Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Iraq

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Iraq

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Regression in Practice that Delayed Advancement

In 2016, Iraq made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Iraq is receiving this assessment because it implemented a practice that delayed advancement in eliminating the worst forms of child labor, which facilitated the recruitment of child soldiers. Armed groups engaged in combat against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, including units of the Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), recruited and used children, some of whom were as young as 12 years old.  Several PMF units also received financial and material support from the Iraqi Government, and a February 2016 order from the Iraqi Prime Minister declared the PMF to be formally affiliated with Iraqi security services. In addition, in December 2016, the Iraqi Prime Minister signed a law that formalized the status of the Popular Mobilization Commission, an umbrella organization for the PMF, as a component of the Iraqi security services. Otherwise, the Government conducted targeted labor inspections in areas where child labor was prevalent, established investigative courts on human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation in the Kurdistan Region, and improved coordination with the Kurdistan Regional Government through the Central Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Children in Iraq also engage in other worst forms of child labor, including forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Limited funding, transportation, and fuel hampered the inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws and criminal law enforcement information remains unavailable. The Government continues to lack programs that focus on assisting children in the worst forms of child labor, particularly those used by armed groups.

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Children in Iraq engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in armed conflict and commercial sexual exploitation, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Iraq.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

5.3 (454,330)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

75.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

4.2

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

66.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2007, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011.(9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Working on farms (6, 10, 11)

Herding livestock (10, 11)

Fishing, activities unknown (10)

Industry

Making bricks (6, 12-15)

Working in factories, including glass, household cleaners, paint, steel, and plastic recycling factories (6, 12, 13, 16)

Working in carpentry workshops (11, 17)

Services

Street work, including selling goods, pushing carts, cleaning cars, shining shoes, and begging (6, 10, 13, 15, 16, 18)

Working at gas stations and auto repair shops (6, 10, 14, 19-21)

Working in landfills, collecting and scavenging garbage (6, 10, 13-16)

Domestic work (10, 11)

Working in hotels, restaurants, and cafes (11, 21)

Working at cemeteries, including digging graves and selling items (15, 22)

Voluntarily recruited children used in hostilities by state armed groups (1, 3, 4, 23, 24)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (1, 2, 4-7, 25)

Forced recruitment of children by state armed groups for use in armed conflict (6, 25)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking, as a result of human trafficking (6, 26)

Domestic work as a result of human trafficking (1, 27)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 6, 28, 29)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 6, 13, 15, 27, 30, 31)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

NGOs, an international organization, and the media reported that factions of the Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF) recruited and used children under the age of 18 in operations in Fallujah and other areas of the country, while PMF-affiliated media continued to celebrate the service and sacrifice of child soldiers.(1, 6, 24, 32) In 2016, some PMF units received financial and material support from the Iraqi Government, and a February 2016 order from the Iraqi Prime Minister declared the PMF to be formally affiliated with Iraqi security services. In December 2016, the Iraqi Prime Minister signed a law that formalized the status of the Popular Mobilization Commission, an umbrella organization for the PMF, as a component of the Iraqi security services.(32) Human Rights Watch reported that the PMF was threatening some displaced families in camps and exploiting their need for humanitarian assistance as part of its child recruitment efforts.(6) However, research did not find evidence that the Iraqi Army and the Iraqi Police used children in armed conflict.(6)

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS, also known as ISIL) recruited children and used them in combat operations, including as informants, suicide bombers, and in manning checkpoints.(2, 5, 6, 25) Armed groups engaged in combat against ISIS also recruited and used children.(4, 6, 7, 25) Sunni tribal forces and other armed groups, including the Iran-backed militias, the Women’s Protection Units (YPJ), the Sinjar Resistance Units (YBS), People’s Defense Forces (HPG), and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) accepted child volunteers into their ranks.(4, 6, 7) In addition to voluntary recruitment, the PKK and YBS forcibly recruited and used Kurdish and Yezidi boys and girls, some as young as 12 years old, in combat and support roles in northern Iraq.(32)

Throughout the country, some girls were subjected to commercial sexual exploitation by their families, who sought financial gain through temporary marriages.(1) This practice involves a dowry paid to the girl’s family and an agreement to dissolve the marriage after a predetermined length of time.(33) ISIS fighters subjected girls, primarily from the Yezidi community, but also from other ethnic and religious groups, to commercial sexual exploitation, forced marriages, or forced domestic work in Iraq and Syria.(1, 28, 34-37) Limited evidence points to trafficking of girls from Iran into the Iraqi Kurdistan Region for commercial sexual exploitation. Some officials of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) were involved in the trafficking of Syrian refugee girls for commercial sexual exploitation.(1, 6, 7, 29, 38)

Children faced barriers accessing education, partially because of attacks on schools, including the targeting of teachers and school personnel, lack of schools nearby, and the use of schools as shelters by internally displaced persons (IDPs) and as detention centers by ISIS.(15, 27, 39, 40) As of September 2016, approximately 35 percent of Iraqi children, including IDP children, were out of school.(41) In addition, out of approximately 61,000 Syrian refugee children, about 40 percent remained out of school.(42) For these refugees, the majority of whom live in the Kurdistan Region, access to education was limited because of security concerns, school-related costs – such as transportation and uniforms – and language issues, because most classes in the Kurdistan Region are taught in Kurdish rather than Arabic.(43)

Iraq has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Iraq’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Related Entity

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Iraq

Yes

15

Article 7 of the 2015 Labor Law (44)

Kurdistan Region

Yes

15

Article 90.1 of the 1987 Labor Law (45)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Iraq

Yes

18

Article 95 of the 2015 Labor Law (44)

Kurdistan Region

Yes

18

Articles 90.2 and 91.1 of the 1987 Labor Law (45)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Iraq

Yes

 

Articles 95 and 98 of the 2015 Labor Law; Ministry of Labor’s Instruction 19 of 1987 (44, 46)

Kurdistan Region

Yes

 

Article 91.2 of the 1987 Labor Law; Ministry of Labor’s Instruction 19 of 1987 (45, 46)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Iraq

Yes

 

Article 9 of the 2015 Labor Law; Articles 1 and 6 of the Law to Combat Human Trafficking (44, 47)

Kurdistan Region

Yes

 

Articles 91.3(a), 91.4 and 97 of the Labor Law (45)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Iraq

No

 

Articles 1 and 6 of the Law to Combat Human Trafficking (47)

Kurdistan Region

No

 

Articles 91.3(a), 91.4 and 97 of the 1987 Labor Law (45)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Iraq

Yes

 

Articles 399 and 403 of the Penal Code (48)

Kurdistan Region

Yes

 

Articles 91.3(b), 91.4 and 97 of the 1987 Labor Law (45)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Iraq

No

 

 

Kurdistan Region

Yes

 

Articles 91.3(c), 91.4 and 97 of the Labor Law (45)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Iraq and Kurdistan Region

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Iraq and Kurdistan Region

Yes

18

Section 6(2) of the CPA Order 22 (49)

Non-state Compulsory

Iraq and Kurdistan Region

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Iraq

No

12‡

Articles 8.1.1 and 11.1 of the Education Law; Article 1.3 of the Law on Compulsory Education (50, 51)

Kurdistan Region

Yes

15

Articles 6 and 10 of the Kurdistan Regional Government Ministry of Education Law (52)

Free Public Education

Iraq

Yes

 

Article 34.2 of the Constitution; Article 9 of the Education Law (50, 53)

Kurdistan Region

Yes

 

Article 10 of the Kurdistan Regional Government Ministry of Education Law (52)

* No conscription (49)
‡ Age calculated based on available information.

The provision protecting children from hazardous work does not apply to children age 15-17 working in family businesses under the authority of family members.(44)

Also, in Iraq, Article 1 of the Law to Combat Human Trafficking requires force or coercion to be present as an element of the crime of child trafficking, which is inconsistent with Article 3 of the Palermo Protocol.(47) The KRG must endorse laws passed by the Government of Iraq after 1991 for such laws to enter into force in the Kurdistan Region, which comprises the provinces of Dahuk, Erbil, and Sulaymaniyah.(28, 54) The KRG has not endorsed the Iraq Law to Combat Human Trafficking, and the only law in effect in the Kurdistan region prohibiting trafficking, the 1987 Labor Law, merely mentions child trafficking and does not prohibit the necessary elements of a child trafficking standard.(52, 55)

Under Articles 8 and 11 of the Iraqi Education Law and the Law on Compulsory Education, children are required to attend primary school for 6 years, which is typically up to age 12.(50, 51, 56) This standard makes children ages 12 to 15 particularly vulnerable to child labor, because they are not required to be in school, yet they are not legally permitted to work.

On December 29, 2016, the Council of Ministers directed the Ministry of Justice to draft an amendment to the Education Law that would extend compulsory education through secondary school.(57)

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MOLSA) and the KRG Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs discussed a draft child protection law that includes provisions on child labor. No further information was available.(6)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MOLSA)

Enforce child labor laws and regulations through its Child Labor Unit. Conduct research on child labor through its Childhood Welfare Authority.(19) Receive complaints of child labor cases.(6)

Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs

Enforce child labor laws and regulations in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. KRG Ministry of Interior’s police units play a supporting role in the daily activities of the Ministry.(19)

Ministry of Interior

Enforce criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor. Collaborate with MOLSA, the Iraqi Industries Federation, and the Confederation of Trade Unions to conduct inspection campaigns.(19) Maintain a hotline for victims of human trafficking that is routed directly to the Ministry’s Anti-Trafficking Department.(19)

KRG Ministry of Interior

Investigate cases of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking.(6)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, law enforcement agencies in Iraq took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown* (6)

Number of Labor Inspectors

120 (19)

120 (6)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

Unknown

6 (6)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (19)

No (44)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (19)

Yes (57)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (19)

Unknown (6)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (19)

No (57)

Number of Labor Inspections

21,794‡ (19)

Unknown (58)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

1,076 (57)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown (58)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

60‡ (19)

325 (57)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

229 (57)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (19)

Yes (6)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Yes (6)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (45)

Yes (44)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (19)

Unknown* (6)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Unknown (36)

Yes (6)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Unknown (6)

* The Government does not publish this information.
‡ Data are from January 1, 2015 to November 30, 2015.

In 2016, research did not find information about the funding of MOLSA. However, previously officials had stated that their funding was limited.(19) In 2015, insufficient transportation and fuel hampered MOLSA’s capacity to enforce child labor laws.(19) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Iraq’s workforce, which includes over 8.9 million workers.(59) According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Iraq should employ roughly 593 labor inspectors.(19, 60, 61) In 2016, labor inspections resulted in 325 cases being referred to the Labor Court for prosecution. The Labor Court fined 229 employers and closed down 10 factories that were repeated violators of child labor laws.(57) Jointly with the Ministry of Education, MOLSA conducted a targeted outreach campaign to vulnerable communities and inspected areas where child labor was prevalent. The joint campaigns resulted in 257 children returning to school.(57) These visits were in addition to the aforementioned 1,076 official inspections.(57) The 2015 inspection data were collected by the High Commission on Human Rights. In 2016, with the dissolution of this Commission and the Ministry of Human Rights, data collection on a central level was no longer carried out.(57)

In 2016, the KRG Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs did not have budgetary allocations for inspections, did not provide child labor training to inspectors, and did not carry out inspections.(6) However, the KRG established investigative sub-committees and investigative courts focused on trafficking in persons and commercial sexual exploitation in the Kurdistan Region.(25)

Criminal Law Enforcement

Research did not find information on whether criminal law enforcement agencies in Iraq took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (19)

Unknown (6)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (19)

Unknown (6)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (29)

Unknown (6)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (19)

Unknown (6)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (19)

Unknown (6)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (19)

Unknown (6)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

No (18)

 

In 2016, the Government conducted 314 investigations of human trafficking cases and 17 prosecutions. It is unknown how many of these cases may have involved child victims.(32) The KRG did not provide training for criminal investigators. KRG officials stated that courts could refer cases of the worst forms of child labor to the KRG Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs.(6) Research did not discover other information on criminal law enforcement, including in the Kurdistan Region.

Child victims of human trafficking and forced labor faced prosecution for acts committed while being trafficked and underwent deportation proceedings.(32, 35) An international organization reported that KRG authorities arrested, detained, and interrogated, approximately 180 child soldiers between the ages of 11 and 17 years old for their alleged association to ISIS; 17 of those interviewed reported torture during interrogation.(32)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Inter-ministerial Committee on Child Labor

Coordinate overall government efforts to combat child labor, research policies regarding child labor, and design and manage projects. Includes representatives from five ministries, including MOLSA.(19)

Joint Committee on Street Children

Coordinate the implementation of measures for removing and rehabilitating street children. Members include MOLSA and the Ministry of Interior.(30)

Central Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Oversee implementation of the Law to Combat Human Trafficking and serve as the national coordinating body on trafficking in persons. Led by the Ministry of Interior, also includes representatives from five ministries, the KRG Ministry of Interior, and two other state entities.(6, 19) In 2016, the Committee held meetings and training sessions for its members, including KRG officials.(25, 57)

KRG High Commission on Child Labor

Coordinate interagency policies on child labor. Chaired by the KRG Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs; members include representatives from five other KRG ministries.(6)

Research found no evidence that the Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms.

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Informal Education†

Government-supported informal education systems, including evening school programs and the fast education mode that encourages children ages 12 to 18 who have dropped out of school to continue their education.(30)

Conditional Subsidies Program†

Provides assistance to low-income families for children to stay in school and out of the workforce.(6) This program was active in 2016, and provided financial support to hundreds of low-income families with the condition that their children remain in school.(57)

Shelters for Human Trafficking Victims†

MOLSA-operated shelter in Baghdad for human trafficking victims, including children involved in the worst forms of child labor; other facilities are in Basrah, Kirkuk, and Ninewa provinces.(55) The KRG operates three shelters for female victims of human trafficking and violence.(6) No victims used the shelter in Baghdad in 2016, partially due to security reasons.(25)

† Program is funded by the Government of Iraq.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(62, 63)

In 2016, the Government began drafting a plan to rehabilitate and integrate children liberated from ISIS, including child soldiers, back into their communities. In May 2017, the Council of Ministers approved the plan and allocated a budget for its implementation.(57) Research found no evidence of specific programs targeting children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation or brickmaking.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Iraq (Table 10).

Table 10. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the laws comprehensively prohibit child trafficking in all parts of Iraq, including the Kurdistan Region, and do not require a showing of force.

2015 – 2016

Ensure hazardous work protections apply to all children, including children working in family businesses under the authority of family members.

2016

Ensure that the law in Iraq criminally prohibits the use of children in illicit activities, including in the production and trafficking of drugs.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2013 – 2016

Increase the age of compulsory schooling in Iraq to at least age 15, the minimum age for work.

2009 – 2016

Enforcement

Publish information on the funding of the labor inspectorate; the training for labor inspectors; the number of inspections, including those by desk reviews; the number of imposed penalties that were collected; whether unannounced inspections were conducted; and whether a reciprocal referral mechanism exists between labor authorities and social services.

2011 – 2016

Ensure that labor inspectors receive refresher courses on child labor.

2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO recommendation and ensure adequate funding to effectively enforce legal protections against child labor, including its worst forms.

2011 – 2016

Ensure that labor inspectors in the Kurdistan Region receive funding and training on child labor in order to conduct labor inspections.

2016

Ensure that children under 18 cannot join armed groups affiliated with the Popular Mobilization Forces to engage in combat.

2016

Publish information on the training of criminal investigators, and the number of investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions.

2013 – 2016

Establish a reciprocal referral mechanism between criminal authorities and social services in both Iraq and the Kurdistan Region.

2016

Publish information on criminal law enforcement on the worst forms of child labor in the Kurdistan Region.

2013 – 2016

Ensure that child victims of human trafficking are not prosecuted.

2015 – 2016

Government Policies

Adopt policies to address child labor, particularly in armed conflict.

2016

Social Programs

Ensure that children are discouraged from enlisting into armed groups and receiving military training.

2015 – 2016

Ensure universal access to education, including for refugee and internally displaced children.

2013 – 2016

Improve the security situation of the human trafficking shelters so that victims can use them.

2016

Implement programs to address relevant child labor sectors in Iraq, such as commercial sexual exploitation and brickmaking, and demobilize and reintegrate children engaged in armed groups.

2009 – 2016

1.         U.S. Department of State. "Iraq," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258879.pdf.

2.         Bradley, JR. "Cubs of the Caliphate." Daily Mail, London, August 23,  2016. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3753875/Cubs-caliphate-suicide-bomber-young-12-caught-act-Iraq-horrifying-rise-Islamic-State-s-child-terrorists.html.

3.         Khoder, S. "Iraqi's Child Soldiers: What happened to our boys?" Al Jazeera [online ] June 8, 2016 [cited November 9, 2016]; http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/05/iraq-child-soldiers-happened-boys-160523122213988.html.

4.         Human Rights Watch. Iraq: Militias Recruiting Children; August 30, 2016. https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/08/30/iraq-militias-recruiting-children.

5.         Rosen, B. "Is ISIS turning to more child bombers?" The Christian Science Monitor, Boston, August 23,  2016; World. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2016/0823/Is-ISIS-turning-to-more-child-bombers.

6.         U.S. Embassy- Baghdad. reporting, January 13, 2017.

7.         Human Rights Watch. Iraq: Armed Groups Using Child Soldiers; December 22, 2016. https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/12/22/iraq-armed-groups-using-child-soldiers-0.

8.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10.       Government of Iraq. Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC/C/OPSC/IRQ/1); November 21, 2013. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FOPSC%2FIRQ%2F1&Lang=en.

11.       Terre des Hommes. Child labour among refugees of the Syrian conflict. Osnabrueck; 2016. https://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/download.php?id=11674.

12.       Bassem, W. "Underage and Trapped: Female Iraqi Factory Workers Need Help." Al-Monitor [online] September 2, 2014 [cited January 28, 2015]; http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/09/iraq-underage-girls-working-illegal-exploitation.html.

13.       Mamouri, A. "Iraqi children face poverty, violence, exploitation." Al-Monitor [online] November 6, 2013 [cited January 28, 2015]; http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/11/iraq-children-torn-instability.html.

14.       UNICEF. Childhood Cut Short; June 10, 2016. https://medium.com/photography-and-social-change/childhoods-cut-short-d44fa863992d#.gvxvqg6ly.

15.       Al Amal Association and UNICEF. Rapid Assessment - Worst Forms of Child Labor; December 2015. http://www.iraqi-alamal.org/uploads/pdf/2016/e15-06-2016.pdf.

16.       Khoder, S. "Child labour a growing problem in war torn Iraq." Al Jazeera [online ] August 22, 2016 [cited November 9, 2016]; http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/08/child-labour-growing-problem-war-torn-iraq-160808111630367.html.

17.       Falah, A. "Displaced Children in Iraq face child labor and exploitation." Iraqi Observatory for Human Rights, 2016 [cited December 14, 2016]; http://rights-iq.org/%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B1/3324-displaced-children-in-iraq-face-child-labor-and-exploitation.html.

18.       Al-Baghdadi, W. "Child labor phenomenon invading Iraqi society." Erem News [online] March 23, 2014 [cited January 28, 2015]; http://www.eremnews.com/?id=32697.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Baghdad. reporting, January 24, 2016.

20.       Maher Nazeh, and Saif Hameed. "Child labor doubles in Iraq as violence, displacement hit incomes." Reuters July 10, 2016 [cited December 14, 2016]; http://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-iraq-children-idUSKCN0ZQ0DQ.

21.       UNICEF. “What I would most like is to leave this job and go back to school”; March 14, 2016. https://medium.com/stories-from-unicef-in-iraq-english/what-i-would-most-like-is-to-leave-this-job-and-go-back-to-school-2910fed16aff#.2pjnu1bwi.

22.       Al-Marjani, A. "Sea of death: World's biggest cemetery filling up as Iraq's battle against Isis takes its toll." Reuters August 23, 2016 [cited December 14, 2016]; http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/sea-death-worlds-biggest-cemetery-filling-iraqs-battle-against-isis-takes-its-toll-1577637.

23.       UN. reporting, 2016.

24.       U.S. Consulate- Basrah. reporting, July 13, 2016.

25.       U.S. Embassy- Baghdad. reporting, February 13, 2017.

26.       Mufti, N. "Iraq Faces Worrisome Drug Problem." The Arab Weekly p22 (2016); http://www.thearabweekly.com/Society/6371/Iraq-faces-worrisome-drug-problem.

27.       Human Rights Watch. "Iraq: Forced Marriage, Conversion for Yezidis." [online] October 12, 2014 [cited January 30, 2015]; http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/10/11/iraq-forced-marriage-conversion-yezidis.

28.       U.S. Embassy- Baghdad. reporting, February 25, 2015.

29.       U.S. Embassy- Baghdad. reporting, February 16, 2016.

30.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Iraq (ratification: 2001) published: 2013; accessed March 14, 2017; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3075753.

31.       Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Joint Hearing: Genocidal Attacks against Christian and other Religious Minorities in Syria and Iraq. September 10, 2014; http://foreignaffairs.house.gov/hearing/joint-subcommittee-hearing-genocidal-attacks-against-christian-and-other-religious.

32.       U.S. Department of State. "Iraq," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017. Washington, DC; June 27, 2017; https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271208.htm.

33.       U.S. Department of State. "Iraq," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2014/index.htm 

34.       Amnesty International. Escape from Hell:  Torture and Sexual Slavery in Islamic State Captivity in Iraq (MDE 14/021/2014) December 2014. http://www.amnesty.org.uk/sites/default/files/escape_from_hell_-_torture_and_sexual_slavery_in_islamic_state_captivity_in_iraq_-_english_2.pdf.

35.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the report submitted by Iraq under article 12, paragraph 1, of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. Geneva; March 5, 2015. Report No. CRC/C/OPSC/IRQ/CO/1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fOPSC%2fIRQ%2fCO%2f1&Lang=en.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Baghdad official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 19, 2016.

37.       Lori Hinnant, Maya Alleruzzo, and Balint Szlanko. "Islamic State tightens grip on captives held as sex slaves." The Associated Press, July 5, 2016 [cited December 19, 2016]; http://bigstory.ap.org/article/bc71decfae2f4fee8196a20515b4c5fc/islamic-state-tightens-grip-captives-held-sex-slaves.

38.       Rudaw. Shingal Militia Claims Baghdad Providing Salaries and Arms; September 1, 2016. http://www.rudaw.net/english/middleeast/iraq/090120161.

39.       United National Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in Iraq S/2015/852; November 9, 2015. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/N1535632.pdf.

40.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined second to fourth periodic reports of Iraq. Geneva; March 3, 2015. Report No. CRC/C/IRQ/CO/2-4. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/IRQ/CO/2-4&Lang=En.

41.       UNICEF. Iraq Briefing Note Education; September 30, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/report/iraq/unicef-iraq-briefing-note-education-30-september-2016.

42.       UNHCR. "3RP - Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (2017-2018) in Response to the Syria Crisis." [Regional Strategic Overview] 2016 [cited December 19, 2016]; https://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/download.php?id=12492.

43.       UNHCR. 2014 Syria Regional Response Plan: Iraq; 2014. http://www.unhcr.org/syriarrp6/docs/Syria-rrp6-full-report.pdf.

44.       Government of Iraq. Labor Law No. 37 of 2015, enacted October 15, 2015; Published in the Official Gazette on November 9, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=96652&p_country=IRQ.

45.       Government of Iraq. Coalition Provisional Authority Order 89, Amendments to the Labor Code, Law No. 71 of 1987, enacted May 30, 2004. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/751/Coalition%20Provisional%20Authority%20Order%20No.89.pdf.

46.       Government of Iraq. Minister of Labor and Social Affairs' Instructions No. 19 of 1987 on Works Prohibited for Children, enacted November 9, 1987. http://www.iraq-lg-law.org/ar/webfm_send/555.

47.       Government of Iraq. Law to Combat Human Trafficking, No. 28 of 2012, enacted April 4, 2012.

48.       Government of Iraq. Penal Code, Law No. 111 of 1969, enacted July 19, 1969. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/57206/110681/F-1289690696/IRQ57206.pdf.

49.       Government of Iraq. Coalition Provisional Authority Order 22 on the Creation of A New Iraqi Army, enacted August 6, 2003. http://www.refworld.org/docid/468d0ae62.html.

50.       Government of Iraq. Law No. 22 of the Ministry of Education, enacted September 13, 2011. http://moedu.gov.iq/upload/upfile/ar/22k.docx.

51.       Government of Iraq. Compulsory Education Law No. 118 of 1976, enacted 1976. http://www.krk.epedu.gov.iq/upload/upfile/ar/5-2302.pdf.

52.       Kurdistan  Regional Government. Law No 27 of 2007, Third Amendment to the Law of the Ministry of Education No. Act, 1992, enacted December 10, 2007. http://www.presidency.krd/docs/EducationMInistryAmendemnt3-34-2007-ar.pdf.

53.       Government of Iraq. Constitution of Iraq, enacted 2005. http://www.iraqinationality.gov.iq/attach/iraqi_constitution.pdf.

54.       Kurdistan Regional Government. "The Kurdistan Region in Brief." [online] [cited April 20, 2017]; http://cabinet.gov.krd/p/page.aspx?l=14&s=050000&r=355&p=250&h=1.

55.       U.S. Embassy- Baghdad. reporting, February 10, 2015.

56.       UNESCO. "Education for All, EFA Global Monitoring Report, Teaching and Learning: Achieving Quality for All." 2013/14 [cited August 6, 2015]; http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002256/225660e.pdf.

57.       U.S. Embassy- Baghdad official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 16, 2017.

58.       U.S. Embassy- Baghdad. Interview with USDOL official. June 22, 2017.

59.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited May 18, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

60.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection (GB.297/ESP/3). Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

61.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

62.       IOM. Action to protect and assist vulnerable and exploited migrant workers in the Middle East and North Africa (PAVE) - Fact sheet; March 2016. [source on file].

63.       IOM. Lebanon Launches Public Service Announcement to Combat Human Trafficking. October 20, 2015. https://www.iom.int/news/lebanon-launches-public-service-announcement-combat-human-trafficking.

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