Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Haiti

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Haiti

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Haiti made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government deployed 100 officers to the border city of Ouanaminthe to combat human trafficking and provided tuition-fee waivers to nearly 437,905 children through the National Action Strategy for Education for All. In addition, the government continued to participate in a number of programs targeting the worst forms of child labor, including a new program to combat exploitative domestic work in Port au Prince, Grande Anse, and Sud. However, children in Haiti perform dangerous tasks in agriculture and domestic work. Haiti lacks a clear, easily applicable minimum age for domestic work, and limited resources for the systematic enforcement of child labor laws impede government efforts to protect children from the worst forms of child labor. In addition, social programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Haiti perform dangerous tasks in agriculture and domestic work. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Haiti. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

34.4 (815,993)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

92.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

34.9

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

Unavailable

Primary Completion Rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Enquête Mortalité, Morbidité et Utilisation des Services (EMMUS-V), 2012. (9)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting sugarcane, collecting cut sugarcane, grinding sugarcane, and clearing land for sugarcane production (1)

Raising livestock (7)

Capturing and processing fish (1; 10; 6)

Industry

Construction, including transport of construction materials such as sand and rocks (1; 4; 10; 6)

Producing metal crafts (11)

Services

Domestic work (2; 3; 12; 13; 14; 15)

Transporting and selling alcohol† and tobacco (6)

Street work, including vending, begging, shining shoes, washing cars, and carrying water, firewood, goods, and luggage in public markets and bus stations (4; 10; 5; 16; 6; 7)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in domestic work, agriculture, street vending, and begging, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3; 4; 14; 17; 18; 5; 6)

Use in illicit activities, including by criminal groups in drug trafficking (4; 18)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4; 19; 10; 5; 20; 21)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) – (c) of ILO C. 182.

 

A 2015 study found that there were approximately 286,000 child domestic workers in Haiti, 207,000 of whom were lagging behind in school. (13; 14; 10; 5) Some parents who are unable to care for their children send them to residential care centers or to relatives or strangers who are expected to provide the children with food, shelter, and schooling in exchange for household work. In practice, some of these children receive care and access to education, while many others become victims of labor exploitation and abuse. (2; 3; 4; 12; 14; 22; 15)

Children are trafficked both internally and externally, primarily to the Dominican Republic, other Caribbean countries, South America, and the United States. NGOs have reported that children illegally crossing the Haiti-Dominican Republic border are often accompanied by adults who are paid to act as the children’s parents or guardians until they reach the Dominican Republic. (18; 23; 24; 25; 10; 6; 5) Some of these children are reunited with relatives in the Dominican Republic, while others engage in commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, agriculture, street vending, and begging. (25; 26; 10; 5; 6)

During 2017, the Government of the Dominican Republic continued with the involuntary repatriations of individuals with irregular migration status to Haiti, pursuant to Dominican law. (14; 27; 28) Many of these individuals, including children, are Dominican-born persons of Haitian descent. (29) At the end of 2017, reports indicate that 132,995 individuals migrated spontaneously to Haiti, including 4,167 unaccompanied minors. (28) Some of these children were residing in Haiti in camps near the border with the Dominican Republic, where schools and other basic services are not available. In addition, these children may not speak French or Haitian Creole, the languages of instruction in public Haitian schools. (4; 14; 17; 30; 31) These children, including those who have been deported to Haiti or who left spontaneously, are vulnerable to the worst forms child labor. (30; 5; 31)

The Constitution of Haiti provides free and compulsory primary education. (32; 33; 34) In addition, while many children in Haiti are not registered at birth, unregistered children can access social assistance services and educational programs provided by the government. (35) However, public schools often charge fees for books, uniforms, and school materials. Because private schools represent approximately 90 percent of available schools, most Haitian children are enrolled in private schools that charge tuition and other fees, which make education prohibitive to many families. (4; 14; 36; 37; 6; 7) Other children, especially in rural areas, do not attend school due to the lack of school infrastructure and limited availability of teachers. Out-of-school children are more vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. (4; 17; 7)

Haiti has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Haiti’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including with the minimum age for work and the compulsory education age.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 10 of the Law Organizing and Regulating Labor (38)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 334 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of the Act on the Prohibition and Elimination of All Forms of Abuse, Violence, Ill Treatment, or Inhumane Treatment Against Children (Act of 2003) (39; 40)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 333–336 of the Labor Code (39)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of the Act of 2003; Article 1.1.11 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law (39; 40; 41)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Act of 2003; Article 1.1.1 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law (40; 41)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Act of 2003; Articles 279–281 of the Penal Code; Article 1.1.17 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law (40; 41; 42)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 72 of the Law on the Control and Suppression of Illicit Drug Trafficking; Article 2 of the Act of 2003 (40; 43)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

N/A†

 

 

Non-state

Yes

18

Articles 70 of the Penal Code; Article 2 of the Act of 2003 (40; 42)

Compulsory Education Age

No

15

Article 23 of the Decree on the Reorganization of the Haitian Education System (33)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 32.1 and 33 of the Constitution (32)

* No conscription (44)
† No standing military (44)

 

In September 2017, the government passed an amendment to the Labor Code that raises the minimum age for work to 16 for contractual work and states that penalties are doubled if the work is done at night. (38; 6) However, the Labor Code applies only to workers who perform work under a formal employment agreement, which does not conform to international standards that require all children to be protected under the law establishing a minimum age for work. (39; 45; 7) In addition, by increasing the minimum age for work to 16 while having a compulsory education age of 15, children age 15 are vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to attend school but also are not legally permitted to work. (33; 38)

It is unclear whether there is a minimum age for domestic work because the Act on the Prohibition and Elimination of All Forms of Abuse, Violence, Ill Treatment, or Inhumane Treatment Against Children of 2003 (Act of 2003) annulled Chapter 9 of the Labor Code, which set a minimum age for domestic work at 12. (39; 40; 45; 7) The government has drafted legislation that would set the minimum age for domestic work at 15, but that legislation has not been enacted. (46; 47)

The Labor Code prohibits children ages 16 to 18 from working at night in industrial jobs and in establishments that serve alcohol. (39) However, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover agriculture, an area of work in which children are exposed to hazardous substances and agents, and to temperatures that can damage their health. The Government of Haiti’s draft hazardous work list for children under age 18 remained unapproved by Parliament during the reporting period; nevertheless, the current draft does not include all tasks in which children perform dangerous work, such as harvesting, collecting, and grinding sugarcane. (46; 47; 48; 49; 6)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor (MAST) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor (MAST)

Enforce laws related to child labor by receiving complaints, conducting investigations, and referring cases to juvenile courts. (39; 45; 50) MAST’s Institute of Social Welfare and Research (IBESR) agents perform child protection inspections and are responsible for accrediting residential care centers. Develop and implement programs to raise awareness of child labor and provide social services to child victims of labor exploitation. (3; 45; 50; 51; 10)

Brigade for the Protection of Minors (BPM)

Investigate crimes of the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. Submit investigations to judicial authorities for criminal prosecutions and refer child victims to IBESR. (3; 22; 51) Housed under the Haitian National Police. (10)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Haiti took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of MAST that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including with penalty assessment authorization.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Number of Labor Inspectors

148 (52)

148 (52)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (53)

No (6)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (54)

Unknown (6)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (22)

Yes (6)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (55)

Yes (55)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (53)

No (6)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (39)

Yes (39)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (56)

Yes (6)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (56)

Yes (6)

 

MAST’s Institute of Social Welfare and Research (IBESR) continued to employ 150 agents throughout Haiti; these included 48 child protection agents and approximately 20 social workers to handle child protection cases, including those involving child labor. (22; 10) Each IBESR regional bureau includes a child protection section that employs five to seven agents. During the reporting period, IBESR conducted child protection inspections in commercial and industrial establishments. (6) Reports indicate that the lack of sufficient resources, such as means of transportation, fuel, and appropriately equipped workplaces, hampered MAST’s enforcement efforts, including IBESR’s capacity to enforce child labor laws. (22; 53; 57; 6) In addition, the penalties established for violating child labor laws of 5,000 HTG (equivalent to $77) are insufficient and do not generally deter violations. (39)

IBESR also manages the “133” hotline that receives complaints about situations requiring child protection. (10; 5; 58) However, the hotline functions exclusively in Port-au-Prince, leaving rural areas without a mechanism to receive child labor complaints. (59) The number of calls related to child labor received during 2017 is unknown.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Haiti took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including with financial and human resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (54)

No (10)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No (54)

Unknown (6)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (10)

Number of Investigations

772 (60)

991 (6)

Number of Violations Found

182 (54)

178 (10)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

3 (60)

Unknown (6)

Number of Convictions

3 (60)

Unknown (6)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (56)

Yes (6)

 

In 2017, the Brigade for the Protection of Minors (BPM) maintained a staff of 80 agents in 24 offices around the country, including in 4 offices along the Haiti-Dominican Republic border. (49; 10) Given the prevalence of the worst forms of child labor in the country, the number of criminal law enforcement agents is inadequate. (22) BPM investigated 991 cases of child trafficking, forced child labor, use of children in illicit activities, and commercial sexual exploitation of children. (6) Despite these efforts, reports indicate that the BPM’s lack of trained staff, equipment, transportation, and funding hampered their ability to enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor. (10; 5; 6)

During 2017, the Haitian National Police deployed 100 officers to the border city of Ouanaminthe, Haiti’s busiest border crossing, to combat human trafficking and the illicit drug trade. (10) The government had one conviction for child trafficking under the 2014 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Law; however, the total number of convictions related to the worst forms of child labor is unknown. (10)

An informal referral mechanism between BPM, IBESR, and NGOs is in place to provide reintegration services to victims of the worst forms of child labor. (10; 5) Although a report indicates that resources and facilities for social services are inadequate, BPM assisted 3,018 children in 2017 through referrals to social services and medical assistance, reintegration into their families, and family mediation. (6) BPM also manages the “188” hotline that receives notifications of alleged violations related to the worst forms of child labor. (56) However, like the IBESR hotline, the “188” hotline functions exclusively in Port-au-Prince, which makes reporting cases involving the worst forms of child labor more difficult in rural areas. (61; 10) The number of calls related to child labor received in 2017 is unknown.

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including with efficacy in accomplishing mandates.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Tripartite Commission for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Develop policies, approve programs, and coordinate, monitor, and evaluate efforts to combat child labor in Haiti. Chaired by MAST, includes representatives from IBESR, BPM, and local and international organizations. (62; 63)

National Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate actions against human trafficking, and provide protection and rehabilitation services to victims. Chaired by IBESR, includes representatives from MAST, BPM, and other ministries. (41; 64; 5) In June 2017, organized a conference to raise awareness of human trafficking and identify strategies to address it. (10)

Child Protection Working Group

Implement, coordinate, and monitor efforts on child protection, including protection for child domestic workers. Chaired by IBESR, comprises non-governmental stakeholders and officials from various ministries. (65; 66)

 

There was no evidence that the National Tripartite Commission for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor conducted meetings or took action to combat child labor during the reporting period. (6)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including with adopting a new national child labor action plan.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2015–2017)

Aims to enhance the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, effectively implement laws related to human trafficking, provide protection and care for victims, and strengthen social and educational initiatives for vulnerable children. Led by the National Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons. (64; 67; 5) In 2017, partnered with the EU to conduct a survey on human trafficking in Haiti. (10)

National Child Protection Policy (2016–2020)

Aims to protect children from abuse, violence, and labor exploitation, and promotes improved access to education and livelihood services for vulnerable children, with a focus on domestic workers. Led by IBESR and supported by international donors. (68; 69)

National Strategic Development Plan (PSDH) (2014–2019)

Highlights the need to prohibit child labor to ensure sustained and equitable economic growth. Overseen by the Ministry of Planning and External Cooperation and the Ministry of Economy and Finance. (70; 71)

National Action Strategy for Education for All (2011–2018)

Aims to increase access to quality primary education, particularly for vulnerable populations, by subsidizing school fees for both public and private schools. The strategy is overseen by the Ministry of Education and supported by international donors. (72; 73) As of 2017, has provided free tuition-fee waivers to nearly 437,905 children. (74)

 

During the reporting period, the government did not approve the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor, drafted in 2014. (17; 47; 62) Reports indicate that efforts to implement the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons have been slowed by high-level staff turnover at MAST and insufficient allocation of resources. (10; 5) In addition, research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Child Protection Policy and the National Strategic Development Plan during the reporting period.

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including with the adequacy of efforts to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Protecting the Working Conditions of People/Proteje Kondisyon Travay Moun (PWOKONTRAM) (2013–2019)

$9.99 million USDOL-funded project implemented by Catholic Relief Services to provide services to households and children engaged in or –at risk of engaging in child labor or other exploitative working conditions in agriculture. (75; 76) In 2017, CRS facilitated a workshop between IBESR and its Dominican Republic counterpart, the National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONANI), to improve child protection services in the northeast border areas. (36; 75) The project reached roughly 4,800 children with educational services and 2,700 households to improve their livelihoods. In addition, the project supports the capacity of the Haitian Civil Registrar system to legally document more than 3,100 individuals. Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Assisting Vulnerable Women and Children in Border Areas (2016–2017)

$4.5 million Government of Canada-funded project implemented by IOM to combat child trafficking and protect Haitian migrants, especially children and women, along the border with the Dominican Republic. (26; 77) In 2017, established Border Resource Centers (CRFs) in four major border sites to identify and assist human trafficking victims. (10; 78)

Combat Child Labor in Domestic Work and the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2017–2020)*

Government of Canada-funded project, implemented by the ILO and UNICEF, to combat exploitation of child domestic workers in the regions of Port au Prince, Grande Anse, and Sud. (55) Builds the capacity of MAST to enforce child labor laws, establishing a network of 35 child protection units, and providing reintegration services to 1,700 child victims of exploitative domestic work. (79; 80)

Youth Reintegration Program (2015–2018)

$1.4 million UNDP-funded program that provides reintegration services to vulnerable youth through professional trainings, job placement services, and entrepreneurship. In 2017, supported 427 youth to obtain agriculture technician certificates from the National Institute for Professional Training. (81)

National Free Education Program (PSUGO)†

Government program to increase poor children’s access to education. Includes school grants intended to eliminate school fees and accelerated learning programs for students who are lagging in school. (61; 82) In 2017, established a partnership with the World Bank to expand program activities, including collecting statistics on quality education. (83)

UNICEF Country Program

$24 million UNICEF-funded program supporting the government’s efforts to improve education, health, social inclusion, and protection for children in Haiti. In 2017, implemented projects to protect child domestic workers from exploitation and provide reintegration and educational services to unaccompanied children returning from the Dominican Republic, as well as children affected by Hurricane Matthew. (84; 85; 86)

Government Child Shelter, Census, and National Child Protection Database†

Government program to support child protection. Through IBESR, implements the government’s regulatory framework for residential care centers (e. g., orphanages and shelters), collects information on vulnerable children, and tracks them through the National Child Protection Database. (22) Has identified almost 30,000 children residing in 770 shelters nationwide. In 2017, closed four residential care centers for abusive practices and referred the affected children to accredited orphanages. (10)

Providing an Education of Quality in Haiti (2016–2017)

$30 million World Bank-implemented program that aims to strengthen public management of the education sector, improve learning conditions, and increase enrollment of students in selected public and non-public primary schools. (87; 74)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Haiti.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. (88; 89; 81)

 

Despite IBESR’s efforts to collect information for the National Child Protection Database, it does not fully capture all relevant information, including the number of displaced street children and children engaged in domestic work. (59) Although Haiti has programs that target the worst forms of child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, particularly in domestic work, agriculture, and child trafficking. (10; 90)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Haiti (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that minimum age protections apply to children in informal employment arrangements.

2014 – 2017

Establish by law a compulsory education age equal to or higher than the minimum age for work.

2017

Clarify the minimum age for work, including for domestic work.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive and include work in hazardous agricultural environments.

2009 – 2017

Enforcement

Publish information on Labor Inspectorate funding, whether labor inspectors received adequate training, the number and type of labor inspections, and violations, penalties, prosecutions, and convictions related to child labor.

2013 – 2017

Create meaningful penalties for employing children in contravention of the Labor Code.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that the number of criminal law enforcement agents, as well as training and resources for labor and criminal enforcement agencies are sufficient to adequately enforce laws related to child labor, including its worst forms.

2013 – 2017

Authorize the inspectorate to assess penalties.

2013 – 2017

Improve institutional mechanisms and practices to ensure that child laborers identified during labor inspections or through other enforcement efforts receive appropriate social services.

2013 – 2017

Strengthen MAST’s and IBESR’s enforcement capacity by initiating targeted child protection inspections, rather than by performing inspections based solely on complaints received.

2013 – 2017

Expand the hotlines operated by BPM and IBESR to facilitate reporting of child exploitation cases in areas beyond Port-au-Prince, including in rural areas; publish information related to the number of calls related to child labor.

2013 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure that the National Tripartite Commission for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor meets regularly and takes action to fulfill its mission.

2017

Government Policies

Approve the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that appropriate funding exists to effectively implement the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons.

2016 – 2017

Ensure implementation of the National Child Protection Policy and the National Strategic Development Plan.

2017

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children by removing school-related fees in public schools; increasing the number of schools and teachers, especially in rural areas and camps near the border with the Dominican Republic; ensuring that public schools offer instruction in both French and Haitian Creole; and meeting the specific educational needs of vulnerable populations, including recent arrivals from the Dominican Republic.

2009 – 2017

Expand the National Child Protection Database, including by identifying displaced street children and children in domestic work.

2010 – 2017

Expand existing social programs to address the scope of the child labor problem, particularly in domestic work, agriculture, and child trafficking.

2010 – 2017

1. Catholic Relief Services. Rapid Child Labor Assessment. April 2015. [Source on file].

2. UN Human Rights Committee. The Plight of Restavèk (Child Domestic Servants). September 12, 2014. http://www.ijdh.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/HRC_Restavek-Sept-12.pdf.

3. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Haiti (ratification: 2007) Published: 2016. Accessed November 1, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3253455,102671,Haiti,2015.

4. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined second and third periodic reports of Haiti. Geneva. February 24, 2016: CRC/C/HTI/CO/2-3. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/035/15/PDF/G1603515.pdf?OpenElement.

5. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Person Report- 2017: Haiti. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271200.htm.

6. U.S. Embassy- Haiti. Reporting, April 2, 2018.

7. Catholic Relief Services. Baseline Study on Child Labor (Draft Report). June 2016. [Source on fie].

8. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquête Mortalité Morbidité et Utilisation des Services, 2012. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10. U.S. Embassy- Haiti. Reporting, February 13, 2018.

11. Agence France-Presse. Tourist trinkets crafted by Haiti's child artisans. Breitbart.com. May 1, 2016. http://www.breitbart.com/news/tourist-trinkets-crafted-by-haitis-child-artisans/.

12. Valmond, Fabienne. Restavèk: The Life of Haiti's Most Vulnerable Population and the Fight against Child Trafficking [Masters thesis] - George Mason University. 2015. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.884.5595&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

13. Somerfelt, Tone. Child Fosterage and Child Domestic Workers in Haiti in 2014. Fafo. 2015: Analytical Report. http://www.fafo.no/images/pub/2015/20559-web.pdf.

14. Human Rights Watch. World Report 2017: Haiti. New York. January 2017. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/haiti_1.pdf.

15. Nofi. « Restaveks », les enfants esclaves d’Haïti. February 10, 2017. https://nofi.fr/2017/02/restaveks-enfants-esclaves-dhaiti/35826.

16. Gupta, Varsha. Child Labor in Haiti - How it came about and what is its nature? Haiti now. Accessed April 29, 2017. https://www.haiti-now.org/child-labor-haiti/.

17. U.S. Embassy- Haiti. Reporting, February 8, 2016.

18. Walk Free Foundation. The Global Slavery Index- 2014: Haiti. Washington, DC. 2014. http://reporterbrasil.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/GlobalSlavery_2014_LR-FINAL.pdf.

19. Balmir, Stéphanie. Haïti: Prostitution infantile: Renforcement du cercle vicieux de la misère. Pétion-Ville: Le National. May 22, 2015. http://lenational.ht/haitiprostitution-infantile-renforcement-du-cercle-vicieux-de-la-misere/.

20. Agence France-Presse. Haiti: Dozens rescued, 12 arrested in human trafficking ring. February 6, 2017. [Source on file].

21. Moloney, Anastasia. Haiti hotel police raid exposes child sex trafficking. Reuters. February 7, 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-haiti-humantrafficking-children/haiti-hotel-police-raid-exposes-child-sex-trafficking-idUSKBN15M272.

22. U.S. Embassy- Haiti. Reporting, February 9, 2017.

23. IOM. IOM-Haiti Strategic Plan 2013-2014. 2013. https://www.iom.int/external/iom-haiti-strategic-plan-2013-2014.

24. —. Haitian Child Victims of Trafficking in Dominican Republic Receive Assistance. May 21, 2013. http://www.iom.int/news/haitian-child-victims-trafficking-dominican-republic-receive-assistance.

25. Bargent, James. Dominican Police Dismantle Haitian Child Trafficking Ring. May 20, 2013. http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/dominican-republic-haiti-child-trafficking.

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74. —. Providing an Education of Quality in Haiti (PEQH) (P155191). August 10, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report - Sequence 02. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/647071502404387101/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P155191-08-10-2017-1502404378346.pdf.

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