Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Lebanon

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Lebanon

Moderate Advancement

In 2014, Lebanon made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. While both the anti-Human Trafficking National Action Plan and the National Action Plan for Human Rights await formal adoption by the Parliament, Government agencies in cooperation with other organizations began to implement them. The Government allowed Syrian refugee children to access education. The Reaching All Children through Education project, which aims to improve access to education, was launched. Also, the Ministry of Social Affairs in cooperation with UNICEF formed a program to enroll children in schools and improve working conditions for children. However, children in Lebanon continue to engage in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Labor law enforcement is weak due to a lack of resources, and enforcement agencies do not maintain enforcement data. There are not sufficient programs and services that target children engaged in agriculture, street work, domestic service, or commercial sexual exploitation.

 

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Children in Lebanon are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture.(1-3) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(1, 4-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Lebanon. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

Unavailable

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

Unavailable

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

Unavailable

Primary completion rate (%):

86.2

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2013.(7)
Data were unavailable from Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis, 2013.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Picking olives,* potatoes,* citrus fruit,* beans,* and figs* (1, 9-11)

Production of tobacco† (9, 12)

Clearing rocks and preparing ground for planting* (1, 13)

Fishing,* activities unknown (2, 3)

Industry

Construction,† including carpentry and welding*† (2, 3, 9)

Rock quarrying*† (14)

Making handicrafts* (2, 9, 12)

Services

Street work,† including peddling,* portering,* begging,* washing cars,* scavenging garbage,*† and shining shoes (1, 2, 9, 10, 12, 15)

Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles† (2, 9, 14)

Building maintenance, including painting† and cleaning* (1, 2, 9)

Domestic work† (3, 9, 16)

Cleaning sewage*† (1-3)

Food service*† (3, 15)

Working in the preparation of bodies for funerals and burials*† (17, 18)

Cleaning market places* (1, 2)

Working in slaughterhouses*† and butcheries* (2, 3)

Working in small shops* (2, 15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Used in illicit activities, including drug trafficking sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and arms dealing* (3, 4, 18, 19)

Forced begging sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 6, 20)

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 4-6, 12, 19)

Work in agriculture as a result of human trafficking* (3, 6)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children who work in agriculture, mainly in the districts of Akkar, Hermel, Baalbek, and South Lebanon, often do not attend school during harvesting and planting seasons.(13, 21) Children working on the streets are sometimes forced into commercial sexual exploitation and illicit work by criminal gangs and acquaintances. A 2011 study found that boys working on the street are at a high risk of sexual exploitation by peers and by men.(4) Lebanon is a source country for children, especially girls, trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation, domestic service, and criminal activity. Lebanon is also a destination country for children trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation.(4, 6) Syrian girls, particularly, are trafficked into Lebanon for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation under the guise of marriage.(4, 6)

The Syrian conflict has caused a large influx of refugees to Lebanon. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that as of December 2014, more than half of the 1.15 million Syrians who had sought refuge in Lebanon were children.(22) Working in the streets is especially common among refugee children, including Palestinian, Iraqi, and Syrian, as well as Dom children (an ethnic minority).(12, 23) Refugee families face extreme poverty, making their children more vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(6, 24) There is limited evidence of recruitment of children for use in armed conflict in Syria.(25, 26)

The law guarantees free compulsory education for children, but only for Lebanese citizens.(27) Noncitizen children, including stateless and refugee children, have limited access to education. While Palestinian refugees cannot access public schools, they are required to attend schools operated by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA).(21, 24, 28) Although Syrian refugees can access public education, the public school system in Lebanon does not have the capacity to accommodate the large number of school-age Syrian refugee children.(24) As of summer 2014, only 20 percent of school-age Syrian refugee children attended schools in Lebanon.(28) Lack of awareness about education opportunities, school fees, costs of transportation and supplies, use of schools as shelters, and lack of security are among the barriers to education.(25, 28, 29) Lebanese children face similar barriers in accessing education.(21) Likewise, Iraqi refugee children may not be enrolled in school due to such reasons as school-related costs, reliance on child labor income, and discrimination.(30) Additionally, in Lebanon many classes are taught in French or English, whereas Syrian and Iraqi children are used to learning all subjects in Arabic.(29, 30)

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Lebanon has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government of Lebanon has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 22 of the Labor Code (31)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 1 of the Decree No. 8987 (32)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Annex 1 of the Decree No. 8987 (32)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 586.1 and 586.5 of the Law on the Punishment of Human Trafficking (33)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 586.1 and 586.5 of the Law on the Punishment of Human Trafficking (33)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 523-527 and 507-510 of the Penal Code (34); Articles 586.1 and 586.5 of the Law on the Punishment of Human Trafficking (33)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 618 of the Penal Code (34); Articles 586.1 and 586.5 of the Law on the Punishment of Human Trafficking (33)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 30 of the National Defense Law (35)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

12

Article 49 of Education Law (21, 27)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 49 of Education Law (27)

* No conscription (36)

The law requires Lebanese citizens to attend school only until the age of 12. This standard makes children ages 12-14 particularly vulnerable to child labor, as they are not required to be in school but are not legally permitted to work.(37) Additionally, according to the Ministry of Labor's Unit for the Combat of Child Labor, penalties for criminal violations of child labor and related laws are not sufficient to deter future violations.(12) Draft legal amendments to address compulsory education age and insufficient penalties remain pending.(12, 38)

Lebanese law is not consistent in its treatment of children working in begging. Article 610 of the Penal Code criminalizes begging.(34) Reports refer to limited cases in which children working as beggars have been arrested.(23) However, Articles 25 and 26 of the Delinquent Juveniles Law stipulate that child begging endangers children and that such children are entitled to protective measures.(23, 39)

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The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)

Enforce child labor laws through workplace inspections.(12) Maintain a hotline to receive labor-related complaints, including cases of child labor.(3)

Internal Security Forces

Enforce laws regarding the worst forms of child labor through the Anti-Human Trafficking and Morals Protection Bureau.(12, 40)

Ministry of Justice

Prosecute violations of the Penal Code in coordination with the Internal Security Forces and the Ministry of Social Affairs' Higher Council for Childhood. Maintain general data and statistics on criminal violations involving the worst forms of child labor.(12) Refer at-risk children to shelters and protection services.(3)

Ministry of Justice's Union for Protection of Juveniles in Lebanon

Refer ill-treated children, children in conflict with the law, and child victims of human trafficking and other forms of worst forms of child labor to social services. Coordinate juvenile justice procedures and advise juvenile court judges on referring child labor victims to appropriate social services.(12, 16)

Ministry of Social Affairs

Refer children identified by the Internal Security Forces and the Ministry of Justice to protective institutions, such as health centers.(3, 16) Refer children to shelters through its Higher Council for Childhood.(12)

Directorate of General Security's Hotline

Receive complaints, including on human trafficking.(41)

Law enforcement agencies in Lebanon took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Ministry of Labor (MOL) employed 90 labor inspectors, including administrators. Labor inspectors did not receive child labor training in the reporting period. MOL did, however, provide a guide, developed in cooperation with the American University in Beirut, on best practices for implementing Decree No. 8987.(3) Additionally, MOL does not have the resources to provide inspectors with the necessary office equipment or transportation to enforce child labor laws.(3) Although, in theory, labor inspectors can initiate both routine and complaint-based inspections, including unannounced, desk reviews, and on-site inspections, due to a lack of resources, almost all inspections are generally complaint-based. MOL did not receive any child labor complaints in the reporting period, thus no inspection was performed.(3)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2014, the head of the Anti-Human Trafficking and Morals Protection Bureau of the Internal Security Forces stated that the Bureau lacks sufficient staff and that officers are routinely pulled from their duties to perform other tasks.(3) The Human Rights Institute of the Beirut Bar Association published an informational manual on the legal provisions and best practices to combat human trafficking as well as 500 copies of a handbook on human-trafficking indicators to help officials identify victims. Trainings were also provided for the staff of the Directorate of General Security, the Internal Security Forces, and the Lebanese Armed Forces.(40) However, officials of the Ministry of Justice indicate that judges need more training on the application of the Law on the Punishment of Human Trafficking.(41) The Internal Security Forces investigated five cases of human trafficking, including those that involved child victims. The Ministry of Justice prosecuted 34 cases of human trafficking, including cases of forced child labor in begging.(41) Six individuals were convicted under the Law on the Punishment of Human Trafficking. In addition, two cases of forced child labor in begging, initiated prior to 2014, resulted in convictions of 10-year imprisonment and fines.(41) Research did not find information on the number of child labor and human trafficking complaints received through the Ministry and Labor and the Directorate of General Security's hotlines.

The Government did not generally provide protection, including shelter, to victims of human trafficking and continued to arrest, detain, and deport victims for crimes committed as a direct result of being trafficked.(6) Only one child was removed from a situation of commercial sexual exploitation and was handed over to NGO Abaad for further assistance.(3)

When a child is found to be involved in or a victim of criminal activities, the Internal Security Forces take the child into protective custody and contact the Ministry of Justice's Union for Protection of Juveniles in Lebanon, which then refers the child to appropriate social services. Given the Union's limited resources, the Ministry of Justice is in talks with more organizations to boost the number of social workers.(3)

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The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

MOL's Unit for the Combat of Child Labor

Raise awareness; coordinate efforts among government agencies; establish standard practices; and develop, enforce and recommend changes to the law and ensure they comply with it.(42) Led by the Minister of Labor, includes representatives from the National Social Security Fund; Ministries of Social Affairs; Public Health; Justice; and Agriculture; and National Employment Office.(43)

Inter-Ministerial Task Force on Human Trafficking

Coordinate efforts against human trafficking, including child trafficking.(44)

The UN coordinates efforts to address the needs of children affected by the Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon and maintains interagency standards for child protection. Its agents identify crucial concerns, including factors that make children vulnerable to child labor, and make recommendations to the Government on the use of resources, including referral services.(24, 45)

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The Government of Lebanon has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2013–2016)

Establishes strategies for addressing the worst forms of child labor. Includes a National Awareness Strategy to be carried out by the ILO.(12, 46)

National Social Development Strategy

Establishes a plan for a comprehensive social, health, and educational program.(47) Includes the protection of working children and the implementation of the Higher Council for Childhood's strategy to address the needs of street children.(48)

Ministry of Education and Higher Education's Education Sector Development Plan (2010–2015)*

Aims to improve quality learning during pre-school, general, and higher education levels; integral part of the National Social Development Strategy.(49)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

In 2014, MOL's Unit for the Combat of Child Labor was in the process of finalizing the National Awareness Strategy against the Worst Forms of Child Labor. The Unit also announced that it will update its website to become the main portal of information on all types of child labor.(3) The revamped website, expected to be launched in 2015, will also include an online child labor complaints system. Likewise, the Ministry of Social Affairs' Higher Council for Childhood launched its consultations with World Vision to draft a sectoral action plan on child trafficking, part of the National Action Plan for Child Protection.(3)

In 2013, government agencies, including the Internal Security Forces, and the Ministries of Justice, Interior, and Social Affairs introduced a draft of an Anti-Human Trafficking National Action Plan that outlines the roles and responsibilities of agencies involved in the identification of victims of human trafficking and in their referral to services. Based on the Plan, a national database is to be established to facilitate counter-trafficking activities.(5) Additionally, in 2012, the Government drafted the National Action Plan for Human Rights. The Plan provides recommendations on child labor coordination between relevant authorities. It also proposes legislative and executive procedures on 21 human rights topics, including children's rights.(12, 50) While both Plans await approval by Parliament, they are already being implemented by government agencies in cooperation with civil society and non-governmental organizations.(3)

The Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Social Affairs, and the Internal Security Forces, in cooperation with UNICEF, finalized a standard operating procedure (SOP) on child protection, including protection against human trafficking. The SOP defines the role of each of the agencies in implementing the law. The Ministry of Social Affairs is expected to approve the SOP in 2015 for it to become effective.(3)

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In 2014, the Government of Lebanon funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Reaching All Children through Education†

Part of the No Lost Generation initiative, a joint effort of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), UNICEF, and the World Bank.(3) Addresses needs of Syrian refugee children to increase access to education and provide a protective environment as well as life-skill building opportunities.(51) Enroll up to 200,000 children in first and second school shifts in 2014 — 2015 (i.e., the school day was divided, with some children attending in the morning and others in the afternoon, to accommodate the large number of students) and increased targets in subsequent years. Aims to provide a productive, safe alternative to child labor.(3)

National Poverty Alleviation Program‡*

Funded by the Government, the Italian Foreign Ministry, the World Bank, and the Canadian Embassy, this Ministry of Social Affairs' program pays school tuition and book costs for 74,000 families living in extreme poverty.(12)

Higher Council for Childhood's program to eliminate child labor and street children

Funded by the Arab Council for Children and Development, the program includes training for the media on how to cover child labor cases, a study on street children in collaboration with St. Joseph University, training programs for social workers, and awareness campaigns for the general public.(12)

Education Program for Syrian Refugee Children

The Ministry of Education and Higher Education, and UNHCR support the War Child Holland initiative, which provides education to qualified refugee children in 13 public schools in Beirut and Mount Lebanon. Supports second shift courses and informal educational activities, designed to give students the necessary skills to enroll in public schools.(52)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research.(53) In 2014, in preparation for a national child labor survey in Lebanon, the ILO finalized the questionnaire and the planning of geographic areas to be covered in the survey.(53)

Child Protection Committee†

Joint program by UNICEF and the Ministry of Social Affairs. Addresses worst forms of child labor interventions, including through counseling, enrolling children in school, and working with employers to decrease working hours for children and improve work conditions.(3) Currently implementing programs for children in armed conflict and refugee children from Syria.(3, 21)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
† Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Lebanon.

As shown in Table 8, NGOs and UN agencies are the main providers of children's social protection services, including for child victims of trafficking.(4) The scarcity of shelters for child-trafficking victims results in some children being placed in juvenile detention centers.(21) The lack of shelters and resources to effectively handle child labor and trafficking cases puts children at a heightened risk of further exploitation.

Lebanon lacks programs to address child labor in agriculture, street work, domestic service, and commercial sexual exploitation.

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Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Lebanon (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Accede to the CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict, which the Government signed in 2002.

2013–2014

Raise the compulsory education age to harmonize it with the minimum age for work.

2010–2014

Ensure that the law does not criminalize child begging.

2011–2014

Enforcement

Ensure adequate funding for staff, equipment, and transportation for the Ministry of Labor and the Internal Security Forces as well as training for labor inspectors and judges.

2011–2014

Track and make publicly available the number of complaints received through the Government's hotlines on child labor and human trafficking.

2014

Ensure child victims of human trafficking are treated as victims rather than as criminals under the law.

2011–2014

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Sector Development Plan.

2013–2014

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant worst forms of child labor, such as human trafficking.

2013–2014

Social Programs

Ensure that noncitizen children, including refugee and stateless children, have access to free and compulsory primary education.

2010–2014

Assess the impact that the National Poverty Alleviation Program may have on child labor.

2010–2014

Increase the number of shelters for juvenile victims of human trafficking and other worst forms of child labor.

2013–2014

Institute programs to address child labor in agriculture, street work, domestic service, and commercial sexual exploitation.

2013–2014

 

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1.FXB Center at Harvard. Running out of Time, Surival of Syrian Refugee Children in Lebanon. Cambridge, Harvard University; Jan 2014.

2.ILO. Rapid Assessment on Child Labour in North Lebanon and Bekaa Governorates. Geneva; February 23, 2012.

3.U.S. Embassy- Beirut. reporting, February 11, 2015.

4.Lewis, C. A Preliminary Study on Child Trafficking in Lebanon: Patters, perceptions and mechanisms for prevention and protection Study. Beirut; January 2011.

5.Samya Kullab. "Efforts advance in fight against human trafficking " The Daily Star, Beirut, March 21, 2013; Local News.

6.U.S. Department of State. "Lebanon," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 19, 2014;

7.UNESCO. Beyond 20/20 Web Data Systems: Table 1: Education Systems. 2012.

8.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. February 5, 2013. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

9.Osseiran, H. Action Against Child Labor in Lebanon: A Mapping of Policy and Normative Issues. Mapping Study. Beirut; 2012.

10.Stoughton, I. "Solving Lebanon's child labor crisis." The Daily Star, Beirut, October 29, 2013.

11.Fisk, R. "The 200,000 Syrian child refugees forced into slave labour in Lebanon." The Independent, London, October 26, 2014.

12.U.S. Embassy- Beirut. reporting, January 23, 2014.

13.Government of Lebanon. National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Lebanon by 2016. Beirut; 2013.

14.UNHCR. The Future of Syria: Refugee Children in Crisis. Geneva; November 2013.

15.Caritas Lebanon Migrants Center. An Insight into Child Labor among Iraqi Refugees in Lebanon; 2013.

16.Manara Network. A Review of the Implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Review. Beirut, Save the Children Sweden; August 2011.

17.Shoukeir, F. "Lebanon: Children Labor at Beirut Graveyards." Al-Akhbar Beirut, December 7, 2013.

18.Aly Sleem. "Child Labor in Lebanon," Cases. Lebanon: January 3, 2014; 52 min. 08 sec., youtube video;

19.The Guardian. "Syrian Refugee Children in Lebanon Forced to Seek Work." The Guardian, London, June 12, 2014; Global.

20.Meguerditchian, V. "Child beggar networks persist despite crackdown." The Daily Star, Beirut, February 8, 2012.

21.U.S. Embassy- Beirut. Communication to USDOL official. May 11, 2015.

22.UNHCR. Syria Regional Refugee Response - Lebanon. Geneva; 2014 December 24,.

23.Terre des hommes. The Dom People and their Children in Lebanon. Beirut; July 2011.

24.UNHCR. 2014 Syria Regional Response Plan: Lebanon; 2014.

25.United National Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/69/926 — S/2015/409); June 5, 2015.

26.U.S. Embassy- Beirut official. Communication to USDOL official. June 10 2015.

27.Government of Lebanon. Law No. 686 on Education, enacted March 16, 1998.

28.UNHCR. 2014 Syria Regional Response Plan: Lebanon - Mid Year Update; 2014.

29.UNHCR and Reach. Barriers to education for Syrian refugee children in Lebanon: out of school children profiling report; November 2014.

30.Caritas Lebanon Migrants Center. Left Behind: A Needs Assessment of Iraqi Refugees Present in Lebanon; 2014.

31.Government of Lebanon. Labor Code (as amended), 23 September 1946, enacted July 24, 1996.

32.Government of Lebanon. Decree 8987 on the prohibition of employment of minors under the age of 18 in works that may harm their health, safety or morals, enacted 2012.

33.Government of Lebanon. Law on the Punishment for the Crime of Trafficking in Persons, No. 164, enacted August 24, 2011.

34.Government of Lebanon. Legislative Decree No. 340 on the Penal Code (as amended), enacted March 1, 1943.

35.Government of Lebanon. Legislative Decree No. 102 on the National Defense Law (as amended), enacted September 16, 1983.

36.Government of Lebanon. Law No. 665 enacted February 4, 2005.

37.U.S. Embassy- Beirut. reporting, February 8, 2013.

38.ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Lebanon (ratification: 2003) Published: 2014; accessed November 6, 2014;

39.Government of Lebanon. Law No. 422 on the Protection of Delinquent and At-Risk Juvenilles, enacted June 6, 2002.

40.U.S. Embassy- Beirut. reporting, December 5, 2014.

41.U.S. Embassy- Beirut. reporting, February 25, 2015.

42.Government of Lebanon, Ministry of Labor. Unit for the Combat of Child Labour in Lebanon, Government of Lebanon - Ministry of Labor,, [online] [cited June 8, 2015];

43.Government of Lebanon. Decree No. 159-1 of the Minister of Labor, Rules of Procedure for the National Committee for the Combat of Child Labor, enacted October 29, 2012.

44.U.S. Embassy- Beirut official. Communication (laws) USDOL official. May 2014.

45.Government of Lebanon. Child Protection in Emergencies Working Group (CPiEWG) Terms of Reference. Beirut; 2013.

46.Government of Lebanon. Launch of National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Lebanon by 2016. Baabda; 2013.

47.The Daily Star. "Sayegh Unveils Five-Point Social Development Strategy " The Daily Star, Beirut, February 26, 2011.

48.Republic of Lebanon, Ministry of Social Affairs. The National Social Development Strategy of Lebanon 2011. National Strategy. Beirut; 2011.

49.El Ghali, H. Perspectives on Practice and Policy: Success in Increasing Access and Retention in Primary Education in Lebanon. Beirut, Educate a Child; April 29, 2014.

50.Alabaster, O. "Seven years in the making, human rights draft law launched." The Daily Star, Beirut, December 11, 2012.

51.UNICEF. No Generation Lost. Geneva; 2014.

52.War Child. "Newsletter by War Child Holland and Partners in Lebanon." (1)(2014);

53.ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2014.

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