Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Indonesia

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Indonesia

Moderate Advancement

In 2014, Indonesia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Ministry of Labor completed the third and final phase of the National Action Plan (NAP) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2002 — 2022) by adopting the Roadmap for the Acceleration of Making Indonesia Free of Child Labor by 2022. Local governments issued regulations to harmonize local legislation with national legislation to reinforce the legal and regulatory framework regarding the worst forms of child labor. In addition, the Government allocated significant increases in funding to the Unconditional Cash Transfer program, which works to increase livelihoods of the poorest families, and the Block Grants for Schools program, which compensates schools for the loss of income incurred when waiving fees, thereby ensuring free education for poor and vulnerable children. However, children in Indonesia continue to engage in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic service. The Government has yet to adopt the Domestic Worker's Protection Bill which would be a stronger source of protections for child domestic workers. In addition, enforcement of child labor laws remains a challenge due to a lack of labor inspectors and sufficient resources to carry out effective inspections, and the Government lacks comprehensive, publically available data on child labor and trafficking investigations, violations, and convictions.

 

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Children in Indonesia are involved in child labor, including in agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic service.(1-3) Data from the 2013 Indonesian Child Profile, published by the Ministry of Women's Empowerment and Child Protection, indicate that there are 3.6 million working children between ages 10 to 17.(3) The report indicates that child labor is predominantly found in rural areas with 12.5 percent of children ages 10 to 17 working, in comparison to 5.9 percent in urban areas.(3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Indonesia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 10 to 14 (% and population):

3.7 (816,363)

Working children by sector, ages 10 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

61.6

Industry

12.0

Services

26.5

School attendance, ages 10 to 14 (%):

92.4

Children combining work and school, ages 10 to 14 (%):

2.1

Primary completion rate (%):

104.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas), 2010.(5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of rubber, palm oil, and tobacco (3, 6-11)

Production of melinjo fruit* and tea* (12, 13)

Fishing, including fish processing (3, 7, 14-19)

Industry

Small-scale mining,† including gold and tin (3, 7, 11, 20-23)

Construction,*† activities unknown (24)

Production of bricks,* cigarettes,* footwear (including sandals), floor coverings,* marble,* stone,* textiles,* and tin* (3, 7, 12, 13, 16, 20)

Services

Street work,*† activities unknown (10, 13)

Driving buses* (16)

Garbage scavenging*† (16)

Horse jockeying (25-28)

Domestic service† (3, 10, 16, 19, 29)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Used in sale, production, and trafficking of drugs,* sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (15, 30)

Domestic service sometimes as a result of human trafficking (31, 32)

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (10, 15, 19, 31-37)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Indonesia is primarily a source country for child trafficking. Children, mostly girls, are trafficked internally and abroad, where they are subject to commercial sexual exploitation and domestic servitude.(3, 31, 32, 35, 38). Girls are also trafficked internally for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation at mining operations in Jambi, Maluku, and Papua provinces, the Batam District, North Sulawesi, Riau Island, and West Papua provinces. In addition, children are trafficked for sex tourism in Bali and Riau Island.(36)

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Indonesia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 69 of Law No. 13/2003, Manpower Act; Law No. 20/1999 on the Ratification of ILO C. 138 (39, 40)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 71 of Law No. 13/2003, Manpower Act (40)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Annex F of the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration Decree No. 235; Chapter 1 of the Appendix to Presidential Decree No. 59/2002 (41, 42)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 32 of Law No. 13/2003, Manpower Act; Articles 1 — 2 of Law No. 21/2007 on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons (40, 43)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 83 of Law No. 23/2002, Child Protection Act; Article 6 of Law No. 21/2007 on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons (40, 43)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 74 of Law No. 13/2003, Manpower Act; Articles 81 and 82 of Law No. 23/2002, Child Protection Act; Law No. 23/2002; Article 297 of the Penal Code; Law No.10/2012 on the Ratification of the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (7, 40, 44)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 74 of the Manpower Act, Law No. 13/2003; Articles 67, 78 and 89 of Law No. 23/2002, Child Protection Act (40, 45)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Law No. 34/2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces (46, 47)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Law No. 34/2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces (46, 47)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 48 of Law No. 23/2002, Child Protection Act; Articles 6 and 34 of Law No. 20/2003, National Education Law, (45, 48)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 34 of Law No. 20/2003, National Education Law (48)

Indonesia has ratified ILO Convention 138 and established the minimum age for employment at 15 years old.(39) The Government has since enacted Law No. 13/2003, Manpower Act, which permits children ages 13-15 to engage in light work and prohibits entrepreneurs from employing children under 18.(40)

In 2014, the Government enacted the Law on Regional Government No.23/2014 which shifts the authority for labor inspections from local governments to the Ministry of Labor (MoL).(3) Local governments often lack funding and capacity to carry out effective inspections. The Government passed Law No. 35/2014, which amended Law No.23/2002, the Child Protection Act, to impose stronger penalties for perpetrators of narcotics crimes involving children.(3, 49) The amendment also includes special provisions for restitution to children who are victims of trafficking crimes.(50)

During the reporting period, the former President of Indonesia issued Presidential Instruction No.5/2014 on a National Movement Against Sexual Crimes Against Children.(50) This Instruction directs all stakeholders, government, society, and business sectors to coordinate their efforts to prevent sexual exploitation of children. It also mandates that all relevant ministries prioritize child protection in policy development and implementation.(50)

Local governments also issued several provincial-, district-, and municipal-level regulations related to child protection. The East Java provincial government issued Provincial Regulation No. 2/2014on the Implementation of Child Protections, which strengthens existing provisions to combat child exploitation.(3)The Bali provincial government issued Provincial Regulation No. 6/2014 on Child Protection.At the local level, the District of Demak, Central Java, issued District Regulation No.3/2014 on the Implementation of Child Protection Measures.These regulations harmonize local legislation with national legislation to reinforce the legal and regulatory framework on the worst forms of child labor.(3)

A draft of the Domestic Workers Protection Bill continued to be deliberated upon by the legislature in 2014.(51, 52) The adoption of the Domestic Workers Protection Bill would include enforceable penalties for violations, thus ensuring stronger protections for child domestic workers than under the Ministry of Women's Empowerment and Child Protection's current guidelines on child domestic workers. The current guidelines do not include penalties enforceable by law, and are intended for implementation by all stakeholders of child domestic worker issues with enforcement by local governments which often lack the necessary resources.(53-55)

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The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MoL) Directorate General of Labor Development and Supervision

Monitor and enforce child labor laws.(3) Provide information to employers on child labor laws and regulations, report child labor violations, and work with law enforcement officials to prosecute any child labor violations.(7) Refer children found during inspections to the local Women's Empowerment and Family Planning Body and/or Integrated Service Center for Empowering Women and Children to access appropriate social services.(3)

MoL Directorate of Norms Supervision of Women and Child Workers

Receive child labor complaints via telephone, fax, or e-mail.(3)

Ministry of Women's Empowerment and Child Protection (MOWECP)

Operate a children's helpline to receive complaints of children in need of protection, including child workers. Created in 2006, 17 regions have established the service in their areas.(3)

National Police, including Women and Children's Service Unit

Conduct inspections and raids as well as make arrests in response to all crimes, including those related to forced child labor and trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and children participating in illicit activities.(11, 15)

Law enforcement agencies in Indonesia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Ministry of Labor (MoL) employed 2,400 labor inspectors to oversee an estimated 225,000 businesses and workplaces.(3) Of those amounts, 1,460 are general labor inspectors, 593 are civil servant investigators, and 363 are specialized inspectors tasked with enforcing the labor laws, including laws related to child labor, in specific industries such as medicine or engineering.(55) Government, ILO, and NGO officials have stated that there are not enough labor inspectors to address the child labor problem in Indonesia adequately, and that labor inspectors are not provided with sufficient resources to carry out labor inspections effectively.(3, 11, 56)

Due to insufficient personnel and resources, the MoL often encourages NGOs to take action directly with families and employers, as well as perform spot inspections on homes and workplaces to determine whether school-aged children are at school.In 2014, the MoL reached out to 1,500 NGOs from across Indonesia to partner with local MoL offices in more than 100 districts and municipalities.(3) From this program, the MoL reports that 15,000 children were removed from workplaces and were either returned to their homes, or, in cases in which families were unable or unwilling to support the child in transitioning back to school, placed in shelters run by the Ministry of Social Affairs for up to 3 months to prepare them for reintegration into schools.(3, 57)

The MoL reports that it provides 4 months of training — including instruction on issues related to the worst forms of child labor — to labor inspectors, and 2 months of training to civil servant investigators.The ILO also provides labor inspectors with a guidebook that addresses the worst forms of child labor.(3, 11) In 2014, the MoL allocated $29.9 million to the Directorate General of Labor Development and Supervision for enforcement of labor laws, including child labor, at the federal level. In addition, each province and district head allocates a portion of funds for labor inspections and investigations.(3, 55) With the recentralization of the labor inspection function, it is unclear whether local governments will continue to allocate budgetary resources for labor inspection.(3)

MoL inspectors have the authority to conduct unannounced inspections in all sectors; however, NGOs report that inspectors sometimes inform companies in advance of their inspection, either out of deference to powerful local economic interests or because of corruption.(57) In addition, although inspectors have inspection authority in the informal sector, in practice, fewer inspections are conducted, particularly in the area of domestic work. Inspectors often rely on NGOs and social workers to inform them of child labor violations in private homes or farms.(3)

Research did not find the number of child labor inspections conducted, the number of violations identified, or the number of children assisted as a result of inspections because the Government does not have a system in place to disaggregate data.(3, 11)

Criminal Law Enforcement

During the reporting period, 1,093 police investigators and 593 MoL civilian investigators were deployed nationwide to focus on criminal investigations pertaining to crimes against children and women.(3) Child labor cases are handled by members of special police units who focus exclusively on crimes against women and children. The Indonesian National Police provides training to members of these special units on the prevention and investigation of cases involving the worst forms of child labor.(3)

Despite the Government's attention to anti-trafficking, the National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons reports indicate that the police and prosecutors are often unfamiliar with anti-trafficking legislation and are unclear about their role, especially in remote regions.(57, 58)

No data are available regarding the complete number of investigations or prosecutions, violations, or convictions involving the worst forms of child labor because the Government does not have a system in place to disaggregate data.(3, 57)

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The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Action Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinate and monitor policy and program efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor at the national level. Worked to promote children's rights, supervised the recruitment of workers, and assisted regional governments to budget for regional action committees.(7, 11) Chaired by the MoL, with members from 13 ministries, law enforcement institutions, trade unions, NGOs, and employers' associations.(7, 11, 59) Dissolved in 2014 pursuant to the adoption of the Roadmap for the Acceleration of Making Indonesia Free of Child Labor by 2022, with functions reverted to the MoL as the authoritative body to enforce laws regarding child labor.(3, 57)

Provincial-level and District-level Child Labor Committees

Coordinate and monitor policy and program efforts, and develop action plans to eliminate the worst forms of child labor at the local level.(60)

Ministry of Women's Empowerment and Child Protection (MOWECP)

Coordinate the development and implementation of policies related to child protection.(61)

National Commission on Child Protection

Disseminate information related to child protection, including child labor legislation; receive complaints, including those that pertain to child labor; monitor and evaluate the implementation of child protection efforts; and provide feedback on child protection to the President of Indonesia.(61)

National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate the country's anti-trafficking efforts, including child trafficking.(3) Chaired by the Ministry for People's Welfare with direction from the MOWECP. Coordinates the Task Force across 19 ministries and 5 state agencies.(50) Includes six working groups that develop action plans and budgets for programs to address trafficking in persons.(62)

Subtask Force on the Prevention of Child Participation in Trafficking in Persons

Organize regular coordination meetings, provide technical training, and produce publications on the prevention of trafficking in persons. Chaired by the Ministry of National Education and Culture's Director for Early Childhood, Nonformal, and Informal Education with members from six ministries, the police, JARAK (network of NGOs working for the elimination of child labor), the Indonesian Journalists Alliance, and the National Commission on Child Protection.(3)

Provincial and District Task Forces for the Prevention and Handling of Human Trafficking

Coordinate prevention and anti-trafficking efforts at the local level.(36) In 2014, increased to 31 of 34 provinces and 166 of 497 districts/towns.(50)

In December 2014, the Government dissolved the National Action Committee (NAC) for the Elimination of the Worst forms of Child Labor pursuant to the adoption of the Roadmap for the Acceleration of Making Indonesia Free of Child Labor by 2022, and reverted the functions of the NAC to the MoL.(57)The responsibilities of the NAC were established under the Manpower Act, Law No. 13/2003, so the legal mandate remains in place and must be assumed by the MoL.(3)At the time of this report, it is unclear whether the Minister's authority to coordinate former members of the NAC will continue as before.To date, the National Action Committee had established 33 provincial action committees and 162 district and city-level action committees, and it is not yet clear what impact the national-level changes will have on these local committees.(3)

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The Government of Indonesia has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan (NAP) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2002–2022)

Provides the Government's policy framework for the elimination of child labor in three operational phases.(11, 51, 63, 64) In 2014, adopted the Roadmap for the Acceleration of Making Indonesia Free of Child Labor by 2022, the third and final phase of the action plan.(3) Includes the December 2014 inauguration of a child labor-free industrial zone in Makassar, Sulawesi, as the first step in implementing the Roadmap.(3)

National Plan of Action on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons and Sexual Exploitation of Children (2009–2014)

Provides coordination of policies and promotes the prevention of trafficking in persons, including the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Developed by the Ministry of Women's Empowerment and Child Protection.(51, 65)

National Midterm Development Plan (2010–2014)

Incorporates various child labor prevention and reduction strategies into these development agendas.(66)

UN Partnership for Development Framework (2011–2015)

Tracks the Government's ability to implement the NAP effectively by measuring the number of district action committees and action plans formed, of provincial child labor monitoring systems developed, and of district child labor committees with representation from youth and/or women.(67)

Prior to the decision to dissolve the NAC, the NAC adopted the Roadmap for the Acceleration of Making Indonesia Free of Child Labor by 2022.(3) The Roadmap is the third phase of the Government's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2002 — 2022) and focuses on mainstreaming the elimination of child labor into broader national policies. The immediate impact of the dissolution of the NAC has yet to be determined; however the new Minister of Labor has made a public commitment to fulfill the Roadmap.(3)

In 2014, the Government included the Roadmap in its 2014 — 2016 midterm development plan as part of a comprehensive policy to address child labor.The plan commits to reviewing regulations on child workers, expediting the elimination and prevention of the worst forms of child labor, and mainstreaming child labor issues into all relevant sectors of the Government.(3) While a division of labor has not yet been established, the midterm development plan includes a concrete timeline (2014 — 2016), and the Roadmap's target for completion is 2022.(3)

The National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons notes that some Provincial and District Task Forces to Combat Trafficking in Persons lack plans of action on the elimination of trafficking of women and children.(58)

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In 2014, the Government of Indonesia funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Reducing Child Labor to Support the Family Hope Program (Pengurangan Pekerja Anak- Program Keluarga Harapan)‡

MoL program that removes child laborers ages 7 to 15 from their workplaces and temporarily places them for 4 months in shelters where they receive counseling, remedial education for reentry into school, and financial assistance of $21 each month.(3, 11, 68) In 2014, the program worked across all provinces and almost 400 districts. The program reached its target of 15,000 child laborers removed from work during the year, and the MoL reports that 90 percent of those children returned to school.(3, 51) Funding for the program rose from $5 million to $8.3 million during the reporting period.(3)

Family Hope Program (Program Keluarga Harapan)‡

Ministry of Social Affairs (MOSA)-managed conditional cash transfer program, which provides services for child laborers who have dropped out of school. Targets the poorest 5 percent of the population and provides cash assistance to families that meet the education criteria, including school enrollment and attendance.(11, 69-71) In 2014, assisted 3,000,000 households.(55) Research shows that conditional cash transfer programs have slightly reduced child labor in Indonesia.(72)

Child Social Welfare Program (Program Kesejahteraan Sosial Anak)‡

MOSA-administered conditional cash transfer program, which provides conditional cash transfers to street children, abandoned children and infants, children facing criminal charges, and children with disabilities Also provides grants to implementing partners for the reintegration of trafficked children.(3, 11, 15)

Family Welfare Card (Kartu Keluarga Sejahtera)†‡

Ministry of People's Welfare initiative to integrate all cash-transfer assistance programs under one government program. Provides a bank account to each household in the assistance programs, including the fund for children's education and health.(3)

West Java Street Children Program‡

West Java provincial government program to assist street children.(63)

Bandung Municipality Street Children Program‡

Municipality of Bandung program to assist street children.(63)

Promote: Decent Work for Domestic Workers to End Child Domestic Labor

USDOL-funded 4-year, $5 million program implemented by ILO-IPEC. Expands legal protections for child domestic workers; builds capacity of domestic worker organizations to address child domestic work; and promotes national and regional knowledge, awareness, and research of domestic service.(29)

Eliminate Exploitive Child Labor Through Education and Economic Development (EXCEED)

USDOL-funded 4 year, $5.5 million program implemented by Save the Children that provided educational services to children at risk of, or engaging in, exploitative labor in domestic service, commercial agriculture, street work, and commercial sexual exploitation by providing educational services.(10) Withdrew 6,130 children and prevented 5,293 children from exploitative labor and supported one city to develop a district action plan to become a ‘child friendly' city.(10)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor, improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research, and strengthen legal protections and social service delivery for child domestic workers in Indonesia. In 2014, completed a sectoral survey on child labor in tin mining.(73)

Social Protection Cards (Kartu Perlingdungan Sosial)

Government program that provides a social protection card in order for beneficiaries to access social protection programs, such as the unconditional cash transfer program, rice for the poor program, and education scholarships program.(69) For the 2013 — 2014 program, 15.5 million households received social protection cards.(55)

Unconditional Cash Transfer Program (Bantuan Langsung Semetara Masyarakat)*‡

Government unconditional cash transfer program to increase livelihoods of the poorest families.(69) In 2014, received an approved budget of $744 million up from $96 million the previous year.(55)

Rice for the Poor (Raskin)*‡

Government subsidized food program that provides rice for the poorest 25 percent of households.(69)

Social Security Organizing Body for Health (BPJS Kesehatan), plus Regional Health Security (Jamkesda)*

Government national health program that incorporates several existing health programs and provides health services to more than 100 million Indonesians. Incorporates an existing health program which pays the health fees of 86 million poor Indonesians. Additionally, assists millions more poor Indonesians through their local governments.(54, 69, 74, 75)

Education Scholarship (Bantuan Siswa Miskin)‡

Government primary, junior secondary, and senior secondary scholarship program that targets the poorest 25 percent of the population.(59, 66, 69, 70) Research has shown that educational cash transfers and related assistance programs significantly decrease the time children spend on income-generating activities in Indonesia. Households receiving educational transfers, scholarships, and assistance were also found to spend more on educational goods.(76)

Block Grants for Schools (Bantuan Operasional Sekolah)*‡

Government block grant program that compensates schools for the loss of income incurred when waiving fees, thereby ensuring free education for poor and vulnerable children in primary, junior secondary, and senior secondary schools. (11, 77) Began implementation of grants to senior secondary and senior vocation schools during the reporting period in order to accelerate progress towards the government's goal of a 97% high school attendance rate in 2020.(3) In 2014, assistance provided to senior high schools increased from $83.3 million to $803 million.(3)

Minimum Service Standards of Basic Education Program (2011–2014)*

Aims to improve access to and quality of public education by limiting the distance that elementary and junior secondary schools can be located from children's households, specifying minimum allowable teacher-student ratios, and identifying minimum teacher education qualifications.(55)

UNICEF Country Program (2011–2015)*

Program that supports the Government of Indonesia in realizing the rights of children, paying particular attention to vulnerable children. Contributes to priorities identified in the National Plan of Action for Children and Women and the Government's National Midterm Development Plan (2010 — 2014). (78)

Combating Child Labor through Skills Training for Older Children (2014–2015)

Government of the Netherlands-funded, 1-year, $ 2.6 million global project to combat child labor by enhancing access to decent work for children who have reached the minimum age of employment.(79)

Child Trafficking Services

MOSA and other government program that provides services for child victims of trafficking.(58)

* The impact of these programs on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
† Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Indonesia.

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Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Indonesia (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure a stronger source of protections, including penalties enforceable by law, for child domestic workers by adopting the Domestic Workers Protection Bill.

2009 — 2011, 2014

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor to provide adequate coverage of the workforce and provide sufficient funds for labor inspections.

2010–2014

Strengthen enforcement capacity to conduct unannounced inspections and to address children's work in the informal sector, particularly in relation to child domestic work.

2014

Train police officers and prosecutors to be familiar with anti-trafficking legislation and clarify their role in combating human trafficking.

2013–2014

Track and report the number of child labor and trafficking inspections, violations, penalties, and convictions, as well as the number of children removed and assisted, and analyze the effectiveness of enforcement.

2009–2014

Government Policies

Create provincial and district plans of action on the elimination of trafficking of women and children.

2013–2014

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the types of activities carried out by children working in construction and street work to inform policies and programs.

2014

Assess the impact that existing social protection and education programs may have on reducing child labor.

2013–2014

 

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1.Understanding Children's Work. Understanding Children's Work and Youth Employment Outcomes in Indonesia. Summary Report Rome; June 2012.

2.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Indonesia (ratification: 1999) Published: 2013; accessed June 2, 2015;

3.U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. reporting, January 16, 2015.

4.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report

5.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas), 2010. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

6.Odi Shalahudin and Fatah Muria Fathudin. Children in Palm Oil Plantation: Executive Summary. London, Save the Children; October 1 - November 30, 2010. [source on file].

7.U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. reporting, February 1, 2013.

8."Tobacco Farmers Exploiting Child Labor." The Jakarta Post,, Jakarta, June 15, 2013; National.

9.Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance. Child Labour in Tobacco Cultivation in the ASEAN Region; June 2013.

10.Save the Children. Eliminate Exploitative Child Labor Through Education and Economic Development (EXCEED). Technical Progress Report. Jakarta; March 2014. [source on file].

11.U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. reporting, January 16, 2014.

12.U.S. Department of State. "Indonesia " in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2010. Washington, DC; April 8, 2011;

13.U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. reporting, February 2, 2011.

14.. Child Labor, Cops Raid Factory, [online] July 8, [cited]

15.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Indonesia (ratification: 2000) Published: 2013; accessed June 2, 2015;

16.International Labour Organization. Reportage Journal Investigative Report: Child Labour Around Us. Jakarta; December 1, 2012.

17.Food and Agriculture Organization and International Labor Organization. Guidance on addressing child labour in fisheries and aquaculture; 2013.

18.PKPA NIAS. Child labor in jermals, [online] February 9, 2012 [cited

19.UCW. The Twin Challenges of Child Labour and Educational Marginalisation in the South-East and East Asia Region: An Overview. Rome; May 1, 2014.

20.U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. reporting, January 31, 2012.

21.Cochrane, J. "Small Scale Gold Mining Pollutes Indonesian Lands." The New York Times, New York, January 2, 2014; International.

22.Richard Paddock and Larry Price. Philippines and Indonesia: Children Mine for Gold at Great Risk to Their Health. Santa Barbara, Philippines; 2013.

23.International Labour Organization. DRAFT Sectoral Survey of Child Labour in Informal Tin Mining in Indonesia 2014; 2015. [source on file].

24.ACTED News. Indonesia: Partnerships in combating child labor, [online] June 6, [cited

25.Deutsche Welle. Indonesia's Child Jockeys Labor Away, [online] September 23, [cited

26.Agence France-Presse. Child jockeys, big stakes on Indonesia's horse-racing island, [online] November 1, [cited

27.Reuters. Indonesia's child jockeys brave danger for cash and glory, [online] November 24, [cited

28.The Independent. Indonesia's five-year-old child jockeys stare down death to stave off poverty, [online] August 10, [cited

29.ILO-IPEC. PROMOTE: Decent Work for Domestic Worker to End Child Domestic Work. Project Proposal Jakarta; 2013. [source on file].

30.Integrated Regional Information Networks. Indonesia: Missing Children Raise Trafficking Concerns, [online] April 9, [cited

31.U.S. Department of State. "Indonesia," in Trafficking in Person's Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014;

32.UNICEF. Children in Indonesia: Child Trafficking. Jakarta; July 2010.

33.ILO. Rapid Assessment on the Incident of Boys' Prostitution in Indonesia: Executive Summary. Geneva; 2011. [source on file].

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