Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Indonesia

Fish
Fish
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Forced Labor Icon
Footwear (Sandals)
Footwear (Sandals)
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Gold
Gold
Child Labor Icon
Oil (Palm)
Oil (Palm)
Child Labor Icon
Rubber
Rubber
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Tin
Tin
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Tobacco
Tobacco
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Indonesia
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Indonesia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government substantially increased its labor inspectorate funding from $2.1 million in 2017 to $10.2 million with specific funds allocated to enforcing child labor regulations. It also conducted 19,792 labor inspections and continued working with the International Organization for Migration to establish a comprehensive integrated Trafficking in Persons database. However, children in Indonesia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as the result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in plantation agriculture, including in palm oil and tobacco production. The Ministry of Manpower continued to lack the financial resources and personnel necessary to adequately enforce child labor laws throughout the country. In addition, the Domestic Workers Protection Bill, which has been under consideration since 2010, continued to languish in parliament.

Children in Indonesia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as the result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in plantation agriculture, including in palm oil and tobacco production. (1-10) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Indonesia. Although the government collects national data on working children ages 5 through 14, it does not publish the data.


Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

10 to 14

3.7 (816,363)

Working children by sector

10 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

61.6

Industry

 

12.0

Services

 

26.5

Attending School (%)

10 to 14

92.4

Combining Work and School (%)

10 to 14

2.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

99.2

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (11)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization’s analysis of statistics from National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas), 2010. (12)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.


Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production and harvesting of palm oil, including growing, fertilizing,† cutting, spraying, collecting, and loading palm oil fruits (4,5,13,14)

Planting, watering, harvesting, and applying fertilizer† to tobacco (2,3)

Production of rubber,† including tapping trees and using acid† to thicken latex (2,6,13,15)

Fishing, including on fishing vessels, in processing facilities, and on offshore platforms† (2,16-18)

Industry

Mining,† including gold, tin, and sand (2,15,18-19)

Construction,† activities unknown (2,18)

Production of footwear, including sandals (2,15)

Production of bricks, tile, furniture, and textiles (20)

Manufacturing pyrotechnics†(2,21,22)

Services

Street work, activities unknown (13,23)

Driving buses (24)

Garbage scavenging† (7,25)

Horse jockeying (26,27)

Domestic work (2,13,28)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including forced begging and the sale, production, and trafficking of drugs, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2,29-31)

Domestic work and fishing, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2,15,17,32)

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2,13,29,32,33)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children, mostly girls, are subjected to forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation abroad, primarily in Malaysia, Taiwan, and the Middle East; within the country, children are also subjected to forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation, particularly in Batam, Jakarta, Bali, Bandung, Bogor, Surabaya, and Medan. Research found that between 35,000 to 200,000 children in Indonesia work in the commercial sex trade. (2,8,13,34,35)

Children working in tobacco farming—especially in the provinces of East Java, Central Java, and West Nusa Tenggara—are exposed to pesticides, work long hours, and work in extreme heat. (2,3,9,36,37) Children working on agricultural plantations, including palm oil, coffee, and rubber plantations, collect fallen palm fruitlets and plants, and spray toxic herbicides. (2,4,10,38,39) Children are often recruited by family members to help adult palm oil laborers meet harvest quotas, which sometimes results in children working long hours into the night or dropping out school. (40,41)

Although the National Education Law mandates free education, research indicates that schools impose additional fees on students to cover school activities and educational items. These added expenses may hinder students' ability to attend school. (2) Refugee children, as well as Indonesian children without proper birth documentation, face a barrier to accessing education because the government requires children to possess a government-sponsored student identification number to sit for exams and obtain a school completion certificate. In 2018, the government launched an online application system to process birth certificates, instead of applying in person, thereby helping Indonesian children obtain birth documentation more quickly so they can attend school. (14,42) Also in 2018, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Education and Culture built schools near the Indonesia-Malaysia border of Sarawak, and Sabah, Malaysia, to increase education access for children of palm oil migrant laborers. (43)

Indonesia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).


Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Indonesia’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including from being trafficked.


Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 69 of the Manpower Act; Law on the Ratification of ILO C. 138 (44,45)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 74 of the Manpower Act; Article 2 of Ministerial Decree No. 235 (45,46)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Annex F of Ministerial Decree No. 235: Jobs that Jeopardize the Health, Safety, or Morals of Children (46)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 74 of the Manpower Act; Articles 1–6 and 17 of the Law on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons; Article 83 of the Law on Child Protection (45,47,48)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

Article 83 of the Law on Child Protection; Articles 1–6 and 17 of the Law on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons (47,48)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 74 of the Manpower Act; Articles 81–82 of the Law on Child Protection; Article 297 of the Penal Code; Section 3 of the Law on the Ratification of the Rights of the Child Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography; Articles 4–12 and 37 of Law on Anti-Pornography (20,45,48-51)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 74 of the Manpower Act; Articles 67, 78, and 89 of the Law on Child Protection (45,48)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

 

Article 28 of Law No. 34/2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces (52)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes

 

Article 28 of Law No. 34/2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces (52)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Article 3(d) of Law No. 9/2012 on Ratifying the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict (53)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 48 of the Law on Child Protection; Articles 6 and 34 of the Act on the National Education System (48,54)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 34 of the Act on the National Education System (54)

The government has yet to pass the draft Domestic Workers Protection Bill. This bill outlines the circumstances under which children ages 15 through 17 can perform non-hazardous domestic work, including requiring the parent’s permission to execute the employment contract and prohibiting work at night. (20,55-59) Indonesia's prohibitions against child trafficking are insufficient because the Law on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons requires threats, the use of force, or coercion to be established for the crime of child trafficking. (32,47,48)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.


Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Manpower (MOM) Directorate General of Labor Development and Supervision and Directorate of Norms Supervision of Women and Child Workers

Provides information to employers on child labor laws and regulations, and works with law enforcement officials to prosecute child labor violators. (60) Refers children found during inspections to the local Women’s Empowerment and Family Planning Body or to the Integrated Service Center for Empowering Women and Children for appropriate social services. In the case of the Directorate of Norms Supervision of Women and Child Workers, receives complaints of child labor by telephone, fax, or email. (14)

National Police, including Women and Children’s Service Unit

Conducts inspections and raids; makes arrests in response to crimes, including those related to the worst forms of child labor. (29,61)

Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection (MoWECP)

Coordinates the provision of social services to children, including those involved in child labor. In cooperation with the Ministry of Communications, operates a children’s helpline in 20 provinces to receive complaints regarding child protection. (14)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Indonesia took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MOM that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including an insufficient number of labor inspectors.


Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$2,100,000 (2)

$10,200,000 (14)

Number of Labor Inspectors

1,987 (2)

1,619 (14)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (2)

Yes (14)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (2)

Yes (14)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (2)

N/A (14)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (2)

No (14)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

22,000 (2)

19,792‡ (14)

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

22,000 (2)

19,792‡ (14)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (2)

0 (14)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (2)

0 (14)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

0 (2)

0 (14)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (2)

Yes (14)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (2)

Yes (14)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (2)

Yes (14)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (2)

No (14)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (2)

Yes (14)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (14)

‡ Data covers period between January and September 2018.

Despite increasing its labor inspectorate funding in 2018, the government noted that there are still insufficient funds to cover office infrastructure, transportation, and gasoline for vehicles, which hampered labor inspectors' ability to carry out inspections. (14) Inspectors have the authority to conduct unannounced inspections in the formal sector; however, they are prohibited from inspecting private farms and homes in which the majority of child labor occurs. (3,14) Despite this prohibition, the Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection responds to reports of child labor in the informal sector. (62) In 2018, the MOM conducted 10,528 routine labor inspections. Even though there was a large number of labor inspections in 2018, the MOM and the ILO believe that there are additional unreported child labor violations because of the government's lack of authority to inspect the informal sector. (14) These unreported child labor violations included 91 child labor cases, 80 commercial child sexual exploitation cases, and 92 child prostitution cases, all occurring in the informal sectors. (14,39)

Ministry of Manpower officials disclosed that there are an insufficient number of inspectors to cover the entire country, and the MOM continued to employ and rely on community-based monitors and neighborhood chiefs to report incidences of children engaged in domestic work. (14) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Indonesia’s workforce, which includes approximately 126 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in less developed economies, Indonesia would employ about 8,407 labor inspectors. (14,63,64) The MOM trained 118 new labor inspectors and investigators on child labor, hazardous child labor, and worst forms of child labor law enforcement. (14)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Indonesia took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including insufficient training for criminal investigators.


Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (2)

Yes (14)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (2)

Yes (14)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (2)

Yes (14)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (2)

Unknown (14)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (2)

Unknown (14)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (2)

Unknown (14)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (2)

Unknown (14)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (39)

N/A (39)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (14)

In 2018, the Indonesian National Police investigated 28 child trafficking cases. The National Commission of Indonesian Child Protection reported 329 cases of child sexual exploitation, including 65 cases of human trafficking, 80 cases of commercial sexual exploitation, and 93 cases of child prostitution. (14) Also in 2018, USDOJ provided training on the dangers of online child sexual exploitation, and interview and effective communication skills to more than 500 Indonesian National Police personnel, NGOs, and civic organizations. (43) However, government data on criminal law enforcement efforts related to child labor, including the number of investigations, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions, are not available—the government has a system to aggregate this information, but it has encountered challenges in classifying child labor cases, including developing case tags to accurately represent and aggregate comprehensive child labor data. (14,39)

Although criminal law enforcement personnel received training on human trafficking laws that covered children, research found the current child labor-specific regulations to be insufficient. (2)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including funding for child labor committees.


Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Provincial-Level and District-Level Regional Action Committees

Coordinate and monitor policy and program efforts and develop action plans to eliminate the worst forms of child labor at the local level. (65) Indonesia has provincial-level task forces in all 34 provinces and 192 district-level committees. (66) In 2018, these action committees were active and continued developing, coordinating, and monitoring action plans at the local level. (14)

National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinates anti-trafficking efforts across 21 ministries and government agencies, including efforts to combat child trafficking. (67) Chaired by the Coordinating Ministry of Human Development and Cultural Affairs, with task force meetings organized by MoWECP. (66) Provides vocational training and scholarships to school-aged children to reduce susceptibility to human trafficking. (68) In 2018, MoWECP established Community Watch groups (a collaborative effort with local governments, NGOs, community figures, and village stakeholders) in 314 villages in 31 municipalities and 14 provinces to combat human trafficking at the local level. (39)

Provincial and District Task Forces for the Prevention and Handling of Human Trafficking

Coordinate prevention and anti-trafficking efforts at the local level. (68) Commonly chaired by the local Integrated Service Center for Women and Children or the local Office of Social Affairs. Operates in 32 provinces and 191 out of 438 districts. (32,34) In 2018, these Task Forces created sub-task forces, led by the Ministry of Social Affairs (MoSA), to coordinate local meetings. (39)

Sub-Task Force on the Prevention of Child Participation in Trafficking in Persons

Organizes regular coordination meetings, provides technical trainings on human trafficking for government officials, and produces publications on the prevention of trafficking in persons. (14) Chaired by the Ministry of Education and Culture Director for Early Childhood, Non-formal, and Informal Education. (67) In 2018, 80 participants, including education agency officials and monitoring officials for junior and senior high schools and vocational schools, attended a workshop on preventing trafficking in persons. (39)

Indonesian Child Protection Commission (KPAI)

Monitors the implementation of the Child Protection Law and child protection policies and provides recommendations on the child protection framework to the President of Indonesia. (48,69) In 2018, KPAI monitored a total of 329 commercial child exploitation cases, of which 91 were child labor, 80 were commercial sexual exploitation, and 93 were child prostitution. (43)

The National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons notes that some Provincial and District Task Forces lack sufficient funding and fail to incorporate its recommendations into their plans of action to adequately guide efforts to eliminate the trafficking of women and children. (20,35) These recommendations include empowering community activists to organize public awareness campaigns and conduct technical trainings to educate communities in provinces that are vulnerable to human trafficking, integrating and aligning human trafficking programs with other government programs to improve government efforts to combat human trafficking and avoid duplication, supporting cross-sectoral offices to establish the Internet for Children Program, and supporting the Ministry of Social Affairs' (MoSA) and the Ministry of Health’s agreement on rehabilitation programs for human trafficking victims. (70)

The government has established policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).


Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan (NAP) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2002–2022)

Provides a policy framework for the elimination of child labor. Specific activities include improving data collection on the worst forms of child labor, increasing awareness-raising and advocacy efforts, and formulating regulations and policies to prohibit the worst forms of child labor. (61,71-73) In 2018, the government distributed NAP materials to businesses, NGOs, and villages in five regions in Indonesia. (14)

National Action Plan on Preventing Trafficking in Persons (2015–2019)

Guides the work of the National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Aims to improve health and social rehabilitation services, as well as repatriation and social reintegration services, for human trafficking victims; update anti-human trafficking regulations; and strengthen the investigation of human trafficking cases and the prosecution of perpetrators. (74) Enhances coordination among task force members and between national and international stakeholders. (74) In 2018, agencies working on trafficking in persons issues identified and submitted their existing trafficking in persons databases to the International Organization for Migration, which is working with the government to establish a comprehensive integrated database. (43)

Roadmap Toward a Child Labor-Free Indonesia in 2022 (2014–2022)

Supports implementation of the NAP for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Aims to mainstream the elimination of the worst forms of child labor into relevant national policies; strengthen coordination between stakeholders at the national, provincial, and district levels; and enhance the capacity of stakeholders to eradicate child labor. (67,75) In 2018, the government assisted 68 companies to implement child labor elimination programs, including reducing child labor through corporate social responsibility funding and campaigning local governments to allocate funding to reduce child labor. (14) The roadmap creates Child Labor-Free Industrial Zones. (39)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including education-related fees for children in school.


Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects aim to build government capacity to address child labor by improving occupational safety and health for young workers, strengthening legal protections and social services delivery for child domestic workers, and improving child labor and forced labor data collection and research methodology. Includes PROMOTE: Decent Work for Domestic Workers to End Child Domestic Labor (2012–2018), a $5 million project implemented by ILO-IPEC; and Building a Generation of Safe and Healthy Workers: Safe and Healthy Youth (2014–2019), an $11.5 million project implemented by ILO with Indonesia as one of the countries. (40,76) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Child Trafficking Services†

MoSA and other government agency programs that provides social rehabilitation and shelter services for child victims of trafficking. (77,78) In 2018, MoSA conducted an assessment on participants’ eligibility for Program Kesejahteraan Sosial Anak (social cash transfers for disadvantaged children, including victims of violence or exploitation such as trafficking) as well as on rehab and shelter services for them. (39)

Cash Transfer Programs†

Provides conditional cash transfers to help with formal and informal education opportunities and health expenses for vulnerable groups, including street children, abandoned children and infants, children facing criminal charges, children with disabilities, the poorest families, and child laborers who dropped out of school. Includes Smart Indonesia Program (KIP), a card that provides educational grants to all school-aged children whose families have a Family Welfare card or meet eligibility criteria covering both formal and informal education; Child Social Welfare Program (Program Kesejahteraan Sosial Anak), which provides conditional cash transfers to children; and Family Welfare Card (Kartu Keluarga Sejahtera), which provides a bank account and consolidates all financial assistance programs, including children's education and health funds, for low-income families. (14) In 2018, the government provided KIP cards to 19.4 million students, the government allocated $497,000 to 7,000 abandoned children under age 18 through the Child Social Welfare Program, and a total of 10 million families received payments of $132 through the Family Welfare Card program. (14,39)

Education Programs

Block Grants for Schools (Bantuan Operasional Sekolah)† grant program compensates schools for the loss of income from waiving school fees for poor and vulnerable children in primary, junior secondary, and senior high schools. (14,41) Minimum Service Standards of Basic Education Program improves access to quality public education by limiting the distance of primary and junior secondary schools from children’s households, specifying minimum teacher-student ratios, and identifying minimum teacher education qualifications. (79,80) Community Learning Centers (CLCs)† provide education for children of palm oil workers. (34,81) Reducing Child Labor to Support the Family Hope Program (PPA-PKH)† provides special education services to prepare children who dropped out of school to work so they can return to school. Aims to reduce child labor among households targeted by PKH. (14) In 2018, there were 51 new CLCs added in Sabah (Kota Kinabalu, Tawau) and Kuching (Serawak). (34,81) Also in 2018, PPA-PKH helped more than 7,000 families in 56 districts/cities and 10 provinces. (14) The government also allocated approximately $3.26 billion for Block Grants for Schools program distributed evenly among primary, junior secondary, and senior high schools for poor and vulnerable children across Indonesia. Lastly, an evaluation was conducted to determine whether the Minimum Service Standards for Basic Education Program was achieving its objectives. (39)

† Program is funded by the Government of Indonesia.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (2)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Indonesia (Table 11).


Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that threats, the use of force, or coercion does not need to be established for the crime of child trafficking.

2018

Enforcement

Permit labor inspectors to inspect private farms and homes for child labor violations.

2018

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2010 – 2018

Institutionalize refresher training for labor inspectors on laws related to child labor, including its worst forms.

2017 – 2018

Publish criminal enforcement information, including the number of investigations conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions for crimes relating to child labor, including its worst forms.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that all criminal law enforcement personnel receive training on child labor regulations.

2017 – 2018

Ensure that labor inspectorate funding covers infrastructure, transportation, and fuel requirements to enable labor inspectors to carry out inspections.

2018

Coordination

Sufficiently fund Provincial and District Task Forces and require them to incorporate the recommendations of the National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons into their plans of action on the elimination of trafficking of women and children.

2016 – 2018

Social Programs

Publish data on child laborers ages 5 through 14.

2016 – 2018

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers to education, including removing school-related fees and ensuring that all children are able to obtain a government-issued student identification number so they can attend school.

2016 – 2018

Conduct research to determine the types of activities carried out by children, including in the plantation agriculture (palm oil), construction, and street work sectors, to inform social policies and programs.

2014 – 2018

  1. Teo, Angie, and Kanupriya Kapoor. Indonesia launches fresh crackdown on child exploitation. Reuters, April 7, 2016.
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-crime-children/indonesia-launches-fresh-crackdown-on-child-exploitation-idUSKCN0X40LH.

  2. U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. Reporting. January 16, 2018.

  3. Human Rights Watch. "The Harvest is in My Blood": Hazardous Child Labor in Tobacco Farming in Indonesia. May 24, 2016.
    https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/05/24/harvest-my-blood/hazardous-child-labor-tobacco-farming-indonesia.

  4. Amnesty International. The Great Palm Oil Scandal. 2016.
    https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/ASA2152432016ENGLISH.PDF.

  5. Butler, Rhett. Child labor and palm oil in Indonesia. mongabay.com, December 23, 2014.
    http://news.mongabay.com/2014/12/child-labor-and-palm-oil-in-indonesia/.

  6. ILO. Child labour in plantation.
    http://www.ilo.org/jakarta/areasofwork/WCMS_126206/lang--en/index.htm.

  7. Winn, Patrick. The world is ignoring one of cheap oil’s biggest victims. Public Radio International, December 12, 2016.
    https://www.pri.org/stories/2016-12-12/world-ignoring-one-cheap-oil-s-biggest-victims.

  8. ECPAT Indonesia. Global Study on Sexual Exploitation of Children in Travel and Tourism. June 2016.
    http://www.ecpat.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/3.-SECTT-INDONESIA.pdf.

  9. Lamb, Kate. 'I've been sick in the chest': Tobacco fields take toll on Indonesian children. The Guardian. June 26, 2018.
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jun/26/tobacco-indonesia-child-labour-harvest.

  10. UNICEF. Palm Oil and Children in Indonesia: Exploring the Sector's Impact on Children's Rights. 2016.
    https://www.unicef.org/indonesia/Palm_Oil_and_Children_in_Indonesia.pdf.

  11. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  12. ILO Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  13. Save the Children. Eliminate Exploitative Child Labor Through Education and Economic Development (EXCEED). Technical Progress Report, March 2014. Source on file.

  14. U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. Reporting. February 6, 2019.

  15. U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. Reporting. November 1, 2017.

  16. McDowell, Robin, et al. AP Investigation: Slaves may have caught the fish you bought. March 25, 2015.
    https://www.ap.org/explore/seafood-from-slaves/ap-investigation-slaves-may-have-caught-the-fish-you-bought.html.

  17. IOM. Report on Human Trafficking, Forced Labour and Fisheries Crime in the Indonesian Fishing Industry. 2016.
    https://www.iom.int/sites/default/files/country/docs/indonesia/Human-Trafficking-Forced-Labour-and-Fisheries-Crime-in-the-Indonesian-Fishing-Industry-IOM.pdf.

  18. UN Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families. Concluding observations on the initial report of Indonesia, CMW/C/IDN/CO/1. October 19, 2017.
    http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CMW/C/IDN/CO/1&Lang=en.

  19. Deutsche Welle. Indonesia: The Curse of treasure island. 2014.
    http://www.dw.com/en/indonesia-the-curse-of-treasure-island/av-18084014.

  20. U.S. Embassy- Jakarta official. Email communication to USDOL official. March 9, 2016.

  21. Putri, Restidia, and Richard C. Paddock. Out of Sixth Grade, and Straight to the Factory She Died In. October 30, 2017.
    https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/30/world/asia/indonesia-fireworks-fire-underage.html.

  22. Hawley, Samantha. Tanzil was paid just $6 a day to work in a fireworks factory which became an inferno. Australian Broadcasting Corporation, November 18, 2017.
    http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-11-18/jakarta-factory-fire-shines-light-on-unsafe-workers-conditions/9157262.

  23. The Jakarta Post. Children struggle to survive on Jakarta's streets. April 2, 2016.
    http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/04/02/children-struggle-survive-jakarta-s-streets.html.

  24. McCarthy, Joe. Child Labor Is Most Rampant in These 5 Regions, New Report Shows. Global Citizen, November 16, 2017.
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