Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Ghana

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Ghana

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Ghana made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government secured at least five convictions for offenses related to the worst forms of child labor and launched the National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Human Trafficking in Ghana. The government began extending the Ghana School Feeding Program to include schools in refugee camps and ratified the Minamata Convention on Mercury, which obligates signatory countries to incorporate strategies to prevent the exposure of children to mercury in gold mining sites. However, children in Ghana continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in fishing and cocoa harvesting as a result of human trafficking. Although the government made meaningful efforts in all relevant areas during the reporting period, prohibitions related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children and the use of children for illicit activities do not meet international standards. The government also has not acceded to the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and resource constraints severely limited government social protection agencies’ abilities to fully implement social programs during the reporting period.

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Children in Ghana engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in fishing and cocoa harvesting as a result of human trafficking. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Ghana.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

24.7 (1,721,914)

Working Children by Sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

78.7

Industry

 

3.7

Services

 

17.6

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

91.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

25.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

95.2

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Living Standard Survey, Round 6, 2012–2013. (7)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Producing cocoa, including land clearing, using machetes and cutlasses for weeding, collecting cocoa pods with a harvesting hook, breaking cocoa pods, working in the vicinity of pesticide spraying, and carrying heavy loads† of water (2; 5; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13)

Production of palm oil and cotton, including weeding, harvesting, and acting as scarecrows (10; 13)

Herding livestock, hunting, and work in slaughterhouses (14; 15; 13)

Fishing, including for tilapia; preparing bait, nets, and fishing gear; launching, paddling, and draining canoes; diving for fish; casting and pulling fishing nets and untangling them underwater; sorting, picking, cleaning, smoking, transporting, and selling fish; cleaning and repairing nets; and building and repairing boats (1; 2; 3; 9; 16; 17; 18; 11; 13)

Industry

Quarrying† and small-scale mining,† sometimes for gold, including using mercury, digging in deep pits, crushing rocks by hand, carrying heavy loads,† and machine operation† (2; 4; 10; 16; 19; 20; 21; 22; 23; 11)

Manufacturing and working in sawmills (4; 10)

Construction and bricklaying or carrying brick (14; 13; 13)

Services

Domestic work (8; 16; 12; 13)

Transporting heavy loads as kayayes† (3; 16; 24; 25; 13)

Work in transportation, activities unknown (4)

Electronic waste and garbage scavenging, including sorting scavenged items and transporting items for sale (26; 27; 28; 29; 30)

Street work, including begging, small-scale vending, and work at restaurants or bars (4; 10; 31; 13)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (15; 16; 32; 33; 12; 34)

Forced labor in begging; agriculture, including herding; fishing, including for tilapia; artisanal gold mining; domestic work; and street work, including vending and carrying heavy loads, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 3; 15; 17; 18; 35; 36; 37; 13)

Forced ritual servitude for girls known as trokosi, including in domestic work for priests (3; 16; 25; 32; 38; 34; 11; 37; 13)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

The majority of children subject to human trafficking are transported within Ghana for labor in cocoa, domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, and fishing. Children as young as age 4 are subjected to forced labor in fishing in the areas around Lake Volta, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (15; 18; 25; 32; 36; 37) Children also use sharp tools and are exposed to agro-chemicals while working in the cocoa sector. (5; 10)

According to the Constitution and the Education Act, primary education in Ghana is free and compulsory from kindergarten through junior high school. (39; 40) However, in practice, children must pay for school uniforms, fees, and materials, which may be prohibitive for many families. (1; 3; 8; 22; 26; 41; 42; 43; 34; 11) In addition, factors such as a shortage of classrooms, long distance to schools, absence of sanitation facilities, overcrowding in urban areas, sexual harassment of girls in schools, physical violence, verbal abuse, and poor educational infrastructure, particularly in rural areas, severely limit access to education for many children. (1; 8; 22; 41; 42; 11; 34; 13; 13) In response, the government has made efforts to increase the accessibility of public education, including by building schools to reduce the distance students must travel, provide school uniforms, lift birth registration requirements for enrollment, and extend free education through high school in 2017. (44; 42)

Ghana has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

In 2017, Ghana also ratified the Minamata Convention on Mercury, which obligates signatory countries to incorporate strategies to prevent the exposure of children to mercury in gold mining sites. (45; 46) The Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations (MELR) also initiated the process to ratify the ILO’s Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention. (47)

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Ghana’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including prohibiting the use of children in commercial sexual exploitation.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Section 89 of the Children’s Act (48)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 91 of the Children’s Act (48)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 28.1d, 28.2, and 28.5 of the Constitution; Article 7 of the Labor Regulations Legislative Instrument; Sections 91 and 92 of the Children’s Act; Article 58 of the Labor Act (39; 48; 49; 50)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 16.1 and 16.2 of the Constitution; Articles 116 and 117 of the Labor Act; Sections 1–3 and 42 of the Human Trafficking Act; Sections 1 and 2 of the Human Trafficking Prohibition Legislative Instrument (39; 49; 51; 52)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 1 and 2 of the Human Trafficking Act; Sections 1 and 2 of the Human Trafficking Prohibition Legislative Instrument; Articles 21–25 of the Labor Regulations Legislative Instrument (50; 51; 52)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Sections 101A, 107–108, 110, 111, 274–277, and 279–283 of the Criminal Offenses Act; Article 7(2) of the Labor Regulations Legislative Instrument (50; 53)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

Ghana Armed Forces General Eligibility (Recruits) (54)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Ghana Armed Forces General Eligibility (Recruits) (54)

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 2.2 of the Education Act (40)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 25.1.a of the Constitution; Articles 1.1, 1.2, and 2.2 of the Education Act (39; 40)

* No conscription (55)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (55)

 

Supplementary implementing regulations to the Labor Act, which were drafted in 2016 and include protections for domestic workers, were not issued in the reporting period. (56) Laws regarding the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are not comprehensive as they do not cover work in agriculture or lake fishing, two areas of work where there is evidence of children engaging in dangerous activities such as the use of sharp tools and working underwater. (57; 58; 12) Ghana has drafted two Hazardous Activities Frameworks which would consider such work hazardous, but neither has been adopted. (59; 56) In addition, Ghana’s laws do not criminally prohibit the use of a child in pornographic performances. (60)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the M E LR that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations (MELR)

Enforce child labor laws. Through its District Assemblies, labor inspectors investigate child labor violations, educate employers on compliance with child labor laws, and conduct inspections. (1; 42; 44) In 2017, received a $113,225 earmark for 2018 to combat child labor. (47)

Ministry of the Interior (MOI)

Through its Ghana Police Service (GPS), investigate, arrest, and prosecute cases related to the worst forms of child labor and operate a 24/7 hotline for reporting crimes. (61) Within the GPS, the Domestic Violence and Victim Support Unit and Anti-Human Trafficking Unit (AHTU) investigate cases and provide support to victims. (3; 35; 44; 13) Through its Ghana Immigration Service (GIS), combat human trafficking through Anti-Human Smuggling and Trafficking Units. (62; 61; 63) In 2017, GIS spent $21,570 to support adult victim services, GPS allocated $1,762 to the Osu Shelter to support victims of child trafficking, and the AHTU expanded from 8 to 10 officers. (61; 63)

Ministry of Justice’s Office of the Attorney General

Combat child labor by prosecuting child labor and child trafficking crimes. (44) Within the Economic and Organized Crime Office, the Human Trafficking Unit shares responsibility with the AHTU for combating human trafficking, confiscating proceeds from human trafficking, and providing ongoing training for law enforcement on prevention measures. (64; 65) Although the Human Trafficking Unit was not active in 2017, the Economic and Organized Crime Office continued to collaborate on investigations with GPS on cases of human trafficking. (61)

Minerals Commission

Inspect licensed mining sites and raise awareness of laws that apply to the mining sector with criminal law enforcement agencies. (22)

Ministry of Gender, Children, and Social Protection (MOGCSP)

Combat child labor and lead government efforts to combat human trafficking. (61) Through its Department of Social Welfare (DSW), operate shelters for vulnerable children, administer juvenile justice, and implement programs to combat child labor. (64; 66; 67; 13) Through its Human Trafficking Secretariat, oversee the creation, implementation, and review of human trafficking policies and ensure proper monitoring, evaluation, and data collection. (61) In December 2017, MOGCSP established a new hotline to facilitate access to social services, including victims of human trafficking. The hotline received 30 calls between December 19 and 30 and referred one case of suspected human trafficking to the AHTU. (63)

Community Child Protection Committees (CCPCs)/District Child Protection Committees (DCPCs)

Receive complaints of child labor violations at the community and district levels, respectively, and report cases to the GPS, DSW, or traditional authorities, who work with the police to conduct investigations. (22; 68; 69) Participate in the Ghana Child Labor Monitoring System (GCLMS) to monitor, prevent, and withdraw children from the worst forms of child labor in more than 600 communities nationwide as part of the Child and Family Welfare Policy. (14; 31; 43) Many communities either had defunct CCPCs or lacked CCPCs, while some districts’ DCPCs were inactive. (70)

 

Although the Attorney General’s Department is responsible for prosecuting child trafficking violations, in practice it is often left to the prosecutors of the Ghana Police Service (GPS), who often have minimal formal legal training and whose actions are limited by procedural rules not applicable to state attorneys. (61)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Ghana took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the MELR that hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including the authority of labor inspectors to assess penalties.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (68)

Unknown* (44)

Number of Labor Inspectors

105 (68)

105 (44)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (68)

No (44)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (68)

Yes (44)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (68)

N/A (44)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown* (68)

No (44)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

200† (68)

312 (44)

Number Conducted at Worksites

200† (68)

312 (44)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

0 (44)

Number Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

N/A

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (44)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A (68)

No (44)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (68)

Yes (44)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown* (68)

Unknown* (44)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (68)

Yes (44)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (68)

Yes (44)

* The government does not publish this information.
† Data are from January 1, 2016, to September 30, 2016.

 

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Ghana’s workforce, which includes almost 12 million workers. (71) According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Ghana should employ roughly 833 inspectors. (71; 72; 73) Inadequate resources, including funding, transportation, office space, and office supplies, hamper the labor inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws, particularly in the informal sector in which child labor is most common. (22; 42; 44) In addition, the government did not provide data on the number of child labor violations identified as a result of calls made to the GPS’s 24/7 hotline. Formal referral mechanisms continued to be hindered by lack of shelter space and transportation for victims. (44)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Ghana took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including financial resource allocation and training for criminal investigators.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (64)

Yes (37; 61)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (68; 64)

Yes (74; 61)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

196 (63)

Number of Violations Found

84 (75)

217 (63)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

6 (68; 76)

14 (77; 78; 79)

Number of Convictions

1 (80)

5 (44; 77; 78)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (68)

Yes (44)

 

In 2017, two adults were convicted of child trafficking and sentenced to 5 years’ imprisonment; another two adults were sentenced to 1 year’s imprisonment for child trafficking, and a fifth adult was fined $122 for the suspected use of exploitative child labor in violation of the Immigration Act. (44; 77; 78) Members of parliament have attempted to discourage investigations or prosecutions and high staff turnover is a challenge, limiting the government’s ability to investigate and prosecute these offenses. (81; 37; 44; 42; 61; 63)

Furthermore, criminal enforcement agencies continued to note that poor interagency coordination, and insufficient resources for transportation and victim support resulted in under-reporting of cases and hampered enforcement efforts. (35; 11; 37; 32; 61; 63) In addition, coordination among government officials on human trafficking issues was uneven in different parts of the country. The government relies heavily on NGOs to identify cases of child trafficking, and cooperation improved during the year. (81; 61; 70) The GPS hired 313 police recruits and trained an additional 54 cadet officers on human trafficking issues. (63)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including interagency coordination and cooperation with NGOs.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor (NSCCL)

Coordinate government efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor, and oversee implementation of the National Plan of Action Phase II on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (NPA2), which includes implementation of the GCLMS—a monitoring, data collection, and referral mechanism. (82; 44; 83; 61) Led by the MELR’s Child Labor Unit (CLU) and includes representatives from other ministries, employers’ and workers’ organizations, and civil society. (1; 82; 84; 44; 47) In 2017, conducted monitoring exercises in seven districts, including three cocoa-growing areas, to evaluate the effectiveness of child labor interventions. (83; 63)

Inter-Ministerial Committee to Combat Human Trafficking*

Aims to prevent Ghanaian migrants from becoming victims of human trafficking. Met twice in 2017, including with Ambassadors to destination countries in the Middle East, and MELR subsequently prohibited labor migration to these countries for domestic work to combat human trafficking. (63)

MELR’s Child Labor Unit (CLU)

Facilitate the development of policies and laws to combat child labor, coordinate interventions to combat child labor, and oversee child protection committees at the district level. (2; 3; 22; 42; 82; 69) Provide technical support to ministries, departments and agencies, employers’ and workers’ organizations, and international agencies such as the ILO, IOM, and UNICEF. (1; 44) In 2017, organized a National Day Against Child Labor event, continued developing the NPA2, and contributed to the development of the National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Human Trafficking in Ghana (NPA). (70)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

 

The Human Trafficking Management Board, which coordinates government policy on human trafficking, was dissolved before the inauguration of President Nana Akufo-Addo in January 2017, and was not reconstituted during the reporting period. (44) Although the CLU was active during the reporting period, it was underfunded and therefore unable to implement all activities as planned. (70)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action Phase II on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Against Child Labor (NPA2) (2017–2020)†

Aims to address gaps identified in the first NPA (2009–2015), improve coordination, and reduce the worst forms of child labor to 10 percent by 2020, with a focus on the fishing, mining, and cocoa sectors. (10; 83; 47) In 2017, signed MOUs with relevant ministries and requested cabinet approval for the Hazardous Child Labor Activity Frameworks drafted in 2008 and 2012. (44; 85; 47; 70)

National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Human Trafficking in Ghana (NPA) (2017–2021)†

Aims to improve data collection, enhance victim protection, increase accountability for perpetrators, and emphasize prevention and outreach, including an expansion of the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) Program. (86) In 2017, disseminated NPA through a workshop with stakeholders and requested all relevant ministries incorporate the NPA in their 2018 budgets. (87; 44)

Hazardous Child Labor Activity Frameworks

Includes the Hazardous Child Labor Activity Framework and the Hazardous Child Labor Activity Framework for the Cocoa Sector. Both frameworks were developed in consultation with workers’ and employers’ organizations and identify hazardous activities that should be prohibited for children and are awaiting cabinet approval before implementation. (88; 89; 90)

2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol (2010 Declaration) and Its Accompanying Framework of Action

Joint declaration by the Governments of Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and the United States, and the International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry. (91; 92; 93) Provides resources and coordinates with key stakeholders on efforts to reduce the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-producing areas. (91; 92) Ensures that all project efforts implemented under the Declaration and Framework align with Ghana’s national action plans to promote coherence and sustainability. (91; 92; 93) USDOL-funded projects and some industry-funded projects carried out activities in support of this policy during the reporting period. (93)

Bi-Lateral Commitments to Combat Cross-Border Trafficking

Joint declaration signed by the First Ladies of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana to combat the worst forms of child labor and advocate for sub-regional cooperation with other First Ladies. (94) A subsequent cooperative agreement between the two governments further operationalizes the declaration, which targets high-risk sectors, provides protection to victims, improves coordination, and prosecutes offenders. (95; 96) An MOU with the Government of Jordan formalizes labor recruitment practices and provides for support and repatriation of Ghanaian victims of human trafficking in Jordan. (64)

Minerals and Mining Policy of Ghana

Prohibits child labor in mining and stipulates children who visit mining sites must be supervised. (97)

Strategy on Anti-Child Labor and Trafficking in Fisheries

Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture Development policy that aims to significantly reduce the incidence of child labor in fisheries by improving child protection systems and increasing prosecution of offenders. (98)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (99; 35)

 

In 2017, the First Lady of Ghana traveled to Côte d’Ivoire to attend a Conference of First Ladies where attendees signed the Declaration of First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel pledging to support their governments’ efforts to prevent child labor, support victims, enhance regional cooperation, and mobilize resources. (100; 101) However, the National Migration Policy and Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (F-CUBE) do not include child labor elimination and prevention strategies. (36; 102)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including funding and adequacy of programs to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects that aim to eliminate child labor. These projects include: Combating Forced Labor and Labor Trafficking of Adults and Children in Ghana (2017 –2021),* a $2 million project implemented by Verité; Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa-Growing Areas of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana (2015–2019), $3 million project implemented by NORC at the University of Chicago; Mobilizing Community Action and Promoting Opportunities for Youth in Ghana’s Cocoa-Growing Communities (MOCA) (2015–2019), $4.5 million project implemented by Winrock International; CARING Gold Mining Project (ASGM), $5 million project implemented by the ILO in Ghana and the Philippines; and the Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (GAP), a research project implemented by the ILO in 10 countries. Some projects may be in support of the 2010 Declaration to combat child labor in the cocoa sector. (103; 104; 105; 106) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

U.S. Government-Funded Projects

USG-funded projects aim to improve child protection measures in partnership with the host government. Includes Child Protection Compact Partnership (CPC) (2015–2020), $5 million USDOS-funded project implemented by IOM and local NGO Free the Slaves; Accelerating Care Reform (2016 –2020), $8 million USAID- project implemented by the DSW and UNICEF to strengthen the social welfare system; LEAP 1000 (2014 –2019), $12 million USAID-project implemented by UNICEF to strengthen the existing LEAP program and fund cash transfers to 6,200 poor households; Sustainable Fisheries Management Project (2014–2019), $24 million USAID-funded project implemented by CRC/URI which includes activities aimed at reducing child labor in the fishing sector; the Complementary Basic Education Program, a $40 million joint contribution between USAID and the UK’s Department for International Development to support Ghana’s Ministry of Education’ efforts to educate and re-integrate out-of-school children into the basic school system; and the USAID-UNICEF $37 million jointly funded Learning Support program, which helps increase inclusive education services for special needs children in primary schools. (107; 108; 109; 110; 111; 112) In 2017, the CPC collaborated with IOM to develop a database on human trafficking (TIPIS), finalized and disseminated Standard Operating Procedures to Combat Human Trafficking in Ghana with an Emphasis on Child Trafficking, and provided the AHTU with six vehicles and operational equipment to facilitate its ability to combat child trafficking. (113; 114; 61; 63) The CPC also trained 13 judges and 541 law enforcement officials and social workers on identifying victims of human trafficking, data collection, using TIPIS, and victim care. (63)

Industry-Funded Projects

Industry-funded projects aim to increase sustainability in the cocoa sector, improve farmer livelihoods, improve access to education, and combat the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-growing areas. Some projects may be in support of the World Cocoa Foundation’s CocoaAction (2014–2020) initiative and the spirit of the 2010 Declaration. (93; 115; 116)

Awareness Raising Activities†

Large-scale events by MOGCSP, AHTU, MOI, and MELR to raise awareness of child trafficking issues through radio and television broadcasts, public events, and community activities. (117; 63) In 2017, in support of the NPA, activities included implementing a nationwide awareness campaign, commemorating World Day Against Trafficking in Persons with events in the capital and six regions, providing training to over 100 journalists on human trafficking and investagative journalism, and partnering with a local NGO to raise awareness about human trafficking among traditional leaders. (61; 63)

Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP)†

MOGCSP-administered conditional cash transfer program that provides monetary support to poor households with orphans and vulnerable children on the condition that these children attend school, receive vaccinations, and regularly visit health care facilities. (22; 118; 119; 120) Serves over 213,000 households throughout the country. (120)

Educational Programs†

The Ghana Cocoa Board’s Child Education Support Program rehabilitates and builds schools in cocoa-growing areas. (121; 122) Ministry of Education-funded programs under the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (F-CUBE) aim to increase school attendance and enrollment. (102; 123) Includes the MOGCSP’s Ghana School Feeding Program, which aims to reduce malnutrition and improve attendance among students; the Capitation Grant Scheme, which helps defray the cost of basic education for students in public primary schools; and the Ghana Education Service—Girls’ Education Unit, which places girls’ education officers at the regional and district levels, and mobilizes communities to enroll more girls in school. (1; 119; 124; 123; 120) Includes the distribution of 400,000–500,000 free school uniforms and exercise books to districts with poor enrollment rates. (125; 119; 124) In 2017, the Ghana School Feeding Program began including schools in refugee camps, and the government extended free education to senior high schools with plans to extend the policy to other grades in the future. (34; 123)

MOGCSP Programs†

Includes programs to support vulnerable children. Its Program to Assist Kayayes provides rehabilitation and reintegration support; the Off the Street Project aims to remove children from the street and reintegrate them into family and educational settings; the Human Trafficking Fund provides financial support to victims. (67; 63) In 2017, assigned two government officials to a privately-run shelter for victim support, allocated $5,112 for shelter operations and victim care at three privately run shelters, allocated $1,176 for the state-run shelter, and allocated additional limited support to rehabilitate parts of a state-run shelter for child trafficking victims through an MOU with the Ministry of Finance. (126; 114; 61; 63) MOGCSP received $110,132 for the Human Trafficking Fund. (61)

mBirths

Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development program, supported by UNICEF and Tigo, to transition from a manual birth registration process to automated birth registration. (127; 128)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Ghana.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (129; 130; 123; 61)

 

Although the MELR continues to hold high-level discussions to re-establish the National Program for the Elimination of Child Labor in Cocoa (NPECLC), no funds have been allocated to NPECLC for implementation. (44) The CLU, the GPS’s Anti-Human Trafficking Unit (AHTU), Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection (MOGCSP), and local NGOs cite the lack of funding as one of the primary obstacles in implementing programs to address child labor. (44; 85; 63) In addition, government-run shelters for child victims are poorly managed and did not receive sufficient funding during the reporting period. Furthermore, a Department of Social Welfare (DSW)-operated shelter for child trafficking victims and victims of other forms of abuse in Accra shares its space with a detention center for juvenile offenders, which presents safety concerns for victims. (3; 37; 85; 61)

Although the government has worked closely with industry, NGOs, and international organizations to implement child labor programs in cocoa, fishing, and mining, the magnitude of these programs remains insufficient to address the scope of the problem. (55)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Ghana (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Accede to the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2013 – 2017

Ensure that laws criminally prohibit all forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children, including by prohibiting the use of a child in pornographic performances.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that laws criminally prohibit the use of children in all illicit activities, including for the production and trafficking of drugs.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2014 – 2017

Enforcement

Ensure prosecutors who have received sufficient legal training oversee and lead the prosecution of cases of the worst forms of child labor, that government officials do not intervene in criminal investigations, and that these cases are prosecuted according to the law.

2015 – 2017

Publish information on the amount of funding allocated to the Labor Inspectorate and ensure inspectorates have adequate resources, including office space, transportation, and supplies to effectively carry out their mandate throughout the country.

2009 – 2017

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by ensuring inspectors conduct targeted routine and unannounced inspections, and are authorized to assess penalties for labor violations.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that labor inspectors receive periodic refresher training.

2013 – 2017

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors and investigators responsible for enforcing labor laws in accordance with the ILO’s technical advice.

2010 – 2017

Establish a mechanism to log all calls to the GPS hotline and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social services providers.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that criminal enforcement agencies coordinate effectively and receive adequate resources for transportation and victim support.

2015 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure that all coordinating bodies are fully funded and able to fulfill their respective coordinating roles.

2013 – 2017

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2013 – 2017

Social Programs

Improve access to education by eliminating school-related fees, increasing the number of classrooms, improving access to schools, providing sanitation facilities, and prohibiting sexual harassment in schools.

2010 – 2017

Ensure that social programs receive sufficient funding to carry out their objectives.

2014 – 2017

Expand the availability of government-supported shelter services for child victims and ensure victims are not housed in the same facilities as juvenile offenders.

2016 – 2017

Create, replicate, and expand effective models for addressing exploitative child labor.

2009 – 2017

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2. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Working Group on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises: 2014. May 6, 2014: A/HRC/26/25/Add.5. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session26/Documents/A_HRC_26_25_Add.5_ENG.DOC.

3. —. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences. Gulnara Shahinian. October 1, 2014: A/HRC/27/53/Add.3. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session27/Documents/A-HRC-27-53-Add3_en.doc.

4. Government of the Republic of Ghana. Ghana Living Standards Survey Round 6 (GLSS6) Main Report. Accra. August 2014. http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/glss6/GLSS6_Main%20Report.pdf.

5. Tulane University. Final Report: 2013/14 Survey Research on Child Labor in West African Cocoa-Growing Areas. New Orleans: Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer. July 30, 2015. http://www.childlaborcocoa.org/index.php/2013-14-final-report.

6. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Living Standard Survey Round 6, 2012-2013. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. —. Child Labour and the Youth Decent Work Deficit in Ghana. Inter-Agency Country Report. Rome: International Labour Organization (ILO), and Centre for Economic and International Studies (CEIS). February 2016. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/13052016890Ghan_child_labour_youth_employment_report.pdf.

9. UN Human Rights Committee. Human Rights Committee considers the report of Ghana. Geneva. June 24, 2016. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=20180&LangID=E.

10. Government of the Republic of Ghana. National Plan of Action Phase II (NPA2) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Ghana (2016 – 2020): Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 8.7. Accra. 2016. [Source on file].

11. UN Human Rights Council. Summary of Stakeholders’ submissions on Ghana - Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. August 8, 2017: A/HRC/WG.6/28/GHA/3. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/HRC/WG.6/28/GHA/3&Lang=E.

12. Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations, and COCOBOD. National Programme on the Elimination the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Cocoa (NPECLC), 2017 – 2020. March 2017. [Source on file].

13. UNICEF Ghana. Child Protection Baseline Research. 2014. https://www.unicef.org/ghana/protection_11979.html.

14. U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

15. Nordic Consulting Group A/S, and JMK Consulting Ltd. "Growing Up Free" Baseline Report. February 14, 2017. [Source on file].

16. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Ghana. Geneva. June 9, 2015: CRC/C/GHA/CO/3-5. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC/Shared%20Documents/GHA/INT_CRC_COC_GHA_20799_E.pdf.

17. USAID. Sustainable Fisheries Management Project (SFMP) Ghana Fisheries Gender Analysis. Narragansett, RI: Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island. June 2015. http://www.crc.uri.edu/download/GEN001_SFMPGenderAnalysisRpt_FINAL_508.pdf.

18. Adeyemi, Adebayo, et al. Child Trafficking into Forced Labor on Lake Volta, Ghana: A Mixed-Methods Assessment. Washington, DC: International Justice Mission. May 2016. http://www.ijm.org/sites/default/files/resources/ijm-ghana-report.pdf.

19. ILO-IPEC. Analytical Studies on Child Labour in Mining and Quarrying in Ghana. Geneva. 2013. [Source on file].

20. Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch submission to the Committee on the Rights of the Child for the pre-session of Ghana. July 2014. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC/Shared%20Documents/GHA/INT_CRC_NGO_GHA_17937_E.pdf.

21. Free the Slaves. Child Rights in Mining Pilot Project Results & Lessons Learned. Obuasi, Ghana. March 2014. https://www.freetheslaves.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ChildRightsinMiningPilotProjectOverview.pdf.

22. Human Rights Watch. Precious Metal, Cheap Labor: Child labor and corporate responsibility in Ghana's artisanal gold mines. New York. June 10, 2015. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/ghana0515_forinsertltr2_0.pdf.

23. Social Support Foundation. Galamsey Mining – Case Study. SSFGhana.org. 2015. http://www.ssfghana.org/galamsey-mining-case-study/.

24. Government of the Republic of Ghana. Ghana; National stakeholders conference on child protection held in Accra. allafrica.com. February 9, 2015: Press Release. [Source on file].

25. ECPAT International. The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Africa: Developments, progress, challenges and recommended strategies. Bangkok. November 2014. http://www.ecpat.org/wp-content/uploads/legacy/Regional%20CSEC%20Overview_Africa.pdf.

26. Yeebo, Yepoka. Inside a Massive Electronics Graveyard. The Atlantic. December 29, 2014. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/12/inside-a-massive-electronics-graveyard/383922/?single_page=true.

27. McConnell, Andrew. Rubbish Dump 2.0. AndrewMcConnell.Photoshelter.com. Accessed November 19, 2015. http://andrewmcconnell.photoshelter.com/gallery-image/Rubbish-Dump-2-0/G0000oLuiBLHIsmM/I0000XOQfQxbyCWA.

28. All Things Considered. A Shadow Economy Lurks In An Electonics Graveyard [audio]. Washington, DC: NPR. January 4, 2015. http://www.npr.org/2015/01/04/374780916/a-shadow-economy-lurks-in-an-electronics-graveyard.

29. Hirsch, Afua. 'This is not a good place to live': inside Ghana's dump for electronic waste. The Guardian. December 14, 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/14/ghana-dump-electronic-waste-not-good-place-live.

30. Kirkpatrick, Nick. Making a living in the toxic world of discarded electronics. Washington Post. April 15, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/in-sight/wp/2015/04/15/the-children-who-make-a-living-in-the-toxic-world-of-discarded-electronics/.

31. Sore, Albert, and Hashmin Mohammed. Child Labour rampant in Ghana despite strict laws against it. Joy News. September 24, 2015. http://www.myjoyonline.com/news/2015/September-24th/child-labour-rampant-in-ghana-despite-strict-laws-against-it.php.

32. Hawke, Angela, and Alison Raphael. Global Study on Sexual Exploitation of Children in Travel and Tourism. Bangkok: ECPAT International. May 2016. http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/global-report-offenders-move-final.pdf.

33. ECPAT International, and Coalition on the Rights of the Child (GNCRC). Global Study on Sexual Exploitation of Children in Travel and Tourism. Country-Specific Report: Ghana. June 2015. http://www.ecpat.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/3.-SECTT-GHANA.pdf.

34. UN Human Rights Council. Compilation on Ghana - Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. August 28, 2017: A/HRC/WG.6/28/GHA/2. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/HRC/WG.6/28/GHA/2&Lang=E.

35. Government of the Republic of Ghana. Child and Family Welfare Policy. Accra: Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection. February 2015. https://new-ndpc-static.s3.amazonaws.com/CACHES/PUBLICATIONS/2015/08/23/CFWelfarePolicy+Summary.pdf.

36. Ministry of the Interior. National Migration Policy for Ghana. Accra. April 2016. http://migratingoutofpoverty.dfid.gov.uk/files/file.php?name=national-migration-policy-for-ghana.pdf&site=354.

37. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Ghana. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271194.htm.

38. ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention (No. 182) Ghana (ratification: 2000) Published: 2016. Accessed October 31, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3242593.

39. Government of the Republic of Ghana. Constitution of the Republic of Ghana. Enacted: 1992. http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/republic/constitution.php.

40. —. The Education Act, Act 778. Enacted: 2008. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/83622/92463/F2061259086/GHA83622.pdf.

41. —. Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS6) Child Labour Report. Accra. August 26, 2014. [Source on file].

42. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Ghana. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265472.pdf.

43. Gyebi, Edmond. Ghana; School girls sell bodies for phones. allafrica.com. January 23, 2015. [Source on file].

44. U.S. Embassy- Accra. Reporting, January 29, 2018.

45. United Nations Environment Programme. Minamata Convention on Mercury. September 2017. http://www.mercuryconvention.org/Portals/11/documents/Booklets/COP1%20version/Minamata-Convention-booklet-eng-full.pdf.

46. —. STATUS OF SIGNATURE, AND RATIFICATION, ACCEPTANCE, APPROVAL OR ACCESSION. September 24, 2017. http://www.mercuryconvention.org/Countries/tabid/3428/language/en-US/Default.aspx.

47. Government of the Republic of Ghana. Minutes of the Fourth Quarter Meeting of the National Steering Committee on Child Labour (NSCCL) on Friday 8th December, 2017 at the Conference Room of the Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations (MELR), Accra. December 8, 2017. [Source on file].

48. —. The Children's Act, Act 560. Enacted: September 24, 1998. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/56216/65194/E98GHA01.htm.

49. —. Labour Act of 2003, Act 651. Enacted: March 31, 2004. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/66955/63431/F1429852156/GHA66955.pdf.

50. —. Labour Regulations Arrangement Of Regulations, L.I. 1833. Enacted: 2007. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/1198/Labour%20Regulations%202007.pdf.

51. —. Human Trafficking Act, Act 694. Enacted: December 5, 2005. [Source on file].

52. —. Human Trafficking Prohibition (Protection and Reintegration of Trafficked Persons Regulations), L.I. 2219. Enacted: June 22, 2015. [Source on file].

53. —. Criminal Offenses (Amendment) Act, Act 849. Enacted: June 27, 2012. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/44bf823a4.pdf.

54. Ghana Armed Forces. General Eligibility (Recruits). Accessed May 4, 2018. http://gafrecruitment.com.gh/general-eligibilityrecruits/index.html.

55. U.S. Embassy- Accra. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

56. —. Reporting, January 29, 2018.

57. Government of the Republic of Ghana. The Children's Act, Act 560. Enacted: September 24, 1998. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/56216/65194/E98GHA01.htm.

58. —. Labour Regulations Arrangement Of Regulations, L.I. 1833. Enacted: 2007. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/1198/Labour%20Regulations%202007.pdf.

59. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Minimum Age Convention, (No. 138) Ghana (ratification: 2011) Published: 2016. Accessed October 31, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3242590.

60. —. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, (No. 182) Ghana (ratification: 2000) Publication: 2016. Accessed October 31, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3247758.

61. U.S. Embassy- Accra. Reporting, February 13, 2018.

62. Mensah, Mary. Human trafficking, child labor abuses. Worst form of human rights violation - Mrs. Mahama. Graphic.com. September 14, 2016. http://www.graphic.com.gh/news/general-news/human-trafficking-child-labour-abuses-worst-form-of-human-rights-violation-mrs-mahama.html.

63. Government of the Republic of Ghana. Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report on Ghana - 2017 Responses. Accra. January 2018. [Source on file].

64. U.S. Embassy- Accra. Reporting, February 14, 2017.

65. —. Reporting, February 1, 2016.

66. Handa, Sudhanshu, et al. Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty Program Impact Evaluation. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, University of Ghana, and Food and Agriculture Organization. October 2013. http://www.unicef.org/ghana/gh_resources_LEAP_Quant_impact_evaluation_FINAL_OCT_2013.pdf.

67. Ghana News Agency. Department of Social Welfare changes name. October 26, 2015. http://www.ghananewsagency.org/social/department-of-social-welfare-changes-name--96242.

68. U.S. Embassy- Accra. Reporting, January 24, 2017.

69. Government of the Republic of Ghana, Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations. Pilot Report on Ghana Child Labor Monitoring System (GCLMS). Accra. July 2013. [Source on file].

70. U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 16, 2018.

71. CIA. The World Factbook. Accesed January 19, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

72. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva: Committee on Employment and Social Policy. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

73. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. http://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

74. EIN News. USAID Mission Director Reiterates Support for Fighting Traffcking in Persons. February 2, 2017. http://www.einnews.com/pr_news/364625201/usaid-mission-director-reiterates-support-for-fighting-trafficking-in-persons.

75. Government of the Republic of Ghana. Ghana Immigration Service Anti-Human Smuggling and Trafficking in Persons Unit (AHSTIP) Reporting Template. Accra. 2017. [Source on file].

76. Naatogmah, Abdul Karim. 41 children rescued from traffickers in N/Region. February 19, 2016. http://citifmonline.com/2016/02/19/41-children-rescued-from-traffickers-in-nregion/.

77. Danso, Joyce. Two jailed 10 years for human trafficking. Ghana News Agency. January 12, 2017. http://www.ghananewsagency.org/human-interest/two-jailed-10-years-over-for-human-trafficking-112215.

78. Government of the Republic of Ghana. In the District Magistrate Court Held at Dam Bai in the Volta Region: The Republic vs. Mawuli Nyajor and Lydia Dotse (Court Case N. 01/07/2018). November 10, 2017. [Source on file].

79. Taylor, Mildred Europa. 60-year-old 'child trafficker' arrested. July 6, 2017. http://www.pulse.com.gh/news/volta-region-60-year-old-child-trafficker-arrested-id6952440.html.

80. Government of the Republic of Ghana. In the Circuit Court at Ho: The Republic vs. Nanor Yaw Tseko (Court Case N. 021/40/2016). Accra. April 15, 2016. [Source on file].

81. U.S. Embassy- Accra. Reporting, July 5, 2017.

82. Government of the Republic of Ghana. Ghana Child Labour Monitoring System (GCLMS). Accra: Ministry Of Employment And Social Welfare. September 2010. http://www.africanchildforum.org/clr/policy%20per%20country/ghana/ghana_labour_2010_en.pdf.

83. —. Report on its Efforts to Eliminate Child Labour in 2017. March 2018. [Source on file].

84. Government of the Republic of Ghana, Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare. Institutional and Management Framework for the National Child Labour Elimination Programme: The National Steering Committee on Child Labour- Terms of Reference. Accra. 2010. [Source on file].

85. U.S. Embassy- Accra. Reporting, August 22, 2017.

86. Government of the Republic of Ghana. National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Human Trafficking in Ghana (2017 – 2021). 2016. [Source on file].

87. Addo, Christabel and Godfred Ansah. Gender Ministry disseminates National Plan of Action for Human Trafficking. Ghana News Agency. July 19, 2017. http://www.ghananewsagency.org/social/gender-ministry-disseminates-national-plan-of-action-for-human-trafficking-119792.

88. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, (No. 138) Ghana (ratification: 2011) Published: 2016. Accessed October 31, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3242590.

89. Government of the Republic of Ghana. Hazardous Child Labour Activity Framework for the Cocoa Sector. Enacted: June 2008. [Source on file].

90. —. Hazardous Child Labour Activity Framework for Ghana (HAF). Enacted: 2012. [Source on file].

91. Senator Thomas Harkin, Congressman Eliot Engel, USDOL, Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, Government of the Republic of Ghana, and International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry. Framework of Action to Support Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol. Abidjan. September 13, 2010. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/CocoaFrameworkAction.pdf.

92. —. Declaration of Joint Action to Support Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol. Abidjan. September 13, 2010. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GhanaSignedDeclaration.pdf.

93. Congressman Eliot Engel, USDOL, Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, Government of the Republic of Ghana, and the International Chocolate and Cocoa Industry. Child Labor Cocoa Coordinating Group (CLCCG) 2016 Annual Report. Washington, DC. 2017. https://www.dol.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ilab/CLCCG%202016%20Annual%20Report.pdf.

94. Government of the Republic of Ghana, and Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Joint Declaration of the First Ladies of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire and the Republic of Ghana on the Fight Against Cross-Border Child Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labour. Enacted: September 13, 2016. [Source on file].

95. —. Cooperation Agreement to Combat Cross-Border Child Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labour. Enacted: November 3, 2016. [Source on file].

96. The Herald. Lordina and Dominique Ouattara Commit to Fight Against Child Labour. Ghana. September 16, 2016. [Source on file].

97. Government of the Republic of Ghana. Minerals and Mining Policy of Ghana. Enacted: February 2016. [Source on file].

98. Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture Development. Strategy on Anti-Child Labor and Trafficking in Fisheries. November 2016. [Source on file].

99. Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations. National Employment Policy. Accra. November 2014. http://www.melr.gov.gh/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/National-Employment-Policy-2015.pdf.

100. Conference of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel on the Fight Against Child Trafficking Exploitation Child Labour and All Forms of Violence Against Children. Final Communique. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

101. —. Declaration of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

102. Government of the Republic of Ghana, Ministry of Education. Education Strategic Plan: 2003-2015. Accra. May 2003. Source on file.

103. NORC at the University of Chicago. Assessing Progress In Reducing Child Labor In Cocoa-Growing Areas Of Côte D’ivoire And Ghana. Washington, DC: USDOL. 2015: Project Document. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/WestAfr_CocoaResearch.pdf.

104. Winrock International. Mobilizing Community Action and Promoting Opportunities for Youth in Ghana’s Cocoa-Growing Communities (MOCA). Washington, DC. 2015: Project Document. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/Ghana_MOCA.pdf.

105. ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Geneva. October 2011: Project Summary. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GAP_FY11.pdf.

106. BanToxics. CARING Gold Mining Project: Convening Stakeholders to Develop and Implement Strategies to Reduce Child Labor and Improve Working Conditions in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM). Washington, DC. 2015: Project Document. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GlobalGoldMining_FY15.pdf.

107. Ghana News Agency. Ghana Signs Child Protection Compact With America. Accessed June 30, 2015. http://www.ghana.gov.gh/index.php/news/1536-ghana-signs-child-protection-compact-with-america.

108. USAID. Sustainable Fisheries Management Project (SFMP). Washington, DC. October 2014: AID-641-A-15-00001. http://www.crc.uri.edu/download/GH14_SMFPbrief_final.pdf.

109. Okertchiri, Jamila Akweley. USAID Improves Child Literacy. ModernGhana.com. June 18, 2015. https://www.modernghana.com/news/624290/1/usaid-improves-child-literacy.html.

110. Ghana Web. DFID and USAID team up to support Ghana. June 11, 2015. http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/economy/artikel.php?ID=361876#.

111. Ackon-Mensah, Joseph. US threatens to cut aid to Ghana over child labour menace. citifmonline. June 15, 2017. http://citifmonline.com/2017/06/15/us-threatens-to-cut-aid-to-ghana-over-child-labour-menace/.

112. de Groot, Richard. Ghana LEAP 1000 Impact Evaluation: Overview of Study Design. UNICEF. January 2016. https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/851-ghana-leap-1000-impact-evaluation-overview-of-study-design.html.

113. IOM. Standard Operating Procedures to Combat Human Trafficking in Ghana with an Emphasis on Child Trafficking. 2017. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/sop_ghana_1.pdf.

114. U.S. Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. U.S. and Ghanaian Officials Mark Progress in Addressing Child Trafficking and Pledge Ongoing Commitment. October 25, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/prsrl/275099.htm.

115. World Cocoa Foundation. Global Chocolate and Cocoa Companies Announce Unprecedented Sustainability Strategy in Ghana. Washington, DC: Press Release. 2014. http://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/FINAL-Press-Release-for-Ghana-CocoaAction-_05222014.pdf.

116. Nestlé Cocoa Plan. Tackling Child Labour: 2017 Report. 2018. https://www.nestle.com/asset-library/documents/creating-shared-value/responsible-sourcing/nestle-cocoa-plan-child-labour-2017-report.pdf.

117. Osei-Appiah, Ohenewaa. Ghana marks World Day Against Trafficking in Persons. July 14, 2017. http://www.graphic.com.gh/news/general-news/ghana-marks-world-day-against-trafficking-in-persons.html.

118. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, (No. 182) Ghana (ratification: 2000) Publication: 2016. Accessed October 31, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3247758.

119. ILO Social Protection Department. Rationalizing social protection expenditure in Ghana. Geneva: International Labour Office. 2015. http://www.social-protection.org/gimi/gess/RessourcePDF.action?ressource.ressourceId=50738.

120. Hamel, Reid. A Role for Social Protection Investments to Support Food and Nutrition Security: Lessons from Ghana. February 2018. https://csis-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/publication/180202_Hamel_SocialProtectionGhana_Web_0.pdf?AV58xvgLttDDMldG0HsKrOHwsbySCgU_.

121. The Herald. COCOBOD's Massive Interventions to Farmers Revealed. Ghana. October 10, 2016. [Source on file].

122. Ghana Cocoa Board. Our Corporate Social Responsibility. 2016. https://cocobod.gh/social_esponsibility.php.

123. UN Human Rights Council. National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21 - Ghana. August 25, 2017: A/HRC/WG.6/28/GHA/1. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/HRC/WG.6/28/GHA/1&Lang=E.

124. Ministry of Education. Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) for 2016-2018: Programme Based Budget Estimates for 2016. Accra. February 1, 2016. https://www.mofep.gov.gh/sites/default/files/pbb-estimates/2016/2016-PBB-13-MoPw.pdf.

125. U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 17, 2017.

126. Sanah, Amadu Kamil. Gender Ministry supports trafficked children’s shelters with GH₵27,800. December 29, 2017. http://www.ghananewsagency.org/social/gender-ministry-supports-trafficked-children-s-shelters-with-gh-27-800-126920.

127. Agency, Ghana News. New Automated Birth Registration System Launched. Ghana. May 7, 2016. http://citifmonline.com/2016/05/07/new-automated-birth-registration-system-launched/.

128. Appiah-Osei, Elsie. Birth and Death Registry launches mobile registration system. Ghana News Agency. May 6, 2016. http://www.ghananewsagency.org/social/birth-and-death-registry-launches-mobile-registration-system-103507.

129. IOM. IOM Ghana Holds Counter-Trafficking Workshops for Communities in Volta. November 10, 2017. http://www.iom.int/news/iom-ghana-holds-counter-trafficking-workshops-communities-volta-region.

130. Safo, Juliet Akyaa and Daniel Oduro-Mensah. Accra Diocese of Anglican Church organises workshop on child trafficking. July 24, 2017. http://www.graphic.com.gh/news/general-news/accra-diocese-of-anglican-church-organises-workshop-on-child-trafficking.html.

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