Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Haiti

Haiti
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2018, Haiti made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. During the year, the government established, trained, and deployed a specialized unit of border police known as the POLIFRONT to combat transnational crime, including human trafficking. It also secured 17 convictions for crimes related to the worst forms of child labor. However, children in Haiti perform dangerous tasks in agriculture and domestic work. Children are also placed in orphanages where some are subsequently used for domestic work. Haiti lacks a clear, easily applicable minimum age for domestic work and a list of hazardous occupations prohibited to children. Limited resources for the enforcement of child labor laws may impede government efforts to protect children from the worst forms of child labor. In addition, social programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

Children in Haiti perform dangerous tasks in agriculture and domestic work. (1-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Haiti. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.


Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

34.4 (815,993)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

92.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

34.9

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

Unavailable

Primary Completion Rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (8) 

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization’s analysis of statistics from Enquête Mortalité, Morbidité et Utilisation des Services, 2012. (9) 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.


Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting sugarcane, collecting cut sugarcane, grinding sugarcane, and clearing land for sugarcane production (1) 

 

Raising livestock (7) 

 

Capturing and processing fish (1,6,10) 

Industry

Construction, including transport of construction materials such as sand and rocks (1,4,6,10) 

 

Producing metal crafts (11) 

Services

Domestic work (2,3,12-14)  

 

Transporting and selling alcohol† and tobacco (6) 

 

Street work, including vending, begging, shining shoes, washing cars, and carrying water, firewood, goods, and luggage in public markets and bus stations (4-7,10)   

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in domestic work, agriculture, street vending, and begging, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3-6,14-16)  

 

Use in illicit activities, including by criminal groups in drug trafficking (17)  

 

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4,5,10,18-20)  

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

A 2015 study found that there were approximately 286,000 child domestic workers in Haiti, 207,000 of whom were lagging behind in school or had significantly lower school enrollment rates. (5,10,13,14,21) Some parents who are unable to care for their children send them to residential care centers or to relatives or strangers who are expected to provide the children with food, shelter, and schooling in exchange for household work. In practice, some of these children receive care and access to education, while many others become victims of labor exploitation and abuse. (2-4,12,14,22)

In addition, Haiti has over 750 orphanages that house over 25,000 children who may be vulnerable to trafficking and child labor in lieu of attending school. (21) According to a Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor's Institute of Social Welfare and Research (IBESR) study, the majority of Haiti's orphanages fail to comply with government standards for care. The government has stated that after a grace period, which ends in July 2019, it will begin closing remaining non-compliant orphanages. In 2018, the Government of Haiti closed eight orphanages where there was evidence of child labor for domestic work and prevention of children from attending school. (21,23-25) The government is instead focusing on promoting child fostering to prevent child labor in institutions. (23-25)

Children are trafficked both internally and externally, primarily to the Dominican Republic, other Caribbean countries, South America, and the United States. NGOs have reported that children illegally crossing the Haiti-Dominican Republic border are often accompanied by adults paid to act as the children’s parents or guardians until they reach the Dominican Republic. (5,6,10,26) Some of these children are reunited with relatives in the Dominican Republic, while others engage in commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, agriculture, street vending, and begging. (5,6,10,27) 

During 2018, the Government of the Dominican Republic continued involuntarily repatriating individuals with irregular migration status to Haiti, pursuant to Dominican law. (14,28-31) Some of these individuals, including children, are Dominican-born persons of Haitian descent. (32) Some of these children were residing in Haiti in camps near the border with the Dominican Republic, where schools and other basic services are not available. In addition, these children may not speak French or Haitian Creole, the languages of instruction in public Haitian schools. (4,14,16,33,34) These children, including those who have been deported to Haiti or who left voluntarily, are vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. (5,34) 

The Constitution of Haiti provides free and compulsory primary education. (35-37) In addition, while many children in Haiti are not registered at birth, unregistered children are able to access social assistance services and educational programs provided by the government. However, public schools often charge fees for books, uniforms, and school materials. Because private schools represent approximately 90 percent of existing schools, most Haitian children are enrolled in private schools that charge tuition and other fees, which make education prohibitive to many families. (4,6,7,14,38,39)

Other children, especially in rural areas, do not attend school due to the lack of school infrastructure and limited availability of teachers. Out-of-school children are more vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. (4,7,16) In addition, the Ministry of Education recommends that a child be between 11 and 13 years of age when transitioning to secondary school. Past this age threshold, overage children must integrate into a special group that attends school during the evening shift. (40-42) However, research did not find evidence that schools provide instruction during evening shifts for special groups. (41,43)

Haiti has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).


Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Haiti’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including with the minimum age for work and the compulsory education age.


Table 4.Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 10 of the Law Organizing and Regulating Labor (44) 

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 334 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of the Act on the Prohibition and Elimination of All Forms of Abuse, Violence, Ill Treatment, or Inhumane Treatment Against Children (Act of 2003) (45,46)  

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

No

 

Articles 333–336 of the Labor Code (46) 

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of the Act of 2003; Article 1.1.11 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law (45-47) 

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Act of 2003; Article 1.1.1 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law (46,47)  

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Act of 2003; Articles 279–281 of the Penal Code; Article 1.1.17 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law (46-48) 

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 72 of the Law on the Control and Suppression of Illicit Drug Trafficking; Article 2 of the Act of 2003 (46,49)  

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

No

   

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes

 

Article 268 of the Constitution (36)  

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Article 70 of the Penal Code; Article 2 of the Act of 2003  (46,48) 

Compulsory Education Age

No

15

Article 23 of the Decree on the Reorganization of the Haitian Education System (36) 

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 32.1 and 33 of the Constitution (35) 

The Labor Code applies only to workers who perform work under a formal employment agreement, which does not conform to international standards that require all children to be protected under the law establishing a minimum age for work. (7,46,50) In addition, as the minimum age for work is 16, children age 15 are vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to attend school but also are not legally permitted to work. (36,44)

In addition, it is unclear whether there is a minimum age for domestic work because the Act on the Prohibition and Elimination of All Forms of Abuse, Violence, Ill Treatment, or Inhumane Treatment Against Children of 2003 (Act of 2003) annulled Chapter 9 of the Labor Code, which set a minimum age for domestic work at 12. (7,46,47,50)

The Labor Code prohibits children ages 16 to 18 from working at night in industrial jobs and in establishments that serve alcohol. (45) However, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover agriculture, an area of work in which children are exposed to hazardous substances and agents, and to temperatures that can damage their health. In addition, in 2014 the Government of Haiti drafted a hazardous work list for children under age 18, but the draft hazardous work list remains unapproved by Parliament for the fourth consecutive year; in addition, the current draft does not include all tasks in which children perform dangerous work, such as harvesting, collecting, and grinding sugarcane. (6,17,41,51-55) However, Haiti's National Tripartite Committee stated that it wants to update the draft hazardous work list and submit it to Parliament for approval in 2019. (41) 

In November 2017, the government re-established Haiti's armed forces to assist with natural disaster relief, border security, and development projects. (56) Although Haiti's Constitution establishes the age for compulsory military recruitment at age 18, and sources suggest recruitment materials set the minimum age for voluntary recruitment at age 18, research could not find evidence of a law that establishes the age for voluntary military recruitment. (36,57,58) 

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor (MAST) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.


Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor (MAST)

Enforces laws related to child labor by receiving complaints, conducting investigations, and referring cases to juvenile courts. (45,59) MAST’s Institute of Social Welfare and Research (IBESR) agents perform child protection inspections and are responsible for accrediting residential care centers. Develops and implements programs to raise awareness of child labor and provide social services to child victims of labor exploitation. (3,10,59,60)  

Brigade for the Protection of Minors (BPM)

Investigates crimes of the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. Submits investigations to judicial authorities for criminal prosecutions and refers child victims to IBESR. (3,60) Housed under the Haitian National Police. (10) 

POLIFRONT

Enforces Haiti's Customs Code and investigates transnational crimes, including child trafficking. Cooperates with the Dominican Republic Border Police. (61-63) Housed under the Haitian National Police. Created in 2014 and deployed in 2018. (61-64)  

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Haiti took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of MAST that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including with penalty assessment authorization.


Table 6.Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (6) 

Unknown (17)  

Number of Labor Inspectors

148 (6)  

Unknown (17)  

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (6) 

No (17)  

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Unknown (6) 

Unknown (17)  

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (6) 

No (65)  

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (6) 

Yes (17)  

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown (6) 

Unknown (17)  

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (6) 

Unknown (17)  

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (6)  

Unknown (17)  

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (6) 

Unknown (17)  

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (6) 

Unknown (17)  

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (6,66)  

Yes (17)  

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (6) 

No (17)  

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (6)  

Yes (41)  

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (6) 

Unknown (17)  

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (6) 

Yes (17)  

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (6) 

Yes (17)  

In 2018, MAST allocated $709,000 to the IBESR which employed 104 agents throughout Haiti, a decrease from 150 agents employed in 2017. These agents included 48 child protection agents and approximately 20 social workers to handle child protection cases, including those involving child labor. (10,17,41) Each IBESR regional bureau includes a child protection section that employs five to seven agents. During the reporting period, IBESR conducted child protection inspections in commercial and industrial establishments. (6,17) Reports indicate that the lack of sufficient resources, such as means of transportation, fuel, and appropriately equipped workplaces, hampered MAST’s enforcement efforts, including IBESR’s capacity to enforce child labor laws. (6,17,67,68) In addition, penalties of $58 (5,000 HTG) for violating child labor laws are insufficient to deter violations. (45)

IBESR also manages the “133” hotline that receives complaints about situations requiring child protection. (5,10,69) However, the hotline functions exclusively in Port-au-Prince, leaving rural areas without a mechanism to receive child labor complaints. (16) The number of calls related to child labor received during 2018 is unknown.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Haiti took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including with financial and human resources.


Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

No (10) 

No (17)  

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (6) 

Yes (17)  

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (10) 

Yes (17)  

Number of Investigations

991 (6) 

834 (17)  

Number of Violations Found

178 (10) 

345 (17)  

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (6) 

17 (17)  

Number of Convictions

Unknown (6) 

17 (17)  

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (6)  

Yes (17)  

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (6) 

Yes (17)  

  
In 2018, the Brigade for the Protection of Minors (BPM) maintained a staff of 80 agents in 24 offices around the country, including in 4 offices along the Haiti-Dominican Republic border. (10,17) Given the large number of reported cases of the worst forms of child labor in the country, the number of criminal law enforcement agents is inadequate. (70) BPM investigated 834 cases of child trafficking, forced child labor, use of children in illicit activities, and commercial sexual exploitation of children, and reported that it found 345 cases of violations of laws related to the worst forms of child labor. In addition, the BPM reported that it secured 17 convictions for crimes related to the worst forms of child labor. (17) In August 2018, 2 individuals were charged with attempting to traffic 25 children between the ages of 3 and 6 to an unlicensed orphanage with the intent of soliciting donations from visiting foreigners. (71) Despite these efforts, reports indicate that the BPM’s lack of trained staff, equipment, transportation, and funding hampered their ability to enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor. (5,6,10,51)

In 2018, the Haitian National Police deployed the first specialized unit of the POLIFRONT to the border city of Ouanaminthe, Haiti’s busiest border crossing, to combat human trafficking and the illicit drug trade. This unit is made up of more than 100 officers who received training on border management, including combating trafficking in persons, and will work with Dominican border agents.(17,61,62,70) During the year, POLIFRONT arrested at least 81 alleged traffickers and trained the second class of POLIFRONT recruits. POLIFRONT also referred 173 unaccompanied minors to IBESR. (21,61,64,72) During the reporting period, the government worked with an NGO to train judges and magistrates throughout Haiti on the 2014 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law and its implementation. (21)

During the reporting period, the government of Haiti conducted seven additional prosecutions for trafficking- n persons and obtained six convictions for two separate trafficking-in-persons cases. (21) One case involved five Haitian pastors who were convicted in absentia under the 2014 Anti-Trafficking Law. The pastors were found guilty of attempting to traffic 5 children between the ages of 4 and 14 to the Dominican Republic. (21)

An informal referral mechanism between BPM, IBESR, and NGOs is in place to provide reintegration services to victims of the worst forms of child labor. (5,10) BPM also manages the “188” hotline that receives notifications of alleged violations related to the worst forms of child labor. (73) However, like the IBESR hotline, the “188” hotline functions exclusively in Port-au-Prince, which makes reporting cases involving the worst forms of child labor more difficult in rural areas. The hotline receives an average of 50 calls per week, and of those calls, BPM usually identities 3 or 4 cases that require follow up. (10,21,74) 

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including with coordination in accomplishing mandates.


Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Tripartite Commission for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Develops policies, approves programs, and coordinates, monitors, and evaluates efforts to combat child labor in Haiti. Chaired by MAST, includes representatives from IBESR, BPM, and local and international organizations. (75) 

National Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTP)

Coordinates actions against human trafficking, and provides protection and rehabilitation services to victims. Chaired by IBESR, includes representatives from MAST, BPM, and other ministries. In 2018, the Government of Haiti earmarked a budget of $490,000 for the CNLTP which is a four-fold increase from 2016–2017, the last time the CNLTP was funded. (21,48,76)   

Child Protection Working Group

Implements, coordinates, and monitors efforts on child protection, including protection for child domestic workers. Chaired by IBESR, comprises non-governmental stakeholders and officials from various ministries. (77,78)  

There was no evidence that the National Tripartite Commission for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor conducted meetings or took action to combat child labor during the reporting period. (6,41)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including adopting a new national child labor action plan.


Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Child Protection Policy (2016–2020)

Aims to protect children from abuse, violence, and labor exploitation, and promotes improved access to education and livelihood services for vulnerable children, with a focus on domestic workers. Led by IBESR and supported by international donors. (79,80)  

National Strategic Development Plan (PSDH) (2014–2019)

Highlights the need to prohibit child labor to ensure sustained and equitable economic growth. Overseen by the Ministry of Planning and External Cooperation and the Ministry of Economy and Finance. (81,82) 

National Action Strategy for Education for All (2011–2018)

Aims to increase access to quality primary education, particularly for vulnerable populations, by subsidizing school fees for both public and private schools. The strategy is overseen by the Ministry of Education and supported by international donors. (83,84) In December 2018, the World Bank published a report of the policy advancements and found that Haiti had satisfactorily completed all benchmarks. (42)  

During the reporting period, the government did not approve the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor, drafted in 2014. (17,55) In addition, reports indicate that efforts to implement the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons have been slowed by high-level staff turnover at MAST and insufficient allocation of resources. (10,70,71,85) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Child Protection Policy and the National Strategic Development Plan during the reporting period. (41)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including with regard to the adequacy of efforts to address the problem in all sectors.


Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Protecting the Working Conditions of People/Proteje Kondisyon Travay Moun (PWOKONTRAM) (2013–2019)

$9.99 million USDOL-funded project implemented by Catholic Relief Services to provide services to households and children engaged in or at risk of engaging in child labor or other exploitative working conditions in agriculture. (39,86) The project reached roughly 7,343 children with educational services and 4,946 households to improve their livelihoods. In addition, the project supports the capacity of the Haitian Civil Registrar system to legally document more than 3,100 individuals. (87,88) In 2018, provided educational services to 1,547 children. (87,88) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

National Free Education Program (PSUGO)†

Government program to increase poor children’s access to education. Includes school grants intended to eliminate school fees and accelerated learning programs for students who are lagging in school. (74) In 2018, worked with the World Bank to pilot a sustainable data collection strategy to track student progress for primary non-public schools. (71)  

UNICEF Country Program (2017–2021)

$24 million UNICEF-funded program supporting the government’s efforts to improve education, health, social inclusion, and protection for children in Haiti. In 2018, provided 22,000 children with school supplies. (92-97)    

Government Child Shelter, Census, and National Child Protection Database†

Government program to support child protection. Through IBESR, implements the government’s regulatory framework for residential care centers (e.g., orphanages and shelters), collects information on vulnerable children, and tracks them through the National Child Protection Database. (97) Has identified almost 30,000 children residing in 770 shelters nationwide. (10) In 2018, the IBESR announced that it intends to close 398 orphanages that fail to meet the basic standards of care for children or which have been found to subject children to the worst forms of child labor if they do not take measures to become compliant with basic standards by July 2019. IBESR is promoting child fostering as an alternative to institutional care. (23-25)  

Providing an Education of Quality in Haiti (2016–2022)

$30 million World Bank-implemented program that aims to strengthen public management of the education sector, improve learning conditions, and increase enrollment of students in selected public and non-public primary schools. (98,99) In 2018, provided community education grants to 8,546 primary school students. (100)  

† Program is funded by the Government of Haiti.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (91,101,102)

Despite IBESR’s efforts to collect information for the National Child Protection Database, it does not fully capture all relevant information, including the number of displaced street children and children engaged in domestic work. Although Haiti has programs that target the worst forms of child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, particularly in domestic work, agriculture, and child trafficking. (10,103)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Haiti (Table 11).


Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that minimum age protections apply to children in informal employment arrangements.

2014 – 2018

 

Establish by law a compulsory education age equal to the minimum age for work.

2017 – 2018

 

Clarify the minimum age for work, including for domestic work.

2009 – 2018

 

Adopt a list of hazardous occupations and activities, and ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive and include work in hazardous agricultural environments.

2009 – 2018

 

Ensure that the law establishes a minimum age for voluntary recruitment by the state military at 18 or at 16 with safeguards for voluntariness.

2018

Enforcement

Publish information on labor inspectorate funding, the number of labor inspectors and whether labor inspectors received adequate training, the number and type of labor inspections, violations and penalties related to child labor.

2013 – 2018

 

Create meaningful penalties for employing children in contravention of the Labor Code.

2009 – 2018

 

Ensure that the number of labor and criminal law enforcement agents and training and resources for labor and criminal enforcement agencies are sufficient to adequately enforce laws related to child labor, including its worst forms.

2013 – 2018

 

Authorize the inspectorate to assess penalties.

2013 – 2018

 

Strengthen enforcement capacity of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor and the Institute of Social Welfare and Research by initiating targeted child protection inspections, rather than by performing inspections based solely on complaints received.

2013 – 2018

 

Expand the hotlines operated by the Brigade for the Protection of Minors and the Institute of Social Welfare and Research to facilitate reporting of child exploitation cases in areas beyond Port-au-Prince, including in rural areas; publish information related to the number of calls related to child labor.

2013 – 2018

Coordination

Ensure that the National Tripartite Commission for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor meets regularly and takes action to fulfill its mission.

2017 – 2018

Government Policies

Approve the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor.

2016 – 2018

 

Ensure that appropriate funding exists to effectively implement the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons.

2016 – 2018

 

Provide information and ensure implementation of the National Child Protection Policy and the National Strategic Development Plan.

2017 – 2018

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children by removing school-related fees in public schools; increase the number of schools and teachers, especially in rural areas and camps near the border with the Dominican Republic; ensure that public schools offer instruction in both French and Haitian Creole; meet the specific educational needs of vulnerable populations, including recent arrivals from the Dominican Republic; and ensure children who start their education late or repeat grades are allowed to transition to secondary school.

2009 – 2018

 

Expand the National Child Protection Database, including by identifying displaced street children and children in domestic work.

2010 – 2018

 

Expand existing social programs to address the scope of the child labor problem, particularly in domestic work, agriculture, and child trafficking.

2010 – 2018

  1. Catholic Relief Services. Rapid Child Labor Assessment. April 2015. Source on file. 

  2. UN Human Rights Committee. The Plight of Restavèk (Child Domestic Servants). September 12, 2014. 
    http://www.ijdh.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/HRC_Restavek-Sept-12.pdf.

  3. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Haiti (ratification: 2007). Published: 2016. Accessed November 1, 2016. 
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3253455,102671,Haiti,2015.

  4. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined second and third periodic reports of Haiti. Geneva, February 24, 2016. 
    CRC/C/HTI/CO/2-3. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/035/15/PDF/G1603515.pdf?OpenElement.

  5. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Person Report- 2017: Haiti. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. 
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2017-trafficking-in-persons-report/haiti/

  6. U.S. Embassy- Haiti. Reporting. April 2, 2018. 

  7. Catholic Relief Services. Baseline Study on Child Labor (Draft Report). June 2016. Source on file. 

  8. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  9. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquête Mortalité Morbidité et Utilisation des Services, 2012. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 

  10. U.S. Embassy- Haiti. Reporting. February 13, 2018. 

  11. Agence France-Presse. Tourist trinkets crafted by Haiti's child artisans. Breitbart.com. May 1, 2016. 
    http://www.breitbart.com/news/tourist-trinkets-crafted-by-haitis-child-artisans/.

  12. Better Work Port-au-Prince official. Email communication to USDOL official. April 20, 2018. 

  13. Valmond, Fabienne. Restavèk: The Life of Haiti's Most Vulnerable Population and the Fight against Child Trafficking [Masters thesis] - George Mason University. 2015. 
    http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.884.5595&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

  14. Somerfelt, Tone. Child Fosterage and Child Domestic Workers in Haiti in 2014. Fafo. 2015: Analytical Report. 
    http://www.fafo.no/images/pub/2015/20559-web.pdf.

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