Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Indonesia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Indonesia

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Indonesia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons adopted a new 5-year National Action Plan on Preventing Trafficking in Persons that includes the goal of improving social services for victims of human trafficking, including child victims, and strengthening the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases. The Government also drafted a sectoral action plan on the elimination of child labor in domestic work, and the national child labor program helped to remove 16,000 children from work, enabling many children to return to school. However, children in Indonesia are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and in commercial sexual exploitation. The Ministry of Labor lacks the financial resources and personnel necessary to adequately enforce child labor laws throughout the country, especially in the informal sector. In addition, comprehensive data on law enforcement activities related to child labor, including in its worst forms, are not available for Indonesia.

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Children in Indonesia are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-7) Data from the 2013 Indonesian Child Profile, published by the Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection, indicate that there are 3.6 million working children between ages 10 to 17.(8) Child labor is predominantly found in rural areas, with 12.5 percent of children ages 10 to 17 working, in comparison to 5.9 percent in urban areas.(8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Indonesia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 10 to 14 (% and population):

3.7 (816,363)

Working children by sector, ages 10 to 14 (%):

 

Agriculture

61.6

Industry

12.0

Services

26.5

School attendance, ages 10 to 14 (%):

92.4

Children combining work and school, ages 10 to 14 (%):

2.1

Primary completion rate (%):

100.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas), 2010.(10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of palm oil, including growing,* fertilizing, cutting, spraying, collecting, and loading palm oil fruits* (1, 3, 4, 11-13)

Planting, watering, harvesting, and applying fertilizer to tobacco (1, 5, 11, 12, 14)

Production of rubber, including tapping rubber trees* and using acid to thicken latex* (1, 3, 12)

Fishing, including processing fish and working on offshore fishing platforms† (1, 2, 6, 15-18)

Industry

Mining,† including gold and tin (1, 19-25)

Construction,*† activities unknown (26)

Production of footwear (including sandals) (1, 6, 8, 11)

Production of bricks,* tile,* furniture,* and textiles* (27)

Services

Street work,*† activities unknown (3, 28)

Driving buses* (6, 29)

Garbage scavenging*† (6, 30)

Horse jockeying (31-34)

Domestic work† (2, 3, 6, 35, 36)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including in the sale, production, and trafficking of drugs,* sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (16, 37)

Domestic work* and fishing* as a result of human trafficking (1, 7, 38, 39)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 3, 7, 16, 40, 41)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Indonesia is primarily a source country for child trafficking. Children, mostly girls, are trafficked internally and abroad for commercial sexual exploitation and domestic work.(3, 7) Girls are also trafficked internally for commercial sexual exploitation near mining operations in several provinces and in the Riau Islands, West Papua, and Bali.(42)

Children are engaged in hazardous work in tin mining, especially in the informal mines of Bankga-Belitung Province. Working at dangerous heights and in deep pits that are prone to landslides, children dig and pan for tin, sometimes operating heavy machinery to separate tin deposits from unwanted materials.(22, 25)

Indonesia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 69 of the Manpower Act; Law on the Ratification of ILO C. 138 (43, 44)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 74 of the Manpower Act; Article 2 of Ministerial Decree No. 235 (44, 45)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Annex F of Ministerial Decree No. 235; Chapter 1 of the Appendix to Presidential Decree No. 59/2002 (45, 46)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 74 of the Manpower Act; Articles 1–6 and 17 of the Law on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons; Article 83 of the Law on Child Protection (44, 47, 48)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 83 of the Law on Child Protection; Articles 1–6 and 17 of the Law on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons (47, 48)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 74 of the Manpower Act; Articles 81 and 82 of the Law on Child Protection; Article 297 of the Penal Code; Section 3 of the Law on the Ratification of the Rights of the Child Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography; Articles 4–12 and 37 of Law on Anti-Pornography (11, 27, 44, 48-51)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 74 of the Manpower Act; Articles 67, 78, and 89 of the Law on Child Protection (44, 48)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Law No. 34/2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces (52, 53)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 28 of Law No. 34/2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces (52, 53)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 48 of the Law on Child Protection; Articles 6 and 34 of the Act on the National Education System (48, 54)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 34 of the Act on the National Education System (54)

 

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor (MOL) enacted Ministerial Regulation No. 2/2015, which raises the minimum age for employment in domestic work from 15 to 18.(55, 56) The Government previously drafted a Domestic Workers Protection Bill outlining circumstances under which children ages 15 through 17 could perform non-hazardous domestic work; however, it has been on the legislative agenda for several years(27, 55, 57)

During the reporting period, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries issued Ministerial Regulation No. 35/2015 on Human Rights Certification in the Fishery Industry, which supports laws protecting children from hazardous work on fishing ships by declaring that businesses in this industry must adhere to minimum age requirements and forced labor requirements.(27, 39, 58)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL) Directorate General of Labor Development and Supervision

Monitor and enforce child labor laws.(8) Provide information to employers on child labor laws and regulations, report child labor violations, and work with law enforcement officials to prosecute child labor violations.(11) Refer children found during inspections to the local Women’s Empowerment and Family Planning Body or to the Integrated Service Center for Empowering Women and Children to access appropriate social services.(8)

National Police, Including Women and Children’s Service Unit

Conduct inspections and raids and make arrests in response to all crimes, including those related to forced child labor and trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and children participating in illicit activities.(12, 16)

MOL Directorate of Norms Supervision of Women and Child Workers

Receive child labor complaints by telephone, fax, or e-mail.(8)

Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection (MOWECP)

Coordinate the provision of social services to children, including those involved in child labor. Operate a children’s helpline to receive complaints on child protection.(36)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Indonesia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$29,900,000 (59)

Unknown (36)

Number of Labor Inspectors

2,400 (8)

1,918 (36)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (8)

Yes (36)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (8)

Yes (36, 60)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (27)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (8)

Yes (36)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown (8)

Unknown (36)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (8)

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (8)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (8)

Unknown (36)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (8)

Unknown (36)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown (8)

Unknown (36)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (27, 36)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Yes (36)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (8)

Yes (36)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (8)

Yes (36)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (8)

Yes (36)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (36)

 

According to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 15,000 workers in less developed economies, Indonesia should employ roughly 8,160 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country. The Government of Indonesia, the ILO, and NGO officials have also noted that labor inspectors are not provided with sufficient resources to carry out labor inspections effectively.(8, 36, 61-64) Due to these constraints, the MOL often encourages NGOs to take action directly with families and employers and to perform spot inspections on homes and workplaces to determine whether school-aged children are at school.(36) The Government reported that to gradually increase the number of labor inspectors, a yearly budget is allocated to provide basic training for at least 60 new employees.(60) The MOL provides 4 months of training to labor inspectors and 2 months of training to civil servant investigators, with specific instruction on issues relating to the worst forms of child labor.(36) The ILO also provides labor inspectors with a guidebook that addresses the worst forms of child labor.(36)

MOL inspectors have the authority to conduct unannounced inspections in all sectors; however, NGOs report that inspectors sometimes give companies advance notice of site visits, which may limit the effectiveness of those inspections.(36) In addition, despite the fact that inspectors have inspection authority in the informal sector, in practice, inspectors tend to focus their efforts on formal workplaces, while relying on NGOs and social workers to inform them of child labor violations in private homes or farms.(36) Children identified in situations of child labor during inspections can be referred to the local Women’s Empowerment and Family Planning Body or the Integrated Service Center for Empowering Woman and Children to receive appropriate social services.(8)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Indonesia took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown 

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (36)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (8)

Unknown (36)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (8)

Unknown (36)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (8)

Unknown (36)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (8)

Unknown (36)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (65)

Yes (36)

 

Special police units, which focus exclusively on crimes against women and children, are responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor. The Indonesian National Police provides training to members of these special units on the prevention and investigation of cases involving the worst forms of child labor.(36) In addition, the IOM facilitated several training workshops on combating human trafficking for Government officials, NGO representatives, and police in Sukabumi and Cianjur, two major source districts in West Java.(39) Although progress has been made in raising awareness about human trafficking among law enforcement authorities, the National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons reports indicate that some members of the police and prosecutors are still unfamiliar with anti-trafficking legislation and are unclear about their enforcement role, especially in remote regions.(27, 59, 66)

Comprehensive data on law enforcement activities related to the worst forms of child labor are unavailable; however, in 2015, officials initiated prosecutions against several alleged perpetrators of relevant crimes. These prosecutions involved a local government official who is accused of trafficking a girl to work as a nanny in Malaysia; an illegal women’s shelter owner and alleged accomplices charged with recruiting at least four girls for commercial sexual exploitation in hotels in Jakarta; and two businessmen charged with operating an online prostitution syndicate that led to the commercial sexual exploitation of numerous women and girls.(39) All prosecutions were ongoing at the close of the reporting period.(39)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Provincial-level and District-level Child Labor Committees

Coordinate and monitor policy and program efforts and develop action plans to eliminate the worst forms of child labor at the local level.(67) The country has 33 provincial action committees and 162 district-level committees.(8)

National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate the country’s anti-trafficking efforts, including child trafficking.(8) Chaired by the Ministry for People’s Welfare, with direction from the Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection. Coordinates the Task Force across 19 ministries and 5 state agencies.(65) Includes six working groups that develop action plans and budgets for programs to address trafficking in persons.(68) In 2015, facilitated the growth of local government task forces responsible for carrying out anti-trafficking activities at the district level, increasing the number of task forces from 166 in 2014 to 191 in 2015.(39)

Provincial and District Task Forces for the Prevention and Handling of Human Trafficking

Coordinate prevention and anti-trafficking efforts at the local level.(69) Commonly chaired by the local Integrated Service Center for Women and Children or the local Office of Social Affairs, and currently operating in 31 out of 34 provinces and 191 out of 497 districts.(39)

Subtask Force on the Prevention of Child Participation in Trafficking in Persons

Organize regular coordination meetings, provide technical training, and produce publications on the prevention of trafficking in persons. Chaired by the Ministry of Education and Culture Director for Early Childhood, Nonformal, and Informal Education, with members from six ministries, the police, JARAK (network of NGOs working for the elimination of child labor), the Indonesian Journalists Alliance, and the National Commission on Child Protection.(8)

Indonesian Child Protection Commission

Disseminate information related to child protection, including child labor legislation; receive complaints, including those that pertain to child labor; monitor and evaluate the implementation of child protection efforts; and provide feedback on child protection to the President of Indonesia.(70)

 

During the previous reporting period, the Government dissolved the National Action Committee (NAC) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor pursuant to the adoption of the Roadmap for the Acceleration of Making Indonesia Free of Child Labor by 2022 and reverted the functions of the NAC to the MOL.(59) Although the Minister has publicly affirmed the MOL’s commitment to mainstream the elimination of child labor into broader national policies, as called for in the Roadmap, the Government no longer maintains a formal mechanism to coordinate its efforts to address child labor.(36) Provincial and district-level action child labor committees have not been officially dissolved, but research found that many are no longer functioning due to lack of funding from local governments.(27)

The Government of Indonesia has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan (NAP) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2002–2022)

Provides a policy framework for the elimination of child labor in three operational phases.(12, 71-73) Specific activities include improving data collection on the worst forms of child labor, increasing awareness-raising and advocacy efforts, and formulating regulations and policies to prohibit the worst forms of child labor.(46)

National Action Plan on Preventing Trafficking in Persons (2015–2019)†

Guides the work of the National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Includes the following goals: improve health and social rehabilitation services and repatriation and social reintegration services for human trafficking victims; update anti-human trafficking regulations; strengthen the investigation of human trafficking cases and the prosecution of perpetrators; and enhance coordination among task force members and between national and international stakeholders.(39)

Roadmap Toward a Child Labor-Free Indonesia in 2022 (2014–2022)

Supports implementation of the National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Aims to mainstream the elimination of the worst forms of child labor into relevant national policies; strengthen coordination between stakeholders at the national, provincial, and district levels; and enhance the capacity of stakeholders to eradicate child labor.(8, 74) Jointly developed by the Ministry for National Development Planning, the ILO, international organizations, local NGOs, and the MOL, which serves as the lead coordinator.(8) Integrated into the Mid-Term Development Plan as part of a comprehensive policy to address child labor.(36) In 2015, inaugurated a new Child-Labor Free industrial zone in Gianyar, Bali. The MOL may establish Child Labor-Free Zones following a series of targeted inspections in the area in question.(36)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (ACTIP) (2015)†

Establishes a regional anti-trafficking framework among 10 ASEAN member states, including Indonesia, to improve coordination on investigation and prosecution of human trafficking cases and enhance assistance for victims. Unanimously adopted in June 2015, the Convention was signed by the relevant heads of state on November 21, 2015.(75, 76)

UN Partnership for Development Framework (2011–2015)

Tracked the Government’s ability to implement the NAP effectively. Measured the number of district action committees and action plans formed, the number of provincial child labor monitoring systems developed, and the number of district child labor committees with youth and women representatives.(77)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, a body of tripartite constituents developed a draft sectoral action plan to eliminate child labor in domestic work. This action plan has been submitted to the relevant authorities and it awaits review and potential endorsement.(78) Also during the reporting period, the Minister of Labor declared that all districts and cities in Indonesia must be in compliance with the child-friendly district guidelines established in the Law on Child Protection by 2022. The guidelines require districts to expand access to education and public health services for vulnerable children and to enforce child labor laws, among other child protection measures.(36)

The National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons notes that some Provincial and District Task Forces to Combat Trafficking in Persons lack plans of action to effectively guide efforts to eliminate the trafficking of women and children.(27, 66)

In 2015, the Government of Indonesia funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Reducing Child Labor to Support the Family Hope Program (Pengurangan Pekerja Anak-Program Keluarga Harapan)†

MOL program that removes child laborers ages 7 to 15 from their workplaces and temporarily places them in shelters to receive counseling, remedial education for reentry into school, and financial assistance of approximately $21 each month.(8, 12, 79) In 2015, the program reached its target of 16,000 child laborers removed from work during the year, and the MOL reports that 90 percent of those children returned to school.(36)

Family Hope Program (Program Keluarga Harapan)†

Ministry of Social Affairs (MOSA)-managed conditional cash transfer program, which provides services for child laborers who have dropped out of school. Targets the poorest 5 percent of the population and provides cash assistance to families that meet the education criteria, including school enrollment and attendance.(68, 80, 81) In 2015, assisted 3,500,000 families.(27) Research shows that conditional cash transfer programs have slightly reduced child labor in Indonesia.(82)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the National Government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor, improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research, and strengthen legal protections and social services delivery for child domestic workers in Indonesia. In 2015, published the results of a sectoral survey on child labor in tin mining.(25, 83)

PROMOTE: Decent Work for Domestic Workers to End Child Domestic Labor (2012–2017)

$5 million, USDOL-funded 4-year program implemented by ILO-IPEC. Expands legal protections for child domestic workers, builds capacity of domestic worker organizations to address child domestic work, and promotes national and regional knowledge, awareness, and research of domestic service.(35) In 2015, convened a workshop during which key stakeholders developed a draft sectoral action plan to eliminate child labor in domestic work in Indonesia.(55)

Combating Child Labor Through Skills Training for Older Children (2014–2015)

$2.6 million, Government of the Netherlands-funded, 1-year global project implemented by the ILO that aimed to combat child labor by enhancing access to decent work for children who have reached the minimum age of employment.(84, 85) In Indonesia, key achievements included the development of a training model to build the capacity of skills training providers and the provision of vocational training for children ages 15–17 who are engaged in or are vulnerable to child labor.(85)

Child Trafficking Services†

MOSA and other government agency program that provides social rehabilitation and shelter services for child victims of trafficking.(65, 66)

West Java and Bandung Municipality Street Children Program†

West Java provincial government and municipality of Bandung programs to assist street children.(71)

Child Social Welfare Program (Program Kesejahteraan Sosial Anak)†

MOSA-administered conditional cash transfer program, which provides conditional cash transfers to street children, abandoned children and infants, children facing criminal charges, and children with disabilities. Also provides grants to implementing partners for the reintegration of trafficked children.(8, 12, 16)

Family Welfare Card (Kartu Keluarga Sejahtera)†

Ministry of People’s Welfare initiative to integrate all cash transfer assistance programs into one government program. Provides a bank account to each household in the assistance programs, including the fund for children’s education and health.(8)

Social Protection Cards (Kartu Perlingdungan

Sosial)

Government program that provides a social protection card for beneficiaries to access social protection programs, such as Unconditional Cash Transfer, Rice for the Poor, and Education Scholarships.(80)

Unconditional Cash Transfer Program (Bantuan Langsung Semetara Masyarakat)†

Government unconditional cash transfer program to enhance livelihoods of the poorest families.(80)

Rice for the Poor (Raskin)

Government-subsidized food program that provides rice for the poorest 25 percent of households.(80)

Block Grants for Schools (Bantuan Operasional

Sekolah)†

Government block grant program that compensates schools for the loss of income incurred when waiving fees to ensure free education for poor and vulnerable children in primary, junior secondary, and senior high schools.(12, 86) In 2015, provided approximately $411.3 million in grants to senior high schools and senior vocational schools to accelerate progress toward the government goal to achieve a 97 percent senior high school attendance rate by 2020.(8, 27)

Minimum Service Standards of Basic Education Program

Aims to improve access to quality public education by limiting the distance of elementary and junior secondary schools from children’s households, by specifying minimum teacher-student ratios, and by identifying minimum teacher education qualifications.(87)

UNICEF Country Program (2011–2015)

Program that supported the Government of Indonesia in realizing the rights of children, especially the most vulnerable. Contributed to priorities identified in the National Plan of Action for Children and Women and the Government National Midterm Development Plan (2010–2014).(88)

† Program is funded by the Government of Indonesia.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Indonesia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor to provide adequate coverage of the workforce and provide sufficient funds for labor inspections.

2010 – 2015

Strengthen enforcement capacity to conduct unannounced inspections and to address child labor protections for children who are self-employed and children who are working in the informal sector.

2014 – 2015

Make information publicly available on the level of funding for the labor inspectorate; the number of child labor law investigations conducted, the number of violations found, and the number of penalties imposed and collected; and the number of criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions for crimes relating to the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2015

Provide additional training for police officers and prosecutors on anti-trafficking legislation and clarify their roles and responsibilities in enforcing these laws.

2013 – 2015

Coordination

Clarify how the Government of Indonesia coordinates interagency efforts to address the worst forms of child labor at both the national and local level, following the liquidation of the National Action Committee.

2015

Government Policies

Create provincial and district plans of action on the elimination of trafficking of women and children.

2013 – 2015

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the types of activities carried out by children working in construction and street work to inform policies and programs.

2014 – 2015

 

1.         U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. reporting, November 17, 2015.

2.         UCW. The twin challenges of child labour and educational marginalisation in the South-East and East Asia region: an overview. Rome; May 1, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=25520.

3.         Save the Children. Eliminate Exploitative Child Labor Through Education and Economic Development (EXCEED). Technical Progress Report. Jakarta; March 2014. [source on file].

4.         Butler, R. "Child labor and palm oil in Indonesia." mongabay.com [online] December 23, 2014 [cited December 8, 2015]; http://news.mongabay.com/2014/12/child-labor-and-palm-oil-in-indonesia/.

5.         Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance. Child Labour in Tobacco Cultivation in the ASEAN Region; June 2013. http://www.saveourfarmer.org/site/media/pdf/ChildLaborFinal2013.pdf.

6.         International Labour Organization. Reportage Journal Investigative Report: Child Labour Around Us. Jakarta; December 1, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=25220.

7.         U.S. Department of State. "Indonesia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/245365.pdf.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. reporting, January 16, 2015.

9.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

10.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas), 2010. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. reporting, February 1, 2013.

12.       U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. reporting, January 16, 2014.

13.       Odi Shalahudin and Fatah Muria Fathudin. Children in Palm Oil Plantation: Executive Summary. London, Save the Children; 2010. [source on file].

14.       "Tobacco Farmers Exploiting Child Labor." The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, June 15, 2013; National. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/06/15/tobacco-farmers-exploiting-child-labor.html.

15.       TEMPO.CO. Child Labor, Cops Raid Factory, [online] July 8, [cited http://en.tempo.co/read/news/2013/07/08/057494293/Child-Labor-Cops-Raid-Factory.

16.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Indonesia (ratification: 2000) Published: 2013; accessed June 2, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

17.       Food and Agriculture Organization and International Labor Organization. Guidance on addressing child labour in fisheries and aquaculture; 2013. http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3318e/i3318e.pdf.

18.       PKPA NIAS. CHILD LABOR IN JERMALS, [online] February 9, 2012 [cited January 9, 2015]; http://pkpanias.blogspot.com/2012/02/child-labor-in-jermals.html.

19.       Cochrane, J. "Small Scale Gold Mining Pollutes Indonesian Lands." The New York Times, New York, January 2, 2014; International. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/03/business/international/small-scale-gold-mining-pollutes-indonesian-lands.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.

20.       Richard Paddock, and Larry Price. Philippines and Indonesia: Children Mine for Gold at Great Risk to Their Health. Santa Barbara, Philippines, The Pulitzer Center; 2013. http://pulitzercenter.org/reporting/philippines-child-labor-gold-mines-indonesia.

21.       International Labour Organization. DRAFT Sectoral Survey of Child Labour in Informal Tin Mining in Indonesia 2014; 2015. [source on file].

22.       Simpson, C. "The Deadly Tin Inside Your Smartphone." Bloomberg Business, New York, August 23, 2012; Features. http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/articles/2012-08-23/the-deadly-tin-inside-your-ipad#p7.

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