Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Haiti

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Haiti

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Haiti made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted the National Social Protection Policy, which aims to provide protection and social assistance for child victims of abuse, violence, and labor exploitation. The Government also obtained its first three convictions for child trafficking under the 2014 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law and established an emergency working group to assess human trafficking risks due to 2016 Hurricane Matthew. In addition, the Government continued to participate in a number of programs targeting the worst forms of child labor, including a new program to combat child trafficking along the border with the Dominican Republic. However, children in Haiti perform dangerous tasks in agriculture and domestic work. Haiti also lacks a clear, easily applicable minimum age for domestic work, and limited resources for the systematic enforcement of child labor laws impede government efforts to protect children from the worst forms of child labor. In addition, social programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Haiti perform dangerous tasks in agriculture and domestic work.(1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Haiti. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

34.4 (815,993)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

92.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

34.9

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

Unavailable

Primary Completion Rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Enquête Mortalité, Morbidité et Utilisation des Services (EMMUS-V), 2012.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Preparing land for planting; fertilizing fields; sowing; pruning; weeding; thinning; and guarding in relation to the production of bananas, beans, corn, peanuts, peas, rice, cassava, and yams (1, 2)

Harvesting sugarcane, collecting cut sugarcane, grinding sugarcane, and clearing land for sugarcane production (2)

Herding and caring for cows, donkeys, goats, pigs, sheep, and poultry (1)

Capturing and processing fish (2, 9)

Processing produce, including removing shells, husks, stones; winnowing; and drying (1)

Industry

Construction, including transport of construction materials such as sand and rocks (2, 6, 9)

Producing metal crafts (10)

Services

Domestic work (3-5, 11-13)

Street work, including vending, begging, shining shoes, washing cars, and carrying goods and luggage in public markets and bus stations (6, 9, 14, 15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in domestic work, agriculture, and as street vendors and beggars, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 5, 6, 9, 13, 16, 17)

Use in illicit activities, including by criminal groups as messengers and to carry weapons or transport drugs (6, 17 )

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (6, 9, 18, 19)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

A 2015 study found that there are approximately 286,000 child domestic workers in Haiti, 207,000 of which were lagging behind in school.(12, 13, 16) Some parents unable to care for their children send them to residential care centers, or to relatives or strangers who are expected to provide food, shelter, and schooling to these children in exchange for household work. In practice, some of these children receive care and access to education, while many others become victims of labor exploitation and abuse.(3-6, 11, 13, 20)

Children are trafficked both internally and to the Dominican Republic. NGOs have reported that children illegally crossing the Haiti-Dominican Republic border are often accompanied by adults who are paid to act as the children’s parents or guardians until they reach the Dominican Republic.(17, 21-23) Some of these children are reunited with relatives in the Dominican Republic, while others engage in commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, agriculture, street vending, and begging.(3, 9, 23-25)

During 2016, the Government of the Dominican Republic continued with the involuntary repatriations of individuals with irregular migration status to Haiti, pursuant to Dominican law.(13, 26) Many of these individuals, including children, are Dominican-born persons of Haitian descent.(27) As of the end of 2016, reports indicate that 97,854 individuals migrated spontaneously to Haiti, including 2,551 unaccompanied minors.(25) Some of these children were residing in camps in Haiti near the border with the Dominican Republic, where schools and other basic services are not available. In addition, these children may not speak French or Haitian Creole, the languages of instruction in public Haitian schools.(6, 13, 16, 28) Children, including those who have been deported to Haiti or who left spontaneously are vulnerable to child labor, including its worst forms.(9, 26, 28)

The Constitution of Haiti provides free and compulsory primary education. (29-31) In addition, while many children in Haiti are not registered at birth, unregistered children are able to access social assistance services and educational programs provided by the Government.(32) However, public schools often charge fees for books, uniforms, and school materials. As private schools represent approximately 90 percent of available schools, most Haitian children are enrolled in private schools that charge tuition and other fees, which make education prohibitive to many families.(6, 13, 33, 34) Other children, especially in rural areas, simply do not attend school. Out-of-school children are more vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(6, 16)

In October 2016, Haiti was hit by Hurricane Matthew, which displaced over 175,000 people, including children.(13, 35) It also damaged at least 1,633 schools, affecting school attendance for an estimated 190,000 children that, coupled with the suspension of other social services and destruction of infrastructure, increased children’s vulnerability to human trafficking and labor exploitation.(20, 36-38)

Haiti has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Haiti’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

15

Article 335 of the Labor Code (39)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 334 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of the Act on the Prohibition and Elimination of All Forms of Abuse, Violence, Ill Treatment, or Inhumane Treatment Against Children (Act of 2003) (39, 40)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 333–336 of the Labor Code (39)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of the Act of 2003; Article 1.1.11 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law (39-41)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Act of 2003; Article 1.1.1 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law (40, 41)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Act of 2003; Articles 279–281 of the Penal Code; Article 1.1.17 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law (40-42)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 72 of the Law on the Control and Suppression of Illicit Drug Trafficking; Article 2 of the Act of 2003 (40, 43)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

N/A†

 

 

Non-State Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 70 of the Penal Code, Article 2 of the Act of 2003 (40, 42)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 23 of the Decree on the Reorganization of the Haitian Education System (30, 31)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 32.1 and 33 of the Constitution (29)

* No conscription (44)
† No standing military (44)

Article 335 of the Labor Code sets the minimum age for contractual work at 15 in industrial, agricultural, and commercial establishments. The Labor Code only applies to workers who perform work under a formal employment agreement.(39, 45) Article 340 provides penalties for the employment of children ages 15 to 18 without proper work permits or health certificates. However, the limited penalties, usually the equivalent of between $45 and $75, are not sufficient deterrents to protect children against labor exploitation.(39, 40) Although there is not a specific penalty for employing children under the minimum age for work, Article 513 of the Labor Code notes that a fine of $81 may be applied to labor violations with unspecified fines. These fines, however, may not be adequate to deter violations.(39)

It is unclear whether there is a minimum age for domestic work as the Act on the Prohibition and Elimination of All Forms of Abuse, Violence, Ill Treatment, or Inhumane Treatment Against Children of 2003 (Act of 2003) annulled Chapter 9 of the Labor Code that had set a minimum age for domestic work at age 12.(39, 40, 45) The Government has drafted legislation that would set the minimum age for domestic work at 15 years, but that legislation has not been enacted.(46, 47)

The Labor Code prohibits children ages 15 to 18 from working at night in industrial jobs and in establishments where alcohol is served.(39) However, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover agriculture, an area of work where children are exposed to hazardous substances, agents, or to temperatures damaging to their health. The Government of Haiti’s draft hazardous work list for children under the age of 18 remained unapproved by Parliament during the reporting period; nevertheless, the current draft does not include all tasks in which children perform dangerous work, such as harvesting, collecting, and grinding sugarcane.(46-49)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and most enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor (MAST)

Enforce laws related to child labor by receiving complaints, conducting investigations, and referring cases to juvenile courts.(39, 45, 50) MAST’s Institute of Social Welfare and Research (IBESR) agents perform child protection inspections and are responsible for accrediting residential care centers. Develop and implement programs to raise awareness of child labor and provide social services to child victims of labor exploitation. (5, 20, 45, 50, 51)

Brigade for the Protection of Minors (BPM)

Investigate crimes of the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. BPM agents submit investigations to judicial authorities for criminal prosecutions and refer child victims to IBESR.(5, 20, 51) Housed under the Haitian National Police.(9)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Haiti took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown

11 (52)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (52)

No (52)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (15)

No (53)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (20)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (52)

No (52)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (52)

No (52)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (15)

Yes (15)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (15)

Yes (15)

 

The number of labor inspectors from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor (MAST) is insufficient for the size of Haiti’s workforce, which includes over 4.5 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed countries, Haiti should employ roughly 115 labor inspectors. (54-56)

In 2016, MAST’s Institute of Social Welfare and Research (IBESR) employed 150 agents throughout Haiti; these included 48 child protection agents and approximately 20 social workers to handle child protection cases, including those involving child labor.(20, 57) Each IBESR regional bureau includes a child protection section that employs 5 to 7 agents. IBESR agents received training on addressing exploitation of child domestic workers during the reporting period.(20, 57-59) To deter child trafficking, IBESR established a policy during the reporting period that requires parents to obtain IBESR’s authorization before they can take their children across Haiti’s land border with the Dominican Republic.(20) Despite these efforts, reports indicate that the lack of sufficient resources, such as means of transportation, fuel, and appropriately equipped workplaces, hampered MAST’s efforts, including IBESR’s capacity to enforce child labor laws.(20, 52)

IBESR also manages the “133” hotline that receives complaints about situations requiring child protection.(9, 60) However, the hotline functions exclusively in Port-au-Prince, leaving rural areas without a mechanism to receive child labor complaints.(60) In addition, the number of calls related to child labor received during 2016 is unknown.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Haiti took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (15)

Yes (53)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (15)

No (53)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Investigations

Unknown

772 (61)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

182 (53)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

3(61)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

3(61)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (15)

Yes (15)

 

In 2016, the Brigade for the Protection of Minors (BPM) maintained a staff of 45 agents in 24 offices around the country, including in 4 offices along the Haiti-Dominican Republic border.(20, 49, 52) Given the prevalence of the worst forms of child labor in the country, the number of criminal law enforcement agents is inadequate.(20) Reports indicate that BPM investigated 772 cases of child trafficking, child abuse, and commercial sexual exploitation of children.(9, 20, 61) During 2016, the first three convictions for child trafficking under the 2014 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law took place.(20) Despite these efforts, reports indicate that the BPM’s lack of trained staff, equipment, transportation, and funding hampered their ability to enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(9, 15, 20)

An informal referral mechanism between BPM, IBESR, and NGOs is in place to provide reintegration services to victims of the worst forms of child labor.(20) Although a report indicates that resources and facilities for social services are inadequate, BPM assisted 2,983 children in 2016 through referrals to social services and medical assistance, reintegration into their families, , and family mediation.(20) BPM also manages the “188” hotline which receives notifications of alleged violations related to the worst forms of child labor.(15) However, like the IBESR hotline, the “188” hotline functions exclusively in Port-au-Prince, which makes reporting cases involving the worst forms of child labor more difficult in rural areas.(62) In addition, the number of calls related to child labor received in 2016 is unknown.

In 2016, law enforcement and judiciary officials received training on the 2014 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law and on addressing the worst forms of child labor during natural disasters, such as Hurricane Matthew.(15) Despite these efforts, work remains to be done to ensure that relevant officials, particularly in the provinces, are aware of the law and methods of implementation.(9, 16, 20)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Tripartite Commission for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Elaborate policies, approve programs, and coordinate, monitor, and evaluate efforts to combat child labor in Haiti. Chaired by MAST includes representatives from IBESR, and BPM, as well as local and international organizations.(63, 64) In 2016, met to update the draft National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor, and included specific programs to address child labor in domestic work.(16, 47)

National Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate actions against trafficking in persons and provide protection and rehabilitation services to victims. Chaired by IBESR, includes representatives from MAST, BPM, and other ministries.(9, 41, 65) During the reporting period, received a budget of $140,000 to establish an emergency working group to assess human trafficking risks due to Hurricane Matthew, and partnered with international organizations to launch the “840” free hotline to enable citizens to report human trafficking cases.(9, 20, 66, 67)

Child Protection Working Group

Implement, coordinate, and monitor efforts on child protection, including protection for child domestic workers. Chaired by IBESR comprises officials non-governmental stakeholders and officials from various ministries.(68, 69) In 2016, the Working Group met to design an action plan to address issues raised in the study on the prevalence of child domestic work.(47)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2015–2017)

Aims to enhance the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, effectively implement laws related to human trafficking, provide protection and care for victims, and strengthen social and educational initiatives for vulnerable children. Led by the National Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons.(9, 65, 70)

National Social Protection Policy (2016–2020)†

Aims to protect children from abuse, violence, and labor exploitation and promotes improved access to education and livelihood services for vulnerable children, with a focus on domestic workers. Led by IBESR and supported by international donors.(71, 72)

National Strategic Development Plan (PSDH) (2014–2019)

Highlights the need to prohibit child labor in order to ensure sustained and equitable economic growth. Overseen by the Ministry of Planning and External Cooperation and the Ministry of Economy and Finance.(73, 74) In 2016, the Plan was extended to 2019.(75)  

National Action Strategy for Education for All (2011–2017)

Aims to increase access to quality primary education, particularly for vulnerable populations, by subsidizing school fees for both public and private schools. The strategy is overseen by the Ministry of Education and supported by international donors.(76, 77). For the 2015–2016 school year, provided free tuition-fee waivers to nearly 73,000 children.(78)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

During the reporting period, the Government did not approve the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor, drafted in 2014.(16, 47, 63) In addition, reports indicate that efforts to implement the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons have been slowed by an insufficient allocation of resources.19T(9, 20)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Let’s Work for Our Rights- Haiti (2015–2017)

$9.99 million USDOL-funded project implemented by Catholic Relief Services to provide services to households and children engaged in or at-risk of engaging in child labor or other exploitative working conditions in agriculture.(79, 80) In 2016, the project reached 688 children and adolescents with educational services and provided more than 1,016 households with legal assistance to obtain identity documentation, prevent and reduce child labor, and support labor rights.(33, 79) For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our Web site.

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (2011–2017)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. In 2016, the project trained MAST inspectors on international child labor standards and drafted a roadmap to strengthen legal protections and social services delivery for child domestic workers.(81, 82) For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our Web site.

Protecting the Rights of Children, Women, and Youth in Haiti (AKSÈ) (2012–2017)

$22.5 million USAID-funded project supports a partnership between the Government and the private sector to assist child victims of gender-based violence, human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, forced domestic work, and recruitment into criminal activity.(83)

Assisting Vulnerable Women and Children in Border Areas (2016–2017)*

$4.5 million Government of Canada-funded project implemented by IOM to combat child trafficking and protect Haitian migrants, especially children and women, along the border with the Dominican Republic.(25, 84)

Combat Child Labor in Domestic Work and the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2015–2016)

$914,616 Government of Norway-funded project combat exploitation of child domestic workers by increasing access to education.(59)

National Free Education Program (PSUGO)†

Government program to increase poor children’s access to education. Includes school grants intended to eliminate school fees and accelerated learning programs for students who are lagging behind in school.(62, 85) For the 2016–2017 school year, established a budget of approximately $6 million for public school grants.(86)

UNICEF Country Program

$24 million UNICEF-funded program supports the Government’s efforts to improve education, health, social inclusion, and protection for children in Haiti. In 2016, implemented projects to protect child domestic workers from exploitation and provide reintegration and educational services to unaccompanied children returning from the Dominican Republic, as well as children affected by Hurricane Matthew.(32, 87, 88)

Government Child Shelter, Census, and National Child Protection Database†

Government program to support child protection. IBESR implements the Government’s regulatory framework for residential care centers (e. g., orphanages and shelters), collects information on vulnerable children, and tracks them through the National Child Protection Database.(20) In 2016, an IBESR assessment that identified almost 30,000 children residing in 770 shelters nationwide.

Providing an Education of Quality in Haiti (2016–2017)*

$30 million World Bank-implemented program aims to strengthen public management of the education sector, improve learning conditions, and increase enrollment of students in selected public and non-public primary schools.(89)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Haiti.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(90, 91)

Despite IBESR’s efforts to collect information for the National Child Protection Database, it does not fully capture all relevant information, including the number of displaced street children and children engaged in domestic work.(60) Although Haiti has programs that target the worst forms of child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, particularly in domestic work, agriculture, and child trafficking.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Haiti (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that minimum age protections apply to children in informal employment agreements.

2014 – 2016

Clarify the minimum age for domestic work.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive, such as work in hazardous agricultural environments.

2009 – 2016

Enforcement

Publish information on labor inspectorate funding, whether labor inspectors received adequate training, the number and type of labor inspections, violations, and penalties related to child labor.

2013 – 2016

Create meaningful penalties for employing children in contravention of the Labor Code.

2009 - 2016

Ensure that the number of labor inspectors and criminal law enforcement agents, as well as training and resources, are adequate to effectively enforce laws related to child labor, including its worst forms.

2013 – 2016

Authorize the inspectorate to assess penalties.

2013 – 2016

Improve institutional mechanisms and practices to ensure that child laborers identified during labor inspections or through other enforcement efforts receive appropriate social services.

2013 – 2016

Strengthen MAST’s and IBESR’s enforcement capacity by initiating routine or targeted child protection inspections, rather than by performing inspections solely based on complaints received.

2013 – 2016

Expand the hotlines operated by BPM and IBESR to facilitate reporting of child exploitation cases in areas beyond Port-au-Prince, including in rural areas; publish information related to the number of calls related to child labor.  

2013 – 2016

Government Policies

Approve the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor.

2016

Ensure that appropriate funding exists to effectively implement the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons.

2016

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children by:  removing school-related fees in public schools; increasing the number of schools, especially in rural areas and in camps near the border with the Dominican Republic; repairing school infrastructure, especially in areas affected by Hurricane Matthew; ensuring that private schools offer instruction in both French and Haitian Creole; meeting the specific educational needs of vulnerable populations, including recent arrivals from the Dominican Republic.

2009 – 2016

Expand the National Child Protection Database, including by identifying displaced street children and children in domestic work.

2010 – 2016

Expand existing social programs to address the scope of the child labor problem, particularly in domestic work, agriculture, and child trafficking.

2010 – 2016

1.         ICF International. Working Children in Agriculture in Haiti, Sud Department. Calverton; 2012. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/ICLRE/Downloads/Research/Report/Haiti_Research_Report.pdf.

2.         Catholic Relief Services. "Rapid Child Labor Assessment,." April 2015 [cited April 29, 2015]; source on file.

3.         ICF International. Child Labor in Domestic Service ("Restaveks") in Port-au- Prince, Haiti: Mixed Methods Research on Child Labor and Forced Child Labor in the the Production of Goods. Calverton; 2012. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/pdf/2012RestavekHaiti.pdf.

4.         UN Human Rights Committee. The Plight of Restavèk (Child Domestic Servants); September 12, 2014. http://www.ijdh.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/HRC_Restavek-Sept-12.pdf.

5.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Haiti (ratification: 2007) Published: 2016; accessed November 1, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

6.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined second and third periodic reports of Haiti. Geneva; February 24, 2016. Report No. CRC/C/HTI/CO/2-3. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G15/046/17/PDF/G1504617.pdf?OpenElement.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [accessed December 16, 2016]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquête Mortalité Morbidité et Utilisation des Services, 2012. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9.         U.S. Department of State. "Haiti," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf.

10.       Agence France-Presse. "Tourist trinkets crafted by Haiti's child artisans." Breitbart.com [online] May 1, 2016 [cited November 1, 2016]; http://www.breitbart.com/news/tourist-trinkets-crafted-by-haitis-child-artisans/.

11.       Valmond, F. Restavèk: The Life of Haiti's Most Vulnerable Population and the Fight against Child Trafficking [Masters thesis]: George Mason University; 2015.

12.       Somerfelt, F. "Child Fosterage and Child Domestic Workers in Haiti in 2014: Analytical Report." 2015 [cited March 13, 2016]; http://www.fafo.no/images/pub/2015/20559-web.pdf.

13.       Human Rights Watch. "Haiti," in World Report 2017. New York; 2017; https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/haiti_1.pdf.

14.       ICF International. Urban Child Labor in Port-Au-Prince, Haiti. Calverton; September, 2012. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/pdf/2012CLUrbanHaiti.pdf.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Haiti. reporting, February 2, 2016.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Haiti. reporting, February 8, 2016.

17.       Walk Free Foundation. "Haiti," in The Global Slavery Index- 2014. Washington, DC; 2014; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/GlobalSlavery_2014_LR-FINAL.pdf.

18.       Torgan, A. "Haitians living in fear 'under the tent'." cnn.com [online] October 18, 2012 [cited November 23, 2012]; http://www.cnn.com/2012/10/18/world/americas/cnnheroes-haiti-rape.

19.       Balmir, S. "Haïti: Prostitution infantile: Renforcement du cercle vicieux de la misère." Le National, Pétion-Ville, May 22, 2015. http://lenational.ht/haitiprostitution-infantile-renforcement-du-cercle-vicieux-de-la-misere/.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Haiti. reporting, February 09, 2017.

21.       IOM. IOM-Haiti Strategic Plan 2013-2014; 2013. https://www.iom.int/files/live/sites/iom/files/pbn/docs/Strategy-IOM-Haiti-Updated-Jan-2013.pdf.

22.       IOM. Haitian Child Victims of Trafficking in Dominican Republic Receive Assistance, International Organization for Migration, [press release] [cited 2014]; http://www.iom.int/news/haitian-child-victims-trafficking-dominican-republic-receive-assistance.

23.       Bargent, J. "Dominican Police Dismantle Haitian Child Trafficking Ring." [online] May 20, 2013 [cited November 15, 2015]; http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/dominican-republic-haiti-child-trafficking.

24.       Moloney, A. IOM hopes landmark trial will stem child trafficking from Haiti, Thomson Reuters Foundation, [online] June 14, 2012 [cited May 15, 2014]; http://www.trust.org/item/?map=iom-hopes-landmark-trial-will-stem-child-trafficking-from-haiti.

25.       IOM Haiti. Border Monitoring Sit-Rep December 29, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/border_monitoring_sitrep_lxxv.pdf.

26.       Amnesty International. "Where are we going to live?" Migration  and Statelessness in Haiti and the Dominican Republic; June 15, 2016. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/amr36/4105/2016/en/.

27.       U.S. Department of State. "Dominican Republic," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 03, 2017; https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265582.

28.       Fednt, L. "I Came Here With Nothing': Life in Limbo for Unwilling Migrants on Haiti's Border." [online] May 12, 2016 [cited https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/may/12/haiti-dominican-republic-migrants-makeshift-camp.

29.       Government of Haiti. Constitution of Haiti, enacted 1987. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/constitutions/haiti/haiti1987.html.

30.       Government of Haiti. Decret Organisant le Systeme Educatif Haitien en Vue D'offrir des chances egales a tous et de Refleter la Culture Haitienne, enacted March 30, 1982. http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000092/00001/3j.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Haiti official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. November 14, 2014,

32.       UNICEF. Haiti- Country Programme Document (2013-2016); accessed https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2012-PL30_Haiti_CPD-final_approved-English-2.pdf.

33.       Catholic Relief Services. Technical Progress Report. Port au Prince; October 2016.

34.       World Bank. "Four Things You Need to Know About Education in Haiti," in; March 12, 2015; http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2015/03/12/four-things-you-need-to-know-about-education-in-haiti.

35.       WFP Haiti. Situation Report #32 December 29, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/wfp289689.pdf.

36.       Affairs, UOftCoH. Haiti: Hurricane Matthew Situation Report #30, December 29, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/OCHA%20Situation%20Report%20%2330%20Hurricane%20Matthew%20Haiti%2026%20Dec%202016.pdf.

37.       Moloney, A. "Haiti's Hurricane Raises Risk of Women, Children Ceing Trafficked - U.N." [online] October 24, 2016 [cited December 30, 2016]; http://news.trust.org/item/20161024214509-eznfa/.

38.       Save the Children. Children Exceptionally Vulnerable in the Wake of Hurricane Matthew in Haiti, [online] October 9, 2016 [cited November 1, 2016]; http://www.savethechildren.org/site/apps/nlnet/content2.aspx?c=8rKLIXMGIpI4E&b=9357111&ct=14926499&notoc=1.

39.       Government of Haiti. Code du Travail, enacted 1984. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/135/98545/F1595767852/HTI-135.pdf.

40.       Government of Haiti. Loi relative à l'interdiction et à l'élimination de toutes formes d'abus, de violences, de mauvais traitements ou traitements inhumains contre les enfants, enacted June 5, 2003. source on file.

41.       Government of Haiti. Loi sur la Lutte contre la Traite des Personnes, Loi No CL/2014-0010, enacted June 02, 2014.

42.       Government of Haiti. Haiti Code Pénal, enacted 1985. http://www.oas.org/juridico/mla/fr/hti/fr_hti_penal.pdf.

43.       Government of Haiti. Loi relative au controle et la repression du trafic illicite de la drogue. Le Moniteur; October 4, 2001 http://haitijustice.com/pdf/legislation/traffic_illicite_stupefiants_haiti.pdf.

44.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2013. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

45.       ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Haiti (ratification: 2009) Published: 2013; accessed November 25, 2013; source on file.

46.       Government of Haiti. DRAFT- Hazardous List of Work for Children; 2014. [source on file].

47.       ILO Port au Prince official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 06, 2017.

48.       Balmir, S. "Vers une réponse pour l’élimination du travail des enfants en Haiti." Le National [online] February 22, 2016 [cited November 1, 2016]; http://www.lenational.org/vers-reponse-lelimination-travail-enfants-haiti/.

49.       U.S. Embassy- Port-au-Prince official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 15, 2017.

50.       Government of Haiti official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 10, 2014.

51.       IBESR. La Protection de l’enfant. Législation nationale et internationale. Pétion-Ville: Editions Presses Nationales d’Haïti; 2012.

52.       U.S. Embassy- Haiti. reporting, January 23, 2015.

53.       U.S. Embassy- Port-au-Prince official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 11, 2017.

54.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited June 21 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

55.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

56.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

57.       IBESR Haiti official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 13, 2015

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63.       National Commission for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor. DRAFT: National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor; June 19, 2014.

64.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Haiti (ratification: 2007) Published: 2013; accessed March 1, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

65.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Haiti (ratification: 1958) Published: 2016; accessed November 1, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

66.       Groupe d'Appui aux Rapatriés & Réfugiés. Le GARR et le Comité National de Lutte contre la Traite des Personnes s’engagent à combattre ce phénomène, May 06, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/report/haiti/le-garr-et-le-comit-national-de-lutte-contre-la-traite-des-personnes-s-engagent.

67.       Haiti Libre. "Lutte contre la traite des personnes, lancement d’une «Ligne verte»." [online] December 07, 2016 [cited January 03, 2017]; http://www.haitilibre.com/article-19452-haiti-social-lutte-contre-la-traite-des-personnes-lancement-d-une-ligne-verte.html.

68.       Government of Haiti. Groupe de Travail Protection de l'Enfance Niveau National- Termes de Reference; 2014.

69.       UNICEF- official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. December 17, 2014

70.       Government of Haiti. Plan d’Actions National de Lutte contre la Traite des Personnes; March 2015. on file.

71.       IBESR. Stratégie Nationale de Protection de l’Enfant. September 2015. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00M2GJ.pdf.

72.       Mulheir, G, Mara Cavanagh, and colleagues. Orphanage Entrepreneurs: The trafficking of Haiti's invisible children. London, Lumos; 2016. https://wearelumos.org/sites/default/files/Haiti%20Trafficking%20Report_ENG_web_20EP16.pdf.

73.       Government of Haiti. Plan Stratégique de Développement d’Haïti (PSDH). Port-au-Prince; June 2012. http://www.ht.undp.org/content/dam/haiti/docs/Gouvernance%20d%C3%A9mocratique%20et%20etat%20de%20droit/UNDP_HT_PLAN%20STRAT%C3%89GIQUE%20de%20developpement%20Haiti_tome1.pdf.

74.       IMF. Haiti: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper- Progress Report. Washington, DC; June, 2013. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2014/cr14154.pdf.

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76.       World Bank. Education for All- Implementation Status Results Report

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77.       World Bank. Haiti - Education for All Project - Phase II, [online] [cited December 01, 2015 http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P124134/education-all-project-support-second-phase-education-all-program?lang=en.

78.       World Bank. Education for All- Implementation Status Results Report

June 30, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/877561467317988108/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P124134-06-30-2016-1467317970564.pdf.

79.       U.S. Department of Labor. Project to Reduce Child Labor and Improve Labor Rights and Working Conditions in Haiti - Let’s Work For Our Rights 2013. on file.

80.       Catholic Relief Services. Technical Progress Report. Port au Prince; October 2015.

81.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; November 2015.

82.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2016.

83.       USAID official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2013.

84.       Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). Project profile: Assisting Vulnerable Women and Children in Border Areas January 03, 2017. source on file.

85.       Haiti Libre. "The Primature Strongly Rejected the Conclusions of the Walk-Free Foundation." haitilibre.com [online] October 23, 2013 [cited May 15, 2014]; http://www.haitilibre.com/en/news-9718-haiti-social-the-primature-strongly-rejected-the-conclusions-of-the-walk-free-foundation.html.

86.       Haiti Press Network. "PSUGO : 397 millions de gourdes pour poursuivre le paiement des écoles qui respectent les procédures." [online] May 31, 2016 [cited http://hpnhaiti.com/nouvelles/index.php/societe/54-education/1133-psugo-397-millions-de-gourdes-pour-poursuivre-le-paiement-des-ecoles-qui-respectent-les-procedures.

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88.       UNICEF. Humanitarian Situation Report 2017 February 3, 2017. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/UNICEF%20Haiti%20Humanitarian%20Situation%20Report%20-%20January%202017.pdf.

89.       World Bank. Providing an Education of Quality in Haiti Project-Project Appraisal Document. online October 27, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/984991478263758814/pdf/1478263764434-000A10458-PAD-10282016.pdf.

90.       Lamaute-Brisson, N. Promotion et protection sociale de l'enfance et de l'adolescence en Haiti. Port of Spain, UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean; 2015. http://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/37776/S1420892_fr.pdf.

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