Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - The Kyrgyz Republic

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Kyrgyz Republic

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, the Kyrgyz Republic made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted the Interagency Action Plan on Measures to Prevent the Involvement of Children in the Worst Forms of Child Labor. The Bishkek Mayor’s Office also began funding evening remedial classes for thousands of child laborers. However, children in the Kyrgyz Republic engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and illicit activities. Research indicates that the State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety did not conduct inspections to ensure compliance with legal minimum age protections. The compulsory education age also remained lower than the minimum age to work.

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Children in the Kyrgyz Republic engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and illicit activities.(1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in the Kyrgyz Republic.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

33.9 (397,407)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

98.98

Industry

 

0.3

Services

 

0.8

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

86.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

41.0

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

105.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from National Child Labor Survey, 2014.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivating cotton, tobacco,† rice, potatoes, sugar beets, and wheat (4, 9-16)

Raising cattle and sheep (4, 12-14, 16)

Industry

Coal mining† (4, 13-15, 17)

Brick making (4, 13, 14, 16)

Construction, including lifting and portering construction materials, and cutting metal sheets for roofs (4, 14, 16, 17)

Services

Working in bazaars, including loading and unloading goods, portering, collecting plastic bottles and garbage, and selling items, including food and newspapers (1, 3, 9, 11, 15, 16, 18-21)

Washing cars (1, 11, 16)

Working in restaurants and cafes, including serving food and washing dishes (9, 13, 16, 22)

Street work, including begging and shoe shining (1, 2, 13)

Domestic work, including child care (2, 3, 10, 15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in raising cattle and sheep, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 15)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-5)

Use in illicit activities, including trafficking drugs as a result of human trafficking (5, 6)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Hazardous child labor is most prevalent in the oblasts (provinces) of Naryn and Osh.(17) There is limited evidence that some children migrate with their families to work in the cotton fields in Kazakhstan.(23) Some parents migrate to work in Kazakhstan, Russia, or other areas of the country and leave their children behind, oftentimes without birth certificates and guardianship documents. As a result, some of these children cannot enroll in school and are vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(9, 13, 18, 24) While the number of ethnic Lyuli, a subgroup of the Roma people living in Central Asia in the Kyrgyz Republic is low (approximately 3,500), many children from this community do not attend school and are vulnerable to child labor.(6, 18, 25) Children with disabilities and those living and working on the street also have difficultly accessing education.(4, 18, 20) Schools requiring residence registration, known as propiska, for enrollment may also hinder access to education; however, according to the Ministry of Education and Science, residence registration is not mandatory.(3, 4, 10)

The Kyrgyz Republic has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in the Kyrgyz Republic’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 18 of the Labor Code (26)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 294 of the Labor Code; Article 15 of the Code on Children (26, 27)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 294 of the Labor Code; Decree 314; Annex I of Decree 548 (26, 28, 29)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 10 of the Labor Code; Article 15.2 of the Code on Children; Article 1 of the Law on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking; Article 124 of the Criminal Code (26, 27, 30, 31)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

Article 1 of the Law on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking; Article 124 of the Criminal Code (30, 31)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 157 of the Criminal Code; Articles 5 and 15 of the Code on Children (27, 30)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 157, 247, 249, and 375 of the Criminal Code; Articles 5 and 15 of the Code on Children (27, 30)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 17.1 and 22.1 of the Law on Military Service (32)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 24.1 of the Law on Military Service (32)

Non-State Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 124, 226-2, 229, and 375 of the Criminal Code (30)

Compulsory Education Age

No

15‡

Article 16 of the Law on Education (33)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 16 of the Law on Education (33)

‡ Age calculated based on available information

According to Article 6 of the Labor Code, protections, such as the minimum age of employment and prohibitions on hazardous work, are not extended to children engaged in non-contractual employment.(26) Most incidences of child labor occur in employment relationships in which the child has no signed employment contract with the employer.(9, 12)

Although the Kyrgyz Republic has ratified the Palermo Protocol, which necessitates waiving requirements related to the use of force, deception, or fraud for child victims of human trafficking, both the Law on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking and the Criminal Code require these elements during the human trafficking process.(30, 31) The Government drafted a revised list of hazardous work for children in 2011, which remained under review.(16, 34)

Children in the Kyrgyz Republic are required to attend school only until grade nine, which is typically until they reach age 14 or 15.(9, 10, 35) This standard makes children ages 14 and 15 vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to be in school, but they also are not yet legally permitted to work.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety

Monitor work sites and refer child laborers to social services. Coordinate with the Inspectorate for Minors’ Affairs in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Prosecutor General’s Office, and regional State District Administration authorities to enforce child labor laws.(36)

Ministry of Internal Affairs, Inspectorate for Minors’ Affairs

Enforce criminal laws related to child labor, including its worst forms; conduct independent inspections and joint raids with the State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety to find neglected or abused children; and refer children to social institutions for care.(36)

Prosecutor General’s Office

Enforce and apply labor-related laws, including labor inspections and investigations of child labor violations, in coordination with the State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety.(36, 37)

Oblast Administration

Enforce child labor laws at the oblast level.(36)

Ministry of Labor and Social Development

Serve as the key government agency for children’s issues. Charged with protecting children and families in difficult conditions, including child laborers.(6) Coordinate with oblast-level authorities to investigate violations of child labor laws.(38)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in the Kyrgyz Republic took actions to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

23 (20)

23 (16)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (20)

Yes (16)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (34)

No (16)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown (25)

Unknown (16)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (25)

Unknown (16)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (25)

Unknown (16)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (25)

31 (39)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (25)

Unknown (16)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (25)

Unknown (16)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown (25)

Unknown (16)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (25)

Unknown (16)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

No (20)

No (16)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

N/A

N/A

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (20)

Yes (16)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (40)

Yes (16)

 

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of the Kyrgyz Republic’s workforce, which includes over 2.7 million workers.(41) According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 20,000 workers in transitioning economies, the Kyrgyz Republic should employ roughly 132 labor inspectors.(20, 42, 43) The State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety acknowledged that the number of labor inspectors was inadequate to ensure appropriate enforcement of child labor laws.(20)

 

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in the Kyrgyz Republic took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown (16)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

No (16)

Number of Investigations

0 (34)

2 (39)

Number of Violations Found

0 (34)

2 (39)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

N/A (34)

2 (39)

Number of Convictions

N/A (34)

0 (16)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (40)

Yes (16)

 

The UN special rapporteur on the sale of children, child sex trafficking, and child pornography documented allegations of law enforcement officials’ complicity in human trafficking in a 2013 report; police officers allegedly threatened, extorted, and raped child sex trafficking victims. However, the government has never investigated the allegations from this report, nor did it report the investigation, prosecution, or convictions of government employees complicit in human trafficking offenses.(44)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Coordination Council for Social Protection and Children’s Rights

Develop policies to eliminate child labor.(34) Chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister, members include representatives from four ministries, including Labor and Social Development.(45, 46) Met quarterly in 2016.(16)

Coordination Council on Migration*

Monitor and combat trafficking in persons as a key priority. Chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister for Social Issues, members include representatives from the Office of the President, Government ministries, international organizations, and NGOs.(47) Met three times in 2016, with one session devoted to human trafficking, aimed at improving Government coordination on this issue.(47)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Interagency Action Plan on Measures to Prevent the Involvement of Children in the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2016–2018)†

Aims to address the worst forms of child labor by identifying children at risk of child labor, including those in difficult living conditions; providing social services; conducting awareness-raising campaigns, including seminars for social pedagogues and forums for children and their parents on hazardous work; sharing experiences and best practices with international organizations and NGOs; and creating a manual on child protection for labor inspectors.(16, 48)

Regulations on the Procedure for the Identification of Children and Families in Difficult Conditions

Establishes the process for identifying children in difficult living conditions, including those engaged in the worst forms of child labor. Receives complaints, conducts outreach activities, devises an individual action plan, removes the child from the worst forms of child labor, and provides financial and educational services.(40) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this policy during the reporting period.

National Program Against Human Trafficking and Action Plan for the Implementation of the Program (2013–2016)

Aims to provide protection to children at risk of becoming victims of labor, criminal, or commercial sexual exploitation.(36) Was not implemented during 2016.(5)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(36)

The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the National Education Strategy and Roadmap on Out-of-School Children.(35, 49)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Combating Child Labor in Central Asia -Commitment Becomes Action (PROACT CAR Phase III) (2010–2018)

$4.57 million Government of Germany-funded project implemented by the ILO to mainstream child labor issues into national policies and legislation, build the capacity of stakeholders, and provide direct services to children withdrawn from the worst forms of child labor.(49, 50) In 2016, supported the adoption of the Interagency Action Plan on Measures to Prevent the Involvement of Children in the Worst Forms of Child Labor and the integration of child labor issues into other policies.(51)

Evening Classes for Child Laborers†

ILO and Ministry of Education and Science project to provide evening classes to secondary school students in districts with high numbers of child laborers. Includes weekly or biweekly family consultations with social workers who observe the children and provide parents with information about hazardous work activities for children.(52) Although the ILO stopped funding the classes in Bishkek and Osh in 2016, Bishkek’s Mayor’s Office provided funding for the schools in Bishkek, while evening classes in Osh were on hold.(16) In Bishkek, one school began offering remedial classes to thousands of child laborers.(53)

Social Support for Children and Families in Difficult Living Conditions†

Government-funded program to monitor places where children may be working, with a primary focus on bazaars, and to return these children to school.(38) Research did not find information about the number of children assisted in 2016.

Cash Transfer Program†

Cash transfer program for families living in difficult conditions, including families with children engaged in child labor.(34) Research did not find information about the number of children assisted in 2016.(16)

Ministry of Education and Science National School Attendance Database†

Ministry of Education and Science project to pilot national electronic database to track children who do not attend school. Following development and use throughout the country, database information will be shared with the Ministry of Labor and Social Development to assist children engaged in child labor.(10) Will provide information to the Ministry of Internal Affairs on cases of criminal violations of child labor laws. In addition, social pedagogues will also work with families to ensure that children attend school.(10) In 2016, the pilot Database in Bishkek was no longer operational, partially due to pending changes to the definition of out-of-school children.(39)

Awareness-Raising Campaign†

Joint campaign of the Ministry of Labor and Social Development and the Ministry of Education and Science to raise awareness on child labor, called “No to child labor, Yes to quality of education.” Consisted of roundtables in 2016.(16)

† Program is funded by the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(25, 53)

Although the Kyrgyz Republic has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, particularly in cultivating cotton and selling items in bazaars.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in the Kyrgyz Republic (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law’s minimum age provisions and hazardous work prohibitions apply to all children, including those working without a signed employment contract.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that child trafficking laws do not require an element of force or deception and are in accordance with international standards.

2015 – 2016

Increase the age for compulsory schooling to 16, the minimum age to work.

2014 – 2016

Enforcement

Publish information about the funding of the State Inspectorate; the training system for labor inspectors and criminal investigators; the number of labor inspections, including those conducted at worksites or by desk review; the number of penalties imposed and collected; and information about whether inspections are routine or targeted.

2011 – 2016

Strengthen the labor inspection system by permitting and conducting unannounced inspections.

2014 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO recommendation and provide inspectors with adequate training and resources to conduct inspections.

2012 – 2016

Ensure that criminal law enforcement agencies investigate and prosecute violations related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Government Policies

Implement the Regulations on the Procedure for the Identification of Children and Families in Difficult Conditions.

2016

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Education Strategy and the Roadmap on Out-of-School Children.

2015 – 2016

Social Programs

Ensure that all children have access to free education, including children with disabilities, those living and working on the street, and those without birth certificates.

2009 – 2016

Implement all social programs, including the School Attendance Database and programs for families living in difficult conditions.

2016

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem, particularly in cultivating cotton and selling items in bazaars.

2014 – 2016

1.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Kyrgyzstan (ratification: 2004) Published: 2013; accessed October 28, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3084798.

2.         IOM official. Interview with USDOL official. May 18, 2015.

3.         Adilet Legal Clinic official. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2015.

4.         Association for the Promotion of Rights and Interests of Children official. Interview with USDOL official. May 20, 2015.

5.         U.S. Department of State. "Kyrgyz Republic," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258801.htm.

6.         U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. reporting, January 16, 2014.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Child Labor Survey, 2014. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9.         ILO-IPEC official. Interview with USDOL official. May 18, 2015.

10.       Ministry of Education and Science official. Interview with USDOL official. May 19, 2015.

11.       Ministry of Social Development official. Interview with USDOL official. May 19, 2015.

12.       Trade Union of Agro-Industrial Complex’s Workers official. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2015.

13.       USAID official. Interview with USDOL official. May 20, 2015.

14.       Alliance on Protection of Children Rights official. Interview with USDOL official. May 20, 2015.

15.       Bengard, A. "Child Labor: to Combat or Emulate?" 24 Press Club June 11, 2015 [cited January 7, 2016]; http://www.24kg.org/obschestvo/14223_detskiy_trud_borba_ili_imitatsiya/.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. reporting, January 13, 2017.

17.       ILO, and National Statistics Committee of Kyrgyzstan. Working Children in Kyrgyzstan: Results of the 2014-2015 Child Labor Survey. Geneva; October 25, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---europe/---ro-geneva/---sro-moscow/documents/publication/wcms_533504.pdf.

18.       UNICEF. All Children in School by 2015: Global Initiative on Out-of-school Children - Kyrgyzstan Country Study; 2012. http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Documents/OOSCI%20Reports/kyrgyzstan-oosci-report-2012.pdf.

19.       Toktonaliev, T. "Kyrgyz Child Workers Harassed, Not Helped by Police." Institute for War & Peace Reporting [online] June 25, 2014 [cited January 23, 2015]; https://iwpr.net/global-voices/kyrgyz-child-workers-harassed-not-helped-police.

20.       State Inspectorate on Ecological and Technical Safety official. Interview with USDOL official. May 22, 2015.

21.       AKI Press. 132 Working Children Identified in Kyrgyzstan in Q1 2016, 8 of Them in Worst Forms of Child Labor, [Online] May 31, 2016 [cited October 31, 2016]; http://akipress.com/news:577896/.

22.       Parliament Committee for Human Rights: Constitutional Legislation and Statehood official. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2015.

23.       UN Human Rights Committee. Report of the Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, including its Causes and Consequences, Prepared by, Gulnara Shahinian, pursuant to UN General Assembly Resolution A/HRC/27/53/Add.2. August 26, 2014. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session27/Documents/A_HRC_27_53_Add_2_ENG.doc.

24.       Central Asian News Services. "16,000 Children Left without Parental Care in Kyrgyzstan in 2015." [online] July 20, 2015 [cited November 15, 2015]; [source on file].

25.       U.S. Embassy- Bishkek Official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 9, 2016.

26.       Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Labor Code of the Kyrgyz Republic, No. 106, as amended, enacted August 4, 2004. http://www.mkk.gov.kg/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&catid=116%3A-1-5-&id=1084%3A-i-v&lang=ru.

27.       Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. The Kyrgyz Republic's Code on Children, No. 100, enacted July 10, 2012. http://online.adviser.kg/Document/?doc_id=31223299&mode=all.

28.       Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Decree No. 548 on the Adoption of a Standard Maximum Weight for the Lifting and Moving of Heavy Loads by Women and Workers under the Age of 18, enacted December 2, 2005. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/56683?cl=ru-ru.

29.       Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Decree No. 314 on the List of Industries, Occupations and Work with Difficult and Hazardous Working Conditions, and Employment in which is Prohibited for Persons under the Age of Eighteen (as amended), enacted July 2, 2001. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/33457/30?mode=tekst.

30.       Government of Kyrgyz Republic. Criminal Code of the Kyrgyz Republic, No 68, as amended, enacted October 1, 1997. http://legislationline.org/download/action/download/id/4221/file/Kyrgyzstan_CC_1997_%20am_2006_en.pdf

31.       Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Law No. 55 on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking, enacted March 17, 2005. http://www.legislationline.org/ru/documents/action/popup/id/14215.

32.       Government of Kyrgyz Republic. Law No. 43 on the Universal Conscription of Citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic, Military and Alternative Service, as amended, enacted February 9, 2009. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/202536?cl=ru-ru.

33.       Government of Kyrgyz Republic. Law of the Kyrgyz Republic on Education, No 92, as amended, enacted April 30, 2003. http://www.tradeunion-ed.kg/ru/normativno-pravovyie_aktyi/zakon_kyirgyizskoj_respubliki_ob_obrazovanii.html.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. reporting, January 6, 2016.

35.       Government of Kyrgyz Republic. Decree 201 on National Educational Strategy 2012-2020, enacted March 23, 2012. http://online.adviser.kg/Document/?link_id=1002436221.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Bishkek. reporting, December 29, 2014.

37.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) - Kyrgyztan (ratification: 1992) Published : 2013; accessed November 26, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3083555.

38.       USDOS official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 6, 2015.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Bishkek Official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 14, 2017.

40.       Government of Kyrgyz Republic. Resolution No. 391 on the Procedure for the Identification of Children and Families in Difficult Living Conditions, enacted June 22, 2015. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/97689.

41.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited April 24, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

42.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection (GB.297/ESP/3). Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

43.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

44.       U.S. Department of State. "Kyrgyz Republic," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017. Washington, DC; June 27, 2017; https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258801.htm.

45.       Ministry of Labor and Social Development. Meeting of the Coordination Council for Social Protection and Children's Rights, [online] December 21, 2015 [cited January 20, 2016]; http://mlsp.gov.kg/?q=ru/obyavleniyary/zasedaniya-koordinacionnogo-soveta-po-socialnoy-zashchite-i-pravam-detey.

46.       League of Defenders of Children's Rights. Nazgul Turdubekova Elected Deputy Chairman of the Coordination Council on Social Protection and Children's Rights, [online] December 21, 2015 [cited May 18, 2017]; http://crdl.kg/ru/news/full/182.html.

47.       U.S. Embassy- Bishkek Official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 7, 2017.

48.       Government of the Kyrgyz Republic. Interagency Action Plan on Measures to Prevent the Involvement of Children in the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2016 to 2018). [Source on file].

49.       ILO-IPEC. Combating Child Labor in Central Asia - Commitment Becomes Action PROACT CAR Phase III. Technical Progress Report (July - December, 2013). Geneva; 2013.

50.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 3, 2017.

51.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 9, 2017.

52.       ILO. "More than 70 Children in Bishkek and Osh will be Enrolled to Evening Classes." [online ] June 6, 2013 [cited March 6, 2017]; http://www.oit.org/moscow/news/WCMS_479812/lang--en/index.htm.

53.       ILO. Back to School: Remedial Classes for Working Children Begin in Kyrgyzstan, [Online] October 8, 2016 [cited October 29, 2016]; http://www.ilo.org/moscow/news/WCMS_531727/lang--en/index.htm.

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