Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - The Kyrgyz Republic

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Kyrgyz Republic

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2017, the Kyrgyz Republic made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government adopted a National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons and launched a program that includes limited activities to address child labor. However, children in the Kyrgyz Republic engage in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. The government’s child trafficking laws are not in line with international standards, and research indicates that the State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety employed an insufficient number of labor inspectors. The compulsory education age also remained lower than the minimum age for work.

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Children in the Kyrgyz Republic engage in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. (6; 7; 8; 9; 10) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in the Kyrgyz Republic.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

33.9 (397,407)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

98.98

Industry

 

0.3

Services

 

0.8

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

86.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

41.0

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

105.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (11)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from National Child Labour Survey, 2014. (12)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivating cotton, tobacco,† rice, potatoes, sugar beets, and wheat (4; 6; 7; 8; 9; 13; 14; 10; 15)

Raising cattle and sheep (4; 9; 13; 14; 15)

Industry

Coal mining† (4; 13; 14; 10; 16)

Brick making (4; 13; 14)

Construction, including lifting and portering construction materials, and cutting metal sheets for roofs (4; 14; 16; 17)

Services

Working in bazaars, including loading and unloading goods, portering, collecting plastic bottles and garbage, and selling items, including food and newspapers (1; 3; 6; 8; 10; 18; 19; 20)

Washing cars (1; 8; 21)

Working in restaurants and cafes, including serving food and washing dishes (6; 13; 22)

Street work, including begging and shoe shining (1; 2; 13)

Domestic work, including child care (2; 3; 7; 10)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in raising cattle and sheep, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4; 10)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 2; 3; 4; 5)

Use in illicit activities, including trafficking drugs, as a result of human trafficking (23; 5)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Hazardous child labor is most prevalent in the oblasts (provinces) of Naryn and Osh. (16) There is limited evidence that some children migrate with their families to work in the cotton fields in Kazakhstan. (24) Some children left behind, after their parents migrate to work in Kazakhstan, Russia, or other areas of the country, do not have access to their birth certificates and guardianship documents that are required for school enrolment. As a result, these children cannot enroll in school and are vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. (6; 13; 25) Some schools require residence registration, known as propiska, for enrollment, thereby hindering access to education; however, according to the Ministry of Education and Science, residence registration is not mandatory. (3; 4; 7; 21) Moreover, many children from the ethnic Lyuli, a group of approximately 3,500 Central Asian Roma people living in the Kyrgyz Republic, do not attend school and are vulnerable to child labor. (23; 26) Children with disabilities and those living and working on the street also have difficultly accessing education. (4; 19)

The Kyrgyz Republic has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in the Kyrgyz Republic’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including coverage of the law and comprehensive prohibition of child trafficking.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 18 of the Labor Code (27)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 294 of the Labor Code; Article 15 of the Code on Children (27; 28)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 294 of the Labor Code; Decree 314; Annex I of Decree 548 (27; 29; 30)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 10 of the Labor Code; Article 15.2 of the Code on Children; Article 1 of the Law on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking; Article 124 of the Criminal Code (27; 28; 31; 32)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

Article 1 of the Law on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking; Article 124 of the Criminal Code (31; 32)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 157 of the Criminal Code; Articles 5 and 15 of the Code on Children (28; 31)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 157, 247, 249, and 375 of the Criminal Code; Articles 5 and 15 of the Code on Children (28; 31)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 17.1 and 22.1 of the Law on Military Service (33)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 24.1 of the Law on Military Service (33)

Non-state

Yes

18

Articles 124, 226–2, 229, and 375 of the Criminal Code (31)

Compulsory Education Age

No

15‡

Article 16 of the Law on Education (34)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 16 of the Law on Education (34)

‡ Age calculated based on available information

 

According to Article 6 of the Labor Code, protections, such as the minimum age of employment and prohibitions on hazardous work, are not extended to children engaged in non-contractual employment. (27) However, most incidences of child labor occur in employment relationships in which the child has not signed an employment contract with the employer. (6; 9)

The prohibitions against child trafficking are insufficient because they require threats, the use of force, or coercion to be established for the crime of child trafficking. (31; 32) The government drafted a revised list of hazardous work for children in 2011, which remained under review. (15; 35)

Children in the Kyrgyz Republic are required to attend school only until grade nine, which is typically when they reach age 14 or 15. (6; 7; 36) This standard makes children ages 14 and 15 vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to be in school, but they also are not yet legally permitted to work.

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety

Monitor work sites and refer child laborers to social services. Coordinate with the Inspectorate for Minors’ Affairs in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Prosecutor General’s Office, and regional State District Administration authorities to enforce child labor laws. (37)

Ministry of Internal Affairs, Inspectorate for Minors’ Affairs

Enforce criminal laws related to child labor, including its worst forms; conduct independent inspections and joint raids with the State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety to find neglected or abused children; and refer children to social institutions for care. (37)

Prosecutor General’s Office

Enforce and apply labor-related laws, including labor inspections and investigations of child labor violations, in coordination with the State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety. (37; 38)

Oblast Administration

Enforce child labor laws at the oblast (province) level. (37)

Ministry of Labor and Social Development

Serve as the key government agency for children’s issues. Protect children and families in difficult living situations, including child laborers. (23) Coordinate with oblast-level authorities to investigate violations of child labor laws. (39)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

Research did not find information on whether labor law enforcement agencies in the Kyrgyz Republic took actions to combat child labor. However, gaps exist within the authority of the State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown (21)

Number of Labor Inspectors

23 (15)

Unknown (21)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (19)

Yes (19)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

No (21)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (15)

No (21)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown (15)

Unknown (21)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown (15)

Unknown (21)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

31 (40)

Unknown (21)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown (15)

Unknown (21)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown (15)

Unknown (21)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown (15)

Unknown (21)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (15)

Unknown (21)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (41; 42)

Yes (42; 43)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (19)

Yes (19)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (44)

Yes (44)

 

In 2017, the number of labor inspectors was not known. (21) In 2016, however, the State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety employed 23 labor inspectors. (15) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of the Kyrgyz Republic’s workforce, which includes over 2.8 million workers. (45) According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 20,000 workers in transitioning economies, the Kyrgyz Republic should employ about 142 labor inspectors. (19; 46; 47) The State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety acknowledged that the number of labor inspectors was inadequate to ensure appropriate enforcement of child labor laws. (19)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in the Kyrgyz Republic took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (15)

No (21)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (15)

Yes (48)

Number of Investigations

2 (40)

4 (48)

Number of Violations Found

2 (40)

Unknown (21)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

2 (40)

0 (21)

Number of Convictions

0 (15)

0 (21)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (15)

Yes (21)

‡ Data are from January to September 2017.

 

In 2017, 97 judges, 77 prosecutors, and 33 police officers attended training sessions on countering human trafficking. (48) The government investigated four cases of human trafficking during the first 9 months of 2017; research was unable to determine whether these cases involved children. (48)

The UN special rapporteur on the sale of children, child sex trafficking, and child pornography documented allegations of law enforcement officials’ complicity in human trafficking in a 2013 report; police officers allegedly threatened, extorted, and raped child sex trafficking victims. However, the government has neither investigated these allegations nor reported whether any government employees have been investigated, prosecuted, or convicted for human trafficking. (5)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Coordination Council for Social Protection and Children’s Rights

Develop policies to eliminate child labor. (35) Chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister, members include representatives from the Ministry of Labor and Social Development and three other ministries. (49; 50) Met quarterly in 2017. (21)

Coordination Council on Migration

Monitor and combat human trafficking as a key priority. Chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister for Social Issues, members include representatives from the Office of the President, government ministries, international organizations, and NGOs. (51) Met twice in 2017. (48)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Interagency Action Plan on Measures to Prevent the Involvement of Children in the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2016–2018)

Aims to address the worst forms of child labor by identifying children at risk of child labor, including those in difficult living situations; providing social services; conducting awareness-raising campaigns, including seminars for social pedagogues and forums for children and their parents on hazardous work; sharing experiences and best practices with international organizations and NGOs; and creating a manual on child protection for labor inspectors. (15; 52) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this policy during the reporting period.

Regulations on the Procedure for the Identification of Children and Families in Difficult Situations

Establishes the process for identifying children in difficult living situations, including those engaged in the worst forms of child labor. Receives complaints, conducts outreach activities, devises an individual action plan, removes the child from the worst forms of child labor, and provides financial and educational services. (44) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this policy during the reporting period.

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2017–2020)†

Improves legal framework on human trafficking; improves dissemination of information on human trafficking risks for migrants and vulnerable populations; raises awareness about protections for victims and criminal penalties for perpetrators; and improves coordination among government agencies, NGOs, and international partners. (53)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (37)

 

The government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the National Education Strategy and Roadmap on Out-of-School Children. (36; 54)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including implementation and adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Combating Child Labor in Central Asia -Commitment Becomes Action (PROACT CAR Phase III) (2010–2018)

$4.57 million Government of Germany-funded project implemented by the ILO to mainstream child labor issues into national policies and legislation, build the capacity of stakeholders, and provide direct services to children withdrawn from the worst forms of child labor. (54; 55) In 2017, supported launching the Support of Family and Protection of Children for 2018–2028 program, finalizing the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, and signing the UN Development Assistance Framework. (56)

Evening Classes for Child Laborers†

Provides evening classes to secondary school students in districts with high numbers of child laborers. (57) In 2017, the Bishkek Mayor’s Office provided funding for the schools in Bishkek. (21)

Social Support for Children and Families in Difficult Living Situations†

Government-funded program to monitor places where children may be working, with a primary focus on bazaars, and to return these children to school. (39) Research did not find information about the number of children assisted in 2017.

Cash Transfer Program†

Cash transfer program for families living in difficult situations, including families with children engaged in child labor. (35) Research did not find information about the number of children assisted in 2017.

Ministry of Education and Science National School Attendance Database†

Ministry of Education and Science project to pilot a national electronic database to track children who do not attend school. Following development and use throughout the country, database information will be shared with the Ministry of Labor and Social Development to assist children engaged in child labor. (7) Will provide information to the Ministry of Internal Affairs on cases of criminal violations of child labor laws. In addition, social pedagogues will work with families to ensure that children attend school. (7) Research did not find information about the number of children assisted in 2017.

† Program is funded by the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (26; 58)

 

In August 2017, the government adopted a program entitled “Support of Family and Protection of Children for 2018–2028,” which includes limited activities to address child labor, including revising Decree 314, the hazardous work list for children; organizing competitive bids for projects, resulting in four new social services centers by 2020 for families and children in difficult living situations; and providing local administrations with income-generating ideas for families in difficult living situations. (59) Funding for this program will be provided through the existing budget for government agencies, plus international donors’ funds when available. (59; 60)

Although the Kyrgyz Republic has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, particularly in commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking and in agriculture, including cultivating cotton.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in the Kyrgyz Republic (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law’s minimum age provisions and hazardous work prohibitions apply to all children, including those working without an employment contract.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that child trafficking laws do not require an element of force or deception and are in accordance with international standards.

2015 – 2017

Increase the age for compulsory schooling to 16, the minimum age to work.

2014 – 2017

Enforcement

Publish information about the funding of the State Inspectorate; the number of inspectors; the number of labor inspections, including those conducted at worksites; the number of violations and penalties imposed and collected; information about whether inspections are routine or targeted; and the number of criminal violations found.

2011 – 2017

Strengthen the labor inspection system by permitting and conducting unannounced inspections and by providing child labor training for labor inspectors and criminal investigators.

2014 – 2017

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice and provide inspectors with adequate training and resources to conduct inspections.

2012 – 2017

Ensure that criminal law enforcement agencies investigate and prosecute violations related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2017

Government Policies

Implement the Interagency Action Plan on Measures to Prevent the Involvement of Children in the Worst Forms of Child Labor and the Regulations on the Procedure for the Identification of Children and Families in Difficult Living Situations.

2016 – 2017

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Education Strategy and the Roadmap on Out-of-School Children.

2015 – 2017

Social Programs

Ensure that all children have access to free education, including Lyuli children, children with disabilities, those living and working on the street, and those without birth certificates.

2009 – 2017

Implement all social programs, including the Social Support for Children and Families in Difficult Living Situations, the Cash Transfer Program, and the Ministry of Education and Science National School Attendance Database.

2016 – 2017

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem, particularly in commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking and in agriculture, including cultivating cotton.

2014 – 2017

 

1. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Kyrgyzstan (ratification: 2004) Published: 2013. Accessed October 28, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3084798.

2. IOM official. Interview with USDOL official. May 18, 2015.

3. Adilet Legal Clinic official. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2015.

4. Association for the Promotion of Rights and Interests of Children official. Interview with USDOL official. May 20, 2015.

5. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Kyrgyz Republic. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258801.htm.

6. ILO-IPEC official. Interview with USDOL official. May 18, 2015.

7. Ministry of Education and Science official. Interview with USDOL official. May 19, 2015.

8. Ministry of Social Development official. Interview with USDOL official. May 19, 2015.

9. Trade Union of Agro-Industrial Complex’s Worker. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2015.

10. Bengard, Anastasia. Child Labor. June 11, 2015. http://www.24kg.org/obschestvo/14223_detskiy_trud_borba_ili_imitatsiya/.

11. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

12. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Child Labor Survey, 2014. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see the “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

13. USAID official. Interview with USDOL official. May 20, 2015.

14. Alliance on Protection of Children Rights official. Interview with USDOL official. May 20, 2015.

15. U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. Reporting, January 13, 2017.

16. ILO, and National Statistics Committee of Kyrgyzstan. Working Children in Kyrgyz Republic: Child Labour Survey 2014-2015. October 25, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---europe/---ro-geneva/---sro-moscow/documents/publication/wcms_533504.pdf.

17. Kaktus Media. In Kyrgyzstan, the highest rate of child labor. November 6, 2017. https://kaktus.media/doc/365831_v_kyrgyzstane_samyy_vysokiy_pokazatel_ispolzovaniia_detskogo_tryda.html.

18. Toktonaliev, Timur. Kyrgyz Child Workers Harassed, Not Helped by Police. June 25, 2014. https://iwpr.net/global-voices/kyrgyz-child-workers-harassed-not-helped-police.

19. State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety official. Interview with USDOL official. May 22, 2015.

20. AKI Press. 132 working children revealed in Kyrgyzstan in Q1 2016, 8 of them in worst forms of child labor. May 31, 2016. http://akipress.com/news:577896/.

21. U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. Reporting, January 10, 2018.

22. Parliament Committee for Human Rights: Constitutional Legislation and Statehood official. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2015.

23. U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. Reporting, January 16, 2014.

24. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, prepared by Gulnara Shahinian, pursuant to UN General Assembly Resolution A/HRC/27/53/Add.2. August 26, 2014. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session27/Documents/A_HRC_27_53_Add_2_ENG.doc.

25. Central Asian News Services. 16,000 Children Left without Parental Care in Kyrgyzstan in 2015. July 20, 2015. [Source on file].

26. U.S. Embassy- Bishkek official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 9, 2016.

27. Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Labor Code of the Kyrgyz Republic, No. 106, as amended. Enacted: August 4, 2004. http://www.mkk.gov.kg/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&catid=116%3A-1-5-&id=1084%3A-i-v&lang=ru.

28. —. The Kyrgyz Republic's Code on Children, No. 100. Enacted: July 10, 2012. [Source on file].

29. —. Decree No. 548 on the Adoption of a Standard Maximum Weight for the Lifting and Moving of Heavy Loads by Women and Workers under the Age of 18. Enacted: December 2, 2005. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/56683?cl=ru-ru.

30. —. Decree No. 314 on the List of Industries, Occupations and Work with Difficult and Hazardous Working Conditions, and Employment in which is Prohibited for Persons under the Age of Eighteen (as amended). Enacted: July 2, 2001. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/33457/30?mode=tekst.

31. —. Criminal Code of the Kyrgyz Republic, No 68, as amended. Enacted: October 1, 1997. http://legislationline.org/download/action/download/id/4221/file/Kyrgyzstan_CC_1997_%20am_2006_en.pdf.

32. —. Law No. 55 on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking. Enacted: March 17, 2005. http://www.legislationline.org/ru/documents/action/popup/id/14215.

33. —. Law No. 43 on the Universal Conscription of Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic, Military and Alternative Service. Enacted: February 9, 2009. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/202536?cl=ru-ru.

34. —. Law of the Kyrgyz Republic on Education, No 92, as amended. Enacted: April 30, 2003. http://www.tradeunion-ed.kg/ru/normativno-pravovyie_aktyi/zakon_kyirgyizskoj_respubliki_ob_obrazovanii.html.

35. U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. Reporting, January 6, 2016.

36. Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Decree 201 on National Educational Strategy 2012-2020. Enacted: March 23, 2012. [Source on file].

37. U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. Reporting, December 29, 2014.

38. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Kyrgyztan (ratification: 1992) Published : 2013. Accessed November 26, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3083555.

39. USDOS official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 6, 2015.

40. U.S. Embassy- Bishkek official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 14, 2017.

41. Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Regulation on the procedure for conducting inspections of business entities, No. 533. November 6, 2007. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/58725?cl=ru-ru.

42. —. Law on the procedure for conducting inspections of business entities, No. 72. May 25, 2007. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/202105?cl=ru-ru.

43. —. Regulation on the procedure for conducting inspections of business entities, No. 56. January 29, 2018. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/11692?cl=ru-ru.

44. —. Resolution No. 391 on the Procedure for the Identification of Children and Families in Difficult Living Situations. Enacted: June 22, 2015. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/97689.

45. CIA. The World Factbook . Accessed January 19, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kg.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

46. ILO Committee on Employment and Social Policy. Strategies and practice for labour inspection. GB.297/ESP/3. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

47. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

48. U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. Reporting, February 15, 2018.

49. Ministry of Labor and Social Development. Meeting of the Coordination Council for Social Protection and Children's Rights. December 21, 2015. http://mlsp.gov.kg/?q=ru/obyavleniyary/zasedaniya-koordinacionnogo-soveta-po-socialnoy-zashchite-i-pravam-detey.

50. League of Defenders of Children's Rights. Nazgul Turdubekova Elected Deputy Chairman of the Coordination Council on Social Protection and Children's Rights. December 21, 2015. http://crdl.kg/ru/news/full/182.html.

51. U.S. Embassy- Bishkek official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 7, 2017.

52. Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Interagency Action Plan on Measures to Prevent the Involvement of Children in the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2016 to 2018). [Source on file].

53. U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. Reporting, January 18, 2018.

54. ILO-IPEC. Combating Child Labour in Central Asia - Commitment becomes Action (PROACT-CAR Phase III). July-December 2013; Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

55. ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 3, 2017.

56. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 10, 2018.

57. ILO. More than 70 children in Bishkek and Osh will be enrolled to evening classes. June 6, 2013. http://www.oit.org/moscow/news/WCMS_479812/lang--en/index.htm.

58. U.S. Department of State. Federal Assistance Award. 2015. [Source on file].

59. Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, Ministry of Justice. Decree 479 of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic on the Program to Support of Family and Protection of Children for 2018-2028. August 14, 2017. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/100203?cl=ru-ru.

60. —. Decree 479 of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic on the Program to Support of Family and Protection of Children for 2018-2028, Annex 1. August 14, 2017. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/100204?cl=ru-ru.

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