Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Jordan

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Jordan

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Jordan made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government released the Summary Report on Main Findings of the National Child Labor Survey and redesigned the National Child Labor Database to contain data about child laborers and their referral to social services. In addition, the Government increased the number of double-shifted schools to expand access to education for Syrian refugee children living in Jordan. However, children in Jordan perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in street work. Programs to combat the worst forms of child labor are insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. In addition, Syrian children still face barriers to accessing education.

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Children in Jordan perform dangerous tasks in agriculture.(1-5) Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in street work.(6-8) Based on the 2016 National Child Labor Survey, approximately 70,000 children are engaged in child labor, most commonly in agriculture and trade. Approximately 80 percent of child laborers are Jordanian and about 15 percent are Syrian.(4) Boys constitute nearly 90 percent of those involved in child labor.(4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Jordan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

0.8 (11,255)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

40.5

Industry

 

11.2

Services

 

48.4

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.9

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

0.7

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

91.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from National Child Labor Survey, 2007.(10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including weeding, planting, and harvesting tomatoes and olives (1-4, 6, 11-15)

Industry

Mining† and quarrying† (1, 4, 6)

Construction,† including building and painting homes (4, 6, 7, 11, 15-18)

Manufacturing (4, 11, 16)

Carpentry† (6, 7, 17, 18)

Blacksmithing† (7, 17)

Services

Repairing automobiles† (4, 7, 12, 18)

Attending donkeys, camels, and horses to transport tourists (19-21)

Street work,† including selling items, washing cars, and begging (6-8, 11, 12, 17-19, 22)

Scavenging scrap metal (23, 24)

Domestic work† (11, 12, 25)

Food services, including restaurants and bakeries (4, 6, 12, 16, 17)

Hotel services† (4, 24)

Hairdressing (6, 11, 19)

Retail (4, 6, 11)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (26, 27)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (11, 28-30)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Syrian children are granted access to Jordanian public schools.(31) Yet, as of December 2016, more than 40,000 Syrian refugee children were not enrolled in formal or informal education, a figure representing 17 percent of all Syrian refugee children ages 5 to 17.(32) Jordan has nearly 500 double-shifted schools to address overcrowding (out of approximately 3,700 schools in the country); of these schools, 198 are for refugee children, mainly Syrian.(33) Jordanian children attend in the morning and Syrian children attend in the afternoon to accommodate the large number of students.(26, 31) One hundred second-shift schools were opened in 2013 and 2014, and an additional 98 were opened in 2016.(33) However, Jordanian and Syrian children attending double-shift schools are vulnerable to child labor because the school hours are considerably shorter, and fewer school hours leave more time for work.(33, 34) Syrian refugee children face barriers to education, including the cost of transportation, uniforms, and school materials; lack of refugee registration and required documents; and being unprepared for their appropriate grade level due to interruptions in their early years of schooling.(15, 35, 36)

Jordan has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Jordan’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 73 of the Labor Code (37)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 74 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of Ministerial Order of 2011 (37, 38)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Ministerial Order of 2011 (38)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 3(a) and (b) of the Law on the Prevention of Human Trafficking; Articles 17 and 77 of the Labor Code (37, 39)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 3(a) of the Law on the Prevention of Human Trafficking (39)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 298, 299, 306, 310, 311, 315, and 319 of the Penal Code; Article 3(b) of the Law on the Prevention of Human Trafficking (39, 40)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 8 of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (41)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 3(a) of the National Service Act (42)

State Voluntary

N/A*

 

 

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Articles 7(a.2) and 10(b) of the Education Act (43)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 20 of the Constitution (44)

* No volunteers are accepted to join the armed forces.(45)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Directorate of Labor Affairs and Inspection

Enforce labor laws, including those on child labor.(26) Identify cases of child labor through worksite inspections and refer cases to the relevant services. Register instances of child labor in a National Child Labor Database, which allows ministries to monitor and track children as they are identified and referred to services.(46) Maintain a 24/7 hotline to receive labor-related complaints in Arabic, including complaints of child labor.(31, 47)

Ministry of Labor, Child Labor Unit

Coordinate government efforts to campaign against child labor, conduct trainings, and raise awareness about child labor issues. In 2015, piloted the National Child Labor Database as a data collection, coordination, and referral mechanism.(26) In 2016, the Web site of the National Child Labor Database was launched at a central location for labor inspectors to enter information on child laborers and share it with the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Social Development.(33)

Public Security Directorate, Criminal Investigation Unit

Investigate and prosecute violations of the Penal Code, including allegations of the worst forms of child labor. Operate a section to combat human trafficking.(26)

Joint Anti-Trafficking Unit of the Ministry of Labor and Public Security Directorate

Investigate cases of human trafficking and forced labor, refer cases for prosecution, and coordinate with foreign embassies to identify victims of human trafficking and repatriate workers.(48)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, law enforcement agencies in Jordan took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$352,187 (26)

$352,187 (24)

Number of Labor Inspectors

226 (26)

237 (24)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (49)

Yes (49)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (33)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (26)

Yes (24)

Number of Labor Inspections

1,442 (26)

1,857 (24)

Number Conducted at Worksite

1,442 (26)

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

1,273 (26)

1,442 (24)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

1,016 (26)

1,210 (33)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (26)

Yes (24)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (26)

Yes (24)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (49)

Yes (49)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (26)

Yes (24)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (26)

Yes (24)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (3)

 

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor hired 11 new inspectors and responded to 58 complaints of child labor cases, received through its Child Labor Unit hotline.(24) When a labor inspector identifies a child laborer, the inspector issues a warning or fine and asks the employer to send the child home while the inspector is still present.(33) A warning requires the employer to sign a pledge declaring that he/she will cease employing children. Without the pledge, the Ministry of Labor can close the business.(26) The information about the child is then shared with the Ministry of Social Development, which contacts the family to identify the appropriate social services. Meanwhile, the labor inspector conducts unannounced follow-up visits at the worksite to ensure compliance.(33) During the reporting period, 584 businesses signed pledges.(24)

Insufficient resources hampered the Ministry of Labor’s capacity to enforce child labor laws in the agricultural sector.(24) Based on available information, the Ministry of Labor has not issued regulations on labor inspection in agriculture.(33) This is a problem, particularly because a considerable proportion of child laborers work in agriculture, based on the 2016 National Child Labor Survey.(4)

Jordanian children identified during labor inspections are referred to social services from the Child Labor Unit of the Ministry of Social Development.(33, 50) In contrast, Syrian refugee children who are identified during labor inspections are taken to the Azraq refugee camp and separated from their families. Families that live in the Zaatari refugee camp can go to Azraq to reunify with their children.(33, 51, 52) However, those that live in communities (about 80 percent of all Syrian refugees) may fear that by presenting themselves at Azraq, they, too, will have to stay at Azraq and lose some benefits.(51, 52)

 

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Jordan took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (53)

Unknown

Number of Investigations

206 (53)

1 (54)

Number of Violations Found

0 (53)

2 (54)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

N/A

Unknown

Number of Convictions

N/A

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (26)

Yes (26)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee on Child Labor

Formulate new policies, amend legislation as necessary, and oversee the implementation of child labor policies, including the National Framework to Combat Child Labor. Led by the Ministry of Labor, members include three other ministries, plus international and civil society organizations.(55)

National Committee for the Prevention of Human Trafficking

Coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking. Chaired by the Ministry of Justice. Other members include representatives from 10 state agencies, including the Counter Trafficking Unit in charge of human trafficking investigations.(54)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Framework to Combat Child Labor

Outlines the roles and responsibilities of key government agencies, including the ministries of Education, Labor, and Social Development; NGOs; and other stakeholders involved in identifying and responding to cases of child labor. Based on the Framework, Ministry of Labor inspectors monitor child labor and refer cases to the ministries of Social Development and Education for the provision of services.(56) In 2016, the Framework was rolled out in all remaining governorates in the country.(57)

Jordan Response Plan for the Syria Crisis (2016–2018)†

Integrates a refugee-based humanitarian response with a resilience response for local communities in areas such as education and social protection.(36) In academic year 2016–2017, a total of 125,000 Syrian refugee children were enrolled in formal education and an additional 67,000 in non-formal education.(32)

Plan of Action to Eliminate Child Labor in Tourism in Petra

Employs counselors to respond to children at risk of truancy, raise children’s awareness of the hazards of child labor and the significance of education, incorporate child labor prevention strategies into mainstream programs for legally employed children age 16 and older, and inform students about high-quality employment in the tourism sector.(58)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Moving Towards a Child Labor-Free Jordan (2010–2016)

$4.04 million USDOL-funded, 6-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to establish a coordinating mechanism on child labor issues and facilitate government implementation of the National Framework to Combat Child Labor. In 2016, the project assisted in conducting the National Child Labor Survey and publishing the summary report, held a regional stakeholder meeting on best practices to address child labor, redesigned the National Child Labor Database, and developed a user manual and training package for the database.(57) For additional information, please visit our Web site.

Ministry of Social Development, Child Labor Unit†

Support children engaged in child labor, return them to school, and provide services to their families; provide vocational training for youth; organize training on child labor for families; and maintain the Web site of the National Child Labor Database, which serves as the national child labor monitoring system.(59)

Child Begging Assistance†

Ministry of Social Development’s shelter in Madaba that provides social services to children engaged in begging.(24) The ministry conducts awareness raising for parents and links this to financial aid that the family receives.(33)

Non-Formal Education Centers†

Operated by the Ministry of Education and local NGO Questscope, and funded by USAID and UNICEF, these centers throughout the country seek to bring school dropouts, including those engaged in or at risk of child labor, back into the educational system. Children attend classes 3 hours a day in a flexible learning environment, with class sizes of around 20 students and specially trained teachers.(33, 34) Targets children ages 13 and older. Upon completion of the curriculum, students receive a certificate indicating equivalency to a 10th-grade education.(34) One center in Petra provides educational services to children at risk of child labor in the tourism industry in Petra.(47, 60) In 2016, 28 new centers were opened, and a total of 4,000 students received services.(33)

Social Support Center in Marka†

$350,000 Ministry of Labor-funded center operated in cooperation with the ILO. Activities include identifying child laborers, providing services such as non-formal education, and assisting families in finding alternate forms of supplemental income.(24)

National Aid Fund†

Under the Ministry of Social Development, pays families approximately $50 a month through a conditional cash transfer program for withdrawing a child from the labor market and re-enrolling the child in school.(47)

† Program is funded by the Government of Jordan.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(61, 62)

Although Jordan has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs does not fully address the extent of the problem, including in agriculture, consturction, and street vending.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Jordan (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 into non-state armed groups.

2016

Enforcement

Publish information about the number of inspections at worksites or by desk reviews and the number of penalties collected for child labor violations.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that Ministry of Labor inspectors have the resources needed to carry out inspections in the agricultural sector, and ensure that regulations are issued to mandate labor inspections in agriculture.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that refugee children identified during labor inspections are referred to social services and are not taken to Azraq refugee camp and separated from their families.

2016

Publish information about training provided to criminal investigators, the number of prosecutions, and the number of convictions for the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Social Programs

Continue to expand access to education for all children.

2013 – 2016

Institute programs to address the worst forms of child labor in agriculture, construction, and street vending.

2013 – 2016

1.         CHF International. Child Labor in the Agriculture Sector in Jordan. Amman; 2012.

2.         United Nations. Needs Assessment of Displaced Syrians in Jordan Amman; July 2012. http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/ena/wfp251901.pdf.

3.         ILO. "Rapid Assessment on Child Labour in the Agricultural Sector." February 2014 [cited December 8, 2015]; http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/genericdocument/wcms_246206.pdf.

4.         Center for Strategic Studies University of Jordan. National Child Labour Survey 2016 of Jordan - Summary Report on Main Findings. Amman; 2016. https://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/download.php?id=11681.

5.         ILO. Children in hazardous work: What we know, what we need to do. Geneva; 2011. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_155428.pdf.

6.         UNHCR. The Future of Syria: Refugee Children in Crisis. Geneva; November 2013. http://unhcr.org/FutureOfSyria/.

7.         ILO. "Report of the rapid assessment on Child Labour in the Urban Informal Sector in three governorates of Jordan (Amman, Mafraq and Irbid)." May 25, 2014 [cited December 7, 2015]; http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/genericdocument/wcms_246207.pdf.

8.         UNICEF, and Save the Children. Baseline Assessment of Child Labour among Syrian Refugees in Za’atari Refugee Camp - Jordan; November 2014. http://www.unicef.org/jordan/ChildLabourAssessment_ZaatariCamp_2015.pdf.

9.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from the National Child Labour Survey, 2007. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

11.       UN Women. Gender-based Violence and Child Protection among Syrian refugees in Jordan, with a Focus on Early Marriage. Amman; July 2013. http://www.unwomen.org/~/media/Headquarters/Attachments/Sections/Library/Publications/2013/7/Report-web%20pdf.pdf.

12.       Syrian Network for Human Rights, and Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Monitor. Child Labor Among Syrian Children in Jordan. Geneva; May 2016. http://euromedmonitor.org/uploads/reports/Child-Labor_EN.pdf.

13.       MacKinnon, M. "Return to Zaatari: A lost generation of Syrians in the making." The Globe and Mail, Toronto, December 30, 2015. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/return-to-zaatari-a-lost-generation-of-syrians-in-themaking/article27942941/.

14.       Schmidt, S. "How to Educate a Generation of Syrian Refugees? Makeshift Classrooms and the Teacher Next Door." Yes! Magazine, (2016); http://www.yesmagazine.org/peace-justice/how-to-educate-a-generation-of-syrian-refugees-makeshift-classrooms-and-the-teacher-next-door-20160412.

15.       Human Rights Watch. "We're Afraid for Their Future: Barriers to Education for Syrian Refugee Children in Jordan." [online] August 16, 2016 [cited November 4, 2016]; https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/08/16/were-afraid-their-future/barriers-education-syrian-refugee-children-jordan.

16.       Un Ponte Per. Comprehensive Assessment on Syrian Refugees Residing in the Community in Northern Jordan. Amman; August 2012. http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/download.php?id=607.

17.       Phenix Center for Economic and Informatics Studies. Child Labor in Jordan: Reality overrides policy. Amman; June 2016. http://www.phenixcenter.net/uploads/en_phenixcenter.net_636013333343657236.pdf.

18.       Terre Des Hommes. Because We Struggle to Survive: Child labour among refugees of the Syrian Conflict. Osnabrück, Germany; June 2016. http://www.terredeshommes.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Child-Labour-Report-2016-ENGLISH.pdf.

19.       Bait Al Anbat. Combat Child Labor in Petra: Phase III, [online] [cited December 1, 2014]; http://www.baitalanbat.org/home.asp?mode=more&NewsID=214&catID=11&Lang=eng.

20.       Care for Petra. Child labour in the Petra Archaeological Park: an atypical case, [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.careforpetra.org/child-labour-in-the-petra-archaeological-park-an-atypical-case.html.

21.       Al-Freihat, M. Child Labor in the Tourism Industry in Jordan: A Survey Study in Petra Bait Al Anbat: Arab Commission for Culture and Civilization Communication; 2012. http://www.careforpetra.org/uploads/5/7/7/9/57794303/studies_child_labor_in_the_tourism_industry_in_jordan_petra.pdf.

22.       IRIN. "Syrian Child Refugees Who Work- Culture or Coping Mechanism?" [online ] December 17, 2012 [cited March 1, 2016]; http://www.irinnews.org/report/97062/jordan-syrian-child-refugees-who-work-culture-or-coping-mechanism.

23.       Save The Children. Children in Scrap Collection Research Paper. Amman; 2014.

24.       U.S. Embassy- Amman. reporting, January 12, 2017.

25.       Save The Children and Information and Research Center. Homebound Girls in Jordan. Amman; 2013. http://www.bettercarenetwork.org/library/particular-threats-to-childrens-care-and-protection/child-exploitation/homebound-girls-in-jordan.

26.       U.S. Embassy- Amman. reporting, January 20, 2016.

27.       U.S. Department of State. "Jordan," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/index.htm

 

28.       Luck, T. "In a Jordan Camp, Outsiders Seek Syrian Brides." The Washington Post, Washington, DC, November 23, 2012; World. http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-11-23/world/35507754_1_syrian-refugees-zaatari-refugee-camp-syrian-women.

29.       McLeod, B. "Syrian Refugees 'Sold for Marriage' in Jordan." BBC [online] May 10, 2013 [cited June 24, 2013]; http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-22473573.

30.       Abu Hasnah, B. "Authorities working to address sexual exploitation of underage girls." The Jordan Times, Amman, February 9, 2016. http://www.jordantimes.com/news/local/authorities-working-address-sexual-exploitation-underage-girls.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Amman official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 6, 2016.

32.       Brussels Conference Education Report. "Preparing for the Future of Children and Youth in Syria and the Region through Education: London One Year On." April 2017 [cited May 15, 2017]; http://childrenofsyria.info/2017/04/04/preparing-for-the-future-of-children-and-youth-in-syria-and-the-region-through-education-london-one-year-on/.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Amman official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 10, 2017.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Amman. reporting, January 19, 2015.

35.       ILO-IPEC. Moving Towards a Child Labour Free Jordan. Technical Progress Report; October 2015.

36.       Government of Jordan - Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. Jordan Response Plan for the Syria Crisis 2016-2018; 2016. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/522c2552e4b0d3c39ccd1e00/t/56b9abe107eaa0afdcb35f02/1455008783181/JRP%2B2016-2018%2BFull%2B160209.pdf.

37.       Government of Jordan. Labor Code and Amendments, No. 8 of 1996 (last amended under the interim Labor Code, Law No. 51 of 2002), enacted March 2, 1996. www.aproarab.org/Down/Jorddn/3amal.doc.

38.       Government of Jordan. Order of Minister of Labor concerning Occupations that are Dangerous, Tiring or Harmful to the Health of Youth, related to the Provisions of Article 74 of Labor Code, Law No 8 of 1996 and its Amendments, enacted June 16, 2011. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=90849&p_country=JOR&p_classification=04.

39.       Government of Jordan. Law No 9 of 2009 on the Prevention of Human Trafficking, enacted February 9, 2009. http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Jordan-Anti-Trafficking-Legislation-2009-and-TIP-Law-2008.pdf.

40.       Government of Jordan. Penal Code, Law No 16 of 1960 (including all Amendments until 2011), enacted 1960.

41.       Government of Jordan. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act and its Amendments, Law No. 11 of 1988, enacted 1988. https://www.ispatula.com/?wpfb_dl=5180.

42.       Government of Jordan. National Service Act, Law No. 23 of 1986, enacted May 7, 1986.

43.       Government of Jordan. Education Law No. 3 of 1994 and its amendments, enacted 1994. http://www.moe.gov.jo/Departments/DepartmentsMenuDetails.aspx?MenuID=324&DepartmentID=5.

44.       Government of Jordan. The Constitution of The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, enacted 1952. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/3ae6b53310.pdf.

45.       Government of Jordan. Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention - Combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of States parties due in 2011 (CRC/C/JOR/4-5); March 1, 2013. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FJOR%2F4-5&Lang=en.

46.       ILO. "Jordan pilots National Framework to Combat Child Labour." [online] June 11, 2013 [cited 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/beirut/media-centre/news/WCMS_215622/lang--en/index.htm.

47.       U.S. Embassy- Amman official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2015.

48.       U.S. Department of State. "Jordan," in Trafficking in Person Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2014/226749.htm.

49.       ILO. "Labour Inspection in Arab States: Progress and Challenges (Working Paper)." 2014 [cited February 8, 2016]; http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/publication/wcms_325618.pdf.

50.       U.S. Embassy- Amman official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 28, 2017.

51.       Su, A. "Jordan’s illegal labor puzzle: Let Syrian refugees work or just survive?" Al Jazeera March 2, 2015 [cited March 28, 2017]; http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/3/2/jordans-illegal-labor-conundrum-let-syrians-work.html.

52.       Luthersan Immigration and Refugee Service. Childhood Interrupted: Lost Years for the Children of the Syrian Refugee Crisis; September 2016. http://lirs.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/LIRS_Childhood_Interrupted_2016.pdf.

53.       U.S. Embassy- Amman. reporting, February 7, 2016.

54.       U.S. Embassy- Amman. reporting, February 15, 2017.

55.       U.S. Embassy- Amman official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 2, 2015.

56.       National Committee for Child Labor. National Framework for Combating Child Labor Jordan. Amman; 2011. http://essaydocs.org/national-framework-for-combating-child-labor-jordan-2011-conte.html.

57.       ILO-IPEC. Moving Towards a Child Labour Free Jordan. Technical Progress Report; November 2017.

58.       Petra Development and Tourism Region Authority. Plan of Action to Eliminate Child Labor in Tourism in Petra; April 23, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_26595/lang--en/index.htm.

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62.       ILO. "Tackling child labour among Syrian refugees and their host communities in Jordan and Lebanon." 2015 [cited February 17, 2016]; http://www.ilo.org/beirut/projects/WCMS_384766/lang--en/index.htm.

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