† including painting† (8, 12, 18, 23, 26)

Domestic work† (8, 12, 27, 28)

Cleaning sewage† (1, 4)

Food service† (4, 12, 17, 24)

Working in cemeteries, including covering bodies in shrouds, cleaning graves, and assisting with rituals (29, 30)

Cleaning marketplaces (1, 16, 18)

Working in slaughterhouses† and butcheries (4, 15, 18)

Working in small shops (4, 18, 24)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and arms dealing (3, 4, 20, 25, 30-32)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 32, 33)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-4, 23, 31, 34)

Forced labor in agriculture, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3-5, 27, 32)

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (4, 35)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Child labor has increased, and its conditions have worsened since the influx of Syrian refugees into Lebanon, affecting Lebanese and Syrian children.(4, 36, 37) As of December 2016, over one million Syrian refugees in Lebanon were registered with UNHCR, and more than half of them were children.(38) Child labor is also prevalent in other refugee communities in Lebanon, including the Palestinian and Iraqi communities.(39)

Some children are subjected to forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(3) In particular, Syrian girls are trafficked into Lebanon for commercial sexual exploitation under the guise of marriage.(3, 20) Some boys are also subject to commercial sexual exploitation, particularly Kurdish boys from Syria.(20) Working on the streets is especially common among refugee children from Syria, including Palestinians from Syria.(25) Syrian children are also subjected to forced labor in agriculture.(3-5, 39) Some Syrian refugee children, with their families, are kept in bonded labor in agriculture in the Bekaa Valley to pay for makeshift dwellings provided by landowners.(4, 5, 32, 36)

UNICEF reported that Lebanese children were involved in armed violence within Lebanon, while some Syrian refugee children joined armed groups and left for Syria to engage in armed conflict.(4)

The Government has waived fees for public primary schools and opened second shifts in about 240 schools.(16) Yet, the public school system in Lebanon lacks the capacity to accommodate the large number of school-age Syrian refugee children.(40) Approximately 250,000 Syrian refugee children in Lebanon, half of the school-age population in this group, are out of school.(16) Barriers to accessing education for Lebanese children include the cost of transportation and supplies.(4) Syrian children face additional barriers, including bullying, corporal punishment, different curriculum in Lebanon than in their country of origin, use of schools by armed groups or as shelters, and fear of passing checkpoints or of violence.(16, 17, 41-44) Likewise, Iraqi refugee children may not be enrolled in school due to school-related costs and discrimination.(45) In Lebanon, many classes are taught in French or English, but Syrian and Iraqi children do not speak these languages.(42, 45) Children who work in agriculture, including Lebanese children, often do not attend school during harvesting and planting seasons.(46, 47)

Lebanon has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Lebanon’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 22 of the Labor Code (48)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 1 of Decree No. 8987 (49)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Annex 1 of Decree No. 8987 (49)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

No

 

Article 8.3(a) of Decree No. 3855; Articles 586.1, 586.5, and 569 of the Penal Code (50, 51)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 586.1 and 586.5 of the Penal Code (50)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 507-510, 523-527, 586.1 and 586.5 of the Penal Code (50)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 586.1, 586.5, and 618 of the Penal Code (50)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 30 of the National Defense Law (52)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 586.1 of the Penal Code; Annex 1 of Decree No. 8987 (49, 50)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 49 of the Education Law (53)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 49 of the Education Law (53)

* No conscription (54)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (39)

Laws related to forced labor are not sufficient because it is not clear that there are criminal penalties for the exaction of forced labor and debt bondage is not criminally prohibited.(50, 55, 56) Government officials clarified that although Article 610 of the Penal Code criminalizes begging, Article 26 of the Delinquent Juveniles Law, which takes precedence over the Penal Code, stipulates that in cases of begging, the child is considered in danger and entitled to receive protective measures.(50, 57, 58) Yet, children engaged in begging have been arrested in a limited number of cases.(25)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor

Enforce child labor laws through desk review and workplace inspections. Maintain a hotline to receive complaints of child labor. Act as government focal point for child labor issues and host the National Steering Committee on Child Labor.(39, 58, 59)

Internal Security Forces

Enforce laws regarding the worst forms of child labor through the Anti-Human Trafficking and Morals Protection Bureau.(39)

Ministry of Justice

Prosecute violations of the Penal Code in coordination with the Internal Security Forces. Maintain general data and statistics on criminal violations involving the worst forms of child labor.(60) Refer at-risk children to shelters and protection services.(39) The Ministry has signed agreements with civil society organizations to provide social workers to the Ministry to oversee court proceedings involving juveniles and deliver services to them, including children engaged in begging.(39)

Ministry of Social Affairs

Refer children identified by the Internal Security Forces and the Ministry of Justice to protective institutions, such as health centers. Refer children to shelters through its Higher Council for Childhood.(39)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Lebanon took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown (39)

45 (36)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (61)

No (61)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (39)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (62)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (39)

Yes (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Yes (4)

 

In 2016, inadequate resources, including necessary transportation and the number of personnel, hamper the Ministry’s capacity to enforce child labor laws.(4, 59) Inspections of child labor are either a result of a complaint or response to a case that was observed in the course of other work of inspectors.(4) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Lebanon’s workforce, which includes over 1.6 million workers.(63) According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Lebanon should employ about 109 inspectors.(64, 65)

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor, in cooperation with the ILO, launched a Guide on Decree No. 8987 on hazardous work, to help implement the Decree by state agencies, and help private institutions, employers, and workers better understand hazardous work for children.(4, 37) The Government, in cooperation with the ILO, established a child labor monitoring and referral mechanism in Ouzai, the southern suburbs of Beirut, and in Kahale, Mount Lebanon. The orientation and training sessions for this mechanism were held in 2016.(4) The Government, in cooperation with NGOs and the ILO, updated an agreement with the Farmers’ Union to not allow Syrian refugee children under age 16 to work in agriculture. UNICEF worked with farmers to allow children to attend school, reduce working hours, and improve working conditions.(4)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Lebanon took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (39)

Yes (4)

Number of Investigations

3 (39)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

10 (4)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

5 (4)

Number of Convictions

1 (32)

3 (66)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (39)

Yes (4)

 

In 2016, the Anti-Human Trafficking and Morals Protection Bureau of the Internal Security Forces employed 31 officers responsible for criminal enforcement of child labor laws. The Internal Security Forces provided specialized training for its staff on human trafficking and investigation techniques of cases involving children.(4) Five individuals were prosecuted for the use of children in illicit activities, and five children were referred to social services. Based on available information, at least some of these trials were ongoing at the end of the reporting period.(4)

Some child victims of human trafficking were subject to arrest, detention, and deportation and prosecution for crimes committed as a direct result of being trafficked.(3)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Raise awareness; coordinate efforts among Government agencies; establish standard practices; and develop, enforce, recommend changes, and ensure that Government agencies comply with the law.(39) Led by the Minister of Labor, includes representatives from six other ministries and other institutions and international organizations.(4)

National Steering Committee on Trafficking

Coordinate efforts against human trafficking, including child trafficking. Based at the Ministry of Labor and meets on a monthly basis.(58)

UNICEF and UNHCR

Coordinate efforts to address the needs of children affected by the Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon and maintain interagency standards for child protection. The UN representatives identify crucial concerns, including factors that make children vulnerable to child labor, and make recommendations to the Government on the use of resources, including referral services.(40, 67)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Action Plan on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2013–2019)

Establishes strategies for addressing the worst forms of child labor, including improving enforcement of child labor laws and expanding access to education. In 2016, in order to help implement the National Action Plan, the National Steering Committee on Child Labor developed the National Awareness Raising Strategy to increase public awareness, help enforce Decree No. 8987 on hazardous work, and mobilize stakeholders in the private sector and labor unions.(68) During the reporting period, the Ministry of Labor, in cooperation with UN agencies, drafted an Annex to this National Action Plan, which was extended to 2019. The Annex outlines specific needs of refugee children such as lack of legal documentation and livelihood opportunities for their parents.(4)

Work Plan to prevent and respond to the association of children with armed violence in Lebanon

Provides the framework for the prevention of children involved in armed conflict.(44) In 2016, the Higher Council for Childhood held technical meetings with representatives of the Ministry of Justice and Internal Security Forces to develop procedures for the treatment of children associated with armed conflict.(4)

‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(58, 69)

In 2015, the Higher Council for Childhood, in cooperation with World Vision, finalized a sectoral action plan on child trafficking, which is still pending ministerial approval.(4)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Tackling Child Labor among Syrian Refugees and Their Host Communities in Jordan and Lebanon (2015–2016)

EU-funded, 1.5-year project, implemented by the ILO to conduct research on the hazards of child labor in certain sectors; build the technical capacity of governments, employers, and workers’ organizations to improve referrals and respond to cases of child labor; and provide training on preventing and removing children from child labor and providing services.(70) In 2016, the project worked with the Ministry of Labor and held a workshop for policy-makers to identify ways of addressing child labor in Akkar, North Governorate, particularly children working in agriculture.(71)

Program to Support Children Working on the Street (2014–2016)

Joint UNHCR and International Rescue Committee (IRC) program to identify children engaged in child labor on the street, mitigate risks by providing psychosocial support and emergency services, and track incidents of violence.(39) Between January and June 2016, the program provided 289 children with psychosocial support and basic literacy classes; 59 children were enrolled in second shift schools, and 68 were approved to enter in the Accelerated Learning Program.(4) UNHCR helped in capacity-building of 300 officials of the Directorate of General Security and Lebanese Armed Forces on child protection and vulnerabilities of street children. UNHCR and the IRC also provided training to NGO social workers on the basics of the Lebanese child labor laws.(4)

Child Protection Program

Joint program by UNICEF and the Ministry of Social Affairs. Addresses the worst forms of child labor through interventions, including psychological counseling, raising awareness among employers, and working with employers to decrease working hours for children and to improve working conditions.(27) In 2016, UNICEF and the Ministry collaborated to raise awareness on child labor and its prevention among more than 37,000 children and 42,000 parents and community members. UNICEF also produced storybooks on risks of child labor in agriculture and street work.(4)

USDOL-funded projects for capacity building and research

USDOL projects that aim to build capacity of government law enforcement officials, improve policy implementation, and improve the evidence base on child labor. These projects include the Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (GAP 11), implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries, and the Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR) capacity-building project implemented by the ILO in at least 11 countries.(72, 73) For additional information, please visit our Web site.

Reaching All Children through Education (RACE II) (2017–2021)*

Funded by foreign donors and international NGOs, the Ministry of Education and Higher Education enrolled more than 400,000 Lebanese and refugee children in school during the 2015–2016 academic year.(4) In 2016, The Ministry launched RACE II, in cooperation with UN agencies and other institutions, to expand free access to education for all children in Lebanon ages 3-18. The Ministry and funders will cover the cost of registration, stationary supplies, and books.(74) RACE II aims to register 469,000 children in formal and non-formal education by 2022. For the academic year 2016–2017, 300 schools offered a second shift for non-Lebanese children.(74, 75) The Ministry is developing a policy to allow children who have been outside the formal education system for several years to catch up and reintegrate into formal education, building on the Accelerated Learning Program, piloted in 2015, for basic education (up to grade nine). The Government announced in 2016 that all children would be allowed to take their exams at the end of grade nine to continue on to secondary schools, even if they lack all necessary documentation.(75) Other non-formal education programs include Basic Literacy and Numeracy training and vocational training.(4)

National Poverty Alleviation Program†

Funded by the Government and foreign donors, this Ministry of Social Affairs program pays school tuition and book costs for 74,000 families living in extreme poverty.(39)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Lebanon.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(39, 76, 77)

The scarcity of shelters for child-trafficking victims results in some children being placed in juvenile detention centers.(47) The lack of shelters and resources to effectively handle child labor and trafficking cases puts children at a heightened risk of further exploitation.(32) Although Lebanon has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, including child labor for domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Lebanon (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Accede to the CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict, which the Government signed in 2002.

2013 – 2016

Ensure that exaction of forced labor and debt bondage are criminally prohibited.

2015 – 2016

Enforcement

Track and publish information on the funding for the labor inspectorate and labor inspector’s training system; the number of labor inspections, including those conducted at worksites and through desk reviews; the number of violations found and the penalties imposed and collected; and whether routine, targeted, and unannounced inspections were conducted.

2009 – 2016

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties.

2015 – 2016

Ensure proper funding for Ministry of Labor inspectors and necessary transportation.

2011 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO recommendation.

2016

Publish information on the training system for criminal investigators and the number of investigations and convictions.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that child victims of human trafficking and children engaged in begging are treated under the law as victims, rather than as criminals.

2011 – 2016

Social Programs

Build on current efforts to improve access to public education for all children.

2010 – 2016

Increase the number of shelters for child victims of human trafficking and other worst forms of child labor.

2013 – 2016

Institute programs to address child labor domestic service and commercial sexual exploitation.

2013 – 2016

1.         FXB Center at Harvard. Running out of Time, Survival of Syrian Refugee Children in Lebanon. Cambridge, Harvard University; January 2014. http://fxb.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2014/01/FXB-Center-Syrian-Refugees-in-Lebanon_Released-01-13-13.pdf.

2.         Kullab, S. "Efforts advance in fight against human trafficking " The Daily Star, Beirut, March 21, 2013; Local News. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Local-News/2013/Mar-21/210953-efforts-advance-in-fight-against-human-trafficking.ashx#axzz2vcY2uTej.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Lebanon," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253183.pdf.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Beirut. reporting, February 9, 2017.

5.         Humanitarian Organization Official. Interview with USDOL official. January 13, 2016.

6.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worse forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         Osseiran, H. Action Against Child Labor in Lebanon: A Mapping of Policy and Normative Issues. Beirut; 2012. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/genericdocument/wcms_210577.pdf.

9.         Stoughton, I. "Solving Lebanon’s child labor crisis." The Daily Star, Beirut, October 29, 2013. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2013/Oct-29/236103-solving-lebanons-child-labor-crisis.ashx#axzz2nJqkoTwn.

10.       Fisk, R. "The 200,000 Syrian child refugees forced into slave labour in Lebanon." The Independent, London, October 26, 2014. http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/robert-fisk-the-200000-syrian-child-refugees-forced-into-slave-labour-in-lebanon-9819622.html.

11.       Dominus, S. "The Displaced: Hana." The New York Times Magazine, November 5, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/08/magazine/the-displaced-hana.html.

12.       Freedom Fund. Struggling to survive: Slavery and exploitation of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. London; April 6, 2016. http://freedomfund.org/wp-content/uploads/Lebanon-Report-FINAL-8April16.pdf.

13.       Weber, J. "Grapes of Wrath: In Lebanon’s Napa Valley, Syrian Refugees Face a Steinbeck Scenario." Christianity Today, September 2016. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2016/september/grapes-of-wrath-syrian-refugees-lebanon-bekaa-valley.html.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Beirut. reporting, November 4, 2015.

15.       Gilbert, B. "Syrian refugee children forced to work to support families in Lebanon." Al Jazeera [online] February 22, 2014 [cited December 15, 2015]; http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/2/22/syrian-refugee-childrenforcedtoworktosupportfamiliesinlebanon.html.

16.       Human Rights Watch. Growing Up Without an Education: Barriers to Education for Syrian Refugee Children in Lebanon. New York; July 2016. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/lebanon0716web_1.pdf.

17.       Terre des Hommes. Child Labour among Refugees of the Syrian Conflict. Osnabrueck; June 2016. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/TDH-Child_Labour_Report-2016-ENGLISH_FINAL_0.pdf.

18.       ILO. Rapid Assessment on Child Labour in North Lebanon (Tripoli and Akkar) and Bekaa Governorates. Geneva; January 4, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=20621.

19.       Newton, J. "The child refugees forced to rise at 3am to carry out back-breaking work after leaving Syria: Boys as young as eight who become 'the man of the family' after fleeing war." Daily Mail, June 7, 2016 [cited January 6, 2017]; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3629020/The-child-refugees-forced-rise-3am-carry-breaking-work-leaving-Syria-Boys-young-eight-man-family-fleeing-war.html.

20.       International Centre for Migration Policy Development. Targeting Vulnerabilities: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation on Trafficking in Persons (A Study of Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq). Vienna; December 2015. http://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/ICMPD-Website/Anti-Trafficking/Targeting_Vulnerabilities_EN__SOFT_.pdf.

21.       UNICEF Lebanon. "Mohamad, 15 #ImagineaSchool," Beirut: November 14, 2016; 51 sec., YouTube video; January 6, 2017; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmrq4TgfGBA.

22.       Giammarinaro, MG. Report of the Special Rapporteur of the Human Rights Council on trafficking in persons, especially women and children. Geneva, United Nations General Assembly; August 5, 2016. Report No. A/71/303. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N16/250/78/PDF/N1625078.pdf?OpenElement.

23.       Human Rights Watch. I Just Wanted to be Treated like a Person: How Lebanon's Residency Rules Facilitate Abuse of Syrian Refugees. New York; January 2016. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/lebanon0116web.pdf.

24.       Caritas Lebanon Migrants Center. An Insight into Child Labor among Iraqi Refugees in Lebanon; 2013. http://english.caritasmigrant.org.lb/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Child-Labor-among-Iraqi-Refugees-in-Lebanon.pdf.

25.       ILO UNICEF and Save the Children. Children Living and Working on the Streets in Lebanon: Profile and Magnitude The Consultation and Research Institute; February 2015. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/publication/wcms_344799.pdf.

26.       UNHCR. The Future of Syria: Refugee Children in Crisis. Geneva; November 2013. http://unhcr.org/FutureOfSyria/.

27.       U.S. Embassy- Beirut. reporting, February 11, 2015.

28.       UNICEF Lebanon. "Israa, 11," Beirut: May 18, 2016; 3 min., 21 sec., YouTube video; January 6, 2017; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnSWOEy-QRo.

29.       Shoukeir, F. "Lebanon: Children Labor at Beirut Graveyards." Al-Akhbar Beirut, December 7, 2013. http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/17843.

30.       Sleem, A. "Child Labor in Lebanon," Cases. Lebanon: January 3, 2014; 52 min. 07 sec., YouTube video; March 15, 2016; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2klFH3VlY0.

31.       The Guardian. "Syrian Refugee Children in Lebanon Forced to Seek Work." London, June 12, 2014; Global. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/jun/12/-sp-syrian-refugee-children-in-lebanon-forced-to-seek-work-in-pictures.

32.       U.S. Embassy- Beirut. reporting, February 29, 2016.

33.       Meguerditchian, V. "Child beggar networks persist despite crackdown." The Daily Star, Beirut, February 8, 2012. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Local-News/2012/Feb-08/162564-child-beggar-networks-persist-despite-crackdown.ashx.

34.       Peyroux, O. Trafficking in Human Beings in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situation. Paris, Caritas; June 2015. http://www.caritas.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/CoatnetParis15Report.pdf.

35.       U.S. Department of State. "Lebanon," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017. Washington, DC; June 27, 2017; https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271225.htm.

36.       Cochrane, P. Refugee crisis: Child Labour in agriculture on the rise in Lebanon, ILO, [Online] July 12, 2016 [cited January 3, 2017]; http://www.ilo.org/beirut/media-centre/fs/WCMS_496725/lang--en/index.htm.

37.       ILO. ILO and Ministry of Labour launch tools to boost fight against child labour in Lebanon. Press Release. Geneva; January 15, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/beirut/media-centre/news/WCMS_443535/lang--en/index.htm.

38.       UNHCR. Syria Regional Refugee Response: Lebanon; 2016. http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/country.php?id=122.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Beirut. reporting, February 4, 2016.

40.       UNHCR. 2014 Syria Regional Response Plan: Lebanon; 2014. http://www.unhcr.org/syriarrp6/docs/syria-rrp6-lebanon-response-plan.pdf.

41.       UNHCR. 2014 Syria Regional Response Plan: Lebanon - Mid Year Update; 2014. http://www.unhcr.org/syriarrp6/midyear/docs/syria-rrp6-myu-lebanon.pdf.

42.       UNHCR and Reach. Barriers to Education for Syrian Refugee Children in Lebanon: Out of School Children Profiling Report; November 2014. https://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1930_1416914829_reach-lbn-report-syriacrisis-outofschoolchildrenprofiling-nov2014.pdf.

43.       UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/69/926 – S/2015/409); June 5, 2015. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_409.pdf.

44.       UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/70/836–S/2016/360); April 20, 2016. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=s/2016/360.

45.       Caritas Lebanon Migrants Center. Left Behind: A Needs Assessment of Iraqi Refugees Present in Lebanon; 2014. http://english.caritasmigrant.org.lb/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Left-Behind-Full.pdf.

46.       Government of Lebanon. National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Lebanon by 2016. Beirut; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/genericdocument/wcms_229115.pdf.

47.       U.S. Embassy- Beirut Official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 11, 2015.

48.       Government of Lebanon. Labor Code (as amended), enacted September 23, 1946. http://ahdath.justice.gov.lb/law-nearby-work.htm.

49.       Government of Lebanon. Decree No. 8987 of 2012 concerning the prohibition of employment of minors under the age of 18 in works that may harm their health, safety or morals, enacted 2012. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=LBN&p_classification=04&p_origin=SUBJECT&p_whatsnew=201304.

50.       Government of Lebanon. Legislative Decree No. 340 on the Penal Code (as amended), enacted March 1, 1943. http://data.lebaneselaws.com/Leb_LC-Ar/07_%D9%88%D8%B2%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A9%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%AF%D9%84/15_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%8A%D9%86%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%B2%D8%A7%D8%A6%D9%8A%D8%A9/01_%D9%82%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%8A%D9%86%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%82%D9%88%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA/01_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D8%B5%D9%88%D8%B5%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%A9/09999I_1943-03-01_00340_Ldec.html?val=AL1.

51.       Government of Lebanon. Decree No. 3855, enacted September 1, 1972.

52.       Government of Lebanon. Legislative Decree No. 102 on the National Defense Law (as amended), enacted September 16, 1983. http://www.mod.gov.lb/Cultures/ar-LB/Programs/Laws/Pages/armyihtiyat6.aspx.

53.       Government of Lebanon. Law No. 150 on Terms of appointment in the Ministry of Education and Higher Education, enacted August 17, 2011. http://jo.pcm.gov.lb/j2011/j39/wfn/n150.htm.

54.       Government of Lebanon. Law No. 665 enacted February 4, 2005. http://www.lebarmy.gov.lb/en/content/military-service.

55.       ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations. Observation, adopted 2015, published 105th ILC session (2016), Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) - Lebanon (Ratification: 1977); accessed July 18, 2017; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3251395.

56.       ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations. Direct Request - adopted 2001, published 90th ILC session (2002) on Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) - Lebanon (Ratification: 1977); accessed July 18, 2017; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:2206681.

57.       Government of Lebanon. Law No. 422 on the Protection of Delinquent and At-Risk Juveniles, enacted June 6, 2002. http://bba.org.lb/content/uploads/Institute/141211103338689~loi%20422%20delinquent_arabe.pdf.

58.       U.S. Embassy- Beirut official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 1, 2016.

59.       U.S. Embassy- Beirut official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 11, 2017.

60.       U.S. Embassy- Beirut. reporting, January 22, 2014.

61.       ILO. Labour inspection in Arab states: progress and challenges. Geneva; December 5, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/beirut/publications/WCMS_325618/lang--en/index.htm.

62.       Government of Lebanon. Decree No.3273 on Labor Inspection, enacted 2000. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/58763/45932/F1688904235/LBN58763.PDF.

63.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited May 4, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

64.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection (GB.297/ESP/3). Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

65.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

66.       U.S. Embassy- Beirut. reporting, March 15, 2017.

67.       Government of Lebanon. Child Protection in Emergencies Working Group -- Terms of Reference. Beirut; 2013. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CDgQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdata.unhcr.org%2Fsyrianrefugees%2Fdownload.php%3Fid%3D4517&ei=UBIMU8LnNsSg0QHmwYGQCw&usg=AFQjCNF7agKn_X0kGzTVbI_EavTSmbnZuA&sig2=sxy9VlxSJ9uY5Gu7Qn1Cbg&bvm=bv.61725948,d.dmQ.

68.       National Steering Committee on Child Labor, the Ministry of Labor, and the ILO. National Awareness Raising Strategy on the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Lebanon; 2016. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/publication/wcms_443268.pdf.

69.       Republic of Lebanon, Ministry of Social Affairs. The National Social Development Strategy of Lebanon 2011. National Strategy. Beirut; 2011. http://www.databank.com.lb/docs/National%20Social%20Development%20Strategy%202011.pdf.

70.       ILO. "Tackling child labour among Syrian refugees and their host communities in Jordan and Lebanon." 2015 [cited February 17, 2016]; http://www.ilo.org/beirut/projects/WCMS_384766/lang--en/index.htm.

71.       ILO. Advocacy workshop to reduce risk of child labour in Lebanon’s agriculture sector. Event Announcement. Geneva; 2016. http://www.ilo.org/beirut/events/WCMS_467273/lang--en/index.htm.

72.       ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR). Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015.

73.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015.

74.       UNESCO, UNICEF, and UNHCR. Ministry of Education and Higher Education Convenes Largest Partnership in support of Education for All Children in Lebanon September 15, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/report/lebanon/ministry-education-and-higher-education-convenes-largest-partnership-support.

75.       Ministry of Education and Higher Education. Reaching All Children with Education: Lebanon’s national education response strategy to the Syria crisis, Global Education Monitoring Report, [Blog] May 25, 2016 [cited November 2, 2016]; https://gemreportunesco.wordpress.com/2016/05/25/reaching-all-children-with-education-lebanons-national-education-response-strategy-to-the-syria-crisis/.

76.       IOM. Action to protect and assist vulnerable and exploited migrant workers in the Middle East and North Africa (PAVE) - Fact sheet; March 2016. [source on file].

77.       IOM. Lebanon Launches Public Service Announcement to Combat Human Trafficking. October 20, 2015. https://www.iom.int/news/lebanon-launches-public-service-announcement-combat-human-trafficking.

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