Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Ghana

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Ghana

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Ghana made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government issued a legislative instrument to implement the Human Trafficking Act, which includes provisions for establishing care centers and providing social services to child trafficking victims. It also launched five new social programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor and announced a Child and Family Welfare Policy that aims to improve child protection. However, children in Ghana continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in fishing and harvesting cocoa. The Government has not ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography. Additionally, resource constraints severely limited the Government’s ability to fully implement policies and social programs during the reporting period. The Government of Ghana also has not provided any funding for anti-trafficking enforcement efforts or programs to protect victims of human trafficking.

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Children in Ghana are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in fishing and harvesting cocoa.(1-12) According to a report by Tulane University that assessed data collected during the 2013–2014 harvest season, there were an estimated 918,543 child laborers ages 5 to 17 in the cocoa sector, which represents a 6.4 percent decline in the number of child workers in cocoa production since the 2008–2009 harvest season.(13) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Ghana.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

24.7 (1,721,914)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

78.7

Industry

3.7

Services

17.6

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

91.7

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

25.3

Primary completion rate (%):

101.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(14)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Living Standard Survey, Round 6, 2012–2013.(15) Data on working children, school attendance, and children combining work and school are not comparable with data published in the previous version of this report because of differences between surveys used to collect the data.

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Land clearing,* using machetes and cutlasses for weeding, collecting cocoa pods with a harvesting hook, breaking cocoa pods, working in the vicinity of pesticide spraying, and carrying heavy loads† of water in the production of cocoa (4-7, 13, 16)

Herding livestock* (17)

Fishing for tilapia, and to a lesser extent for mudfish,* catfish,* and electric fish,* including preparing bait, nets,* and fishing gear;* launching, paddling,† and draining canoes;† diving for fish;† casting and pulling fishing nets† and untangling them underwater; sorting, picking, cleaning, smoking, transporting,* and selling fish; cleaning and repairing nets; and building and repairing boats* (2, 3, 6, 8-12, 18-21)

Industry

Quarrying† and small-scale mining,† sometimes for gold, including using mercury,* digging in deep pits, crushing rocks by hand, carrying heavy loads,*† and machine operation*† (6, 18, 20, 22-27)

Bricklaying* (17)

Services

Domestic work* (18, 20)

Transporting heavy loads as kayayes (mainly girls who carry loads on their head)† (10, 18, 20, 28, 29)

Electronic waste and garbage scavenging,* including sorting scavenged items and transporting items for sale (30-37)

Street work, including begging* and hawking* (18, 38)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (20, 21, 39, 40)

Forced begging and forced labor in agriculture; fishing, including for tilapia; artisanal gold mining; domestic work; and street work, including vending and carrying heavy loads, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (2, 3, 10, 12, 16, 21, 39-47)

Forced ritual service for girls known as trokosi (10, 20, 28, 39, 41, 48)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Some girls in the Greater Accra and Volta Regions are involved in a form of ritual servitude whereby families give a young girl to officials of a local shrine in atonement for their family members’ sins.(10, 28, 39, 48) These girls, known as trokosi, perform tasks such as fetching water, maintaining the shrines, and working on the priest’s land. Their basic needs often go unmet, and they frequently suffer sexual and physical abuse.(10, 48) Girls also work as kayayes, a term for children who carry heavy loads on their heads. There has been an increase in the number of young girls from the Northern Region migrating to Accra for this reason.(39, 49)

Ghana is a source, transit, and destination country for the trafficking of children for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor, including in fishing.(2, 39, 41, 50) Children are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation, particularly in the Volta and Western Regions.(39, 41) Research found that child trafficking within Ghana was more predominant than transnational child trafficking.(3, 12, 39, 47, 51) Ghanaian children are also transported to neighboring countries in West Africa, as well as to Europe and the Middle East, for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation.(38, 39, 41, 52)

According to the Constitution and Education Act, primary education is free and compulsory from kindergarten through junior high school in Ghana.(53, 54) There is no upper age limit for free basic education, although most children typically complete junior high school at age 15.(54, 55) The Government has taken measures to increase access to education by providing free uniforms and books to some children.(11) However, in practice, children must pay for school uniforms, fees, and materials, which may be prohibitive for many families.(2, 9, 10, 26, 30, 56, 57) In addition, although children are not required to have birth certificates and uniforms to attend school, those who lack these items are often turned away by school authorities.(56) Additionally, some children, especially girls, are reported to be sexually assaulted and harassed by teachers or classmates.(56, 58) Moreover, the shortage of classrooms, overcrowding in urban schools, and poor educational infrastructure, particularly in rural areas, severely limits access to education for many children.(2, 26, 59)

Ghana has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Section 89 of the Children’s Act (60)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 91 of the Children’s Act (60)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations and/or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Articles 28.1d, 28.2, and 28.5 of the Constitution; Article 7 of the Labor Regulations Legislative Instrument; Sections 91 and 92 of the Children’s Act; Article 58 of the Labor Act (53, 60-62)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 16.1 and 16.2 of the Constitution; Articles 116 and 117 of the Labor Act; Sections 1–3 and 42 of the Human Trafficking Act; Sections 1 and 2 of the Human Trafficking Prohibition Legislative Instrument (53, 61, 63, 64)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 1 and 2 of the Human Trafficking Act; Sections 1 and 2 of the Human Trafficking Prohibition L.I.; Articles 21–25 of the Labor Regulations Legislative Instrument (62, 63)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 107, 108, 110, 111, 274–277, and 279–283 of the Criminal Code; Section 101A of the Criminal Offenses Act; Article 7(2) of the Labor Regulations Legislative Instrument (62, 65, 66)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

                                                                     

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Armed Forces Regulations (Administration) Volume I (55, 67, 68)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 2.2 of the Education Act (54, 55)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 25.1.a of the Constitution; Articles 1.1, 1.2, and 2.2 of the Education Act (53, 54)

* No conscription (69)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (55)

On November 11, 2015, a legislative instrument necessary to implement the Human Trafficking Act entered into force that establishes care centers and social services provisions for child victims of human trafficking.(17, 64) The types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover lake fishing, an area of work where there is evidence of children working underwater, for long hours, and at night.(60, 62) Although Ghana has two Hazardous Activities Frameworks which include additional types of hazardous activities prohibited to children, neither is considered a legal instrument and no penalties can be imposed for violations of the activities listed in the Frameworks.(70) Additionally, Ghana’s laws do not criminally prohibit the use of a child in pornographic performances, or an individual benefiting from the proceeds of child pornography.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations (MELR)

Enforce all labor laws and oversee child protection committees at the district level.(10, 26, 56, 71) Implement the Ghana Child Labor Monitoring System (GCLMS) through the National Program for the Elimination of Child Labor in Cocoa (NPECLC).(6, 26, 55, 72-74)

District Assembly’s District Social Welfare Officer and Social Services Subcommittee

Ensure that child labor laws are enforced, perform spot checks at workplaces, and investigate child labor violations in the informal sector. Provide employers with information on how to comply with child labor laws.(2, 56, 75)

Ghana Police Service (GPS)

Make arrest, conduct investigations, and prosecute cases related to the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking. Enforce anti-trafficking laws through the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit (AHTU) of the Criminal Investigation Division, which leads the Government’s efforts to implement the 2005 Human Trafficking Act throughout Ghana.(10, 39, 41, 55, 76) Provide support services to victims, such as repatriation and reintegration services, operate a 24/7 phone line for reporting crimes, and maintain a Web site to promote awareness about human trafficking.(12, 39, 51, 55) The Domestic Violence and Victims Support Unit, which also operates throughout Ghana, works with the AHTU to investigate cases of child trafficking.(39, 47, 55)

Economic and Organized Crime Office’s Human Trafficking Unit

Share responsibility with the GPS’s AHTU for investigating and prosecuting cases of human trafficking. Recover proceeds of human trafficking and provide ongoing training on preventing human trafficking.(39)

Office of the Attorney General

Prosecute child labor and child trafficking crimes.(55, 76)

Minerals Commission

Inspect unlicensed mining sites, identify cases of child labor, and conduct awareness-raising activities on Ghana’s legal framework in the mining sector in parallel with criminal law enforcement agencies.(26)

Ministry of Gender, Children, and Social Protection (MOGCSP)

Protect women and children’s rights; ensure compliance with international standards in relation to gender, children, and social protection.(77) In the case of the MOGCSP’s Department for Social Welfare (DSW), operate shelters for vulnerable children, administer juvenile justice, and implement cross-sectoral programs on social protection to combat child labor, including the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) cash transfer program.(18, 77, 78) In the case of the MOGCSP’s Human Trafficking Secretariat, oversee the creation, implementation, and review of Ghana’s human trafficking policies and ensure proper monitoring, evaluation, and data collection.(39, 55)

Ghana Immigration Service

Maintain a desk at headquarters in Accra, as well as 10 regional desks throughout the country, each staffed with 10–15 officers who work on human trafficking cases. Conduct regular internal trainings on trafficking issues, which includes institutionalized training on human trafficking at its training academy.(39)

MOGCSP Community Child Protection Committees (CCPCs)

Participate in the GCLMS to monitor, prevent, and withdraw children from the worst forms of child labor in cocoa, as well as other sectors, in more than 600 communities nationwide as part of the Child and Family Welfare Policy.(17, 38, 55, 57) Report cases to the GPS, DSW, or traditional authorities, who work with the police to launch investigations.(26, 55, 71)

 

Although the Attorney General’s office is responsible for prosecuting child trafficking violations, in practice it is left to the prosecutors of the Ghana Police Service (GPS), who have no formal legal training. Additionally, coordination among the agencies responsible for enforcing child labor laws is weak.(55, 76)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Ghana took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (18)

Unknown* (55)

Number of Labor Inspectors

97 (18)

97 (55)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (18)

No (55)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (55)

Yes (55)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A (55)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (18)

Unknown (55, 79)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown (18, 80)

317 (55)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

317 (55)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

0 (55)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (18, 80)

Unknown (55)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (18, 80)

Unknown (55)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown (18, 80)

Unknown (55)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (18)

Yes (55)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (18, 80)

No (55)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (61)

Yes (55)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (55)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (1)

Yes (55)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (1, 55)

Yes (55)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

The labor inspectorate does not receive dedicated funding to conduct inspections, and research indicated that resources dedicated to combating child labor are generally insufficient.(26, 55, 56) According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Ghana should employ roughly 751 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(81-83) The Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations (MELR) acknowledges that the current number of labor inspectors is insufficient.(26, 55) Additionally, not all new inspectors received training on laws related to child labor and enforcement during the reporting period.(55) Additional training is needed to support improved communication, including the use of basic information technology, effective labor inspections, enhanced understanding of labor laws, and improved report writing.(17, 18) Research indicates that few cases of child labor violations are reported, and even fewer cases result in prosecution because judges, police, and labor officials are sometimes unfamiliar with the provisions of the laws that protect children.(55, 56, 84) In addition, it is not known how many cases of child labor were identified as a result of calls made to the GPS’s 24/7 hotline.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Ghana took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (18, 84, 85)

No (55)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (18, 84, 85)

No (39, 55)

Number of Investigations

94 (80, 84, 86)

132 (55)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (18)

Unknown* (55)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

15 (80, 84, 86)

Unknown (55, 79)

Number of Convictions

6 (80, 84, 86)

0 (55)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (18, 84)

Yes (55)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

During the reporting period, the GPS’s Anti-Human Trafficking Unit (AHTU) employed approximately 102 investigators. This number is insufficient to allow the AHTU to carry out its mandate.(47, 55, 84) The Government did not provide an operating budget to the law enforcement agencies responsible for anti-human trafficking issues during the reporting period.(39, 76) As a result, the AHTU primarily relied on foreign donors and NGOs to support its enforcement efforts.(39, 55) For the fifth consecutive year, the Government did not provide prosecutors with training on human trafficking issues, despite acknowledging the need for such training.(39) Additionally, the Government considers cases to be in prosecution when the initial investigation has concluded. Thus, prosecutions may refer to instances in which a suspect is not in custody and the case is not actively being tried.(79)

Data related to human trafficking are not collected systemically, and information is often not conveyed from regional offices to the headquarters in Accra.(39) Poor coordination among law enforcement agencies also hindered the Government’s efforts to combat human trafficking.(39) During the reporting period, law enforcement, in cooperation with NGOs and international organizations, rescued an unknown number of victims of child trafficking from Lake Volta. These child trafficking victims had been engaged in forced labor in fishing and domestic work.(76, 87, 88) The Domestic Violence and Victims Support Unit and the AHTU work together to refer victims of child trafficking to social services providers. However, there is no referral system for the victims of other worst forms of child labor.(79)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor (NSCCL)

Oversee coordination, implementation, and monitoring of the National Plan of Action (NPA) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and programs targeting the worst forms of child labor, including reviewing and endorsing project proposals and supporting the implementation of the GCLMS.(39, 55, 74, 89-91) The GCLMS is a coordinated government approach to combat child labor by identifing, preventing, and protecting children engaged in chlid labor, and refering victims to social services providers. In addition, the GCLMS collects data related to child labor and uses this information to inform laws and policies.(39, 74) The NSCCL is led by the MELR’s Child Labor Unit (CLU) and includes three subcommittees: (1) Policy Advisory, Education, and Skills Training; (2) Advocacy, Social Mobilization, and Child Labor Monitoring; and (3) Cocoa, Fisheries, and Mining and Quarrying.(2, 10, 39, 55, 74, 91, 92) Other members include representatives from the ministries of the Interior, Food and Agriculture, Education, Local Government and Rural Development, Women and Children’s Affairs, and Employment and Social Welfare; employers’ and workers’ organizations; NGOs; the Ghana Cocoa Board; and international organizations.(55, 74, 92) In 2015, drafted a new NPA for 2016–2020, which is awaiting validation from a technical working group before being formally adopted.(17)

MELR’s CLU

Coordinate child labor issues and provide technical support to ministries, departments and agencies, employers’ and workers’ organizations, and international agencies such as the ILO, IOM, and UNICEF.(2, 55, 75) In 2015, developed a child labor survey.(26)

Human Trafficking Management Board (HTMB)

Meet quarterly and includes representatives from the police, immigration officials, local government, ministries of Health and Education, NGOs, and a parliamentarian, among others. Chaired by the MOGCSP’s Human Trafficking Secretariat.(39, 55, 76) Advise the MOGCSP on human trafficking policy; rehabilitate and re-integrate victims; and oversee the Human Trafficking Fund, which provides financial support to victims, including children.(39, 55, 63, 64) In 2015, submitted the final draft of the legislative instrument for implementing the Human Trafficking Act to Parliament. The legislative instrument went into effect during the reporting period.(17, 76)

National Partners Forum

Discuss and coordinate interventions to address the worst forms of child labor in the cocoa sector.(55) Convened by NPECLC and comprised of district assemblies, NGOs, trade unions, and civil society organizations. Members are required to submit quarterly reports to NPECLC.(55)

 

In 2015, the NSCCL met three times and the HTMB met twice. However, research was unable to determine whether the National Partners Forum met.(17, 76, 79, 93) Additionally, it is not known how much funding the CLU received during the reporting period, although research indicates that it was insufficient to carry out all planned activities.

The Government of Ghana has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action (NPA) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2009–2015)

Provided a comprehensive framework to significantly reduce the worst forms of child labor by 2015 and identified specific roles for various ministries, NGOs, and civil society.(2, 55, 75) Aimed to reduce all forms of child labor but prioritized nine key sectors: child trafficking, trokosi, mining and quarrying, fishing, commercial sexual exploitation, kayayes and carrying heavy loads, agriculture, domestic work, and street vending.(84) Helped coordinate 23 institutions and government agencies to combat child labor through data collection and analysis.(6, 94) Led by the CLU under the supervision of the NSCCL.(55) In 2015, reviewed complaint and response mechanisms among responsible agencies for inclusion in standard operating procedures.(17)

Hazardous Child Labor Activity Frameworks

Created by working groups and includes both the Hazardous Child Labor Activity Framework and the Hazardous Child Labor Activity Framework for the Cocoa Sector. Both frameworks were developed in consultation with workers’ and employers’ organizations and prohibit hazardous activities for children.(95, 96)

ECOWAS Regional Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor, Especially the Worst Forms (2013–2015)

Aimed to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in West Africa by 2015 through the implementation of a regional action plan with 14 other ECOWAS countries.(97) Ghana did not participate in any activities under this policy in 2015.(79)

2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol (2010 Declaration) and Its Accompanying Framework of Action

Joint declaration by the Governments of Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and the United States, and the International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry.(89, 98, 99) Provides resources and coordinates with key stakeholders on efforts to reduce the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-producing areas.(98, 99) Ensures that all project efforts implemented under the Declaration and Framework align with Ghana’s national action plans in order to promote coherence and sustainability.(89, 98, 99)

Ministry of Food and Agriculture’s Child Labor Strategic Plan (2013–2015)

Aimed to improve coordination and monitored implementation of efforts to address child labor in agriculture, including in the cocoa and fishing subsectors, by 2015. Worked with farmers and fishermen to increase their livelihoods and their awareness of child labor.(100, 101)

Child and Family Welfare Policy†

Aims to strengthen social protection for children, improve interministerial coordination, and empower youth.(26, 47, 55) Led by the MOGCSP, this policy formalizes the referral of child protection cases, including the worst forms of child labor, between the police and the Social Welfare and Community Development Department.(47)

UNDAF Action Plan (2012–2016)

Aims to provide education or vocational training opportunities to 5,000 children ages 5 to 17 who have been withdrawn or are prevented from engaging in child labor.(102)

Education Strategic Plan (2003–2015)*

Sought to improve access to and the quality of education by 2015, particularly at the primary level, by increasing opportunities for out-of-school and hard-to-reach children, providing scholarships to needy students, and improving education infrastructure.(103)

Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (F-CUBE)*

Aims to enable all children in Ghana to attend primary school by improving educational quality, improving access to education, raising the enrollment of hard-to-reach and out-of-school children, and increasing the management efficiency of the education sector.(18, 103)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, overlapping objectives and poor coordination hindered the effective implementation of policies.(20, 78) There were no formal activities conducted under the ECOWAS Regional Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor in 2015, but the Government of Ghana continued to share its anti-human trafficking efforts with other ECOWAS states.(39) Although the Government of Ghana conducted awareness-raising activities in support of the NPA, the Government did not allocate any funding to these activities.(39, 55) A lack of resources and personnel continue to limit full implementation of the NPA, and children remain at risk for hazardous labor.(55)

In 2015, the Government of Ghana funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

 

Towards Child Labor Free Cocoa Growing Communities in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana Through an Integrated Area-Based Approach (2010–2015)

$10 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by the ILO. In support of the 2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol aimed at reducing the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-producing areas in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana by providing direct services to communities.(99, 104) In Ghana, worked with the Government to develop and implement community action plans, improve educational outcomes, and support the GCLMS in cocoa-growing areas.(90, 105) In 2015, launched the Occupational Health, Safety, and Environment Manual and Child Labor Strategic Document, which includes modules on hazardous child labor in cocoa and child protection.(106) By the end of the project in 2015, withdrew and prevented 2,682 children from child labor situations and provided livelihood assistance to 1,200 households in Ghana.(107)

 

Survey on Child Labor in West African Cocoa-Growing Areas (2012–2015)

$1.9 million USDOL-funded, 3-year research project implemented by the Payson Center for International Development at Tulane University. Supported the collection of nationally representative survey data on child labor in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana to assess the prevalence of the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-growing areas.(13, 89, 108) Coordinated with the Government and worked with statistical experts from Ghana to build the country’s capacity to implement future child labor surveys.(89) Conducted a nationally representative survey in the cocoa sector during the 2013–2014 harvest season.(13)

 

Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa-Growing Areas of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana (2015–2019)*

$3 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by NORC at the University of Chicago. Evaluates and measures progress to reduce child labor in the cocoa sectors of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana.(109) Includes a mapping of stakeholder interventions to reduce child labor in the cocoa sector, an assessment of the effectiveness of funded efforts to reduce child labor, and a survey of the incidence of child labor in cocoa-growing areas of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana in the 2018–2019 growing season.(109, 110)

 

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues*

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research.(111, 112) In 2015, completed an initial review of policies and programs combating child labor.(111)

 

Mobilizing Community Action and Promoting Opportunities for Youth in Ghana’s Cocoa-Growing Communities (MOCA) (2015–2019)*

$4.5 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by Winrock International. In support of the 2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol, will work with communities in Ghana to develop community action plans to address child labor in cocoa-growing areas, provide households with livelihood assistance and occupational safety and health training, and provide at-risk youth with marketable job skills.(113, 114)

 

Convening Stakeholders to Develop and Implement Strategies to Reduce Child Labor and Improve Working Conditions in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (COSTREC-ASGM) (2015–2019)*

$5 million USDOL funded, 3.5-year project implemented by the ILO that aims to support efforts to reduce child labor and improve working conditions in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (AGSM) in Ghana and the Philippines. The project will support efforts to (1) implement laws, policies, and action plans to address child labor and working conditions in ASGM; (2) increase the access of ASGM communities to livelihood and social protection programs; and (3) develop tools to increase transparency and monitoring of child labor and working conditions in gold mining supply chains.(115)

 

Child Protection Compact Partnership (2015–2020)*

$5 million, 4-year partnership signed by the Government of Ghana and USDOS that aims to reduce child trafficking through improved coordination, prevention, prosecution, and protection for victims.(55, 116, 117) As part of the partnership, IOM and local NGO Free the Slaves will work with the Government to establish referral mechanisms for victims and build the capacity of law enforcement and community members to identify and prevent cases of child trafficking, improve protections for victims, and prosecute human traffickers.(55, 76, 117, 118)

 

Sustainable Fisheries Management Project (2014–2019)

$24 million USAID-funded, 5-year project to rebuild marine fisheries stocks, encourage the adoption of responsible fishing practices, and reduce the incidence of child labor in fishing and child trafficking in the Central Region of Ghana.(119)

 

Partnership for Education: Learning Activity (2015–2020)*

$71 million USAID-funded, 5-year project that aims to improve reading performance among primary school students in English and local languages. Targeting 2.8 million children in kindergarten through third grade.(120)

 

National Program for the Elimination of Child Labor in Cocoa (NPECLC)†

MELR program that oversees interventions to eliminate the worst forms of child labor at the community level by enabling communities to identify, report on, withdraw, and coordinate services for children in exploitative labor through the GCLMS.(26, 55, 72, 73) NPECLC raises awareness of child labor issues in cocoa-growing communities, increases access to education, builds the institutional capacity of organizations combating child labor, and strengthens legal protections for child workers as part of the NPA.(18, 71, 121, 122)

 

Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD)

Government body that aims to promote the production, processing, and marketing of quality cocoa, coffee, and shea nut products.(123, 124) Supports access to education by building secondary schools and providing scholarships for the children of cocoa farmers.(123) The Ministry of Finance oversees the Board of Directors, which includes representatives from other Government ministries, industry partners, and farmers’ associations.(125)

 

CocoaAction (2014–2016)

$400 million World Cocoa Foundation-funded project, in collaboration with the Ministry of Finance through COCOBOD. Aims to increase sustainability within the cocoa sector and to improve the livelihoods of 300,000 farmers in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana through increased productivity and improved agricultural practices.(126-129) Includes six pillars, one of which aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor and increase access to basic education for children in cocoa-growing areas.(126, 128)

Ferrero Cocoa Community Commitment (F3C) (2012–2015)

$1.14 million Ferrero Trading LUX S.A.-funded, 4-year project that provided training on GCLMS and trained farmers on improved farming techniques.(89, 130) In support of the 2010 Declaration, collaborated with NPECLC to reduce the prevalence of child labor in Ghana’s cocoa-growing areas, including by improving children’s access to education and increasing household incomes.(89, 98, 99) By the end of the project in December 2015, assisted NPECLC to establish the GCLMS in 162 new communities and established 8 village resource centers at schools.(130)

 

Cocoa Life (2008–2018)

$1.55 million Mondel­ēz International-funded, 10-year project that aims to combat the worst forms of child labor at the community level in a sustainable and systematic manner.(89, 131, 132) In support of the 2010 Declaration, collaborates with the MOGCSP to implement the NPA and reduce the prevalence of child labor in Ghana’s cocoa-growing areas.(89, 98, 99, 132) In 2015, trained 218 Community Gender and Child Protection Committee members on child labor, human trafficking, and gender and child protection issues. Also conducted awareness raising on child labor issues in 209 cocoa-growing communities.(132)

 

Empowering Cocoa Households with Opportunities and Education Solutions (2007–2015)

World Cocoa Foundation, USAID, and the International Chocolate and Cocoa Industry project implemented by World Education and Winrock International that strengthened cocoa-growing communities by providing educational opportunities for youth and young adults, empowered community-based organizations, and improved household livelihoods.(133)

 

Anti-Human Trafficking Project (2014–2016)

French Ministry of Foreign Affairs-funded, 3-year project to fight human trafficking in the Gulf of Guinea; implemented locally by Plan Ghana.(40) Provides training to civil society organizations and shelters on issues related to human trafficking, including methods to deliver psychosocial support to victims of human trafficking and advocacy. Aims to strengthen the capacity of law enforcement officials to investigate and prosecute crimes.(40, 134)

 

Livelihoods Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP)†

MOGCSP-administered conditional cash transfer program that provides monetary grants to poor households with orphans and vulnerable children on the condition that children attend school, receive vaccinations, and regularly visit health care facilities. An original provision that children do not engage in child labor in order to receive benefits was removed in 2012.(18, 26, 75, 84, 135)

 

Programs to Assist Kayayes

DSW program, with the support of community-based organizations, that provides rehabilitation and reintegration facilities for kayayes. The Women’s Development Fund provides microcredit and income-generating activities for the mothers of kayayes.(28)

 

Educational Programs†

Ministry of Education-funded programs under F-CUBE that aim to increase school attendance and enrollment.(18, 84, 103) The Ghana School Feeding Program, ongoing since 2005, aims to reduce malnutrition and improve attendance among students in selected schools by providing one hot and nutritious meal per school day.(2, 18, 56, 75, 135, 136) The Capitation Grant Scheme pays school fees for all students attending public primary schools.(2, 18, 56, 75, 135, 136) The Ghana Education Service, under the Ministry of Education, places girls’ education officers at the regional and district levels, and mobilizes communities to enroll more girls in school.(56) Free school uniforms and exercise books are provided to students in districts with poor enrollment rates; about 400,000 uniforms are distributed every year.(56, 135)

 

Millennium Villages

Program that seeks to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals by increasing universal primary education, improving access to health care and sanitation services, and providing livelihood assistance to agricultural families. Established early childhood education centers in villages with no primary schools.(137)

 

Child Labor Global Phase II (2014–2015)

$799,000 Irish Aid-funded, 2-year project that developed a mobile app using the Hazardous Child Labor Activity Frameworks from Zambia.(138)

 

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Ghana.

Government shelters are in a state of extreme disrepair, have limited space, are understaffed, and lack adequate security.(10, 12, 39, 40, 55, 134) The Madina shelter in the greater Accra area has been closed since 2013.(79) Another Department for Social Welfare (DSW)-operated shelter for trafficking victims in Accra shares its space with a detention center for juvenile offenders, which presents safety concerns for victims of child trafficking.(39) Although the Government paid the salaries of employees at the shelters for trafficking victims, it has not allocated any funding for operational costs since 2005. Victims are dependent upon NGOs, religious groups, and international organizations to provide the majority of services, including food, clothing, and general care.(39, 76) In addition, the Government failed to allocate funding to the Human Trafficking Fund for victim support as required by the 2005 Human Trafficking Act and its 2015 legislative instrument.(39)

The Government of Ghana also failed to allocate any funding to the National Program for the Elimination of Child Labor in Cocoa (NPECLC) in 2015.(93) In the past, funding for NPECLC has represented the core of the Government of Ghana’s resource commitment under the 2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol.(89) Due to the lack of funding, NPECLC did not conduct any activities during the reporting period. Its only remaining staff member was not paid from June to December 2015 and stopped working for NPECLC in January 2016.(55, 93) In addition, the CLU; the AHTU; MGCSP; and local NGOs cite lack of funding as one of the primary obstacles in implementing programs to address child labor, including its worst forms.(39, 55)

Although the Government has worked closely with industry, NGOs, and international organizations to implement child labor programs in cocoa, fishing, and mining, the magnitude of these programs remains insufficient to address the scope of the problem.(55) In addition, research found no evidence of programs to assist children involved in commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor in domestic work.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Ghana (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that laws criminally prohibit the use of children in all illicit activities, including for the production and trafficking of drugs.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2015

Ensure that laws criminally prohibit all forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children, including the use of a child in pornographic performances and individuals benefiting from the proceeds of child pornography.

2014 – 2015

Enforcement

Ensure that only prosecutors who have received formal legal training prosecute cases of the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking violations.

2015

 

Ensure that the agencies responsible for child labor laws coordinate effectively.

2015

Ensure that labor inspectorates and criminal law enforcement are allocated funding to conduct inspections and investigations, and make the labor inspectorate’s funding level publicly available.

2009 – 2015

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by initiating targeted inspections based on analysis of data related to risk-prone sectors and patterns of serious incidents, and authorize inspectors to assess penalties for labor violations.

2014 – 2015

Make statistics regarding the enforcement of child labor laws publicly available, including the number of violations found and penalties imposed and collected.

2010 – 2015

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors and investigators responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor, including its worst forms, in accordance with the ILO’s recommendation.

2010 – 2015

Institutionalize training for labor inspectors, including by training new inspectors and investigators at the beginning of their employment, and providing refresher courses on relevant topics such as using basic information technology, effectively carrying out labor inspections, interpreting labor laws, and improving report writing skills. Provide periodic training for other law enforcement personnel and prosecutors to ensure that they are familiar with the provisions of the laws that protect children.

2013 – 2015

Establish a mechanism to log all calls to the child protection hotline and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social services providers.

2014 – 2015

Coordination

Ensure that all coordinating bodies, such as the National Partners Forum and CLU, receive adequate funding to convene on a regular basis and fulfill their respective coordinating roles.

2013 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2013 – 2015

Improve policy implementation by clarifying objectives, improving coordination, and allocating adequate resources so that policies may be fully implemented.

2015

Social Programs

Improve access to education by eliminating school-related fees, permitting children without birth certificates or uniforms to attend class, increasing the number of classrooms, improving school infrastructure, and prohibiting sexual harassment in schools.

2010 – 2015

Ensure that the Human Trafficking Fund receives sufficient funding to provide adequate services for victims of human trafficking, including secure shelter space, general care, and trained staff.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that the Government of Ghana provides adequate resources to meet its commitments under the 2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol, including by allocating funding to NPECLC.

2015

Create, replicate, and/or expand effective models for addressing exploitative child labor, including in the cocoa sector, commercial sexual exploitation, and forced domestic work.

2009 – 2015

 

 

1.         U.S. Embassy- Accra. reporting, January 30, 2014.

2.         ILO-IPEC. Analytical Study on Child Labour in Lake Volta Fishing in Ghana. Geneva; 2013. [source on file].

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4.         Integrated Regional Information Networks. "GHANA: Efforts to Reduce Child Labour on Cocoa Plantations Beginning to Pay Off." IRINnews.org [online] September 23, 2011 [cited October 27, 2014]; http://www.irinnews.org/report/93805/ghana-efforts-to-reduce-child-labour-on-cocoa-plantations-beginning-to-pay-off.

5.         Buono, C, M Odonkor. Daily Life, Social Norms and Child Labour in the Cocoa Producing Communities. International Cocoa Initiative; November 2011. http://www.cocoainitiative.org/en/documents-manager/english/11-dailylifesocialnormsandchildlabourinthecocoa-producingcommunitiesinghana-2010-ici-study/file.

6.         UN Human Rights Council. "Report of the Working Group on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises." (2014); http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session26/Documents/A_HRC_26_25_Add.5_ENG.DOC.

7.         Thorson, D. Children Working in Commercial Agriculture: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Briefing Paper n.2. New York, UNICEF; April 2012. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Briefing_paper_No_2_-_children_working_in_commercial_agriculture.pdf.

8.         IOM. Support Trafficked Children in Ghana, IOM, [online] [cited December 30, 2015]; https://www.iom.int/support-trafficked-children-ghana.

9.         Government of Ghana. Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS6) Child Labour. Accra,  August 26, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=25515.

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11.       Ananga, ED. "Child Migration and Dropping Out of Basic School in Ghana: The Case of Children in a Fishing Community." Creative Education, 4(6):405-410 (2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ce.2013.46057.

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13.       Tulane University. Final Report: 2013/14 Survey Research on Child Labor in West African Cocoa-Growing Areas. New Orleans, Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer; July 30, 2015.

14.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

15.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Living Standard Survey Round 6, 2012-2013. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

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21.       USAID. Sustainable Fisheries Management Project (SFMP) Ghana Fisheries Gender Analysis. Narragansett, RI, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island; June 2015. http://www.crc.uri.edu/download/GEN001_SFMPGenderAnalysisRpt_FINAL_508.pdf.

22.       ILO-IPEC. Analytical Studies on Child Labour in Mining and Quarrying in Ghana. Geneva; 2013. [source on file].

23.       Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch submission to the Committee on the Rights of the Child for the pre-session of Ghana. July 2014. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC/Shared%20Documents/GHA/INT_CRC_NGO_GHA_17937_E.pdf.

24.       Child Rights in Mining Pilot Project Results & Lessons Learned. Obuasi, Ghana, Free the Slaves; March 2014. https://www.freetheslaves.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ChildRightsinMiningPilotProjectOverview.pdf.

25.       Timpy, J, C Timpy. Child rights in mining [Video]. Washington, DC: Free the Slaves; 2015, 4 min. 13 sec., https://vimeo.com/133840732.

26.       Human Rights Watch. Precious Metal, Cheap Labor: Child labor and corporate responsibility in Ghana's artisanal gold mines. New York; June 10, 2015. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/ghana0515_forinsertlr2_0.pdf.

27.       "Galamsey Mining – Case Study." [online] 2015 [cited November 25, 2015]; http://www.ssfghana.org/galamsey-mining-case-study/.

28.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Ghana (ratification: 2000) Submitted: 2010 accessed March 26, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:2322701.

29.       Government of Ghana. "Ghana; National stakeholders conference on child protection held in Accra." allafrica.com [online] February 9, 2015 [cited November 18, 2015]; [source on file].

30.       Yeebo, Y. "Inside a Massive Electronics Graveyard." The Atlantic, (2014); http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/12/inside-a-massive-electronics-graveyard/383922/?single_page=true.

31.       Beschke, S. "“The bottom line is: It is criminal.” Mike Anane on the ewaste menace." [online] August 19, 2014 [cited November 19, 2015]; http://blog.faire-computer.de/mike-anane-on-the-e-waste-menace/.

32.       Amoyaw-Osei, Y, OO Agyekum, JA Pwamang, E Mueller, R Fasko, M Schluep. Ghana e-Waste Country Assessment. Accra, Green Advocacy Ghana; March 2011. http://ewasteguide.info/files/Amoyaw-Osei_2011_GreenAd-Empa.pdf.

33.       Lundgren, K. The global impact of e-waste: Addressing the challenge. Geneva, ILO SafeWork and SECTOR; 2012. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_dialogue/@sector/documents/publication/wcms_196105.pdf.

34.       McConnell, A. "Rubbish Dump 2.0." [online] No Date [cited November 19, 2015]; http://andrewmcconnell.photoshelter.com/gallery-image/Rubbish-Dump-2-0/G0000oLuiBLHIsmM/I0000XOQfQxbyCWA.

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36.       Hirsch, A. "'This is not a good place to live': inside Ghana's dump for electronic waste." The Guardian UK [online] December 14, 2013 [cited November 19, 2015]; http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/14/ghana-dump-electronic-waste-not-good-place-live.

37.       Kirkpatrick, N. "Making a living in the toxic world of discarded electronics." Washington Post [online] April 15, 2015 [cited November 10, 2015]; https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/in-sight/wp/2015/04/15/the-children-who-make-a-living-in-the-toxic-world-of-discarded-electronics/.

38.       Sore, A, H Mohammed. "Child Labour rampant in Ghana despite strict laws against it." [online] September 24, 2015 [cited December 2, 2015]; http://www.myjoyonline.com/news/2015/September-24th/child-labour-rampant-in-ghana-despite-strict-laws-against-it.php.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Accra. reporting, February 1, 2016.

40.       Ghana Web. "Anti-Trafficking Unit rescued over 200 people." ghanaweb.com [online] September 18, 2014 [cited http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/regional/artikel.php?ID=326341.

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42.       Murphy, L. "Ghana's Commitment to End Child Labor." ftsblog.net [online blog] July 11, 2011 [cited February 7, 2013]; http://ftsblog.net/2011/07/11/ghanas-commitment-to-end-child-labor/.

43.       IOM. IOM Rescues 20 Ghanaian Children from Trafficking for Last Time as Programme Runs Out of Funds, IOM, [online] April 29, 2011 [cited February 6, 2013]; https://appablog.wordpress.com/2011/04/29/iom-rescues-20-ghanaian-children-from-trafficking-for-last-time-as-programme-runs-out-of-funds/.

44.       Torgbor-Ashong, GO. "Ghana Marks World Day Against Child Labour." voicesofyouth.org [online] June 16, 2011 [cited February 6, 2013]; http://voicesofyouth.org/posts/ghana-marks-world-day-against-child-labour--2.

45.       Emma Seyram Hamenoo, and Sottie Cynthia Akorfa. "Stories from Lake Volta: The lived experiences of trafficked children in Ghana." Child Abuse & Neglect, 40:103-112 (2015); [source on file].

46.       "10 Boys Rescued from Slavery on Ghana's Lake Volta." IJM.org [online] March 27, 2015 [cited March 31, 2015]; http://news.ijm.org/10-boys-rescued-from-slavery-on-ghanas-lake-volta/preview/918410ac590ede442cd8f4f1118ae25086bc8035.

47.       Government of Ghana. Child and Family Welfare Policy. Accra, Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection; February 2015. https://s3.amazonaws.com/ndpc-static/CACHES/PUBLICATIONS/2015/08/23/Child&FamilyWelfarePolicy.pdf.

48.       Mistiaen, V. "Virgin wives of the fetish Gods - Ghana's trokosi tradition." trust.org [online] October 4, 2013 [cited March 4, 2014]; http://www.trust.org/item/20131003122159-3cmei/.

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50.       Ansah, ME. "Six arrested in Jaman for child trafficking." [online] November 6, 2015 [cited November 19, 2015]; http://citifmonline.com/2015/11/06/six-arrested-in-jaman-for-child-trafficking/.

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63.       Government of Ghana. Human Trafficking Act, 694, enacted December 5, 2005.

64.       Government of Ghana. Human Trafficking Prohibition (Protection and Reintegration of Trafficked Persons Regulations), L.I. 2219, enacted June 22, 2015. [source on file].

65.       Government of Ghana. Consolidation of Criminal Code of 1960, Act 29, enacted December 10, 1999. http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/gh/gh010en.pdf.

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70.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 24, 2016.

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74.       Government of Ghana. Ghana Child Labour Monitoring System (Gclms). Accra, Ministry Of Employment And Social Welfare (MESW); September 2010. http://www.cocoainitiative.org/en/documents-manager/english/37-ghana-child-labour-monitoring-system/file.

75.       Government of Ghana, Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare. National Plan of Action (NPA) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Ghana (2009-2015). Accra; November 2009.

76.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 29, 2016.

77.       Government of Ghana. Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) For 2014-2016 Programme; Programme Based Budget Estimates For 2014. Accra, Ministry Of Gender, Children And Social Protection (MoGCSP); 2014. http://www.mofep.gov.gh/sites/default/files/pbb_/2014/Gender.pdf.

78.       Handa, S, M Park, RO Darko, I Osei-Akoto, S Diadone, B Davis. Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty Program Impact Evaluation. Chapel Hill, The Univeristy of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; University of Ghana; FAO; October 2013. http://www.unicef.org/ghana/gh_resources_LEAP_Quant_impact_evaluation_FINAL_OCT_2013.pdf.

79.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 22, 2016.

80.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 24, 2015.

81.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

82.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

83.       UN. "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex." (2012); http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

84.       U.S. Embassy- Accra. reporting, February 19, 2015.

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