Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Jordan

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Jordan

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2014, Jordan made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted a new law that expands protection for child laborers including children engaged in street work and garbage collection; worked with international organizations to improve access to education for Jordanian and Syrian refugee children; increased the number of work inspections, including inspection campaigns in targeted sectors; and finalized a child labor monitoring system in cooperation with the ILO. However, children in Jordan are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work as a result of human trafficking. Child labor remains prevalent among Syrian refugee children, whose access to education is limited. In addition, programs to combat the worst forms of child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

 

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Children in Jordan are engaged in child labor, including agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic service as a result of human trafficking.(1, 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Jordan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

0.8 (11,255)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

40.5

Industry

11.2

Services

48.4

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

94.9

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

0.7

Primary completion rate (%):

92.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from National Child Labor Survey, 2007.(4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming,* activities unknown (2, 5-10)

Industry

Mining*† (5)

Painting* (6)

Construction,† activities unknown (6-12)

Manufacturing, activities unknown (8, 9, 11)

Carpentry† (6, 10, 12)

Blacksmithing*† (6, 12)

Rock quarrying*† (10)

Services

Electrical repair*† (10, 13)

Repairing automobiles† (12-14)

Guiding tours (15-17)

Street work,† including vending (6, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17-19)

Begging (10, 12, 15, 19)

Scavenging scrap metal* (14, 20)

Domestic work† (2, 6, 9, 13)

Food services (10, 11, 13, 14)

Hotel services*† (2, 14)

Hairdressing (9, 10, 15)

Retail (8-10, 14)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced begging sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (1, 19)

Domestic work as a result of human trafficking* (19, 21)

Commercial sexual exploitation* sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (22, 23)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

According to a Ministry of Labor official, about half of the child laborers identified by the Ministry of Labor during inspections in 2014 were Syrian refugee children.(14) Many of these children are the sole breadwinners of their families.(10, 24) Syrian refugee boys work primarily in retail and services, while some Syrian girls work in domestic service and agriculture.(10) Reports state that Syrian refugee children peddle goods inside and outside the Za'atari refugee camp; there are also increasing numbers of Syrian refugee children begging in Jordanian cities.(19) The influx of refugees has led to economic distress in the country; as a result, more Jordanian families have put their children to work as well.(25)

In places where the refugee population is steadily increasing, such as in the northern regions and in Amman, primary schools are not able to meet the increasing demand and lack sufficient space and teaching staff to accommodate all school-aged children.(26) Syrian children living in host communities are granted access to Jordanian public schools. However, as of January 2015, only 129,000 of the 220,000 school-aged Syrians in Jordan were enrolled in schools, and approximately 90,000 had no access to formal education due to space constraints and other issues.(27) The Ministry of Education has initiated a split school day (two shifts) at almost 100 schools, for Jordanian children to attend in the morning and Syrian children to attend in the afternoon in order to accommodate the large number of students. Yet, more children drop out of school and more children attending double-shifted schools have time to work, even while remaining enrolled in school, because school hours are shorter.(14)

There is limited evidence of temporary marriage of Syrian refugee girls as a form of commercial sexual exploitation.(9)

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Jordan has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 73 of Labor Code (29)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 74 of Labor Code (29); Article 2 of Ministerial Order of 2011 (30)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 2 of Ministerial Order of 2011 (30)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 3(b) of Law on the Prevention of Human Trafficking (31)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 3(a) of Law on the Prevention of Human Trafficking (31)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 306, 310, 311, 315 and 319 of Penal Code (32); Article 3(b) of Law on the Prevention of Human Trafficking (31)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 8 of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (33)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 3(a) of the National Service Act (34)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

N/A

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Articles 7(a.2) and 10(b) of the Education Act (35)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 20 of the Constitution (36)

In November 2014, Jordan adopted a Child Law that expanded the definition of "juveniles in need of protection" to include child laborers, such as street vendors and garbage collectors. The Child Law gave the Ministry of Social Development the responsibility for protecting children in these categories and for establishing a new Child Labor Unit under the law to work in coordination with the Ministry of Labor's Child Labor Unit.(14)

The Ministry of Labor developed a draft manual to simplify the categorization of hazardous work in the Ministerial Order of 2011.(37)

The Government does not accept volunteers to join the armed forces.(38)

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The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)'s Child Labor Unit

Coordinate the Government's child labor programs, direct child labor inspections, and ensure the enforcement of child labor laws.(2, 17)

MOL's Directorate of Labor Affairs and Inspection

Carry out labor inspections, including child labor violations.(1, 39) Identify cases of child labor through work site visits and refer to relevant services. Register child labor cases into a National Child Labor Database, which allows ministries to monitor and track children as they are identified and referred to services.(40) Maintains a hotline to receive labor-related complaints, including complaints of child labor.(41)

Minister of Justice's (MOJ) Public Security Directorate (PSD), Criminal Investigation Unit (CID)

Investigate and prosecute human trafficking crimes and violations of Jordan's Penal Code, including allegations of the worst forms of child labor.(14)

MOJ's National Screening Team

Identify victims of human trafficking.(19)

Joint Anti-Trafficking Unit of MOL and PSD

Investigate cases of human trafficking and forced labor, refer cases for prosecution, and coordinate with foreign embassies to identify victims of human trafficking and repatriate workers.(19)

Municipal Business License Inspectorate

Inspect the business licenses of businesses in the municipality.(37)

Law enforcement agencies in Jordan took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Ministry of Labor employed 160 labor inspectors who were responsible for enforcing all aspects of the Labor Code, including child labor. The Ministry of Labor's Child Labor Unit held 11 training sessions, in which 139 labor inspectors were trained on child labor issues.(14) However, due to frequent rotations of Government employees within and among ministries, currently, only 80 of the 160 labor inspectors have been trained on child labor issues. The Child Labor Unit has identified the need for updating the training modules to include information on child labor among Syrian refugees.(14) The lack of resources prevented the Ministry of Labor's Directorate of Labor Affairs and Inspection from inspecting the agricultural sector.(14)

During the reporting period, the Ministry of Labor's Child Labor Unit carried out 1,426 inspections, including unannounced visits, as well as inspections in response to complaints, and identified 1,060 child laborers. In 2014, the Child Labor Unit conducted inspection campaigns targeting the auto-repair and mechanical industry, the restaurant industry, and highway coffee shops, which is largely an informal sector.(14) During the inspections, the Ministry of Labor issued 633 warnings and 235 fines.(14) A warning requires the employer to sign a pledge certifying that it will cease employing children within one week. Without a signed pledge, the Ministry can close a business within one week.(14)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Joint Anti-Trafficking Unit participated in and contributed to almost 30 training sessions offered by international organizations and NGOs.(25) These organizations also held training sessions for prosecutors and border guards. As a result of the training sessions, observers noted that the Unit has expanded its definition of human trafficking.(25) The Joint Anti-Trafficking Unit published awareness-raising brochures about the indicators of human trafficking, which they distributed in police stations, customs offices, and specific sectors in which human trafficking occurs. The Joint Anti-Trafficking Unit investigated 311 potential cases of human trafficking in 2014.(25) Of these, 53 were identified as human trafficking cases and were referred to the Prosecutor General. The 53 cases involved 121 female and 40 male victims, including 11 girls involved in commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking.(25) The Unit referred 91 male and 24 female suspects to the Prosecutor General. The Unit received information for potential cases from various sources, including the Ministry of Labor's hotline.(25) Research did not find information regarding the number of investigators.

A technical subcommittee of the National Committee for the Prevention of Human Trafficking was reviewing the Law on the Prevention of Human Trafficking to close loopholes, as well as drafting an official referral mechanism for referring human trafficking victims to an under-construction shelter. Meanwhile, an informal referral network is operating to place human trafficking victims in temporary shelter.(25) The Government referred 122 human trafficking victims to three organizations for services and assistance in 2014.(25)

The Ministry of Justice registered 83 cases under the Law on the Prevention of Human Trafficking in 2014. Of these, 20 resulted in convictions, 2 in acquittals, 1 case was dropped by general amnesty, and the rest were pending.(25) The sentences for the convictions ranged from 1 to 10 years' hard labor, 3 to 5 months' imprisonment, payment of court fees, a fine, or some combination thereof.(25)

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The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee on Child Labor

Form new policy, amend legislation as necessary, and oversee the implementation of current child labor policy, including the National Framework to Combat Child Labor. Led by MOL.(27) Includes the Ministry of Labor, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Social Development, the National Council on Family Affairs, as well as international and civil society organizations.(27)

The National Center for Family Affairs

Coordinate policy issues involving abused or exploited children.(2)

Steering Committee of the National Framework to Combat Child Labor

Coordinate referrals between Ministries of Labor, Education, and Social Development to identify child laborers, withdraw them from work, provide them with services, and monitor their progress.(27, 42)

National Committee for the Prevention of Human Trafficking

Coordinate the implementation of the National Strategy and Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking.(43) Chaired by MOJ. Other members include representatives from the Ministries of Labor, Foreign Affairs, Interior, Social Development, Health, Trade and Industry, as well as the National Council for Family Affairs, the National Commission on Human Rights, and the Joint Anti-Trafficking Unit of the Ministry of Labor and PSD CID.(25)

In 2014, the Steering Committee of the National Framework to Combat Child Labor usually met on a biweekly basis. The Ministries of Labor, Education, and Social Development, in cooperation with the ILO, finalized a child labor monitoring system (CLMS) that will act as a coordinating and referral mechanism, as well as a Web site for centralized data collection.(14) The Ministry of Labor manages the CLMS in coordination with the other two Ministries. In 2015, the pilot phase, conducted during the reporting period in Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa will be expanded to three additional governorates.(14) Likewise, in 2015, a bilingual (Arabic and English) Web site integrated with the CLMS will be launched for the public to be able to report cases of child labor. The Ministry of Education will track school dropout in efforts to encourage children to re-enter school.(14)

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The Government of Jordan has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Framework to Combat Child Labor

Outlines the roles and responsibilities of the key government agencies, including the Ministries of Labor, Education, and Social Development; NGOs; and other stakeholders involved in identifying and responding to cases of child labor.(42) The Ministry of Labor's Child Labor Unit held training for 25 Ministry of Labor's inspectors on their role in the implementation of the National Framework to Combat Child Labor.(37)

Jordan Response Plan

Facilitates the country's humanitarian and development response to the needs of incoming Syrian refugees and Jordanian host communities, a joint effort of the Government and the UN.(44) Includes elements aimed at reducing refugees' vulnerability to child labor through improved access to education.(45, 46)

The National Agenda (2007–2017)*

Provides a comprehensive reform framework for political, economic, and social policies, including the restructuring of Jordan's social safety net system.(47)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

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In 2014, the Government of Jordan funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Nonformal Education Centers‡

Consisting of 51 centers under the Ministry of Education throughout the country that seek to bring school dropouts, including those engaged in or at risk of child labor, back into the educational system. Children attend classes 3 hours a day in a flexible learning environment.(14) Target children aged 13 and older.Specially trained teachers work with small classes of about 20, and at the end of the curriculum, students earn a certificate equivalent to a 10th-grade education.(14)

Social Center in Marka‡

Funded by the Ministry of Labor and operated by the Ministry in cooperation with the ILO. Its activities include identifying child laborers, providing services, including nonformal education, training, and rehabilitation for school dropouts and child laborers, assisting families in finding alternate forms of supplemental income, and conducting awareness-raising sessions in the community. Served 165 children in 2014.(14)

Nonformal Education Center in Petra‡

Part of a trilateral project between UNESCO, the ILO, and the Petra Authority that operates a nonformal education center and provides services to children at risk of child labor in the local tourism industry in the Um Sayhoun community and in Petra.(41, 48)

Moving Towards a Child-Labor Free Jordan (2010–2016)

$4.04 million USDOL-funded, 6-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to facilitate the Government of Jordan's implementation of the National Framework to Combat Child Labor, including conducting a national child labor survey.(49) During the reporting period, an online child labor monitoring database was launched and piloted for key government and nongovernment stakeholders to document cases of child labor and refer victims to services, including cases involving Syrian refugee children.(37)

Promising Futures: Reducing Child Labor in Jordan through Education and Sustainable Livelihoods (2010–2014)

$4 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by Save the Children to reduce the number of children working in construction, manufacturing, informal services and the storage industry, as well as in domestic service. Serves beneficiaries in poverty-stricken areas with high numbers of child refugees, including East Amman, Mafraq, and Zarqa.(50)

Child Begging Assistance Campaign‡

Ministry of Social Development's program that implements an identification and services referral system for child beggars. Links children with shelter and education services. Returns children to their parents who must then pledge in writing that their children will not return to the street.(51)

Sustaining Quality Education and Promoting Skills Development Opportunities for Young Syrian Refugees in Jordan (2013–2015)*

$5.6 million EU-funded, 2-year project implemented by UNESCO in cooperation with the Ministry of Education to offer informal and nonformal education for Syrian and Jordanian youth in Jordan.(52)

The National Aid Fund*‡

Ministry of Social Development's conditional cash transfer program that pays families approximately $50 per month for withdrawing a child from the labor market and reenrolling the child in school.(41)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Jordan.

As the Ministry of Social Development does not have a mandate regarding protection of Syrian refugee children, Government officials refer Syrian children identified through the child labor monitoring system to international and NGOs. The Ministry of Labor's Child Labor Unit has a process to refer Syrian child laborers to United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.(14)

During the reporting period, the Ministry of Labor's Child Labor Unit broadcast 20 radio and TV spots and supported 3 public awareness sessions. In February 2014, in coordination with Save the Children, the Child Labor Unit hosted a conference entitled "My Dream is My Right" on child labor.(14)

Although Jordan has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs does not address the extent of the problem, including in human trafficking, domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, begging, and other forms of street work.

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Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Jordan (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Ensure that the Ministry of Labor's inspectors have the resources to carry out inspection in the agricultural sector.

2014

Collect and make publicly available data on the number of investigators responsible for criminal enforcement of child labor laws.

2013–2014

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention into the National Agenda.

2014

Social Programs

Expand programs to ensure equal access to education for all refugee children.

2013–2014

Assess the impact that existing programs may have on child labor.

2010–2014

Institute programs to address the worst form of child labor in domestic service as a result of human trafficking, domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, begging and other forms of street work.

2013–2014

 

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1.U.S. Embassy- Amman. reporting, January 31, 2013.

2.U.S. Embassy- Amman. reporting, January 29, 2014.

3.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report

4.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Child Labour Survey, 2007. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

5.CHF International. Child Labor in the Agriculture Sector in Jordan. Amman; 2012.

6.U.S. Department of State. "Jordan " in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 2014;

7.United Nations. Needs Assessment of Displaced Syrians in Jordan Amman; July 2012.

8.The Manara Network for Child Rights. Country Profile of Jordan: A Review of the Implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child; August 2011.

9.UN Women. Gender-based Violence and child Protection among syrian refugees in Jordan, with a focus on early marriage. Amman; July 2013.

10.UNHCR. The Future of Syria: Refugee Children in Crisis. Geneva; November 2013.

11.Un Ponte Per. Comprehensive Assessment on Syrian Refugees Residing in the Community in Northern Jordan. Amman; August 2012.

12.ILO. Report of the rapid assessment on Child Labour in the Urban Informal Sector in three governorates of Jordan (Amman, Mafraq and Irbid); 2014 May 25,.

13.Save the Children. Marka Needs Assessment: Final Report. Amman; October 30, 2011.

14.U.S. Embassy- Amman. reporting, January 19, 2015.

15.Al Anbat, B. Combat Child Labor in Petra: Phase III, Bait Al Anbat, [online] [cited December 1, 2014];

16.ILO-IPEC. Child Labour in Tourism in Petra: Outcomes and Recommendations of the Stakeholders' Workshop. Wadi Mousa; July 10-11, 2012.

17.Seeger, J. Independent Midterm Evaluation of Combating Exploitive Child Labor Through Education in Jordan. Mid-term Evaluation Report. Washington, DC; 2011.

18.Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Syrian Child Refugees Who Work- Culture or Coping Mechanism?" [online ] December 12, 2012 [cited December 1, 2014];

19.U.S. Department of State. "Jordan," in Trafficking in Person Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014;

20.Save The Children. Children in Scrap Collection Research Paper. Amman; 2014.

21.U.S. Department of State. "Jordan," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013;

22.Luck, T. "In a Jordan Camp, Outsiders Seek Syrian Brides." The Washington Post, Washington, DC, November 23, 2012; World.

23.McLeod, B. "Syrian Refugees 'Sold for Marriage' in Jordan." [online] May 10, 2013 [cited June 24, 2013];

24.Harper, L. "Syrian refugee children face 'catastrophic' life in exile, UN says." The Guardian, London, November 28, 2013; Global Development.

25.U.S. Embassy- Amman. reporting, March 1, 2015.

26.Save the Children- Jordan. Technical Progress Report. Amman; October 2013.

27.U.S. Embassy- Amman official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 2, 2015.

28.Save The Children. Homebound Girls in Jordan Amman; September, 2013.

29.Government of Jordan. Labor Code and Amendments, No. 8 of 1996 (last amended under the interim Labor Code, Law No. 51 of 2002), enacted March 2, 1996.

30.Government of Jordan. Order of Minister of Labor concerning Occupations that are Dangerous, Tiring or Harmful to the Health of Youth, related to the Provisions of Article 74 of Labor Code, Law No 8 of 1996 and its Amendments, enacted

31.Government of Jordan. Law No 9 of 2009 on the Prevention of Human Trafficking, enacted February 9, 2009.

32.Government of Jordan. Penal Code, Law No 16 of 1960 (including all Amendments until 2011), enacted 1960.

33.Government of Jordan. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act and its Amendments, Law No. 11 of 1988, enacted 1988.

34.Government of Jordan. National Service Act, Law No. 23 of 1986, enacted May 7, 1986.

35.Government of Jordan. Education Law No. 3 of 1994 and its amendments, enacted 1994.

36.Government of Jordan. The Constitution of The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, enacted 1952.

37.ILO-IPEC. Technical Progress Report of Project Moving Towards A Child Labour Free Jordan. Technical Progress Report; October 2014.

38.Government of Jordan. Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention - Combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of States parties due in 2011 (CRC/C/JOR/4-5); 2013 March 1,.

39.ILO-LAB/ADMIN. Jordan: Labour Inspection Structure and Organization; accessed 2014;

40.ILO News. "Jordan pilots National Framework to Combat Child Labour." [online] June 11, 2013 [cited 2014];

41.U.S. Embassy- Amman official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2015.

42.National Committee for Child Labor. National Framework for Combating Child Labor Jordan. Framework. Amman; 2011.

43.Nihal, F. Assessment of the Trafficking Situation and Anti-Human Trafficking Legislation in MENA. Comparative Study. , ; 2011

44.UNICEF. Syria Crisis Bi-weekly Humanitarian Situation Report, UNICEF, [online] June 12, 2014 [cited December 1, 2014];

45.UNHCR. 2014 Syria Regional Response Plan: Jordan; 2014.

46.Amani Campaign. Interagency child protection and GBV campaign; 2014.

47.King Abdullah II ibn Al Hussein of Jordan. National Agenda 2007 — 2017; 2013.

48.UNESCO Office in Amman. UNESCO Amman Quarterly Newsletter, 3(no. 3)(July 2012);

49.ILO-IPEC. Moving Towards a Child Labor-Free Jordan. Technical Cooperation Project Summary; 2014.

50.Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking. Promising Future's Technical Cooperation Project Summary. Project Summary November 2012.

51.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request adopted 2012, published 102nd ILC session (2013) Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Jordan (ratification: 2000); accessed January 14, 2014;

52.UNESCO. Sustaining Quality Education and Promoting Skills Development Opportunities for Young Syrian Refugees in Jordan; 2013.

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