Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Guyana

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Guyana

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2015, Guyana made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government released findings from the 2011 Child Labor Rapid Assessment Survey and achieved its first child trafficking conviction. However, children in Guyana continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Law enforcement agencies have insufficient funding and capacity to enforce laws related to child labor, including its worst forms, and legislation does not fully protect children. Moreover, the Government does not have a comprehensive policy to combat child labor or targeted social programs to fully address the extent of the problem.

Expand All

Children in Guyana are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-12) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Guyana.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

23.0 (44,787)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

94.5

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

23.2

Primary completion rate (%):

84.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(13)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 20062007.(14)

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including the production of rice* (2-4, 7-10, 12, 15-18)

Forestry,* including logging,*† preservation of lumber,* and work in sawmills*† (2-4, 7-10, 16)

Fishing,† activities unknown (3, 4, 10, 15)

Industry

Construction,*† activities unknown (3, 10)

Mining,† including gold mining*† (1-4, 7-10, 15, 16, 19-21)

Services

Domestic work* (3, 10, 12)

Working in scrap iron yards* (12)

Working in family stores, bars and restaurants (3, 10, 12, 22)

Street work, including vending and begging (3, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (1-12, 16-18, 23)

Planting marijuana* (12)

Domestic servitude* (10, 11)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children in Guyana, including girls as young as age 12, are involved in commercial sexual exploitation in Georgetown and in the country’s interior. There are reports of young girls being subjected to commercial sexual exploitation in mining communities as a result of human trafficking.(5-7, 11, 12) In 2011, with assistance from the ILO, the Government conducted a Child Labor Rapid Assessment Survey to better understand the nature of child labor in the country.(24) In October 2015, the Ministry of Social Protection released the findings of the survey, which found that many children work on farms, sell produce in the streets, and are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation.(9, 17, 18)

The 2011 Child Labor Rapid Assessment Survey indicated that 40 percent of working children ages 5 to 15 did not attend school.(12) Although the Constitution of Guyana guarantees free education, some primary schools continue to charge fees and have even attempted to prevent children who cannot pay from attending school.(25) In efforts to address this problem, the Ministry of Education has publicized guidance advising parents and educators that only the Parent Teacher Association has the authority to approve and collect fees from parents, and that no child may be excluded from school for non-payment.(25) Additionally, children in Guyana’s interior and rural areas have limited access to education due to poor infrastructure, transportation costs, and a shortage of trained and qualified teachers. This leads to decreasing enrollment and high dropout rates among students.(12, 26)

Guyana has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Articles 2–3 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act; Articles 17–22 of the Education Act (1, 27, 28)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Part 1, Article 2 and Part 2, Article 3 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act; Articles 17, 41, 46, and 75 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (27, 29)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

List of Hazardous Occupation and Processes in Guyana; Part 1, Article 2 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act; Articles 17, 41, and 75 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (15, 30-32)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 40 of the Constitution; Article 3 of the Combatting of Trafficking in Persons Act (33, 34)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act (34)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 50(3) of the Protection of Children Act (35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 50(1) of the Protection of Children Act (35)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 18 of the Defense Act (36, 37)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Articles 13 and 22 of the Education Act (28)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 27 of the Constitution (33)

* No conscription (8, 38)

Although the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act prohibits night work in industrial undertakings, and hazardous work for anyone under age 18, the law does not fully protect adolescents ages 16 and 17 from engaging in hazardous work. Part 1, Article 2 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act only prohibits night work for minors employed in industry and provides an exception allowing adolescents ages 16 and over to perform certain work requiring continuity through day and night, including gold mining reduction work and the production of iron, steel, glass, paper, and raw sugar, without provisions to ensure that their health, safety, and morals are fully protected or that they receive specific instruction or training in these activities.(27)

While Article 351 of the Criminal Law Offences Act prohibits the selling, publishing, and exhibiting of obscene material, Guyanese law does not sufficiently prohibit the commercial sexual exploitation of children, as laws related to prostitution, pornography, and pornographic performances do not prohibit the use, procuring, and offering of a child for each of these purposes.(3, 16, 34, 39, 40)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Social Protection

Monitor and enforce child labor laws in collaboration with the Ministry of Education; Forestry Commission; Geology and Mines Commission; National Insurance Scheme; and Guyana Police Force. The chief labor officer handles special investigations stemming from child labor complaints and oversees routine labor inspections.(9, 16) Includes the Childcare and Protection Agency, to which children identified during labor inspections are referred.(9)

Guyana Police Force

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor, including human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children in illicit activities. Works in consultation with the Director of Public Prosecutions; the Ministry of Public Security; the Ministry of Social Protection; the Ministry of Education; and the Ministry of Indigenous Peoples’ Affairs, depending on the circumstances of each case.(9)

Ministry of Public Security

Lead enforcement of human trafficking laws. Chair the Ministerial Task Force on Combating Trafficking in Persons.(9)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Guyana took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (16)

Unknown (9)

Number of Labor Inspectors

18 (16)

18 (9)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

Unknown

Unknown

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (9)

Yes (9)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (9)

Number of Labor Inspections

597 (16)

892 (9)

Number Conducted at Worksite

597 (16)

892 (9)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

0 (9)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (16)

N/A

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A (16)

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (9)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (9)

Yes (9)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (9)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (9)

Yes (9)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (9)

Yes (9)

 

According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Guyana should employ roughly 21 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(41-43) The Ministry of Social Protection reported that funds in 2015 were insufficient to carry out inspections.(9) In particular, the Ministry of Social Protection noted the lack of inspections in gold mining areas and stated that there are sometimes delays in accessing the resources necessary for inspections in remote areas.(9, 16) During the last quarter of 2015, however, the Ministry of Social Protection received funding for child labor inspections in several remote villages.(9)

The Government has acknowledged challenges in monitoring and enforcing the provisions established in Articles 41 and 46 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, which aim to protect children from work that may harm their physical health or emotional development.(44)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Guyana took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (45)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (31)

7 (46)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

4 (31)

4 (46)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

1 (45)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (9)

Yes (9)

 

In September 2015, the Government of Guyana issued the country’s first conviction with full remediation, including imprisonment and restitution, for the crime of human trafficking of a minor. The offender received a sentence of 3 years’ imprisonment and a $500 fine.(47) In December 2015, the Trafficking in Persons Unit of the Ministry of Social Protection rescued two underage girls working in a bar. Additionally, during the reporting period, the Guyana Police Force identified 16 child victims of human trafficking.(22)

The Government has acknowledged that there is an insufficient number of staff within the Trafficking in Persons Unit.(45) In general, the Government’s capacity to carry out prosecutions is limited. With only 33 justices and magistrates, the courts have a backlog of cases and more than a 2-year waiting period on all legal matters.(4, 7-9, 48) Furthermore, human trafficking victims may be charged for crimes occurring as a result of their being exploited, if authorities do not identify them as victims of human trafficking.(49)

Although the Government has established the Ministerial Task Force on Combating Trafficking in Persons, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Ministerial Task Force on Combating Trafficking in Persons

Report on the nature and magnitude of trafficking in persons in Guyana, document the Government’s response, and carry out public education and prevention measures.(50) Combats commercial sexual exploitation of children and the use of children in illicit activities through member agencies.(9) Chaired by the Minister of Public Security. Other members include the Ministries of Amerindian Affairs, Natural Resources and Environment, Education, Legal Affairs, and Foreign Affairs.(9, 16) Did not meet in 2015, in part due to restructuring delays after the general elections.(9)

National Tripartite Committee

Address national labor legislation and policy. Includes representatives from government agencies, labor unions, and employers, including the Ministry of Social Protection, the Consultative Association of Guyanese Industries, the Guyana Trades Union Congress, and the Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Guyana.(9, 46, 51)

Commission on the Rights of the Child

Protect and promote children’s rights in accordance with the UN CRC, which includes addressing the worst forms of child labor.(9) In 2015, the Ministry of Social Protection hosted a forum to discuss the implementation of systems to combat child labor and raise awareness of the problem.(9)

 

The Government of Guyana has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Five-year Strategic Plan on the Rights of the Child

(2012–2017)*

Protects and promotes children’s rights in Guyana and advances the UN CRC.(4)

National Education Policy*

Aims to provide equal access to quality education for all children and eliminate barriers to education, especially for the poor.(52)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014–2020)

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories’ efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013) and signed by Guyana at the ILO’s 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru (October 2014).(53, 54)

Ministerial Task Force on Combatting Trafficking in Persons Action Plan (2014–2015)

Seeks to prevent and raise awareness of human trafficking, provide direct assistance to victims, improve law enforcement’s capacity to identify and respond to human trafficking, and strengthen interagency coordination and referral mechanisms.(49, 55)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

In December 2015, Guyana participated in the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to promote decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas. Held in Cancún, Mexico, participating countries adopted the Declaration of Cancún 2015, which aims in part to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and to promote education and vocational training for youth.(56, 57) Participating countries also adopted a Plan of Action that prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and development of social protection policies for children and families.(56, 58)

According to the Ministry of Social Protection, the Government of Guyana does not have a comprehensive written strategy for combating and responding to child labor.(9, 16)

In 2015, the Government of Guyana funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Human Trafficking Hotline†

Government-funded hotline to assist human trafficking victims.(7)

Shelter for Domestic Violence Victims†

Government-funded, NGO-run shelter that houses victims of domestic violence and human trafficking. Provides services, including psychological counseling and practical skills training.(8) Accommodates teenage girls under age 16 who are placed at the shelter at the request of the Government’s Childcare and Protection Agency.(16) Receives $50,000 annually from the Government.(23)

School Meals and Uniforms†

Government program to provide hot meals to 16,000 students at schools in the interior, and transportation for students in several remote areas. All students in Government-run schools, from nursery to secondary school, receive vouchers to purchase school uniforms, shoes, and backpacks.(2, 4, 9, 59-61)

Child Advocacy Center

 

Ministry of Social Protection and NGO partnership to provide services for abused children. Overseen and referrals made to the center by the Ministry of Social Protection’s Childcare and Protection Agency; funded by private sector donations.(49, 62)

Board of Industrial Training†

Attempts to deter early school dropouts by providing job skills to at-risk youth between ages 15 and 17 who may not be able to complete their formal education.(9)

† Program is funded by the Government of Guyana.

The scope of government programs to target the worst forms of child labor is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(9, 16) In particular, government resources provided to victims of human trafficking are inadequate.(23)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Guyana (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law fully protects all children under age 18 from engaging in hazardous work, including night work.

2010 – 2015

Ensure that the law sufficiently prohibits the commercial sexual exploitation of children by prohibiting the use, procuring, and offering of a child for prostitution, pornography, or pornographic performances.

2010 – 2015

Enforcement

Hire a sufficient number of labor inspectors to effectively enforce laws related to child labor.

2015

Make information publicly available on the labor inspectorate’s funding, the training system for labor inspectors, the number of inspections conducted by desk review, and whether inspections are routinely targeted.

2015

Ensure sufficient resources are allocated in a timely manner to facilitate labor inspections, particularly in remote areas and in gold mining areas.

2011 – 2015

Ensure the appropriate application of Articles 41 and 46 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

2015

Make information publically available on the training system for investigators and the number of criminal labor violations found.

2015

Dedicate more resources, including judicial personnel, to investigate and prosecute court cases related to the worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2015

Ensure that victims of human trafficking are not charged for committing crimes as a result of being subjected to human trafficking.

2014 – 2015

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including its worst forms, and ensure these bodies engage in regular meetings and coordination efforts.

2014 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the 5-Year Strategic Plan on the Rights of the Child and the National Education Policy.

2010 – 2015

Establish a comprehensive strategy for combating child labor.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Ensure children are not prevented from attending school because of transportation costs or failure to pay school fees.

2014 – 2015

Increase the number of trained and qualified teachers, particularly in rural and interior areas.

2015

Develop new initiatives and expand existing programs to reach all children involved in the worst forms of child labor; in particular, increase funding to identify and assist victims of human trafficking.

2010 – 2015

 

1.         U.S. Embassy- Georgetown. reporting, January 7, 2011.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Georgetown. reporting, February 3, 2012.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Guyana," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Georgetown. reporting, February 28, 2013.

5.         Ministry of Labour Human Services and Social Security. Girls' Day Forum Puts Spotlight on Prostitution, Ministry of Labour Human Services and Social Security, [previously online] October 24, 2012 [cited October 24, 2012]; http://www.mlhsss.gov.gy/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=525:girls-day-forum-puts-spotlight-on-prostitution&catid=2:news&Itemid=45 [source on file].

6.         KNews. "Four Minors Rescued from Sexual Slavery." kaieteurnewsonline.com [online] April 22, 2012 [cited January 9, 2012]; http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2012/04/22/four-minors-rescued-from-sexual-slavery/.

7.         U.S. Department of State. "Guyana," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013/index.htm.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Georgetown. reporting, January 31, 2014.

9.         U.S. Embassy- Georgetown. reporting, February 17, 2016.

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Guyana," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236576.pdf.

11.       U.S. Department of State. "Guyana," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243559.pdf.

12.       ILO-IPEC and Ministry of Labour Human Services and Social Security of Guyana. Guyana National Child Labour Rapid Assessment Survey 2011. Georgetown; 2013.

13.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16,2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

14.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Permanente de Hogares (EPH), 2014. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

15.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Guyana (ratification: 1998) Submitted: 2011; accessed January 25, 2012; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO::: [source on file].

16.       U.S. Embassy- Georgetown. reporting, February 11, 2015.

17.       Associated Press. "Guyana reports 'troubling' prevalence of child labour." news24.com [online] October 22, 2015 [cited November 17, 2015]; http://www.news24.com/World/News/Guyana-reports-troubling-prevalence-of-child-labour-20151022.

18.       Government of Guyana. Social Protection Ministry setting up unit to tackle child labour, Government Information Agency, [previously online] [cited December 9, 2015]; http://www.gina.gov.gy/home/index.php/home/all-news/item/3779-social-protection-ministry-setting-up-unit-to-tackle-child-labour [source on file].

19.       Inter-American Development Bank. Section 4.2 Socio-Economic Baseline: Amaila Falls Hydroelectric Project. Washington, DC; January 2011. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=36216595.

20.       Stabroek News. "Teen Miner Murdered at Cuyuni Backdam." stabroeknews.com [online] November 13, 2012 [cited January 9, 2012]; http://www.stabroeknews.com/2012/news/stories/11/13/teen-miner-murdered-at-cuyuni-backdam/.

21.       Fox News, Associated Press. "NGO Says it Rescued a Child 'No Older than 8' from Remote Guyana Gold Mining Camp." foxnews.com [online] November 5, 2012 [cited April 5, 2016]; http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/11/05/ngo-says-it-rescued-child-no-older-than-8-from-remote-guyana-gold-mining-camp.html.

22.       U.S. Embassy- Georgetown. reporting, December 31, 2015.

23.       U.S. Embassy- Georgetown. reporting, February 17, 2015.

24.       Government of Guyana. Contributions to the OHCHR Study on Children Working and/or Living on the Streets. Georgetown; October 2, 2011. www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Children/Study/Guyana.doc.

25.       U.S. Embassy- Georgetown official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 3, 2013.

26.       UN Economic and Social Council. Concluding observations on the combined second to fourth periodic reports of Guyana; 2015. Report No. E/C.12/GUY/CO/2-4. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E/C.12/GUY/CO/2-4&Lang=En.

27.       Government of Guyana. Employment of Young Persons and Children Act (Chapter 99:01) [consolidated up to 1973], No. 14, enacted 1933. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/597/cap9901Employment%20of%20Young%20Persons%20and%20Children[1].pdf.

28.       Government of Guyana. Education Act, Chapter 39:01, enacted 1998. [source on file].

29.       Government of Guyana. Occupational Safety and Health Act, Chapter 99:10, enacted 1997. http://blue.lim.ilo.org/cariblex/pdfs/Guyana_OSH.pdf.

30.       KNews. "ILO Report Finds Prostitution in Local Secondary Schools." kaieteurnewsonline.com [online] July 12, 2009 [cited January 9. 2012]; http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2009/07/12/ilo-report-finds-prostitution-in-local-secondary-schools/.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Georgetown official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 17 2015.

32.       Government of Guyana. Labour Laws PrimerMinistry of Labor, Human Services and Social Security; April 21, 2015. http://www.mlhsss.gov.gy/Manual-Version2.pdf [source on file].

33.       Government of Guyana. The Constitution of Guyana, 1980 with 1996 Reforms, enacted 1996. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Guyana/guyana96.html.

34.       Government of Guyana. Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act 2005, enacted 2005. http://parliament.gov.gy/documents/acts/4653-act_no._2_of_2005.pdf.

35.       Government of Guyana. Protection of Children Act, No. 17, enacted 2009. [source on file].

36.       Government of Guyana. Defense Ammendment Act, enacted 2011. [source on file].

37.       Government of Guyana. Defense Act, enacted 1998. http://www.gdf.mil.gy/files/cap1501.pdf.

38.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary Table on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

39.       Government of Guyana. Criminal Law (Offences) Act, Chapter 8:01, enacted 1998. [source on file].

40.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Guyana (ratification: 2001) Submitted: 2011; accessed November 9, 2011; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO::: [source on file].

41.       Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook, CIA, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

42.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. Report No. GB.297/ESP/3. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

43.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

44.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning the Minimum Age Convention (No. 138), adopted 2014, Guyana (ratification: 1998) Published: 2015; accessed November 10, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3174813:YES.

45.       U.S. Embassy- Georgetown. reporting, February 2, 2016.

46.       U.S. Embassy- Georgetown official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 30, 2016.

47.       U.S. Embassy- Georgetown. reporting, January 29, 2016.

48.       U.S. Embassy- Georgetown. reporting, June 27, 2011.

49.       U.S. Embassy- Georgetown official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. December 4, 2014.

50.       Ministry of Labour Human Services and Social Security. Inter-Agency Task Force Launches TIP Report, Government of Guyana, [previously online] January 9, 2012 [cited January 9, 2012]; http://www.mlhsss.gov.gy/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=71%3Ainter-agency-task-force-launches-tip-report&catid=11%3Alabour-issues&Itemid=1 [source on file].

51.       ILO. Decent Work Country Programme of Guyana (2012-2015). http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/guyana.pdf.

52.       Government of Guyana. National Development Strategy Chapter 20: Educational Policy Government of Guyana, [previously online] [cited March 31, 2016]; http://www.guyana.org/NDS/chap20.htm [source on file].

53.       ILO. "18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean Sign a Declaration to Free the Region from Child Labour." ilo.org [online] October 17, 2014 [cited December 1, 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/caribbean/WCMS_314428/lang--en/index.htm.

54.       United Nations News Centre. "At UN-backed forum, Latin American, Caribbean nations pledge robust efforts against child labour." un.org [online] October 15, 2014 [cited 2014]; http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=49082#.VHyeYdLF98E.

55.       Government of Guyana. National Plan of Action for the Prevention and Response to Trafficking in Persons: 2014-2015 Georgetown. [source on file].

56.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - List of Participants, [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_IIPreparatoryXIX_IACML.asp [source on file].

57.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Declaration of Cancún 2015: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1 [source on file].

58.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Plan of Action of Cancún: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1 [source on file].

59.       "Strides Being Made in Combating TIP " Guyana Times, Georgetown, November 26, 2011. [source on file].

60.       ILO-IPEC News. "Labour Ministry Launches School Retention and Child Labour Prevention Programme." ilo.org [online] November 28, 2011 [cited January 23, 2012]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/tackle/guyana/WCMS_191933/lang--en/index.htm.

61.       Government of Guyana. Highlights of Guyana's Efforts in the Fight against Child Labour during 2013 Georgetown; January 10, 2014. [source on file].

62.       "Pact signed for setting up Child Advocacy Centre " Guyana Times, Georgetown, September 26, 2013. [source on file].

Related Content