Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - The Kyrgyz Republic

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Kyrgyz Republic

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, the Kyrgyz Republic made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government established a Coordination Council for Social Protection and Children’s Rights and passed a resolution to set up a procedure for the identification of children living in difficult conditions, including those engaged in child labor. In addition, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. However, children in the Kyrgyz Republic are engaged in child labor, including in cultivating cotton and selling items in the bazaars. The State Inspectorate did not conduct inspections to ensure compliance with legal minimum age protections. The compulsory education age remained lower than the minimum age to work.

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Children in the Kyrgyz Republic are engaged in child labor, including in cultivating cotton and selling items in the bazaars.(1-4) According to the most recent child labor survey conducted in 2007, child labor is concentrated in agriculture, primarily in the oblasts (provinces) of Issyk Kul and Osh. Children also transport and sell items in local bazaars.(5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in the Kyrgyz Republic.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

33.9 (397,407)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%):

 

Agriculture

98.98

Industry

0.3

Services

0.8

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

86.5

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

41.0

Primary completion rate (%):

105.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from National Child Labor Survey, 2014.(7) Data on working children, school attendance, and children combining work and school are not comparable with data published in the previous version of this report because of differences between the surveys used to collect the data.

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivating cotton, tobacco,† rice,* potatoes,* sugar beets,* and wheat* (3, 4, 8-13)

Raising cattle* and sheep* (8, 11-13)

Industry

Coal mining*† (4, 8, 12, 13)

Brick making* (8, 12, 13)

Construction, including lifting and portering construction materials,* and cutting metal sheets for roofs* (8, 13)

Services

Loading and unloading goods, portering, collecting plastic bottles* and garbage, and selling items, including food and newspapers, in bazaars (2-5, 10, 14-16)

Washing cars* (10, 15)

Working in restaurants and cafes, including serving food* and washing dishes* (3, 12, 17)

Street work, including begging and shoe shining* (12, 15, 18, 19)

Domestic work, including child care* (4, 9, 19, 20)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Raising cattle and sheep, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (4, 8)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (8, 15, 16, 19, 20)

Use in illicit activities, including trafficking illegal drugs, as a result of human trafficking* (20, 21)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Some girls from Uzbekistan are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking in the Kyrgyz Republic.(20) In addition, some parents who migrate to Kazakhstan, Russia, or other areas of the country to work leave their children behind, oftentimes without birth certificates and guardianship documents. As a result, some of these children cannot enroll in school and are vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(3, 5, 12, 22) While there are estimated to be few ethnic Lyuli, a subgroup of the Roma people living in Central Asia, in the Kyrgyz Republic (approximately 3,500), many children from this community are vulnerable to child labor as they do not attend school.(5, 21, 23) Children with disabilities and those living and working on the street also have difficultly accessing education.(2, 5, 8, 24) The practice of schools requiring residence registration, known as propiska, for enrollment may also hinder access to education, although, according to the Ministry of Education and Science, this is not mandatory.(8, 9, 16)

In 2014, the National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic, in cooperation with the ILO, conducted a National Child Labor Survey in 2014, the results of which were presented in a roundtable discussion in 2016. The results show that while the rate of child labor has decreased from 32.9 percent in 2007 to 27.8 percent in 2014, the rate of children engaged in hazardous child labor has increased from 12.5 percent in 2007 to 18.6 percent in 2014.(25) The full report of the survey is expected to be published in 2016.(1)

The Kyrgyz Republic has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 18 of the Labor Code (26)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 294 of the Labor Code; Article 15 of the Code on Children (26, 27)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 294 of the Labor Code; Decree 314; Annex I of Decree 548 (26, 28, 29)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 10 of the Labor Code; Article 15.2 of the Code on Children; Article 1 of the Law on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking; Article 124 of the Criminal Code (26, 27, 30, 31)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 1 of the Law on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking; Article 124 of the Criminal Code (30, 31)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 157 of the Criminal Code; Articles 5 and 15 of the Code on Children (27, 30)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 157, 247, 249, and 375 of the Criminal Code; Articles 5 and 15 of the Code on Children (27, 30)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Articles 17.1 and 22.1 of the Law on Military Service (32)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 24.1 of the Law on Military Service (32)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 16 of the Law on Education (33)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 16 of the Law on Education (33)

‡ Age calculated based on available information

According to Article 6 of the Labor Code, protections, such as the minimum age of employment and prohibition on hazardous work, are not extended to children engaged in non-contractual employment.(26) Most incidences of child labor occur in employment relationships in which the child has no signed employment contract with the employer.(3, 11)

Although the Kyrgyz Republic has ratified the Palermo Protocol, which necessitates waiving requirements related to the use of force, deception, or fraud for child victims of human trafficking, both the Law on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking and the Criminal Code require these elements during the human trafficking process.(30, 31)

Children in the Kyrgyz Republic are required to attend school only until grade nine, which is typically until they reach age 14 or 15.(3, 9, 34) This standard makes children ages 14 and 15 vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to be in school, but they also are not yet legally permitted to work.

The Government drafted a revised list of hazardous work for children in 2011, which is pending review by the Ministry of Labor and Social Development.(1)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety

Monitor work sites and refer child laborers to social services. Cooperate with the Inspectorate for Minors’ Affairs in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Prosecutor General’s Office, and regional State District Administration authorities to enforce child labor laws.(35)

Ministry of Internal Affairs, Inspectorate for Minors’ Affairs

Enforce criminal laws related to child labor, including its worst forms; conduct independent inspections and joint raids with the State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety to find neglected or abused children; and refer children to social institutions for care.(35)

Prosecutor General’s Office

Enforce and apply laws concerning labor, including by conducting labor inspections and investigating child labor violations in coordination with the State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety.(35, 36)

Oblast Administration

Enforce child labor laws at the oblast level.(35)

Ministry of Labor and Social Development

Serve as the key government agency for child issues. Charged with protecting children and families in difficult conditions, including child laborers.(21) The Ministry’s Department of Child Protection covers child labor issues. Monitor for children engaged in the worst forms of child labor.(21) Coordinate with oblast-level authorities to pursue violations of child labor laws.(37)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, law enforcement agencies in the Kyrgyz Republic took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

23 (2)

23 (2)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (2)

Yes (2)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (2)

No (1)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

Unknown (23)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown (23)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown (23)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

243 (2)

Unknown (23)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown (23)

Number of Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

Unknown (23)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (2)

Unknown (23)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (2)

Unknown (23)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

No (2)

No (2)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

N/A

N/A

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (2)

Yes (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (35)

Yes (38)

 

According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 20,000 workers in transitioning economies, the Kyrgyz Republic should employ about 132 inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(2, 39-41) The State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety acknowledged that the number of labor inspectors was inadequate to ensure appropriate enforcement of child labor laws.(2) The Inspectorate conducted child labor inspections but since inspectors monitor a number of conditions in addition to child labor, it does not publish disaggregate statistics on child labor.(23)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in the Kyrgyz Republic took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   
  • Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

  • Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

  • Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Investigations

Unknown (42)

0 (1)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

0 (1)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (42)

N/A (1)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (42)

N/A (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

No (20)

Yes (38)

 

In 2015, the Government passed a resolution establishing the identification process for children in difficult living conditions, including those engaged in the worst forms of child labor. An integral part of this process is the referral of identified children to social and educational services.(38)

There were no reports of police misconduct, nor of children engaged in child labor being treated as criminals.

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Coordination Council for Social Protection and Children’s Rights*

Develop policies to eliminate child labor.(1) Chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister, members include representatives from the Ministries of Labor and Social Development, Internal Affairs, Finance, and Education and Science, as well as civil society organizations.(43, 44) During the reporting period, the Council drafted a National Action Plan on Child Labor and submitted it to the Ministry of Labor and Social Development for review.(1) The Council also asked the Ministry of Labor and Social Development to provide information on what measures the Ministry has taken to establish guardianship for children whose parents migrate to other areas or countries.(44)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

 

The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Regulations on the Procedure for the Identification of Children and Families in Difficult Situations†

Establishes the identification process of children in difficult living conditions, including those engaged in the worst forms of child labor. Actors involved in the identification process include employees of the Ministries of Education and Science, Labor and Social Development, Internal Affairs, and Health.(38) The process includes receiving complaints, conducting outreach activities, devising an individual action plan, removing the child from the worst forms of child labor, and providing financial and educational services.(38)

National Program Against Human Trafficking and Action Plan for the Implementation of the Program (2013–2016)

Aims to provide protection to children in difficult situations to prevent them from becoming victims of sexual, labor, or criminal exploitation.(35)

Sustainable Development Plan (2013–2017)

Addresses child labor by undertaking a child labor survey, strengthening enforcement mechanisms for monitoring child labor, and replicating best practices to improve access to education.(35, 45)

Roadmap on Out-of-School Children*

Seeks to collect information on the problem of school non-attendance and develop a comprehensive list of activities to address the issue. Developed by UNICEF, the ILO, and the Ministry of Education and Science.(45)

National Education Strategy (2012–2020)*

Seeks to expand coverage of preschool education, improve access to basic and general secondary education, and develop skills based on labor market needs. Also promotes adult and non-formal education for those who never attended school or dropped out early due to child labor.(34)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

The Ministry of Education and Science is reviewing a change in the definition of out-of-school children to replace 45 missed days in an academic year with 10 days in 1 month. This change is expected to facilitate the identification of children who engage in child labor in agriculture during the harvest season.(1)

In 2015, the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Combating Child Labor in Central Asia—Commitment Becomes Action (PROACT CAR Phase III) (2010–2016)

$4.57 million Government of Germany-funded, 5-year project, implemented by the ILO‑IPEC to mainstream child labor issues into national policies and legislation, build the capacity of stakeholders, and provide direct services to children withdrawn from the worst forms of child labor.(45) A manual for teachers on non-formal education was developed and incorporated in the regular teacher training package.(46) A pilot program in two districts consists of evening classes for children engaged in child labor and child labor monitoring by teachers and social workers.(8, 47)

Implementing Practices to Address Child Labor in Tobacco in Kyrgyzstan (IMPACT) (2013–2015)

$709,943 Eliminating Child Labor in Tobacco Growing Foundation-funded, 2-year project implemented by the Alliance on the Protection of Child Rights that worked to eliminate child labor in tobacco-growing communities in southern areas of the Kyrgyz Republic. Objectives included withdrawing or preventing 3,000 children from entering child labor and improving access to education, water, and sanitation.(48)

Evening Classes for Child Laborers†

ILO and Ministry of Education and Science project that provides evening classes to secondary school students in districts with a high concentration of child laborers. Includes weekly or biweekly family consultations with social workers who observe the children and provide parents with information on the hazards of child labor.(49)

Social Support for Children and Families in Difficult Living Conditions†

Social workers monitor places where children may be working, with a primary focus on bazaars, and return children to school.(37)

Technical Assistance to the Government of Kyrgyzstan to Strengthen the Legal and Operational Framework for Combating Trafficking in Persons (2015–2018)*

$750,000 USDOS-funded, 3-year project implemented by the IOM to establish an anti-trafficking task force; support the development of a National Referral Mechanism; and provide anti-human-trafficking trainings to government officials, such as judges, prosecutors, and law enforcement officers.(50)

Cash Transfer Program*†

Government cash transfer program for families living in difficult conditions.(1) In 2015, the Government helped 4,403 children in difficult conditions, including those engaged in child labor.(51)

Ministry of Education and Science National School Attendance Database†

Pilot national electronic database to track children who do not attend school. After the database is developed and used throughout the country, database information will be shared with the Ministry of Labor and Social Development to assist children engaged in child labor.(9) The Ministry of Internal Affairs will also be informed of cases of criminal violations of child labor laws. In addition, social pedagogues will work with families to ensure that children attend school.(9)

Toll-Free Hotline for Human Trafficking†

Ministry for Social Development toll-free line provided to the IOM that offers information to potential labor migrants and assistance to victims of human trafficking.(23)

Awareness-Raising Campaign†

One-month joint campaign of the Ministry of Labor and Social Development and the Ministry of Education and Science to raise awareness on child labor called “No to child labor, Yes to quality of education,” consisting of competitions and roundtables.(52)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic.

Although the Kyrgyz Republic has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in the Kyrgyz Republic (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law’s minimum age provisions and hazardous work prohibitions apply to all children, including those working without a signed employment contract.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that child trafficking laws do not require an element of force or deception and are in accordance with international standards.

2015

Increase the age for compulsory schooling to 16, the minimum age to work.

2014 – 2015

Enforcement

Make publicly available information about the funding of the State Inspectorate, the training system for labor inspectors and criminal investigators, the number of labor inspections, including those conducted at worksites or by desk review, the number of child labor violations found, and the number of penalties imposed and collected, and information about whether inspections are routine or targeted.

2011 – 2015

Strengthen the labor inspection system by permitting and conducting unannounced inspections.

2014 – 2015

Increase the number of labor inspectors and provide inspectors with adequate resources to conduct inspections.

2012 – 2015

Ensure that cases of the worst forms of child labor are investigated and prosecuted.

2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Roadmap on Out-of-School Children and the National Education Strategy.

2015

Social Programs

Ensure that all children have access to free education, including children with disabilities and those without birth certificates.

2009 – 2015

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2014 – 2015

 

 

1.         U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. reporting, January 6, 2016.

2.         State Inspectorate on Environmental and Technical Safety official. Interview with USDOL official. May 22, 2015.

3.         ILO-IPEC official. Interview with USDOL official. May 18, 2015.

4.         Bengard, A. "Child Labor: to combat or emulate?" 24 Press Club June 11, 2015 [cited January 7, 2016]; http://www.24kg.org/obschestvo/14223_detskiy_trud_borba_ili_imitatsiya/.

5.         UNICEF. All Children in School by 2015: Global Initiative on Out-of-school Children - Kyrgyzstan Country Study; 2012. http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Documents/OOSCI%20Reports/kyrgyzstan-oosci-report-2012.pdf.

6.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Child Labor Survey, 2014. Analysis received March 24, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

8.         Association for the Promotion of Rights and Interests of Children official. Interview with USDOL official. May 20, 2015.

9.         Ministry of Education and Science official. Interview with USDOL official. May 19, 2015.

10.       Ministry of Social Development official. Interview with USDOL official. May 19, 2015.

11.       Trade Union of Agro-Industrial Complex’s Workers official. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2015.

12.       USAID official. Interview with USDOL official. May 20, 2015.

13.       Alliance on Protection of Children Rights official. Interview with USDOL official. May 20, 2015.

14.       Toktonaliev, T. "Kyrgyz Child Workers Harassed, Not Helped by Police." Institute for War & Peace Reporting [online] June 25, 2014 [cited January 23, 2015]; https://iwpr.net/global-voices/kyrgyz-child-workers-harassed-not-helped-police.

15.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Kyrgyzstan (ratification: 2004) Published: 2013; accessed October 28, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

16.       Adilet Legal Clinic official. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2015.

17.       Parliament Committee for Human Rights: Constitutional Legislation and Statehood official. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2015.

18.       U.S. Department of State. "Kyrgyz Republic," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226847.pdf.

19.       IOM official. Interview with USDOL official. May 18, 2015.

20.       U.S. Department of State. "Kyrgyz Republic," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243472.htm.

21.       U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. reporting, January 16, 2014.

22.       Central Asian News Services. "16,000 children left without parental care in Kyrgyzstan in 2015." [online] July 20, 2015 [cited November 15, 2015]; [source on file].

23.       U.S. Embassy- Bishkek Official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 9, 2016.

24.       U.S. Department of State. "Kyrgyz Republic," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm.

25.       ILO. Results of National Child Labour Survey presented in Bishkek. online ILO; 2016 February 5,. http://www.ilo.org/moscow/news/WCMS_449678/lang--en/index.htm.

26.       Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Labor Code of the Kyrgyz Republic, No. 106, as amended, enacted August 4, 2004. http://www.mkk.gov.kg/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&catid=116%3A-1-5-&id=1084%3A-i-v&lang=ru.

27.       Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. The Kyrgyz Republic's Code on Children, No. 100, enacted July 10, 2012. http://online.adviser.kg/Document/?doc_id=31223299&mode=all.

28.       Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Decree No. 548 on the Adoption of a Standard Maximum Weight for the Lifting and Moving of Heavy Loads by Women and Workers under the Age of 18, enacted December 2, 2005. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/56683?cl=ru-ru.

29.       Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Decree No. 314 on the list of industries, occupations and work with difficult and hazardous working conditions, employment in which is prohibited for persons under the age of eighteen (as amended), enacted July 2, 2001. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/33457/30?mode=tekst.

30.       Government of Kyrgyz Republic. Criminal Code of the Kyrgyz Republic, No 68, as amended, enacted October 1, 1997. http://legislationline.org/download/action/download/id/4221/file/Kyrgyzstan_CC_1997_%20am_2006_en.pdf

31.       Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Law No. 55 on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking, enacted March 17, 2005. http://www.legislationline.org/ru/documents/action/popup/id/14215.

32.       Government of Kyrgyz Republic. Law No. 43 on the Universal Conscription of Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic, Military and Alternative Service, as amended, enacted February 9, 2009. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/202536?cl=ru-ru.

33.       Government of Kyrgyz Republic. Law of the Kyrgyz Republic on Education, No 92, as amended, enacted April 30, 2003. http://www.tradeunion-ed.kg/ru/normativno-pravovyie_aktyi/zakon_kyirgyizskoj_respubliki_ob_obrazovanii.html.

34.       Government of Kyrgyz Republic. Decree 201 on National Educational Strategy 2012-2020, enacted March 23, 2012. http://online.adviser.kg/Document/?link_id=1002436221.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. reporting, December 29, 2014.

36.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) - Kyrgyztan (ratification: 1992) Published : 2013; accessed November 26, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

37.       USDOS official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 6, 2015.

38.       Government of Kyrgyz Republic. Resolution No. 391 on the Procedure for the Identification of Children and Families in Difficult Living Conditions, enacted June 22, 2015. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/97689.

39.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

40.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection (GB.297/ESP/3). Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

41.       UN. World economic situation and prospects 2012 statistical annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

42.       U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. reporting, February 27, 2015.

43.       Ministry of Labor and Social Development. Meeting of the Coordination Council for Social Protection and Children's Rights, [online] December 21, [cited January 20, 2016]; http://mlsp.gov.kg/?q=ru/obyavleniyary/zasedaniya-koordinacionnogo-soveta-po-socialnoy-zashchite-i-pravam-detey.

44.       League of Defenders of Children's Rights. Nazgul Turdubekova elected deputy chairman of the Coordination Council on Social Protection and Children's Rights, [online] December 21, 2015 [cited January 20, 2016]; http://crdl.kg/.

45.       ILO-IPEC. Combating Child Labour in Central Asia - Committment Becomes Action PROACT CAR Phase III. Technical Progress Report (July - December, 2013). Geneva; 2013.

46.       ILO-IPEC Geneva Official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

47.       Child Institute official. Interview with USDOL official. May 22, 2015.

48.       Eliminating Child Labor in Tobacco Growing (ECLT) Foundation. Kyrgyzstan, 2013–2015, [online ] 2013 [cited June 19, 2014]; http://www.eclt.org/project-countries/kyrgyzstan/kyrgyzstan-2013-2015/.

49.       ILO. More than 70 children in Bishkek and Osh will be enrolled to evening classes ILO, [online ] [cited June 6, 2013]; http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/eurpro/moscow/news/2013/0606.htm.

50.       US Department of State. Federal Assistance Award; 2015. on file.

51.       U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. reporting, April 15, 2016.

52.           AKIpress News Agency. "Month to combat exploitation of child labor starts in Bishkek." [online] May 12, 2015 [cited November 15, 2015]; [source on file].

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