Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Lebanon

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Potatoes
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Tobacco
Tobacco
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Lebanon
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Lebanon made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Ministry of Education and Higher Education adopted the Policy for the Protection of Students in the School Environment to protect children's right to education. The government also issued a new regulation for Syrian refugee children ages 15 to 17 that improves their access to education. In addition, the President launched a children's choir to raise awareness on child labor and empower former child laborers. However, children in Lebanon engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in construction and in forced labor in agriculture. Children also engage in child labor in the production of potatoes and tobacco. The Ministry of Labor’s budget was unable to cover equipment, personnel, and transport costs to conduct inspections, and labor inspectors do not have the authority to assess penalties. In addition, programs targeting child labor remained insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

Children in Lebanon engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in construction and forced labor in agriculture. (1-4) Children also engage in child labor in the production of potatoes and tobacco. (2,3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Lebanon. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

Unavailable

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

74.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (5) 

Data were unavailable from International Labor Organization's analysis, 2019. (6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including picking potatoes, cucumbers, almonds, plums, olives, beans, figs, grapes, eggplants, and cannabis (2,3,7-14) 

Production of tobacco† (15-17)

Fishing, activities unknown (2,18)

Industry

Construction,† including carpentry, tiling, and welding† (2,3,10,13,16,19,20)

Working in cement factories† (19,21) 

Making handicrafts (2,18)

Working in aluminum factories (10,22)

Working in textile factories (23,24) 

Services

Street work,† including begging, street vending, portering, washing cars, scavenging garbage,† and shining shoes (7,10,13,25-29) 

Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles,† and painting† (2,10,13,24,27)

Domestic work† (2,10,13,30) 

Cleaning sewage† and collecting waste materials, including scrap metal (2,7,13)

Food service,† including working as waiters (2,3,10,17,25) 

Working in cemeteries, including covering bodies in shrouds, cleaning graves, and assisting with rituals (31)

Cleaning marketplaces (7,16)

Working in slaughterhouses† and butcheries (2,15) 

Working in small shops (2,3,25,27)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking or production, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and arms dealing (2,20,26,27,31-33)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4,27) 

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2,4,7,24,32,34-36) 

Forced labor in agriculture, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-4,13) 

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (37,38) 

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Child labor has increased, and conditions that affect Lebanese and Syrian children have worsened since the influx of Syrian refugees into Lebanon starting in 2011. (14,18,39) As of December 2018, over 948,000 Syrian refugees in Lebanon were registered with UNHCR, and more than half of them were children. (40) Child labor is also prevalent in other refugee communities in Lebanon, including the Palestinian and Iraqi communities. (18,41) 

Syrian girls are trafficked into Lebanon for commercial sexual exploitation under the guise of marriage. (4,20) Some boys are also subjected to commercial sexual exploitation, particularly boys who work and Kurdish boys from Syria. (20,42) Working on the streets is especially common among refugee children from Syria, including Palestinians from Syria. (26) 

The UN reported that several armed groups recruited children to be used as guards or in support roles, such as in carrying weapons or food. (38) 

Syrian children are also subjected to forced labor in agriculture. (1-4) Some Syrian refugee children and their families in the Bekaa Valley are kept in bonded labor in agriculture to pay for makeshift dwellings provided by landowners. (1,4,14,43) Adult Syrian refugees face legal restrictions that allow them to only work in agriculture, construction, and sanitation. (2,44) To work legally, they also need to be registered with the UNHCR or have local sponsors. (44) These restrictions on adults make children vulnerable to child labor. (13,45) 

In the last few years, the government waived fees for public primary schools and opened second shifts in about 240 schools. (16) But the public school system in Lebanon lacks the capacity to accommodate the large number of school-age Syrian refugee children. (2,46) Some schools refuse to enroll students who lack documentation, contradicting the official policy. (18,47,48) Over 50 percent of Syrian refugee children and 35 percent of Palestinian refugee children were not enrolled in formal education. (27,48-50) Children in Lebanon, particularly Syrian refugee children, face barriers to accessing education, including the cost of transportation and supplies, occupation of schools by armed groups or use as shelters, fear of passing checkpoints or of violence, lack of private sanitation facilities for girls, discrimination, bullying, corporal punishment, and a different curriculum in Lebanon than in their country of origin. (3,16-18,49,51-55) Children with disabilities, particularly Syrians, are either denied access to schools or do not receive additional tailored services. (54) In addition, some refugee children from Iraq and Syria do not attend Lebanese schools because many classes are taught in French or English, and refugee children do not speak these languages. (51,55) Lebanese and refugee children who work in agriculture often do not attend school during harvesting and planting seasons. (56,57) One local organization observed a direct correlation between school dropout rates and an increase in child labor. (27)

Lebanon has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Lebanon’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including prohibition of debt bondage.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 22 of the Labor Code (58)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 1 of Decree No. 8987 (59)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Annex 1 of Decree No. 8987 (2,59)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

No

 

Article 8 of Decree No. 3855; Article 569 of the Penal Code (60, 61)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 586.1 and 586.5 of the Penal Code (61)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 507–510, 523–527, 586.1, and 586.5 of the Penal Code (61)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 586.1, 586.5, and 618 of the Penal Code (61)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

     

State Compulsory

N/A*

   

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 30 of the National Defense Law (62)

Non-state

Yes

 

Article 586.1 of the Penal Code; Annex 1 of Decree No. 8987 (59; 61)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 49 of the Education Law (63)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 49 of the Education Law (63)

* No conscription (64)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (41)

In Lebanon, basic education is compulsory. (63) Children generally complete basic education at age 15. (41) As the minimum age for work is lower than the compulsory education age, children may be encouraged to leave school before the completion of compulsory education.

Laws related to forced labor are insufficient because there is no legislative provision that provides criminal penalties for the exaction of forced labor, and debt bondage is not criminally prohibited. (61,65) 

Government officials have clarified that although Article 610 of the Penal Code criminalizes begging, Article 26 of the Delinquent Juveniles Law, which takes precedence over the Penal Code, stipulates that in cases of begging, the child is considered in danger and entitled to receive protective measures. (61,66,67)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Labor that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor

Enforces child labor laws through desk review and workplace inspections. Acts as government focal point for child labor issues and hosts the National Steering Committee on Child Labor. (2) The Ministry’s Child Labor Unit raises public awareness about child labor and the right to education. Receives complaints on child labor violations on its Child Labor Unit hotline. (2)

Internal Security Forces

Enforces laws regarding child labor through the Anti-Human Trafficking and Morals Protection Bureau. (2)

Ministry of Justice

Prosecutes violations of the Penal Code in coordination with the Internal Security Forces. Maintains general data and statistics on criminal violations involving child labor. (2) Refers at-risk children to shelters and protection services. Coordinates, through signed agreements, with civil society organizations to provide social workers that oversee court proceedings involving juveniles and deliver services to them, including children engaged in begging. (2)

Ministry of Social Affairs

Refers children identified by the Internal Security Forces and the Ministry of Justice to protective institutions, such as health centers. Refers children to shelters through its Higher Council for Childhood. (2) 

Directorate of General Security

Focuses on immigration and border protection. Works with farmers union to address child labor in agriculture. (2)

According to local observers, the Ministry of Labor’s hotline is not fully functional and works for a limited number of hours on official workdays. It does not have a system to register incoming calls. (27)

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Lebanon took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Labor that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including penalty assessment authorization.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown (2)

Number of Labor Inspectors

45 (27)

Unknown

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (68)

No (68, 69)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown (2)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (2)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown (2)

 

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown

Unknown (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (2)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown (2)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

Unknown (2)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown (2)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

No (2)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (69)

Yes (69)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown (2)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (18)

Yes (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (18)

Yes (2)

In 2018, the Ministry of Labor and the Directorate of General Security held extensive training on issues, including child labor. However, based on available information, the Ministry did not cover the costs of equipment and transportation needed by labor inspectors to carry out their duties. (2) Child labor inspections are generally a result of a complaint, particularly in the formal sector. However, based on available information, child labor is nearly non-existent in the formal sector. (2,18,70) Research could not identify the number of labor inspectors in 2018, but there were 45 labor inspectors in Lebanon in 2017. (2,27) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Lebanon’s workforce, which includes over 2.1 million workers. (71) According to the ILO’s technical advice of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Lebanon would employ roughly 144 labor inspectors. (72,73) 

The government does not publicly release information on its labor law enforcement efforts. (2)

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Lebanon took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including the allocation of financial resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (2)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (3)

Yes (74; 16)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown (2)

Number of Violations Found

5 (74, 75)

Unknown (2)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown (2)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (18)

Yes (2)

In 2018, the Internal Security Forces provided training to officers on investigative procedures and protection of at-risk children. It also provided initial training on countering human trafficking. (2) The Internal Security Forces, the Lebanese Armed Forces, and the Directorate of General Security received training on countering human trafficking. (76) 

The government investigated 26 cases, but it is unknown how many of these were related to criminal violations of child labor laws. (2) The government also prosecuted cases of forced begging among Syrian children, but the number of prosecutions is unavailable because there is no centralized record system in the Ministry of Justice. (76) 

The Ministry of Justice stated that a lack of sufficient human resources hindered the government’s ability to address child labor. (18) The Internal Security Forces stated they needed additional information technology equipment. (2)

The government does not publicly release information on its criminal law enforcement efforts. (2)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Raises awareness; coordinates efforts among government agencies; establishes standard practices; develops, enforces, and recommends changes; and ensures that government agencies comply with the law. Led by the Minister of Labor, includes representatives from six other ministries and other institutions and international organizations. (18) The Committee met once in 2018, but canceled a subsequent meeting due to the absence of a Minister of Labor. (2)

National Steering Committee on Trafficking

Coordinates efforts against human trafficking, including child trafficking. Based at the Ministry of Labor and meets on a monthly basis. (18) In 2018, the Committee met every month. (76) 

UNICEF and UNHCR

Coordinate efforts to address the needs of children affected by the Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon. Maintain interagency standards for child protection. The UN representatives identify crucial concerns, including factors that make children vulnerable to child labor. Make recommendations to the government on the use of resources, including referral services. (18) In 2018, UN agencies and international and local NGOs coordinated child protection efforts through Child Protection Working Groups. (2) 

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Action Plan on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2013–2019)

Establishes strategies for addressing the worst forms of child labor, including improving enforcement of child labor laws and expanding access to education.(78; 3) In 2017, the Ministry of Labor, in cooperation with the ILO, released the Guide for Child Labor in Agriculture Practitioners to raise awareness among stakeholders on child labor in agriculture. The ILO held a training on the Guide in September.(79)

Work Plan to Prevent and Respond to the Association of Children with Armed Violence in Lebanon

Provides the framework for the prevention of children involved in armed conflict.(52) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this policy during the reporting period.

Policy for the Protection of Students in the School Environment†

Protects children's right to education and promotes non-violence in schools by establishing mechanisms to receive complains of violence, mistreatment, and bullying and addresses those cases while safeguarding children's privacy. Trains school staff and officials on identifying risk factors. (79,80) In 2018, the Ministry of Education and Higher Education, in cooperation with UNICEF, trained 55 Ministry employees and 600 points-of-contact in 300 schools on their roles in the implementation of this policy. (79)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Child Protection Program

Joint program by UNICEF and the Ministry of Social Affairs. Addresses child labor through interventions, including psychological counseling; raising awareness among employer; and working with employers to decrease working hours for children and improve working conditions. (81) In 2018, UNICEF worked with government agencies and civil society organizations to provide case management and psychosocial support to children, including children working on the streets. The Ministry of Social Affairs, along with civil society organizations and UNICEF, launched a child protection information management system and a free electronic training course intended to educate frontline social workers on child protection and case management issues. (2,79) UNICEF also worked with partners in the city of Tripoli to ensure that vulnerable children received services such as conditional cash transfer and income-generating activities for their parents. (2)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR)

USDOL-funded capacity-building project implemented by the ILO. Aims to improve enforcement of child labor laws and policies in Lebanon. (34) In 2018, the Ministry of Labor worked with the ILO to hold a national workshop to train labor inspectors and other government officials on Decree No. 8987 on hazardous child labor. Engaging with key national and international stakeholders, the project helped revise the National Action Plan on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor to include Syrian children. (34) The revised National Action Plan was pending adoption due to the lack of a Minister of Labor. The project, working with the NGO Beyond, trained 300 children on how to advocate against child labor among their peers and raise awareness in the community about the negative consequences of child labor. (34) For additional information, please see the USDOL website.

Reaching All Children through Education (RACE II) (2017–2021)

Donor-funded 5-year project, implemented by the Ministry of Education and Higher Education and partners to ensure quality education opportunities for children ages 3 to 18, regardless of nationality, through holistic interventions that address the demand and availability of quality public education, including non-formal education. (82) In 2018, the program covered school fees and provided remedial and homework support activities for Lebanese and non-Lebanese children. (2) 

National Poverty Alleviation Program†

Funded by the government and foreign donors, this Ministry of Social Affairs program pays school tuition and book costs for 74,000 families living in extreme poverty. (41) Research was unable to determine what steps were taken in 2018 in the implementation of this program.

† Program is funded by the Government of Lebanon.

In 2018, Lebanon adopted a new regulation to allow Syrian refugee children, who turn ages 15 to 18 after entering Lebanon, to obtain residency by presenting their Syrian individual status record instead of a passport or national identity card. This regulation enables access to education for these children. (83) 

The scarcity of shelters for child trafficking victims results in some children being placed in juvenile detention centers. (57) The lack of shelters and resources to handle child labor and human trafficking cases puts children at a heightened risk of further exploitation. (33) Although Lebanon has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, including in forced child labor in agriculture and construction.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Lebanon (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Accede to the CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict, which the government signed in 2002.

2013 – 2018

Raise the minimum age for work to the age up to which education is compulsory.

2018

Ensure that forced labor and debt bondage are criminally prohibited.

2015 – 2018

Enforcement

Ensure that there is an adequate mechanism to receive and log child labor complaints and refer them for investigation.

2017 – 2018

Track and publish information on labor law enforcement, including the number of labor inspections.

2009 – 2018

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties.

2015 – 2018

Provide Ministry of Labor inspectors with proper funding and necessary transportation, and ensure that they are able to conduct labor inspections in areas where child labor is prevalent, including the informal sector.

2011 – 2018

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO technical advice.

2016 – 2018

Publish information on criminal enforcement of child labor laws.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that cases of child trafficking are investigated and prosecuted in accordance with the law.

2017 – 2018

Government Policies

Ensure that the Work Plan to Prevent and Respond to the Association of Children with Armed Violence in Lebanon is implemented, and that children previously associated with armed conflict receive social and rehabilitation services rather than being detained.

2017 – 2018

Social Programs

Build on current efforts to improve access to public education for all children.

2010 – 2018

Ensure that the Child Protection Program and the National Poverty Alleviation Program are implemented.

2017 – 2018

Increase the number of shelters for child victims of human trafficking and other worst forms of child labor.

2013 – 2018

Expand programs to fully address the extent of child labor.

2013 – 2018

1    Humanitarian Organization official. Interview with USDOL official. January 13, 2016. 
2    U.S. Embassy- Beirut. Reporting. January 17, 2019. 
3    Plan International. Adolescent Girls and Boys Needs Assessment: Focus on Child Labour and Child Marriage. July 18, 2018. 
https://plan-international.org/publications/girls-and-boys-needs-assessment-lebanon.
4    U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018: Lebanon. Washington, DC. June 28, 2018. 
https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/lebanon/.
5    UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 
http://data.uis.unesco.org/.
6    ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 
7    FXB Center at Harvard. Running out oTime: Survival of Syrian Refugee Children in Lebanon. January 2014. 
http://fxb.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2014/01/FXB-Center-Syrian-Refugees-in-Lebanon_Released-01-13-13.pdf.
8    Fisk, Robert. The 200,000 Syrian child refugees forced into slave labour in Lebanon. October 26, 2014. 
http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/robert-fisk-the-200000-syrian-child-refugees-forced-into-slave-labour-in-lebanon-9819622.html.
9    Dominus, Susan. The Displaced: Hana. November 5, 2015. 
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/08/magazine/the-displaced-hana.html.
10    Freedom Fund. Struggling to survive: Slavery and exploitation of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. April 6, 2016. 
http://freedomfund.org/wp-content/uploads/Lebanon-Report-FINAL-8April16.pdf.
11    Weber, Jeremy. Grapes of Wrath: In Lebanon’s Napa Valley, Syrian Refugees Face a Steinbeck Scenario. September 2016. 
http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2016/september/grapes-of-wrath-syrian-refugees-lebanon-bekaa-valley.html.
12    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Child labour in agriculture is on the rise, driven by conflict and disasters. Rome. June 12, 2018. 
.
13    Sherriff, Lucy and Dawn Kelly. The Necessary Evil Of Syrian Child Labour In Lebanon. May 5, 2017. 
https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/the-necessary-evil-of-syrian-child-labour-in-lebanon_uk_590c80c7e4b0d5d9049bbec3?guccounter=2.
14    Cochrane, Paul. Refugee crisis: Child Labour in agriculture on the rise in Lebanon. July 12, 2016. 
http://www.ilo.org/beirut/media-centre/fs/WCMS_496725/lang--en/index.htm.
15    Gilbert, Ben. Syrian refugee children forced to work to support families in Lebanon. February 22, 2014. 
http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/2/22/syrian-refugee-childrenforcedtoworktosupportfamiliesinlebanon.html.
16    Human Rights Watch. "Growing Up Without an Education" Barriers to Education for Syrian Refugee Children in Lebanon. July 2016. 
https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/lebanon0716web_1.pdf.
17    Terre des Hommes. Child Labour Report 2016: Child Labour among Refugees of the Syrian Conflict. June 2016. 
http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/TDH-Child_Labour_Report-2016-ENGLISH_FINAL_0.pdf.
18    U.S. Embassy- Beirut. Reporting. January 19, 2018. 
19    Newton, Jennifer. The child refugees forced to rise at 3am to carry out back-breaking work after leaving Syria: Boys as young as eight who become 'the man of the family' after fleeing war. June 7, 2016. 
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3629020/The-child-refugees-forced-rise-3am-carry-breaking-work-leaving-Syria-Boys-young-eight-man-family-fleeing-war.html.
20    International Centre for Migration Policy Development. Targeting Vulnerabilities: The Impact of the Syrian War and Refugee Situation on Trafficking in Persons (A Study of Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq). December 2015. 
http://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/ICMPD-Website/Anti-Trafficking/Targeting_Vulnerabilities_EN__SOFT_.pdf.
21    UNICEF Lebanon. Mohamad, 15 - #ImagineaSchool. November 14, 2016. 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmrq4TgfGBA.
22    Khoury, Lisa. Special report: 180,000 young Syrian refugees are being forced into child labor in Lebanon. July 26, 2017. 
https://www.vox.com/world/2017/7/24/15991466/syria-refugees-child-labor-lebanon.
23    Giammarinaro, Maria Grazia. Report of the Special Rapporteur of the Human Rights Council on trafficking in persons, especially women and children. UN General Assembly, August 5, 2016: A/71/303. 
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/N1625078.pdf.
24    Human Rights Watch. "I Just Wanted to be Treated Like a Person" - How Lebanon's Residency Rules Facilitate Abuse of Syrian Refugees. January 2016. 
https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/lebanon0116web.pdf.
25    Caritas Lebanon Migrant Center. An Insight into Child Labor among Iraqi Refugees in Lebanon. February 26, 2014. 
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/child-labor-among-iraqi-refugees-in-lebanon.pdf.
26    ILO, UNICEF and Save the Children. Children Living and Working on the Streets in Lebanon: Profile and Magnitude. The Consultation and Research Institute, February 2015. 
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/publication/wcms_344799.pdf.
27    Alef official. Interview with USDOL official. January 9, 2018. 
28    Chehayeb, Kareem. As Beirut’s Trash Crisis Drags on, Children Recycle to Survive. November 1, 2018. 
https://www.citylab.com/environment/2018/11/beirut-trash-refugee-children-recycle/574312/.
29    Kanso, Heba. Poverty forces Syrian refugee children into work. June 12, 2018. 
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-lebanon-child-labour/poverty-forces-syrian-refugee-children-into-work-idUSKBN1J82CY.
30    UNICEF Lebanon. Israa, 11. May 18, 2016. 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnSWOEy-QRo.
31    Sleem, Aly. Cases: Child Labor in Lebanon. January 3, 2014. 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2klFH3VlY0.
32    The Guardian. Syrian refugee children in Lebanon forced to seek work – in pictures. June 12, 2014. 
http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/jun/12/-sp-syrian-refugee-children-in-lebanon-forced-to-seek-work-in-pictures.
33    U.S. Embassy- Beirut. Reporting. February 29, 2016. 
34    ILO. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR) - Technical Progress Report. October 2018. Source on file. 
35    Peyroux, Olivier. Trafficking in Human Beings in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situation. Progress Report. June 2015. 
http://www.caritas.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/CoatnetParis15Report.pdf.
36    Raymond, Janice G. Pity the Nations: Women Refugees in Lebanon. December 6, 2017. 
https://www.truthdig.com/articles/pity-nations-female-refugees-lebanon/
37    U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report: Lebanon. Washington, DC. June 20, 2019. 
https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-trafficking-in-persons-report-2/lebanon/.
38    UN General Assembly. Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. A/73/907–S/2019/509. June 20, 2019. 
https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2019/509&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC.
39    ILO. ILO and Ministry of Labour launch tools to boost fight against child labour in Lebanon. January 15, 2016. 
http://www.ilo.org/beirut/media-centre/news/WCMS_443535/lang--en/index.htm.
40    UNHCR. Syria Regional Refugee Response: Lebanon. December 31, 2018. 
https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/syria/location/71.
41    U.S. Embassy- Beirut. Reporting. February 4, 2016. 
42    Chynoweth, Dr. Sarah. We Keep it in Our Heart: Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in the Syria Crisis. UNHRC, October 2017. 
https://data2.unhcr.org/es/documents/download/60864#_ga=2.94088981.900380568.1512674280-1884466359.1507823747.
43    U.S. Embassy- Beirut. Reporting. February 9, 2017. 
44    CARE. Syrian Refugees in Lebanon Eight Years On: What Works and Why that Matters for the Future November 12, 2018. 
https://www.care-international.org/files/files/CAREInternationalLebanon_RefugeesinLebanon_Whatworksandwhythatmattersforthefuture.pdf.
45    World Vision. Impact of Multi-Purpose Cash Assistance on Child Labour among Syrian Refugee Children in Bekaa, Lebanon. November 28, 2018. 
https://www.wvi.org/lebanon/publication/impact-multi-purpose-cash-assistance-child-labour-among-syrian-refugee-children.
46    UNHCR. 2014 Syria Regional Response Plan: Lebanon. 2014. 
http://www.unhcr.org/syriarrp6/docs/syria-rrp6-lebanon-response-plan.pdf.
47    Norwegian Refugee Council. A Future in the Balance: Lebanon. April 2016. 
https://www.nrc.no/globalassets/pdf/reports/a-future-in-the-balance-lebanon.pdf.
48    Human Rights Watch. Lebanon: Stalled Effort to Get Syrian Children in School. December 13, 2018. 
https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/12/13/lebanon-stalled-effort-get-syrian-children-school.
49    Alef - Act for Human Rights. Right to a Future: Threats to Material Safety. 2017. 
https://alefliban.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Material-Safety_v02_web.pdf.
50    American Institutes for Research. Evaluation of No Lost Generation/“Min Ila,” a UNICEF and WFP Cash Transfer Program for Displaced Syrian Children in Lebanon. June 2018. 
https://www.air.org/sites/default/files/downloads/report/Evaluation-of-No-Lost-Generation-Min-Ila-Final-Report-July-2018.pdf.
51    UNHCR and Reach. Barriers to Education for Syrian Refugee Children in Lebanon: Out of School Children Profiling Report. November 2014. 
https://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1930_1416914829_reach-lbn-report-syriacrisis-outofschoolchildrenprofiling-nov2014.pdf.
52    UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and armed conflict. June 5, 2015: A/69/926 – S/2015/409. 
http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/{65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9}/s_2015_409.pdf.
53    UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict. April 20, 2016: A/70/836–S/2016/360. 
http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=s/2016/360.
54    Human Rights Watch. Submission to the Committee on the Rights of the Child in advance of its review of Lebanon. March 24, 2017. 
http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC/Shared Documents/LBN/INT_CRC_NGO_LBN_27105_E.pdf.
55    Caritas Lebanon Migrant Center. Left Behind: A Needs Assessment of Iraqi Refugees Present in Lebanon. October 21, 2014. 
http://english.caritasmigrant.org.lb/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Left-Behind-Full.pdf.
56    Government of Lebanon. National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Lebanon by 2016. 2013: Executive Summary. 
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/genericdocument/wcms_229115.pdf.
57    U.S. Embassy- Beirut official. Email communication to USDOL official. May 11, 2015. 
58    Government of Lebanon. Labor Code (as amended). Enacted: September 23, 1946. 
http://ahdath.justice.gov.lb/law-nearby-work.htm.
59    Government of Lebanon. Decree No. 8987 of 2012 concerning the prohibition of employment of minors under the age of 18 in works that may harm their health, safety or morals. Enacted: October 4, 2012. 
http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=LBN&p_classification=04&p_origin=SUBJECT&p_whatsnew=201304.
60    Government of Lebanon. Decree No. 3855 on Lebanon's accession to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Enacted: September 1, 1972. Enacted: March 1, 1943. 
http://youneslawfirm.com.lb/Default.asp?ContentID=21&menuID=10
61    Government of Lebanon. Legislative Decree No. 340 on the Penal Code (as amended). Enacted: March 1, 1943. Source on file. 
62    Government of Lebanon. Legislative Decree No. 102 on the National Defense Law (as amended). Enacted: September 16, 1983. 
http://www.mod.gov.lb/Cultures/ar-LB/Programs/Laws/Pages/armyihtiyat6.aspx.
63    Government of Lebanon. Law No. 150 on Terms of appointment in the Ministry of Education and Higher Education. Enacted: August 17, 2011. 
https://site.eastlaws.com/GeneralSearch/Home/ArticlesTDetails?MasterID=1637110&related.
64    Government of Lebanon. Law No. 665. Enacted: February 4, 2005. 
http://www.lebarmy.gov.lb/en/content/military-service.
65    ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Lebanon (ratification: 1977). Published: 2016. 
http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3251395.
66    Government of Lebanon. Law No. 422 on the Protection of Delinquent and At-Risk Juveniles. Enacted: June 6, 2002. 
http://bba.org.lb/content/uploads/Institute/141211103338689~loi 422 delinquent_arabe.pdf.
67    U.S. Embassy- Beirut official. Email communication to USDOL official. June 1, 2016. 
68    ILO. Labour inspection in Arab states: progress and challenges. December 5, 2014. 
http://www.ilo.org/beirut/publications/WCMS_325618/lang--en/index.htm.
69    Government of Lebanon Decree No. 3273 on Labour Inspection. Enacted: 2000. 
http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/58763/45932/F1688904235/LBN58763.PDF.
70    U.S. Embassy- Beirut official.. Email communication to USDOL official. June 1, 2018. 
71    CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed March 5, 2018. . Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/le.html.
72    ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva: Committee on Employment and Social Policy, November 2006. GB.297/ESP/3. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf.
73    UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York: 2017. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 
https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf.
74    U.S. Embassy- Beirut. Reporting. May 26, 2017. 
75    Valley News. Lebanon Police Say N.H. Man Sought Sex With Underage Girl. August 1, 2017. 
http://www.vnews.com/Man-Charged-With-Trafficking-Lebanon-NH-11617074.
76    U.S. Embassy- Beirut. Reporting. March 4, 2019. 
77    National Steering Committee on Child Labor, the Ministry of Labor, and the ILO. National Awareness Raising Strategy on the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Lebanon. 2016. 
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/publication/wcms_443268.pdf.
78    ILO. Lebanon’s President launches National Choir against Child Labour. March 20, 2018. 
https://www.ilo.org/beirut/media-centre/news/WCMS_622424/lang--en/index.htm.
79    UNICEF. Syria Crisis 2018 Humanitarian Results. Year End Report. December 31, 2018. 
https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/UNICEF Syria Crisis Situation Report_Year End 2018.pdf.
80    Trtrian, Gasia. Education Ministry policy combats violence in schools. May 12, 2018. 
http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2018/May-12/449078-education-ministry-policy-combats-violence-in-schools.ashx.
81    U.S. Embassy- Beirut. Reporting. February 11, 2015. 
82    Ministry of Education and Higher Education. Reaching All Children with Education: RACE II (2017-2021). August 2016. 
http://www.mehe.gov.lb/uploads/file/2016/Oct/RACE II_FINAL Narrative_29AUG2016.pdf.
83    Human Rights Watch. Lebanon: Positive Step for Refugee Children. April 17, 2018. 
https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/04/17/lebanon-positive-step-refugee-children.