Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Kazakhstan

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Kazakhstan

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Kazakhstan made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted a Plan of Action on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and carried out targeted child labor inspection raids, resulting in 45,000 site visits. It also carried out awareness-raising campaigns that reached over 1.2 million children. However, children in Kazakhstan engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in harvesting cotton and commercial sexual exploitation. The Government lacks a program to address child labor in harvesting cotton, as well as current, comprehensive, and detailed research on child labor.

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Children in Kazakhstan engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in harvesting cotton and commercial sexual exploitation.(1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Kazakhstan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

3.2 (79,690)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

90.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

3.6

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

109.2

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2006.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including producing vegetables, weeding, collecting worms, and harvesting cotton† (1-3, 9-16)

Industry

Construction,† activities unknown (3, 15)

Services

Work in markets and on the streets, including transporting and selling items (3, 14, 15, 17-19)

Domestic work (3, 20)

Working in gas stations (17, 20)

Car washing (3, 15, 17-20)

Working as bus conductors (3, 21)

Working in restaurants† as waiters (17, 18, 20, 22)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking (3-6)

Forced begging as a result of human trafficking (4, 6)

Forced labor in agriculture, domestic work, and construction, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

There is limited evidence that children from the neighboring countries of Uzbekistan and the Kyrgyz Republic migrate with their families to work in the cotton fields in Kazakhstan.(1, 23) There is no current, comprehensive research on child labor in Kazakhstan.

Kazakhstan has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Kazakhstan’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 31 of the Labor Code (24)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 26.1(2) of the Labor Code (24)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 26.1(2) of the Labor Code; Decree of the Minister of Health and Social Development No. 944 of 2015 (24, 25)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 7 of the Labor Code; Article 135 of the Criminal Code (24, 26)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 135 of the Criminal Code (26)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 134, 135, and 312 of the Criminal Code (26)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 132 and 133 of the Criminal Code; Article 26.1(2) of the Labor Code (24, 26)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 31 of the Military Service Act (27)

State Voluntary

Yes

19

Article 38.1(2) of the Military Service Act (27)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 41 of the Law on Children’s Rights; Article 132 and 267 of the Criminal Code (26, 28)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17‡

Article 30 of the Constitution (29)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 8.2 of the Education Act (30)

‡ Age calculated based on available information

According to Article 26.1(2) of the Labor Code, protections, such as the minimum age of employment and prohibitions on hazardous work, are not extended to children engaged in non-contractual employment.(29)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Health and Social Development, Committee on Labor, Social Protection and Migration

Enforce child labor laws and manage child labor cases at the province—or oblast—level.(21, 31)

Ministry of Education and Science

Receive child labor complaints and determine if law enforcement should investigate cases. Mediate cases of child labor in the agricultural sector and encourage parents to keep their children in school.(31) An official from the oblast-level Department of Education responds to reports of child labor and determines whether law enforcement should investigate the case. If the case is in agriculture, local officials meet with parents and school officials to reinforce that children should be at school during the academic year.(3) The Ministry of Education and Science’s Center for the Adaptation of Minors provides assistance to child victims of the worst forms of child labor, receives reports of child labor through its hotline, and makes referrals to appropriate government services or NGOs for further assistance.(32-34)

Ministry of Internal Affairs

Investigate criminal cases of the worst forms of child labor and train police in investigating the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation.(32, 35) The Anti-Trafficking Unit of the Criminal Police Department identifies and investigates cases of child trafficking.(31) Receive reports of child labor through its hotline and make referrals to services.(34)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Kazakhstan took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown* (36)

Number of Labor Inspectors

320 (21)

320 (3)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (37)

Yes (3)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (36)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (36)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (21)

Yes (3)

Number of Labor Inspections

11,400 (38)

7,897‡ (36)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

400 (38)

60 (36)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

82 (38)

17 (36)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

17 (36)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (21)

No (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A

N/A

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (39)

Yes (40)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (21)

Yes (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (21)

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (21)

Yes (3)

* The Government does not publish this information.
‡ Data are from January 1 to September 30, 2016.

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Kazakhstan’s workforce, which includes over 9 million workers.(41) According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 20,000 workers in transitional economies, Kazakhstan should employ about 450 inspectors.(21, 42, 43)

The President’s Decree No. 757 prohibited announced labor inspections.(44) Labor inspectors at the Ministry of Health and Social Development can conduct unannounced inspections only if they have evidence of labor violations or in response to complaints.(3)

The Ministry of Education and Science, in cooperation with other government agencies, carried out targeted raids in areas in which children were likely to be engaged in child labor, such as local markets, gas stations, construction sites, bus stations, and nightclubs. The raids were part of an annual Twelve Days Against Child Labor and quarterly Children at Night Time campaigns to detect child labor, including its worst forms.(3) The raids resulted in about 45,000 site visits cumulatively. As a result of such raids, 31 child laborers were identified.(3)

 

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Kazakhstan took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (36)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (21)

Yes (3)

Number of Investigations

22 (21)

13 (3)

Number of Violations Found

5 (21)

13 (36)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

5 (21)

10 (36)

Number of Convictions

4 (21)

3 (36)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (21)

Yes (3)

 

In 2016, the Ministry of Internal Affairs’ Legal Academy in the city of Karaganda and the Judicial Training Institute of the Supreme Court in the capital city of Astana held human trafficking trainings for 166 judges and 133 police officers. The Anti-Trafficking Unit employed 42 officers.(3)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

The Institute of the Ombudsman for Children Rights

Control and monitor observance of the rights of children; receive and respond to complaints about violations of children’s rights.

National Coordination Council on Child Labor

Implement the Plan of Action on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, adopted in 2016.(45) Chaired by the Minister of Health and Social Development, includes representatives from four government agencies and NGOs.(21)

Interagency Trafficking in Persons Working Group

Coordinate efforts to combat human trafficking and recommend improvements to anti-human-trafficking legislation, prevention strategies, protection of victims, and prosecution of offenders.(46) Chaired by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development on a 2-year rotational basis. Its members include 14 state bodies, 2 international organizations, and 5 NGOs. In 2016, the Working Group continued to implement the Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking (2015–2017).(3)

Committee for the Protection of Child Rights

Work to protect children from exploitation. Operate under the Ministry of Education and Science at the oblast-level departments of education.(31) Met twice in 2016.(3)

 

In 2016, the Government established the Institute of the Ombudsman for Children Rights to monitor observance of the rights of children, receive and respond to complaints about violation of children’s rights; but it is unclear whether it addressed child labor.(36)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Plan of Action on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2016–2017)†

Addresses four priority areas: (1) child labor policy and legislation improvement, implementation, and monitoring, including the rights of children of migrants and seasonal workers and their access to education, and developing the list of light work for children ages 14–16 years; (2) child labor coordination between Government agencies, including monitoring access to education for children of migrant and seasonal workers, reporting on implementation of international conventions on the worst forms of child labor, and developing regional social partnership on elimination of child labor; (3) prevention of child labor and rehabilitation of child laborers, including identifying and referring children to Centers for Adaptation and monitoring implementation of ministerial orders on employment opportunities for youth over age 16 from dysfunctional or low-income families; and (4) promotion of public awareness on child labor, conduct of informational campaigns, and involvement of journalists and media resources.(36)

Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking (2015–2017)

Aims to strengthen coordination among Government ministries and with foreign governments and international organizations. Emphasizes victim assistance and prevention, specifically to prevent child labor in the production of cotton and construction, to provide access to education for children of stateless and foreign individuals permanently living in Kazakhstan, to monitor and exchange data on the trafficking of children and child pornography, and to enforce criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor.(47) In 2016, the Interagency Trafficking in Persons Working Group took actions to implement this policy, including conducting raids to detect and investigate cases of child labor, training criminal law enforcement officials, raising public awareness on child labor, including its worst forms, and providing services to victims of child trafficking.(3)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Assistance to Trafficking Victims†

Provides medical and legal assistance, pretrial safe houses, security services, housing, food, clothing, and transportation to trafficking victims. Authorities can help victims or witnesses change residences, find employment, or change their physical appearance.(48) In 2016,Government-funded shelters provided services to child victims of human trafficking.(3)

Awareness-Raising Campaigns†

The Ministry of Education and Science, in cooperation with other Government agencies, carried out child labor awareness-raising campaigns that reached 1.2 million children, plus 200,000 adults, through conferences, meetings, competitions, and media reports.(3)

† Program is funded by the Government of Kazakhstan.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(49)

Although the Government of Kazakhstan implemented programs to combat human trafficking and provide assistance to trafficking victims in 2016, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs to assist children engaged in child labor, particularly in the production of cotton.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Kazakhstan (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law’s minimum age provisions and hazardous work prohibitions apply to all children, including those working without a signed employment contract.

2016

Enforcement

Publish information about the funding of the inspectorate and the number of inspections at worksites or by desk review.

2015 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO recommendation.

2014 – 2016

Resume routine labor inspections to enforce child labor laws, particularly targeting cotton fields and other areas where children are employed.

2013 – 2016

Social Programs

Conduct research to gather comprehensive data on child labor, including the activities carried out by children working in the construction and services industries, to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2016

Institute programs to address child labor, particularly in the production of cotton.

2014 – 2016

1.         ILO-IPEC. Child Labour in Rural Kazakhstan: Baseline Survey Results in Almaty and South Kazakhstan Oblasts. Almaty; 2012.

2.         UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, Gulnara Shahinian. Geneva; June 27, 2013. Report No. A/HRC/24/43/Add.1. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session24/Documents/A-HRC-24-43-Add1_en.pdf.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Astana. reporting, January 19, 2017.

4.         Haarr, R. A Rapid Assessment of Children's Vulnerabilities to Risky Behaviors, Sexual Exploitation, and Trafficking in Kazakhstan UNICEF, USAID, Royal Norwegian Embassy, et al.; March 2012. http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1930_1386688151_00001021.pdf.

5.         IOM. "The World Day Against Trafficking in Persons." [online] July 30, 2015 [cited November 10, 2015]; http://www.iom.kz/new/177-pr-votday.

6.         U.S. Department of State. "Kazakhstan," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258794.htm.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2006. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. List of issues in relation to the fourth periodic report of Kazakhstan -- Addendum: Replies of Kazakhstan to the list of issues (CRC/C/KAZ/Q/4/Add.1). Prepared by the Government of Kazakhstan, June 29, 2015. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fKAZ%2fQ%2f4%2fAdd.1&Lang=en.

10.       Kazakhstan General Newswire. "Pupils from upper forms in South Kazakhstan region's rural district pick cotton instead of attending classes - prosecutor." interfax.com [online] November 3, 2015 [cited November 15, 2015]; [source on file].

11.       Kazakhstan General Newswire. "Cotton manufactures refuse to buy cotton harvested using child labor." interfax.com [online] September 8, 2015 [cited November 15, 2015]; [source on file].

12.       Isa, D. "In South Kazakhstan, children are still engaged in cotton harvest." Azattyq [online] September 22, 2015 [cited January 5, 2016]; http://rus.azattyq.org/content/deti-na-uborke-khlopka-yug-kazakhstana/27261699.html.

13.       UN Human Rights Committee. Replies of Kazakhstan to the list of issues in relation to the second periodic report of Kazakhstan CCPR/C/KAZ/Q/2/Add.1. Prepared by the Government of Kazakhstan, article 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. April 14, 2016. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/077/81/PDF/G1607781.pdf?OpenElement.

14.       Kenzhebekova, A. "Children’s Personal Space." Azattyq July 25, 2016 [cited December 28, 2016]; http://rus.azattyq.org/a/kazakhstan-alma-detskiy-trud/27871247.html.

15.       Medelbek, R. "Exploitation of child labor has not stopped." Azattyq June 12, 2014 [cited December 28, 2016]; http://rus.azattyq.org/a/ispolsovanie-detskogo-truda/25418809.html.

16.       Isa, D. "Child Labor in Cotton Fields." Azattyq [online] October 29, 2016 [cited February 7, 2017]; http://rus.azattyq.org/a/detkiy-trud-khlopkovie-polya-maktaaral/28017853.html.

17.       ILO. Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations. Geneva; February 5, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ilc/ILCSessions/103/reports/reports-to-the-conference/WCMS_235054/lang--en/index.htm.

18.       IOM and the Commission on Human Rights under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Special Report on Current Issues Affecting Human Rights Protection in the Area of Combating Trafficking in Persons in the Republic of Kazakhstan; May 2015. http://www.iom.kz/publications.

19.       Ismagulova, A. "Reducing Child Labor." Pulse of the City (Pul's Goroda) July 7, 2016 [cited December 28, 2016]; http://bko.prokuror.kz/rus/novosti/stati/ogranichenie-detskogo-truda.

20.       ILO-IPEC. Combating Child Labour in Central Asia – Commitment becomes Action PROACT CAR Phase III. Technical Progress Report (July - December 2013). Geneva; 2013.

21.       U.S. Embassy- Astana. reporting, January 20, 2016.

22.       Ryazantseva, L. "In Mangistau region 10 employers were fined for child labor." Lada October 8, 2016 [cited December 28, 2016]; https://www.lada.kz/aktau_news/incidents/41070-v-mangistauskoy-oblasti-desyat-rabotodateley-oshtrafovany-za-ekspluataciyu-detskogo-truda.html.

23.       UN Human Rights Committee. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, Gulnara Shahinian A/HRC/27/53/Add.2. August 26, 2014. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session27/Documents/A_HRC_27_53_Add_2_ENG.doc.

24.       Government of Kazakhstan. Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, No. 414-V, enacted November 23, 2015. http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=38910832.

25.       Government of Kazakhstan, Minister of Health and Social Development. Decree No. 944 of December 8, 2015, effective January 1, 2016. (The previous list of hazardous work for minors, Decree No. 391 of 2015 was repealed by Decree 971 of 2015, effective January 1, 2016. There are no substantive changes between Decree 944 and Decree 391.), enacted December 8, 2015. http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=35844164.

26.       Government of Kazakhstan. The Criminal Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, No. 226-V, as amended, No. 226-V, enacted July 3, 2014. http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=31575252.

27.       Government of Kazakhstan. Law No. 561-IV on Military Service and the Status of Military Personnel, as amended, enacted February 16, 2012. http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=31130640.

28.       Government of Kazakhstan. Law No. 345-II on Children's Rights (as amended), enacted August 8, 2002. https://online.zakon.kz/m/Document/?doc_id=1032460.

29.       Government of Kazakhstan. Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, enacted August 30, 1995. http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=1005029#sub_id=100000.

30.       Government of Kazakhstan. Law No. 319-III On Education, as amended, enacted July 27, 2007. http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=30118747.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Astana. reporting, January 29, 2015.

32.       U.S. Embassy- Astana. reporting, January 17, 2014.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Astana. reporting, April 15, 2015.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Astana official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 2, 2012.

35.       U.S. Department of State. "Kazakhstan," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Astana official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 11, 2017.

37.       ILO LAB/ADMIN. Labour Inspection Structure and organization- Kazakhstan, ILO, [online] [cited November 10, 2015]; http://www.ilo.org/labadmin/info/WCMS_156049/lang--en/index.htm.

38.       Vice Minister of Social Development. Meeting with USDOL, March 10, 2016.

39.       Government of Kazakhstan. Law No. 377-IV on State Control and Supervision in the Republic of Kazakhstan, as amended, enacted January 6, 2011. http://online.zakon.kz/document/?doc_id=30914758.

40.       Government of Kazakhstan. The Entrepreneurial Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan, No. 375-V, enacted October 29, 2015. https://tengrinews.kz/zakon/parlament_respubliki_kazahstan/konstitutsionnyiy_stroy_i_osnovyi_gosudarstvennogo_upravleniya/id-K1500000375/#z1258.

41.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited May 4, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

42.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection (GB.297/ESP/3). Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

43.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

44.       Government of Kazakhstan. Presidential Decree No. 757 on essential measures to improve the business environment in the Republic of Kazakhstan, enacted February 27, 2014. http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/U1400000757.

45.       U.S. Embassy- Astana official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 17, 2017.

46.       U.S. Embassy- Astana. reporting, February 3, 2016.

47.       Government of Kazakhstan. Decree No. 23 on the Action Plan of the Government of Kazakhstan to Combat Human Trafficking, enacted January 28, 2015. http://www.adilet.gov.kz/ru/node/102958.

48.       U.S. Embassy- Astana. reporting, May 20, 2013.

49.       Ministry of Education and Science. State Program of Education Development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011- 2020. Astana; December 7, 2010. www.akorda.kz/upload/SPED.doc.

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