Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Jordan

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Jordan

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2015, Jordan made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government launched a national child labor survey and initiated a program to institutionalize the regular training of school teachers on child labor. The Government strengthened enforcement of minimum age protections by hiring 66 new labor inspectors, and it also approved a national mechanism to refer victims of human trafficking to rehabilitation or repatriation services. In addition, the Government expanded the implementation of the National Framework to Combat Child Labor to three additional governorates, a total of nine out of twelve, and supported a new program that will conduct research on hazardous child labor in specific sectors. However, children in Jordan are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in street work. Children in Jordan face barriers to access education, and programs to combat the worst forms of child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Jordan are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture.(1-3) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in street work.(4-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Jordan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

  0.8 (11,255)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

40.5

Industry

11.2

Services

48.4

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

94.9

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

  0.7

Primary completion rate (%):

86.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from National Child Labor Survey, 2007.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming,* including weeding, planting, and harvesting (1-4, 9-11)

Industry

Mining*† (1, 12)

Construction,† activities unknown (4, 5, 9, 10, 13)

Manufacturing (9, 10, 13)

Carpentry† (4, 5, 14)

Blacksmithing*† (5, 14)

Rock quarrying*† (4)

Services

Electrical repair*† (4, 14)

Repairing automobiles† (5, 11, 14)

Attending donkeys, camels, and horses to transport tourists (15-17)

Street work,† including selling items, washing cars, and begging (4-6, 10, 14, 15, 18, 19)

Scavenging scrap metal* (11, 20)

Domestic work† (10, 11, 14, 21)

Food services, including restaurants* and bakeries* (4, 11, 13, 14)

Hotel services*† (11, 14)

Hairdressing (4, 10, 15)

Retail (4, 9-11)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (11, 22)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (10, 22-24)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

There is limited evidence of temporary marriage of Syrian refugee girls as a form of commercial sexual exploitation.(10, 22-24)

According to a Ministry of Labor official, about 40 percent of the child laborers identified by the Ministry of Labor during inspections in 2015 were non-Jordanian, most of whom were Syrian refugee children.(11) Many of these children are the sole breadwinners of their families.(4, 25) Syrian refugee boys work primarily in retail and services, while some Syrian girls work in domestic service and agriculture.(4) Reports state that some Syrian refugee children peddle goods inside and outside the Za’atari refugee camp and are engaged in begging in Jordanian cities.(26) The influx of refugees has led to economic distress in the country; as a result, more Jordanian families have put their children to work.(11)

Syrian children are granted access to Jordanian public schools with 143,259 Syrian students currently enrolled.(27) The Government has committed to enroll the remaining 43,000 that are currently outside the public school system in the 2016-2017 school year.(27) About 100 schools (out of about 3700 schools in the country) have a split day, with two shifts, for Jordanian children to attend in the morning and Syrian children to attend in the afternoon to accommodate the large number of students.(11, 27) Children attending double-shifted schools are vulnerable to child labor because shorter school hours leave more time to work.(28) The number of children dropping out of school is rising.(11) Syrian refugee children face additional barriers to education, including distances to school, and being unprepared for their appropriate grade-level due to instability in their early years of schooling.(29)

In June 2015, the Government launched the National Child Labor Survey, under the leadership of the Ministry of Labor in cooperation with the ILO. A key feature of the Survey is that it covers all children, regardless of nationality, thereby including Syrian refugee children.(29) The University of Jordan Center for Strategic Studies began to carry out the Survey.(29) The data will be published and shared with the public in mid-2016. The Department of Statistics will routinely collect information on child labor because questions on child labor were incorporated in the quarterly report.(11)

Jordan has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 73 of Labor Code (30)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 74 of Labor Code; Article 2 of Ministerial Order of 2011 (30, 31)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 2 of Ministerial Order of 2011 (31)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 3(a) and (b) of Law on the Prevention of Human Trafficking (32)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 3(a) of Law on the Prevention of Human Trafficking (32)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 306, 310, 311, 315, and 319 of Penal Code; Article 3(b) of the Law on the Prevention of Human Trafficking (32, 33)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 8 of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (34)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 3(a) of the National Service Act (35)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

N/A*

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Articles 7(a.2) and 10(b) of the Education Act (36)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 20 of the Constitution (37)

* No volunteers are accepted to join the armed forces.(38)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor Directorate of Labor Affairs and Inspection

Carry out labor inspections, including child labor violations.(11) Identify cases of child labor through work site visits and refer cases to relevant services. Register child labor instances into a National Child Labor Database, which allows ministries to monitor and track children as they are identified and referred to services.(39) Maintains a 24/7 hotline to receive labor-related complaints in Arabic, including complaints of child labor.(27, 40)

Ministry of Labor Child Labor Unit

Coordinate Government efforts to campaign against child labor, conduct trainings, and raise awareness about child labor issues. In 2015, piloted the child labor monitoring system as a data collection, coordination, and referral mechanism.(11)

Public Security Directorate Criminal Investigation Unit

Investigate and prosecute violations of the Penal Code, including allegations of the worst forms of child labor. Operate a section to combat human trafficking.(11)

Joint Anti-Trafficking Unit of Ministry of Labor and Public Security Directorate

Investigate cases of human trafficking and forced labor, refer cases for prosecution, and coordinate with foreign embassies to identify victims of human trafficking and repatriate workers.(26)

Municipal Business License Inspectorate

Inspect business licenses in the municipality.(41)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, law enforcement agencies in Jordan took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$352,187 (11)

$352,187 (11)

Number of Labor Inspectors

160 (28)

226 (11)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (42)

Yes (42)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (11)

Number of Labor Inspections

1,426 (28)

1,442 (11)

Number Conducted at Worksite

1,426 (28)

1,442 (11)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0

0

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

1,273 (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

868 (28)

1,016 (11)

Number of Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (28)

Yes (11)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (28)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (42)

Yes (42)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (28)

Yes (11)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (28)

Yes (11)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (3)

 

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor hired 66 new inspectors and responded to 39 complaints of child labor cases, received through its Child Labor Unit hotline.(11) The Unit also launched a bilingual web site in Arabic and English that the public can use to report cases of child labor.(11, 43) Additionally, the Ministry of Labor carried out targeted inspections in sectors in which children are engaged in child labor, including in restaurants, bakeries, and auto mechanic shops, and issued 576 warnings and imposed 440 fines.(11) A warning requires the employer to sign a pledge declaring that it will cease employing children within one week. Without the pledge, the Ministry can close the business.(11) During the reporting period, 206 businesses signed pledges, and 100 were closed following a warning. Subsequent to labor inspections, 119 children were removed from worksites and referred to the Ministry of Social Development for social services.(11)

The Ministry of Labor drafted bylaws to help improve enforcement of child labor laws in the agricultural sector, but funding constraints limited inspections in agriculture, about 2% of the total number of inspection visits.(11, 27)

During the year, 10 senior inspectors of the Municipal Business License Inspectorate of Greater Amman Municipality received training on the monitoring and prevention of child labor. The senior inspectors then trained all inspectors of Greater Amman Municipality.(29)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Jordan took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (44)

Yes (45)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

206 (45)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

0 (45)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

N/A

Number of Convictions

Unknown

N/A

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (44)

Yes (11)

 

In 2015, staff of the Joint Anti-Trafficking Unit of the Ministry of Labor and Public Security Directorate participated in training workshops. The Joint Anti-Trafficking Unit, in cooperation with IOM or the local NGO, Tamkeen, held trainings for employees of the Public Security Directorate and the Ministries of Health and Social Development.(45) The Joint Anti-Trafficking Unit investigated 206 cases of potential human trafficking cases and referred 28 cases to the Attorney General’s Office. None of the identified victims were children.(45)

The National Committee for the Prevention of Human Trafficking approved the first national referral mechanism to coordinate and refer victims to services for rehabilitation or repatriation and opened the country’s first government-run shelter for trafficking victims, including children.(27, 45) The committee establishes roles and responsibilities of various Government agencies to provide victims with legal, medical, psychological, and social services and refers victims to the Attorney General’s office or the Joint Anti-Trafficking Unit.(45)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee on Child Labor

Form new policies, amend legislation as necessary, and oversee the implementation of child labor policies, including the National Framework to Combat Child Labor. Led by the Ministry of Labor, includes the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Social Development, National Council on Family Affairs, and international and civil society organizations.(46) In 2015, the Committee worked with the ILO on the child labor project, discussed the issue of child labor in the tourism sector, and considered a new project to establish a center to provide social services to child laborers.(27)

The National Center for Family Affairs

Coordinate policies on child exploitation issues, including child labor.(47)

Steering Committee of the National Framework to Combat Child Labor

Coordinate referrals between Ministries of Education, Labor, and Social Development, and the National Council on Family Affairs to identify child laborers and withdraw them from work. Provides child laborers with services and monitors their progress.(11, 46, 48)

National Committee for the Prevention of Human Trafficking

Coordinate the implementation of the National Strategy and Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking.(49) Chaired by the Ministry of Justice. Other members include representatives from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Health, Interior, Labor, Social Development, and Trade and Industry, and the Joint Anti-Trafficking Unit of the Ministry of Labor and Public Security Directorate Criminal Investigation Division, the National Commission on Human Rights, and the National Council for Family Affairs.(44)

 

The Government of Jordan has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Framework to Combat Child Labor

Outlines the roles and responsibilities of the key government agencies, including the Ministries of Education, Labor, and Social Development; NGOs; and other stakeholders involved in identifying and responding to cases of child labor. Based on the Framework, Ministry of Labor inspectors monitor child labor and refer cases to Ministry of Social Development and Education to provide services.(48) In 2015, the Government expanded the implementation of the National Framework to Combat Child Labor to 3 additional governorates, for 9 out of 12. Training on the implementation of the Framework was provided for 189 officials from the Ministries of Labor, Education, and Social Development.(29) The Steering Committee of the National Framework to Combat Child Labor helped finalize the terms of reference for an impact assessment of the Framework.(29)

Jordan Response Plan

Facilitates humanitarian and development response in Jordan to the needs of incoming Syrian refugees and Jordanian host communities, a joint effort of the Government and the UN.(50) Includes elements aimed at reducing refugees’ vulnerability to child labor by improved access to education.(51, 52)

Plan of Action to Eliminate Child Labor in Tourism in Petra

Employ counsellors to respond to children at risk of truancy, raise children’s awareness of the hazards of child labor and the significance of education, incorporate child labor prevention strategies into mainstream programs for legally employed children age 16 and older, and inform students of high-quality employment in the tourism sector.(53)

The National Agenda (2007–2017)*

Provide a comprehensive reform framework for political, economic, and social policies, including the restructuring of Jordan’s social safety net system.(54)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

In 2015, the Government of Jordan funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Moving Towards a Child-Labor Free Jordan (2010–2016)

$4.04 million USDOL-funded, 6-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to facilitate Government implementation of the National Framework to Combat Child Labor. Includes conducting a national child labor survey.(55) The Ministry of Education, in cooperation with the ILO, agreed to add a module on child labor to the training of school teachers to inform all teachers of the basics of child labor and provide in-depth training for at least one focal point in each school.(29) In 2015, the Ministry of Social Development began revising and updating a training manual on child labor to train 15 master trainers who will then train all social workers in the Ministry.(29) The Municipal Business License Inspectorate and Children’s Municipal Council of Greater Amman Municipality initiated a joint pilot program in which young Council members visit areas with high prevalence of child labor to raise awareness. Child laborers and employers are more receptive to this approach because the Council members appear less threatening than Government officials.(29) The Ministry of Labor held an event in Amman to raise awareness about child labor and commemorate the World Day against Child Labor, attended by 1,000 children.(29)

Tackling Child Labor among Syrian Refugees and their Host

Communities in Jordan and Lebanon (2015–2016)*

EU-funded, 1.5-year project, implemented by the ILO to conduct research on the hazards of child labor in certain sectors; promote awareness of child labor, including raising awareness among children of their rights; build technical capacity of governments, employers, and workers’ organizations to improve referrals and respond to cases of child labor; and provide training on preventing child labor, removing children, and providing services.(56)

Child Begging Assistance†

 

Ministry of Social Development implements an identification and services referral system for child beggars. Connects children with shelter and education services.(57) Returns children to their parents, who must then pledge in writing that their children will not return to the street.(57) In 2015, a shelter in the city of Madaba admitted 1,262 children who had been found begging.(11)

Nonformal Education Centers†

Ministry of Education program of centers throughout the country that seek to bring school dropouts, including those engaged in or at risk of child labor, back into the educational system. Children attend classes 3 hours a day in a flexible learning environment with class size around 20 students and specially trained teachers.(28) Targets children ages 13 and older.  Upon completion of the curriculum, students receive a certificate equivalent to a 10th-grade education.(28) In 2015, the Ministry of Education opened 49 new centers, for a total of 100.(11)

Social Support Center in Marka†

Funded by the Ministry of Labor and operated by the Ministry in cooperation with the ILO. Include activities to identify child laborers, provide services that include nonformal education, training, and rehabilitation for school dropouts and child laborers, and assist families in finding alternate forms of supplemental income.(11) In 2015, provided services to 2,080 children identified by labor inspectors and to 251 parents.(11)

Nonformal Education Center in Petra†

Part of a trilateral project between UNESCO, the ILO, and the Petra Authority, operates a nonformal education center to provide services to children at risk of child labor in the local tourism industry in the Um Sayhoun community and in Petra.(40, 58)

Sustaining Quality Education and Promoting Skills Development Opportunities for Young Syrian Refugees in Jordan (2013–2015)†

$5.6 million EU-funded, 2-year project implemented by UNESCO in cooperation with the Ministry of Education. Offer informal and nonformal education for Syrian and Jordanian youth in Jordan.(59)

Karamah Shelter*†

Established in Amman, it is the first permanent Government shelter for victims of human trafficking. Operated by the Ministry of Social Development, includes three sections for men, women, and children.(60) Provide counselling and rehabilitation services. Coordinate legal assistance with civil society organizations.(60)

The National Aid Fund†

Under the Ministry of Social Development, pay families approximately $50 monthly through a conditional cash transfer program for withdrawing a child from the labor market and reenrolling the child in school.(40)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Jordan.

As the Ministry of Social Development has no mandate to protect Syrian refugee children, Government officials refer Syrian children identified through the child labor monitoring system to international organizations and NGOs. The Ministry of Labor Child Labor Unit has a process to refer Syrian child laborers to UNHCR.(11)

The Juvenile Law of 2014 expanded the responsibilities of the Ministry of Social Development in providing services for children engaged in child labor. The Ministry established a Child Labor Unit and is working to clarify the roles and responsibilities between this Unit as opposed to those of the Ministry of Labor Child Labor Unit.(29, 61) In 2015, the Ministry of Labor Child Labor Unit conducted several campaigns to raise awareness of issues of child labor, including workshops and television and radio interviews.(11)

Although Jordan has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs does not address the extent of the problem, including in domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, and street work.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Jordan (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Make information publicly available about training provided to labor inspectors and criminal investigators on worst forms of child labor.

2015

Make information publicly available about the number of penalties collected for child labor violations.

2015

Ensure that the Ministry of Labor inspectors have the resources needed to carry out inspections in the agricultural sector.

2014 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention into the National Agenda.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Ensure that the commitment to enroll Syrian refugee children in school is realized.

2013 – 2015

Institute programs to address the worst form of child labor in domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, and street work.

2013 – 2015

 

 

1.         CHF International. Child Labor in the Agriculture Sector in Jordan. Amman; 2012.

2.         United Nations. Needs Assessment of Displaced Syrians in Jordan Amman; July 2012. http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/ena/wfp251901.pdf.

3.         ILO. "Rapid Assessment on Child Labour in the Agricultural Sector." February 2014 [cited December 8, 2015]; http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/genericdocument/wcms_246206.pdf.

4.         UNHCR. The Future of Syria: Refugee Children in Crisis. Geneva; November 2013. http://unhcr.org/FutureOfSyria/.

5.         ILO. "Report of the rapid assessment on Child Labour in the Urban Informal Sector in three governorates of Jordan (Amman, Mafraq and Irbid)." May 25, 2014 [cited December 7, 2015]; http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---arabstates/---ro-beirut/documents/genericdocument/wcms_246207.pdf.

6.         UNICEF, and Save the Children. Baseline Assessment of Child Labour among Syrian Refugees in Za’atari Refugee Camp - Jordan; November 2014. http://www.unicef.org/jordan/ChildLabourAssessment_ZaatariCamp_2015.pdf.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Child Labour Survey, 2007. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

9.         The Manara Network for Child Rights. Country Profile of Jordan: A Review of the Implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child; August 2011. http://www.ibcr.org/editor/assets/Jordan%20Country%20Profile.pdf.

10.       UN Women. Gender-based Violence and Child Protection among Syrian refugees in Jordan, with a Focus on Early Marriage. Amman; July 2013. http://www.unwomen.org/~/media/Headquarters/Attachments/Sections/Library/Publications/2013/7/Report-web%20pdf.pdf.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Amman. reporting, January 20, 2016.

12.       ILO and Department of Statistics of Jordan. Working Children in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan: Results of the 2007 Child Labour Survey; 2009. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_12013/lang--en/index.htm.

13.       Un Ponte Per. Comprehensive Assessment on Syrian Refugees Residing in the Community in Northern Jordan. Amman; August 2012. http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/download.php?id=607.

14.       Save the Children. Marka Needs Assessment: Final Report. Amman; October 30, 2011.

15.       Bait Al Anbat. Combat Child Labor in Petra: Phase III, [online] [cited December 1, 2014]; http://www.baitalanbat.org/home.asp?mode=more&NewsID=214&catID=11&Lang=eng.

16.       Care for Petra. Child labour in the Petra Archaeological Park: an atypical case, [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.careforpetra.org/child-labour-in-the-petra-archaeological-park-an-atypical-case.html.

17.       Al-Freihat, M. Child Labor in the Tourism Industry in Jordan: A Survey Study in Petra Bait Al Anbat: Arab Commission for Culture and Civilization Communication; 2012. http://www.careforpetra.org/uploads/5/7/7/9/57794303/studies_child_labor_in_the_tourism_industry_in_jordan_petra.pdf.

18.       Seeger, J. Independent Midterm Evaluation of Combating Exploitive Child Labor Through Education in Jordan. Mid-term Evaluation Report. Washington, DC; 2011.

19.       IRIN. "Syrian Child Refugees Who Work- Culture or Coping Mechanism?" IRINnews.org [online ] December 17, 2012 [cited March 1, 2016]; http://www.irinnews.org/report/97062/jordan-syrian-child-refugees-who-work-culture-or-coping-mechanism.

20.       Save The Children. Children in Scrap Collection Research Paper. Amman; 2014.

21.       Save The Children and Information and Research Center. Homebound Girls in Jordan. Amman; 2013. http://www.bettercarenetwork.org/library/particular-threats-to-childrens-care-and-protection/child-exploitation/homebound-girls-in-jordan.

22.       U.S. Department of State. "Jordan," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243464.htm.

23.       Luck, T. "In a Jordan Camp, Outsiders Seek Syrian Brides." The Washington Post, Washington, DC, November 23, 2012; World. http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-11-23/world/35507754_1_syrian-refugees-zaatari-refugee-camp-syrian-women.

24.       McLeod, B. "Syrian Refugees 'Sold for Marriage' in Jordan." BBC [online] May 10, 2013 [cited June 24, 2013]; http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-22473573.

25.       Grant, H, and Harper. L. "Syrian refugee children face 'catastrophic' life in exile, UN says." The Guardian, London, November 29, 2013; Global Development. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/nov/29/syrian-refugee-children-catastrophe-exile-un?utm_source=Sailthru&utm_medium=email&utm_term=Morning%20Brief%20Complete%2010%2F7&utm_campaign=MB%2011.29.13.

26.       U.S. Department of State. "Jordan," in Trafficking in Person Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2014/226749.htm.

27.       U.S. Embassy- Amman official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 7, 2016.

28.       U.S. Embassy- Amman. reporting, January 19, 2015.

29.       ILO-IPEC. Technical Progress Report of Project Moving Towards A Child Labour Free Jordan. Technical Progress Report; October 2015.

30.       Government of Jordan. Labor Code and Amendments, No. 8 of 1996 (last amended under the interim Labor Code, Law No. 51 of 2002), enacted March 2, 1996. www.aproarab.org/Down/Jorddn/3amal.doc.

31.       Government of Jordan. Order of Minister of Labor concerning Occupations that are Dangerous, Tiring or Harmful to the Health of Youth, related to the Provisions of Article 74 of Labor Code, Law No 8 of 1996 and its Amendments, enacted June 16, 2011. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=90849&p_country=JOR&p_classification=04.

32.       Government of Jordan. Law No 9 of 2009 on the Prevention of Human Trafficking, enacted February 9, 2009. http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Jordan-Anti-Trafficking-Legislation-2009-and-TIP-Law-2008.pdf.

33.       Government of Jordan. Penal Code, Law No 16 of 1960 (including all Amendments until 2011), enacted 1960.

34.       Government of Jordan. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act and its Amendments, Law No. 11 of 1988, enacted 1988. www.jfda.jo/Download/Laws/23_71.doc.

35.       Government of Jordan. National Service Act, Law No. 23 of 1986, enacted May 7, 1986.

36.       Government of Jordan. Education Law No. 3 of 1994 and its amendments, enacted 1994. http://www.moe.gov.jo/Departments/DepartmentsMenuDetails.aspx?MenuID=324&DepartmentID=5.

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