Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Indonesia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Indonesia

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Indonesia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government ratified the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, which enhances human trafficking protections for children. In addition, the Ministry of Manpower removed 18,401 children from street work and garbage scavenging in 7 provinces and 46 regencies. The Indonesian National Police arrested five administrators of an online child pornography group and cooperated with Interpol and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation to apprehend more of the group’s members. However, children in Indonesia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as the result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in the production of palm oil and tobacco. The Ministry of Manpower lacks the financial resources and personnel necessary to adequately enforce child labor laws throughout the country. The government also failed to enact the Domestic Workers Protection Bill, on which it has been deliberating since 2010; this bill would impose criminal penalties on employers who do not meet minimum labor standards and outline the circumstances under which children ages 15 through 17 could perform non-hazardous domestic work.

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Children in Indonesia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as the result of human trafficking. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) Children also perform dangerous tasks in the production of palm oil and tobacco. (6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 3; 11) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Indonesia. While the government collects national data on working children ages 5 through 14, it does not publish the data.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

10 to 14

3.7 (816,363)

Working Children by Sector

10 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

61.6

Industry

 

12.0

Services

 

26.5

Attending School (%)

10 to 14

92.4

Combining Work and School (%)

10 to 14

2.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

98.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (12)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas), 2010. (13)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production and harvest used in plantation industries, including palm oil, which includes growing, fertilizing, cutting, spraying, collecting, and loading palm oil fruits (7; 10; 8; 1; 14)

Planting, watering, harvesting, and applying fertilizer to tobacco (6; 9; 15; 3)

Production of rubber†, including tapping trees and using acid† to thicken latex (8; 3; 16; 17)

Fishing, including on fishing vessels, in processing facilities, and on offshore platforms† (18; 19; 3; 20; 21)

Industry

Mining,† including gold and tin (22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 3; 16; 21)

Construction,† activities unknown (3; 21)

Production of footwear, including sandals (16; 3)

Production of bricks, tile, furniture, and textiles (27)

Manufacturing pyrotechnics† (28; 3; 29; 30)

Services

Street work, activities unknown (8; 31)

Driving buses (32)

Garbage scavenging† (33; 34; 35)

Horse jockeying (36; 37; 38)

Domestic work (8; 39; 40; 3)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including forced begging and the sale, production, and trafficking of drugs, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (41; 42; 43; 44; 3)

Domestic work and fishing, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2; 3; 16; 20)

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (8; 41; 3; 45; 2)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children, mostly girls, are subjected to forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation abroad, primarily in Malaysia, Taiwan, and the Middle East; within the country, children are also subjected to forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation, particularly in Batam, Jakarta, Bali, Bandung, Bogor, Surabaya, and Medan. Research suggests between 70,000 to 80,000 children in Indonesia work in the commercial sex trade. (8; 46; 3; 2; 47)

Children work in tobacco farming, especially in the provinces of East Java, Central Java, and West Nusa Tenggara, which exposes them to pesticides, long hours of work, and extreme heat. (6; 3; 48; 11; 49) Children also work on palm oil plantations tending the nursery, collecting fallen palm fruitlets, and spraying toxic herbicides to help adult laborers meet their quotas and earn premium pay. (50; 51; 52; 3; 7)

Although the National Education Law mandates free education, Embassy research indicates that schools impose additional fees on students to cover school activities. The added expense may hinder student’s ability to attend school. (3)

Indonesia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Indonesia’s legal framework to adequately protect child domestic workers.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 69 of the Manpower Act; Law on the Ratification of ILO C. 138 (53; 54)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 74 of the Manpower Act; Article 2 of Ministerial Decree No. 235 (55; 54)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Annex F of Ministerial Decree No. 235: Jobs that Jeopardize the Health, Safety, or Morals of Children (55)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 74 of the Manpower Act; Articles 1–6 and 17 of the Law on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons; Article 83 of the Law on Child Protection (54; 56; 57)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 83 of the Law on Child Protection; Articles 1–6 and 17 of the Law on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons (56; 57)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 74 of the Manpower Act; Articles 81–82 of the Law on Child Protection; Article 297 of the Penal Code; Section 3 of the Law on the Ratification of the Rights of the Child Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography; Articles 4–12 and 37 of Law on Anti-Pornography (27; 54; 57; 58; 59; 60; 61)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 74 of the Manpower Act; Articles 67, 78, and 89 of the Law on Child Protection (54; 57)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 28 of Law No. 34/2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces (62)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 28 of Law No. 34/2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces (62)

Non-state

Yes

18

Article 3(d) of Law No. 9/2012 on Ratifying the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict (63)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 48 of the Law on Child Protection; Articles 6 and 34 of the Act on the National Education System (57; 64)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 34 of the Act on the National Education System (64)

 

In October 2017, the government ratified the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. This complements national legislation and enhances human trafficking protections by criminalizing human trafficking‐related offenses, and empowering law enforcement agencies in Indonesia to seize and foreclose assets of human trafficking suspects and to collaborate with law enforcement agencies in other ASEAN countries. (47)

The government has yet to pass the draft Domestic Workers Protection Bill, which outlines the circumstances under which children ages 15 through 17 can perform non-hazardous domestic work, including requiring the parent’s permission to execute the employment contract and prohibiting work at night; (65; 66; 67; 68; 69; 70) While the government issued Ministerial Regulation No.2/2015, which raised the minimum age of domestic workers to 18, criminal penalties are not imposed because the regulation is not law. The regulation allows designated neighborhood chiefs to supervise the working conditions of domestic workers in private residences. (71; 69; 72)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Manpower (MOM) Directorate General of Labor Development and Supervision and Directorate of Norms Supervision of Women and Child Workers

Provide information to employers on child labor laws and regulations, and work with law enforcement officials to prosecute child labor violators. (59; 73) Refer children found during inspections to the local Women’s Empowerment and Family Planning Body or to the Integrated Service Center for Empowering Women and Children for appropriate social services. (3) In the case of the Directorate of Norms Supervision of Women and Child Workers, receive complaints of child labor by telephone, fax, or email. (3)

National Police, Including Women and Children’s Service Unit

Conduct inspections and raids and make arrests in response to crimes, including those related to the worst forms of child labor. (74; 41)

Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection

Coordinate the provision of social services to children, including those involved in child labor. In cooperation with Ministry of Communications, operate a children’s helpline in 20 provinces to receive complaints on child protection. (3)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Indonesia took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operation of the MOM that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including an insufficient number of labor inspectors.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1,700,000 (75)

$2,100,000 (3)

Number of Labor Inspectors

1,893 (75)

1,987 (3)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (75)

Yes (3)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (75)

Yes (3)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (75)

N/A (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (75)

Yes (3)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

20,000 (75)

22,000 (3)

Number Conducted at Worksites

20,000 (75)

22,000 (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

N/A (75)

0 (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

0 (75)

0 (3)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

0 (75)

0 (3)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (75)

Yes (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (75)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (75)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (75)

Yes (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (75)

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (75)

Yes (3)

 

In 2017, MOM inspectors rescued 18,401 children from street work or garbage scavenging in 7provinces and 46 regencies, and worked with the Ministry of Education and Culture, Ministry of Religious Affairs, and the Ministry of Social Affairs to encourage the parents of these children to enroll them in school. (3; 71) Inspectors have the authority to conduct unannounced inspections in the formal sector; however, they are prohibited from inspecting private farms and homes where the vast majority of child labor occurs. (6; 76; 3) Despite this prohibition, the Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection will respond to reports of child labor in the informal sector. (77)

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Indonesia’s workforce, which includes approximately 126 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in less developed economies, Indonesia would employ about 8,407 labor inspectors. (78; 79; 80; 3; 81) Research suggests that the number of inspections conducted by each inspector was insufficient during the reporting period because of an insufficient number of inspectors, coordination challenges, transfer of the labor inspection system from the national government to the provincial government, and lack of sufficient resources—such as office facilities and fuel for transportation—to carry out inspections. (3)

The MOM employed an additional 94 inspectors during the reporting period; however only 30 new inspectors received training on laws related to the worst forms of child labor. The MOM provided refresher training for 900 existing labor inspectors. (14) Due to an insufficient number of inspectors, the MOM continued to employ community-based monitors and neighborhood chiefs to report incidences of domestic child labor. (3)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Indonesia took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (3)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (75)

N/A (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (3)

Number of Investigations

120 (75)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (75)

Yes (3)

 

In 2017, the Indonesian Commission on Child Protection recorded 514 cases involving children in pornography and cybercrime. The Indonesian National Police arrested five administrators of an online child pornography group and cooperated with Interpol and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation to apprehend more of the group’s members. (3; 82; 45; 77) In addition, the National Anti-Trafficking Taskforce investigated 91 cases of child trafficking, and the Indonesian National Police conducted training on human trafficking of both adults and children for 200 law enforcement personnel, including police investigators, prosecutors, and judges. (3; 77) While criminal law enforcement personnel received training on human trafficking laws that covered children, research suggests that training on current child labor-specific regulations was inadequate. (3)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including funding for child labor committees.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Provincial-Level and District-Level Regional Action Committees

Coordinate and monitor policy and program efforts and develop action plans to eliminate the worst forms of child labor at the local level. (83) Indonesia has provincial-level task forces in all 34 provinces and 192 district-level committees. (84)

National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate anti-trafficking efforts across 21 ministries and government agencies, including efforts to combat child trafficking. (85) Chaired by the Coordinating Ministry of Human Development and Culture, with task force meetings organized by the Ministry of Women Empowerment and Child Protection. (84) Provide vocational training and scholarships to school-aged children to reduce susceptibility to trafficking. (86)

Provincial and District Task Forces for the Prevention and Handling of Human Trafficking

Coordinate prevention and anti-trafficking efforts at the local level. (86) Commonly chaired by the local Integrated Service Center for Women and Children or the local Office of Social Affairs. Operates in all 34 provinces and 191 out of 438 districts. (47)

Sub-Task Force on the Prevention of Child Participation in Trafficking in Persons

Organize regular coordination meetings, provide technical trainings on human trafficking for government officials, and produce publications on the prevention of trafficking in persons. (69) Chaired by the Ministry of Education and Culture Director for Early Childhood, Nonformal, and Informal Education. (85)

Indonesian Child Protection Commission

Monitor the implementation of the Child Protection Law and child protection policies and provides recommendations on the framework of child protection to the President of Indonesia. (87; 57)

 

The National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons notes that some Provincial and District Task Forces lack sufficient funding and fail to incorporate its recommendations into their plans of action to adequately guide efforts to eliminate the trafficking of women and children. (86; 27) These recommendations include empowering community activists to organize public awareness campaigns and conduct technical trainings to educate communities in provinces that are vulnerable to human trafficking; integrating and aligning human trafficking programs with other government programs to improve government efforts to combat human trafficking and avoid duplication; supporting cross-sectoral offices to establish the Internet for Children Program; and supporting the Ministry of Social Affairs and Ministry of Health’s agreement on rehabilitation programs for human trafficking victims. (69)

The government has established policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan (NAP) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2002–2022)

Provides a policy framework for the elimination of child labor. (74; 88; 89; 90) Specific activities include improving data collection on the worst forms of child labor, increasing awareness-raising and advocacy efforts, and formulating regulations and policies to prohibit the worst forms of child labor. (91) In 2017, the MOM and other government agencies worked with provincial and district governments to provide assistance to local governments in implementing regulations and legislation that align with the Roadmap Toward a Child Labor-Free Indonesia. (3)

National Action Plan on Preventing Trafficking in Persons (2015–2019)

Guides the work of the National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Aims to improve health and social rehabilitation services and repatriation and social reintegration services for human trafficking victims, update anti-human trafficking regulations, and strengthen the investigation of human trafficking cases and the prosecution of perpetrators. Enhances coordination among task force members and between national and international stakeholders. (92)

Roadmap Toward a Child Labor-Free Indonesia in 2022 (2014–2022)

Supports implementation of the National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Aims to mainstream the elimination of the worst forms of child labor into relevant national policies; strengthen coordination between stakeholders at the national, provincial, and district levels; and enhance the capacity of stakeholders to eradicate child labor. (85; 93) Key feature is the establishment of Child-Labor-Free Industrial Zones, which has removed 98,564 child laborers from work between 2008 and 2017. (3) In 2017, removed 18,401 children engaged in child labor. (69)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including education-related fees for children in school.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects aim to build the capacity of the government, develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor, improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research, strengthen legal protections and social services delivery for child domestic workers, and build capacity of domestic worker organizations to address child domestic work. PROMOTE: Decent Work for Domestic Workers to End Child Domestic Labor (2012–2017), $5 million project implemented by ILO-IPEC; Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues, implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries; and Building a Generation of Safe and Healthy Workers: Safe and Healthy Youth, implemented by the ILO with Indonesia as one of the countries. (94; 95; 96) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Child Trafficking Services†

MOSA and other government agency program that provides social rehabilitation and shelter services for child victims of trafficking. (97; 98)

West Java and Bandung Municipality Street Children Program†

West Java provincial government and municipality of Bandung programs to assist street children. (88)

Cash Transfer Programs†

Government programs that aim to provide conditional cash transfers to help with education and health expenses to vulnerable groups, including street children, abandoned children and infants, children facing criminal charges, children with disabilities, the poorest families, and child laborers who dropped out of school . Smart Indonesia Program; Unconditional Cash Transfer Program (Bantuan Langsung Semetara Masyarakat); Child Social Welfare Program (Program Kesejahteraan Sosial Anak); Family Welfare Card (Kartu Keluarga Sejahtera); Family Hope Program (Program Keluarga Harapan); and Social Protection Cards (Kartu Perlingdungan). (75; 85; 99; 100; 3)

Block Grants for Schools (Bantuan Operasional Sekolah)†

Government block grant program that compensates schools for the loss of income from waiving school fees for poor and vulnerable children in primary, junior secondary, and senior high schools. (101; 3)

Minimum Service Standards of Basic Education Program

Aims to improve access to quality public education by limiting the distance of primary and junior secondary schools from children’s households, by specifying minimum teacher-student ratios, and identifying minimum teacher education qualifications. (102)

Community Learning Centers†

Government program that aims to provide education for the children of palm oil workers. (47) In 2017, established 5 additional centers along the Indonesian and Malaysian border in Sabah and Sarawak, for a total of 255 centers. (47; 69)

† Program is funded by the Government of Indonesia.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (3; 99)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Indonesia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Pass the Domestic Workers Protection Bill that would protect child domestic workers ages 15 through 17.

2016 – 2017

Enforcement

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice to provide adequate coverage of the workforce and provide sufficient funds for labor inspections.

2010 – 2017

Institutionalize training for labor inspectors on laws and enforcement of laws related to child labor and/or hazardous child labor.

2017

Publish criminal enforcement information, including the number of investigations conducted, the number of violations found, the number of prosecutions initiated, and the number of convictions for crimes relating to the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that all criminal law enforcement personnel receive training on child labor regulations.

2017

Coordination

Sufficiently fund provincial and district task forces and require them to incorporate the recommendations of the National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons into their plans of action on the elimination of trafficking of women and children.

2016 – 2017

Social Programs

Publish data on child laborers ages 5 through 14.

2016 – 2017

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers to education, including by removing school-related fees.

2016 – 2017

Conduct research to determine the types of activities carried out by children working in construction and street work to inform policies and programs.

2014 – 2017

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2. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Person Report- 2017: Indonesia. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271206.htm.

3. U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. Reporting, January 16, 2018.

4. Allard, Tom. Indonesian school a launchpad for child fighters in Syria's Islamic State. Reuters. September 6, 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-militants-school-insight/indonesian-school-a-launchpad-for-child-fighters-in-syrias-islamic-state-idUSKCN1BI0A7.

5. Adyatama, Egi. Number of Indonesian Children Joining ISIS Rising: Minister. TEMPO.CO. March 25, 2017. https://en.tempo.co/read/news/2017/03/25/055859505/Number-of-Indonesian-Children-Joining-ISIS-Rising-Minister.

6. Human Rights Watch. "The Harvest is in My Blood": Hazardous Child Labor in Tobacco Farming in Indonesia. May 24, 2016. https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/05/24/harvest-my-blood/hazardous-child-labor-tobacco-farming-indonesia.

7. Amnesty International. The Great Palm Oil Scandal. 2016. https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/ASA2152432016ENGLISH.PDF.

8. Save the Children. Eliminate Exploitative Child Labor Through Education and Economic Development (EXCEED). Technical Progress Report. March 2014. [Source on file].

9. Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance. Child Labour in Tobacco Cultivation in the ASEAN Region. June 2013. http://seatca.org/dmdocuments/ChildLabor%20Final%202013.pdf.

10. Butler, Rhett. Child labor and palm oil in Indonesia. mongabay.com. December 23, 2014. http://news.mongabay.com/2014/12/child-labor-and-palm-oil-in-indonesia/.

11. Human Rights Watch. "Indonesia" in World Report 2018 Book. January 16, 2018. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2018/country-chapters/indonesia.

12. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

13. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

14. U.S. Department of State official. E-mail to USDOL official. June 1, 2018.

15. The Jakarta Post. Tobacco Farmers Exploiting Child Labor. June 15, 2013. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/06/15/tobacco-farmers-exploiting-child-labor.html.

16. U.S. Embassy- Jakarta. Reporting, November 1, 2017.

17. ILO. Child labour in plantation. http://www.ilo.org/jakarta/areasofwork/WCMS_126206/lang--en/index.htm.

18. TEMPO.CO. Child Labor, Cops Raid Factory. July 8, 2013. http://en.tempo.co/read/news/2013/07/08/057494293/Child-Labor-Cops-Raid-Factory.

19. McDowell, Robin, et al. AP Investigation: Slaves may have caught the fish you bought. March 25, 2015. https://www.ap.org/explore/seafood-from-slaves/ap-investigation-slaves-may-have-caught-the-fish-you-bought.html.

20. IOM. Report on Human Trafficking, Forced Labour and Fisheries Crime in the Indonesian Fishing Industry. 2016. https://www.iom.int/sites/default/files/country/docs/indonesia/Human-Trafficking-Forced-Labour-and-Fisheries-Crime-in-the-Indonesian-Fishing-Industry-IOM.pdf.

21. UN Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families. Concluding observations on the initial report of Indonesia, CMW/C/IDN/CO/1. October 19, 2017. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CMW%2fC%2fIDN%2fCO%2f1&Lang=en.

22. Cochrane, Joe. Small-Scale Gold Mining Pollutes Indonesian Lands. The New York Times. January 2, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/03/business/international/small-scale-gold-mining-pollutes-indonesian-lands.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.

23. Paddock, Richard, and Larry Price. Philippines and Indonesia: Children Mine for Gold at Great Risk to Their Health. The Pulitzer Center. Santa Barbara, Philippines. 2013. http://pulitzercenter.org/reporting/philippines-child-labor-gold-mines-indonesia.

24. Deutsche Welle. Indonesia: The Curse of treasure island. 2014. http://www.dw.com/en/indonesia-the-curse-of-treasure-island/av-18084014.

25. Price, Larry. Indonesia: Unearthing Toxic Conditions for Impoverished Gold Miners. PBS NewsHour. PBS. Television broadcast. February 17, 2015. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/unearthing-toxic-conditions-impoverished-gold-miners/.

26. ILO-IPEC. Sectoral survey of child labour in informal tin mining in Kepulauan Bangka Belitung Province, Indonesia 2014. 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_27535/lang--en/index.htm.

27. U.S. Embassy- Jakarta official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 9, 2016.

28. Putri, Restidia, and Richard C. Paddock. Out of Sixth Grade, and Straight to the Factory She Died In. October 30, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/30/world/asia/indonesia-fireworks-fire-underage.html.

29. Hawley, Samantha. Tanzil was paid just $6 a day to work in a fireworks factory which became an inferno. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. November 18, 2017. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-11-18/jakarta-factory-fire-shines-light-on-unsafe-workers-conditions/9157262.

30. Vaessen, Step. Indonesia makes arrests over deadly factory fire. Al Jazeera. October 30, 2017. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/10/indonesia-arrests-deadly-factory-fire-171030184125514.html.

31. The Jakarta Post. Children struggle to survive on Jakarta's streets. April 2, 2016. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/04/02/children-struggle-survive-jakarta-s-streets.html.

32. McCarthy, Joe. Child Labor Is Most Rampant in These 5 Regions, New Report Shows. Global Citizen. November 16, 2017. https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/child-labor-is-most-rampant-in-these-5-regions-new/.

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