Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Ghana

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Ghana

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Ghana made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government drafted regulations to the Labor Act that include protections for child domestic workers and developed standard operating procedures to refer victims of child trafficking to social service providers as part of the Child Protection Compact. In addition, the Government continued developing the National Plan of Action Phase II on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Labor, signed memoranda of understanding with 20 institutions responsible for its implementation, and expanded its Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty program into 28 new districts. The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development also introduced a new program to transition from a manual birth registration process to automated registration, which is likely to increase the number of children with birth certificates and facilitate school registrations and employment age verification. However, children in Ghana continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in fishing and cocoa harvesting. Resource constraints severely limited the Government’s ability to fully implement policies and social programs during the reporting period.

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Children in Ghana engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in fishing and cocoa harvesting.(1-7) According to a report by Tulane University that assessed data collected during the 2013–2014 harvest season, there were an estimated 918,543 child laborers ages 5 to 17 in the cocoa sector, which represents a 6.4 percent decline in the number of child workers in cocoa production since the 2008–2009 harvest season.(8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Ghana.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

24.7 (1,721,914)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

78.7

Industry

 

3.7

Services

 

17.6

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

91.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

25.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

101.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Living Standard Survey, Round 6, 2012–2013.(10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Producing cocoa, including land clearing, using machetes and cutlasses for weeding, collecting cocoa pods with a harvesting hook, breaking cocoa pods, working in the vicinity of pesticide spraying, and carrying heavy loads† of water (2, 3, 8, 11-14)

Production of palm oil and cotton (14)

Herding livestock (15, 16)

Fishing for tilapia, and to a lesser extent for mudfish, catfish, and electric fish, including preparing bait, nets, and fishing gear; launching, paddling, and draining canoes; diving for fish; casting and pulling fishing nets and untangling them underwater; sorting, picking, cleaning, smoking, transporting, and selling fish; cleaning and repairing nets; and building and repairing boats (1, 2, 4-6, 13, 17-20)

Industry

Quarrying† and small-scale mining,† sometimes for gold, including using mercury, digging in deep pits, crushing rocks by hand, carrying heavy loads,† and machine operation† (2, 7, 14, 18, 21-27)

Manufacturing, activities unknown (7, 14)

Bricklaying (15)

Services

Domestic work (12, 18)

Transporting heavy loads as kayayes† (4, 18, 28-30)

Work in transportation, activities unknown (7)

Electronic waste and garbage scavenging, including sorting scavenged items and transporting items for sale (27, 31-37)

Street work, including begging, small-scale vending, and work at restaurants (7, 14, 38, 39)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (16, 18, 29, 40-43)

Forced labor in begging; agriculture; fishing, including for tilapia; artisanal gold mining; domestic work; and street work, including vending and carrying heavy loads, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 4, 6, 11, 16, 19, 20, 41, 44-48)

Forced ritual servitude for girls known as trokosi, including in domestic work for priests (4, 18, 29, 42, 44, 49, 50)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

The majority of children subject to human trafficking are transported within Ghana for forced labor in cocoa, domestic work, and aquaculture. Children as young as 4 years old are subjected to forced labor in fishing in the Lake Volta region, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(16, 20, 29, 42-44, 48, 51, 52) Children also engage in hazardous work in the cocoa sector, including the use of sharp tools and exposure to agro-chemicals.(8, 14)

According to the Constitution and Education Act, primary education in Ghana is free and compulsory from kindergarten through junior high school.(53, 54) However, in practice, children must pay for school uniforms, fees, and materials, which may be prohibitive for many families.(1, 4, 12, 25, 31, 55-57) The Government has made efforts to increase the accessibility of public education, including by providing school uniforms and lifting birth registration requirements for enrollment. However, in isolated incidents, children without uniforms or birth registration may risk being turned away from schools, and out of school children are more vulnerable to child labor.(56, 58) In addition, factors such as a shortage of classrooms, long distance to schools, overcrowding in urban areas, sexual harassment of girls in schools, and poor educational infrastructure, particularly in rural areas, severely limit access to education for many children.(1, 12, 25, 55, 56)

Ghana has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Ghana’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Section 89 of the Children’s Act (59)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 91 of the Children’s Act (59)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 28.1d, 28.2, and 28.5 of the Constitution; Article 7 of the Labor Regulations Legislative Instrument; Sections 91 and 92 of the Children’s Act; Article 58 of the Labor Act (53, 59-61)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 16.1 and 16.2 of the Constitution; Articles 116 and 117 of the Labor Act; Sections 1–3 and 42 of the Human Trafficking Act; Sections 1 and 2 of the Human Trafficking Prohibition Legislative Instrument (53, 60, 62, 63)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 1 and 2 of the Human Trafficking Act; Sections 1 and 2 of the Human Trafficking Prohibition Legislative Instrument.; Articles 21–25 of the Labor Regulations Legislative Instrument (61, 62)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Sections 107, 108, 110, 111, 274–277, and 279–283 of the Criminal Code; Section 101A of the Criminal Offenses Act; Article 7(2) of the Labor Regulations Legislative Instrument (61, 64, 65)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

20

Armed Forces Regulations (Administration) Volume I (66-68)

State Voluntary

Yes

20

Armed Forces Regulations (Administration) Volume I (66-68)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 2.2 of the Education Act (54, 66)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 25.1.a of the Constitution; Articles 1.1, 1.2, and 2.2 of the Education Act (53, 54)

* No conscription (69)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (66)

In 2016, Ghana drafted Regulations to the Labor Act, which include protections for domestic workers, including minimum age for employment.(70-72) Although Ghana has two Hazardous Activities Frameworks, which include detailed types of hazardous activities prohibited to children, neither is considered a legal instrument and no penalties can be imposed for violations of the activities listed in the Frameworks.(73, 74) Furthermore, laws regarding the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are not comprehensive as they do not cover the use of sharp tools in cocoa production or lake fishing, an area of work where there is evidence of children working underwater, for long hours, and at night.(59, 61) In addition, Ghana’s laws do not specifically criminally prohibit the use of a child in pornographic performances.(75)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations (MELR)

Through its Child Labor Unit (CLU), enforce child labor laws, oversee child protection committees at the district level, and implement the Ghana Child Labor Monitoring System (GCLMS) through the National Program for the Elimination of Child Labor in Cocoa (NPECLC).(2, 4, 25, 56, 76-79) Through its District Assemblies, investigate child labor violations in the informal sector, educate employers on compliance with child labor laws, and conduct inspections.(1, 56)

Ministry of the Interior (MOI)

Through its Ghana Police Service (GPS), investigate, arrest, and prosecute cases related to the worst forms of child labor and operate a 24/7 hotline for reporting crimes.(40) Within the GPS, the Domestic Violence and Victims Support Unit (DOVVSU) and Anti-Human Trafficking Unit (AHTU) work together to investigate cases and provide support to victims.(4, 40, 44, 47) Through its Ghana Immigration Service (GIS), combat human trafficking through Anti-Human Smuggling and Trafficking Units (AHSTIP) located in Accra and at three major border crossings.(76, 80, 81) In 2016, created a 35 member GIS and GPS task force at the Accra airport to combat human trafficking, which operated for part of the year.(76, 81-84)

Ministry of Justice’s Office of the Attorney General (MOJ/AG)

Combat child labor by prosecuting child labor and child trafficking crimes.(40, 79) Within the Economic and Organized Crime Office, the Human Trafficking Unit shares responsibility with the AHTU for combatting human trafficking, confiscate proceeds from human trafficking, and provides ongoing training for law enforcement on prevention measures.(76, 85)

Minerals Commission

Inspect licensed mining sites and raise awareness of laws on the mining sector with criminal law enforcement agencies.(25)

Ministry of Gender, Children, and Social Protection (MOGCSP)

Combat child labor and human trafficking.(76, 79, 86) through its Department for Social Welfare (DSW), operate shelters for vulnerable children, administer juvenile justice, and implement programs to combat child labor.(76, 86-88) Through its Human Trafficking Secretariat, oversee the creation, implementation, and review of human trafficking policies and ensure proper monitoring, evaluation, and data collection.(40) In 2016, created and disseminated a template to collect data on human trafficking, funded an anti-human trafficking training at the police academy, and conducted an on-site simulation at the airport in Accra for the GIS and GPS task force.(76, 82)

Community Child Protection Committees (CCPCs)

Receive complaints of child labor violation at the district level and report cases to the GPS, DSW, or traditional authorities, who work with the police to conduct investigations.(25, 40, 78) Participate in the GCLMS to monitor, prevent, and withdraw children from the worst forms of child labor in more than 600 communities nationwide as part of the Child and Family Welfare Policy.(15, 39, 57)

 

Although the Office of the Attorney General is responsible for prosecuting child trafficking violations, in practice it is often left to the prosecutors of the Ghana Police Service (GPS), who often have minimal formal legal training.(40, 84)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Ghana took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (66)

Unknown* (40)

Number of Labor Inspectors

97 (66)

105 (40)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (66)

No (40)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (66)

Yes (40)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (66)

N/A (40)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (66, 89)

Unknown* (40)

Number of Labor Inspections

317 (66)

200‡ (40)

Number Conducted at Worksite

317 (66)

200‡ (40)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (66)

0 (40)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (66)

Unknown

Number Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (66)

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (66)

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (66)

Unknown

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (66)

N/A (40)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (66)

Yes (40)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (66)

Unknown*(40)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (66)

Yes (40)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (66)

Yes (40)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.
‡ Data are from January 1, 2016 to September 30, 2016.

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Ghana’s workforce, which includes almost 12 million workers.(90) According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Ghana should employ roughly 799 inspectors.(90-92) Inadequate resources, including funding, transportation, office space, and office supplies, hamper the labor inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws.(25, 40, 56, 93) Research also indicates that few cases of child labor violations are reported, and even fewer cases result in prosecution because judges, police, and labor inspectors are sometimes unfamiliar with child labor laws.(56, 94) In addition, it is not known how many cases of child labor were identified as a result of calls made to the GPS’s 24/7 hotline.

In 2016, the MELR mandated its Chief Labor Officer to investigate unlicensed recruitment agencies, which frequently recruit children for domestic work, and publically posted a list of registered recruitment agencies to counteract unlawful recruitment activities.(79, 81, 95, 96) The Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture Development also stopped two fishing boats that were suspected of employing victims of child trafficking.(51, 97) Formal referral mechanisms continued to be hindered by lack of shelter space and transportation for victims.(40)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Ghana took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (66)

Yes (76)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (66, 85)

Yes (40, 76)

Number of Investigations

132 (66)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (66)

84 (98)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (66, 89)

6 (40, 99)

Number of Convictions

0 (66)

1 (100)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (66)

Yes (40)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

During the reporting period, the GPS’s Anti-Human Trafficking Unit (AHTU) employed approximately 57 investigators and the GIS’s Anti-Human Smuggling and Trafficking Unit (AHSTIP) increased its staff from 5 to 8. However, both GIS and the AHTU noted a lack of transportation, human and financial resources, and collaboration with other government officials, which hampered enforcement efforts.(40, 47, 51, 76, 81, 84) In addition, data on human trafficking are not collected systemically, and information is often not conveyed from regional offices to the headquarters in Accra.(85) Victims are sometimes required to bear the costs of investigations, including medical exams and transportation to arrest the suspect.(42)

In 2016, IOM worked with the Government to develop standard operating procedures to refer victims of child trafficking to social service providers as part of the Child Protection Compact Partnership.(40) In addition, state attorneys reviewed all 217 open human trafficking cases during the reporting period and recommended prosecution in five cases as a result.(81, 82, 84) With support from UNICEF, the MOGSP also printed and disseminated 4,000 copies of the Human Trafficking Act to law enforcement and social service providers during the year.(76, 81, 84) In April 2016, an individual accused of child trafficking in the Lake Volta region was convicted of employing a child in hazardous work and was sentenced to pay a fine.(100) Research indicates that some Government officials may be unfamiliar with how to identify cases of domestic human trafficking, which limits the Government’s ability to investigate and prosecute these offenses.(76)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor (NSCCL)

Oversee Government efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor and support the implementation of the GCLMS, a monitoring, data collection, and referral mechanism.(40, 77, 85) Led by the CLU and includes representatives from other ministries, employers’ and workers’ organizations, and civil society.(1, 40, 77, 101) In 2016, continued developing the National Plan of Action Phase II on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Against Child Labor (NPA2) (2016–2020) and signed memoranda of understanding with 20 stakeholder institutions to implement the plan.(79)

MELR’s CLU

Coordinate Government programs to combat child labor and provide technical support to ministries, departments and agencies, employers’ and workers’ organizations, and international agencies such as the ILO, IOM, and UNICEF.(1, 40) In 2016, received $22,181 from the Government and $22,482 from partner organizations, which was insufficient to carry out all planned activities.(40, 102)

Human Trafficking Management Board (HTMB)

Intersectoral board chaired by the MOGCSP that includes representatives from law enforcement, ministries, and civil society.(40) Advise the MOGCSP on human trafficking policy; rehabilitate and re-integrate victims; and oversee the Human Trafficking Fund, which provides financial support to victims, including children.(40, 62, 63) In 2016, began drafting a National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Human Trafficking in Ghana with donor support.(76)

 

Although the Government created an ad hoc committee in 2016 to improve coordination of enforcement and prosecution efforts against human trafficking cases, the appointment of its National Trafficking in Persons Coordinator expired on January 6, 2017. It is unclear whether a new coordinator will be appointed and if the committee will continue to function.(76, 81, 103) In addition, the HTMB has not yet received funds to provide assistance to victims.(84)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action Phase II on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Against Child Labor (NPA2) (2016–2020)†

Aims to fill in gaps identified in the first NPA (2009–2015), improve coordination, and reduce the worst forms of child labor to 10 percent by 2020, with a focus on the fishing, mining, and agricultural sectors, including cocoa, palm oil, and cotton production, and children engaged as kayayes, trokosi, domestic workers, and in commercial sexual exploitation.(14, 40, 79)

Hazardous Child Labor Activity Frameworks

Created by working groups and includes both the Hazardous Child Labor Activity Framework and the Hazardous Child Labor Activity Framework for the Cocoa Sector. Both frameworks were developed in consultation with workers’ and employers’ organizations and identify hazardous activities which should be prohibited for children.(74, 104, 105)

2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol (2010 Declaration) and Its Accompanying Framework of Action

Joint declaration by the Governments of Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and the United States, and the International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry.(106-108) Provides resources and coordinates with key stakeholders on efforts to reduce the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-producing areas.(106, 107) Ensures that all project efforts implemented under the Declaration and Framework align with Ghana’s national action plans in order to promote coherence and sustainability.(106-108) USDOL-funded projects and some industry-funded projects carried out activities in support of this policy during the reporting period.(108)

Bi-Lateral Commitments to Combat Cross-Border Trafficking†

Joint declaration signed by the First Ladies of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana to combat the worst forms of child labor and advocate for sub-regional cooperation with other First Ladies.(109) A subsequent cooperative agreement between the two governments further operationalizes the declaration, which targets high-risk sectors, provides protection to victims, improves coordination, and prosecutes offenders.(110, 111) The MOU with the Government of Jordan formalizes labor recruitment practices and provides for support and repatriation of Ghanaian victims of human trafficking in Jordan.(76)

MELR’s National Employment Policy

Aims to create decent jobs and improve the legal framework regarding labor, including reinforcing regulations prohibiting child labor.(112)

Minerals and Mining Policy of Ghana

Prohibits child labor in mining and stipulates children who visit mining sites must be supervised.(113)

Child and Family Welfare Policy

Aims to strengthen social protection for children, improve inter-ministerial coordination, and empower youth.(25, 47, 66) Led by the MOGCSP, formalizes the referral of child protection cases, including the worst forms of child labor, between the police and the Department of Social Development.(40, 47) In 2016, held a two-day workshop for civil society and enforcement agencies on how to implement the policy.(114)

UNDAF Action Plan (2012–2016)

Aims to provide education or vocational training opportunities to 5,000 children ages 5 to 17 who have been withdrawn or are prevented from engaging in child labor.(115)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2016, the MOGSP resumed work to draft a national plan of action to combat human trafficking.(76, 81, 116) Although the NPA2 to combat child labor was approved in 2016, the Cabinet must issue a memorandum authorizing its implementation, which was delayed into 2017 due to a change in Government.(40) The Government also approved a National Migration Policy during the reporting period, but like the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (F-CUBE), it does not include child labor elimination and prevention strategies .(48, 117) Overlapping objectives and poor coordination hindered the effective implementation of policies during the reporting period. (18, 87)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects in support of the 2010 Declaration in cocoa-growing areas of Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire that aim to eliminate child labor, including its worst forms, through research, improved monitoring and enforcement. These projects include: Survey Research on Child Labor in West African Cocoa Growing Areas (2012–2016), $1.5 million project implemented by the Payson Center for International Development at Tulane University; Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa-Growing Areas of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana (2015–2019), $3 million project implemented by NORC at the University of Chicago; and Mobilizing Community Action and Promoting Opportunities for Youth in Ghana’s Cocoa-Growing Communities (MOCA) (2015–2019), $4.5 million project implemented by Winrock International. Projects that address child labor in other sectors include: Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (2011–2017), a global project implemented by the ILO which completed a report on child labor and youth employment in Ghana in 2016, and CARING Gold Mining Project (ASGM), $5 million project implemented by the ILO in Ghana and the Philippines.(118-123) Additional information is available on the USDOL Web site.

USG-Funded Projects

USG-funded projects aim to improve child protection measures in partnership with the host government. Includes: Child Protection Compact Partnership (2015–2020), $5 million USDOS-funded project implemented by IOM and local NGO Free the Slaves; Sustainable Fisheries Management Project (2014–2019), $24 million USAID-funded project implemented by CRC/URI which includes activities aimed at reducing child labor in the fishing sector; the Complementary Basic Education Program, a $40 million joint contribution between USAID and the UK's Department for International Development (DFID) to support Ghana's Ministry of Education to educate and re-integrate out-of-school children into the basic school system; and the $37 million USAID-UNICEF jointly funded Learning Support program, which helps increase inclusive education services to special needs children in primary schools.(84, 124-127)

Industry-Funded Projects

Industry-funded projects aim to increase sustainability in the cocoa sector, improve farmer livelihoods, improve access to education, and combat the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-growing areas. Some projects may be in support of the World Cocoa Foundation (WCF)’s CocoaAction (2014–2020) initiative and the 2010 Declaration.(108, 128)

Awareness Raising Activities*†

Large-scale events by MOGCSP, AHTU, MOI, and MELR to raise awareness of child trafficking issues through radio and television broadcasts, public events, and community awareness activities.(76, 81)

Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP)†

MOGCSP-administered conditional cash transfer program that provides monetary grants to poor households with orphans and vulnerable children on the condition that children attend school, receive vaccinations, and regularly visit health care facilities. An original provision that children do not engage in child labor in order to receive benefits was removed in 2012.(25, 38, 75, 129, 130) In 2016, expanded into 28 additional districts with 43,368 new participants and increased the number of beneficiaries in existing districts.(40, 102)

Educational Programs†

The Ghana Cocoa Board’s Child Education Support Program rehabilitates and builds schools in cocoa growing areas.(131, 132) Ministry of Education-funded programs under F-CUBE that aim to increase school attendance and enrollment.(38, 117, 129) Includes the Ghana School Feeding Program, which aims to reduce malnutrition and improve attendance among students; the Capitation Grant Scheme, which helps defray the cost of basic education for students in public primary schools; and the Ghana Education Service – Girls’ Education Unit, which places girls’ education officers at the regional and district levels, and mobilizes communities to enroll more girls in school.(1, 38, 130, 133, 134) Includes the distribution of 400,000-500,000 free school uniforms and exercise books to districts with poor enrollment rates.(102, 130, 134)

Programs to Assist Kayayes

MOGSP program that provides rehabilitation and reintegration support for kayayes. In 2016, provided training and small business opportunities to 400 kayayes.(102)

mBirths*

Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development program, supported by UNICEF and Tigo, to transition from a manual birth registration process to automated birth registration.(58, 135)

From Street to School*†

MOGCSP program which aims to remove children from the street and reintegrate them into family and educational settings.(88)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Ghana.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(40, 41, 136)

In 2016, the Government failed to allocate funding to the Human Trafficking Fund for victim support and the National Program for the Elimination of Child Labor in Cocoa (NPECLC), which ceased to function as a result.(14, 76, 96, 137, 138) The CLU, the AHTU, MOGCSP, and local NGOs cite the lack of funding as one of the primary obstacles in implementing programs to address child labor, including its worst forms.(40, 81, 85) In addition, Government-run shelters for child victims are poorly run and did not receive sufficient funding during the reporting period. Furthermore, a DSW-operated shelter for child trafficking victims and victims of other forms of abuse in Accra shares its space with a detention center for juvenile offenders, which presents safety concerns for victims.(4, 6, 40, 41, 44, 84, 136, 139)

Although the Government has worked closely with industry, NGOs, and international organizations to implement child labor programs in cocoa, fishing, and mining, the magnitude of these programs remains insufficient to address the scope of the problem.(66)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Ghana (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2013 – 2016

Ensure that laws criminally prohibit the use of children in all illicit activities, including for the production and trafficking of drugs.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that laws criminally prohibit all forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children, including the use of a child in pornographic performances.

2014 – 2016

Enforcement

Ensure prosecutors who have received sufficient legal training oversee and lead the prosecution of cases of the worst forms of child labor, and that government officials, including judges, police, and labor inspectors, are familiar with the provisions of laws protecting children.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that agencies responsible for child labor laws coordinate effectively and improve the exchange of information.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that training is institutionalized for labor inspectors and publish information about the training system.

2013 – 2016

Publish information on the amount of funding allocated to the labor inspectorate and ensure inspectorates have adequate resources, including office space, transportation, and supplies to effectively carry out their mandate.

2009 – 2016

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by ensuring inspectors conduct routine and unannounced inspections, and are authorized to assess penalties for labor violations.

2014 – 2016

Publish information on the number of child labor violations found, criminal violations found, penalties issued, penalties collected, and convictions made.

2010 – 2016

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors and investigators responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in accordance with the ILO recommendation.

2010 – 2016

Ensure victims are not required to incur the costs related to prosecuting offenders, and that there are sufficient social services available to support victims.

2016

Establish a mechanism to log all calls to the child protection hotline and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social services providers.

2014 – 2016

Coordination

Ensure that all coordinating bodies receive adequate funding to convene on a regular basis and fulfill their respective coordinating roles.

2013 – 2016

Government Policies

Improve policy implementation by clarifying objectives and improving coordination.

2015 – 2016

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2013 – 2016

Social Programs

Improve access to education by eliminating school-related fees, permitting children without uniforms to attend class, increasing the number of classrooms, improving access to schools, and prohibiting sexual harassment in schools. Make additional efforts to ensure all children receive birth registration.

2010 – 2016

Ensure that all social programs receive sufficient funding to carry out their objectives.

2014 – 2016

Expand the availability of government-supported shelter services for child victims and ensure victims are not housed in the same facilities as juvenile offenders.

2016

Create, replicate, and expand effective models for addressing exploitative child labor.

2009 – 2016

1.         ILO-IPEC. Analytical Study on Child Labour in Lake Volta Fishing in Ghana. Geneva; 2013. [Source on file].

2.         UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Working Group on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises; 2014 May 6, 2014. Report No. A/HRC/26/25/Add.5. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session26/Documents/A_HRC_26_25_Add.5_ENG.DOC.

3.         Thorson, D. Children Working in Commercial Agriculture: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Briefing Paper No. 2. New York City, UNICEF; April 2012. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Briefing_paper_No_2_-_children_working_in_commercial_agriculture.pdf.

4.         UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, Gulnara Shahinian; October 1, 2014. Report No. A/HRC/27/53/Add.3. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session27/Documents/A-HRC-27-53-Add3_en.doc.

5.         Ananga, ED. "Child Migration and Dropping Out of Basic School in Ghana: The Case of Children in a Fishing Community." Creative Education, 4(No. 6)(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ce.2013.46057.

6.         Johansen, R. "Child trafficking in Ghana." UNDOC.org [online] December 12, 2014 [cited June 21, 2017]; http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/child-trafficking-in-ghana.html.

7.         Government of Ghana. Ghana Living Standards Survey Round 6 (GLSS6) Main Report. Accra,  August 2014. http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/glss6/GLSS6_Main%20Report.pdf.

8.         Tulane University. Final Report: 2013/14 Survey Research on Child Labor in West African Cocoa-Growing Areas. New Orleans, Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer; July 30, 2015. http://www.childlaborcocoa.org/index.php/2013-14-final-report.

9.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Living Standard Survey Round 6, 2012-2013. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

11.       Brown, RL. "World's Chocolate Gets Sweeter: How Consumer Outrage is Reducing Child Labor on Cocoa Farms." CSMonitor.com [online] November 30, 2015 [cited December 1, 2015]; http://humantrafficking.csmonitor.com/getting-child-labor-out-of-chocolate.

12.       Understanding Children's Work Program. Child Labour and the Youth Decent Work Deficit in Ghana. Inter-Agency Country Report. Rome, International Labour Organization (ILO) and Centre for Economic and International Studies (CEIS); February 2016. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/13052016890Ghan_child_labour_youth_employment_report.pdf.

13.       UN Human Rights Committee. Human Rights Committee considers the report of Ghana. Geneva; June 24, 2016. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=20180&LangID=E.

14.       Government of Ghana. National Plan of Action Phase II (NPA2) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Ghana (2016 – 2020): Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 8.7. Accra; 2016. [Source on file].

15.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

16.       Nordic Consulting Group A/S, and JMK Consulting Ltd. "Growing Up Free" Baseline Report; February 14, 2017. [Source on file].

17.       IOM. "Support Trafficked Children in Ghana." IOM.int [online] December 30, 2015 [cited June 21, 2017]; https://www.iom.int/support-trafficked-children-ghana.

18.       Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Ghana. Geneva; June 9, 2015. Report No. CRC/C/GHA/CO/3-5. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC/Shared%20Documents/GHA/INT_CRC_COC_GHA_20799_E.pdf.

19.       USAID. Sustainable Fisheries Management Project (SFMP) Ghana Fisheries Gender Analysis. Narragansett, RI, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island; June 2015. http://www.crc.uri.edu/download/GEN001_SFMPGenderAnalysisRpt_FINAL_508.pdf.

20.       Adebayo Adeyemi, Henry Agbeko, Kaign Christy, and Philip Langford. Child Trafficking into Forced Labor on Lake Volta, Ghana: A Mixed-Methods Assessment. Washington DC, International Justice Mission; May 2016. http://www.ijm.org/sites/default/files/resources/ijm-ghana-report.pdf.

21.       ILO-IPEC. Analytical Studies on Child Labour in Mining and Quarrying in Ghana. Geneva; 2013. [Source on file].

22.       Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch submission to the Committee on the Rights of the Child for the pre-session of Ghana. July 2014. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC/Shared%20Documents/GHA/INT_CRC_NGO_GHA_17937_E.pdf.

23.       Free the Slaves. Child Rights in Mining Pilot Project Results & Lessons Learned. Obuasi, Ghana; March 2014. https://www.freetheslaves.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ChildRightsinMiningPilotProjectOverview.pdf.

24.       Jordan Timpy, and Cassie Timpy. Child rights in mining [Video]. Washington, DC: Free the Slaves; 2015, 4 min. 13 sec., https://vimeo.com/133840732.

25.       Human Rights Watch. Precious Metal, Cheap Labor: Child labor and corporate responsibility in Ghana's artisanal gold mines. New York; June 10, 2015. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/ghana0515_forinsertltr2_0.pdf.

26.       Social Support Foundation. "Galamsey Mining – Case Study." SSFGhana.org [online] 2015 [cited November 25, 2015]; http://www.ssfghana.org/galamsey-mining-case-study/.

27.       Suuk, M. "New drive to protect children in Ghana." DW.com [online] May 31, 2016 [cited June 1, 2016]; http://www.dw.com/en/new-drive-to-protect-children-in-ghana/a-19295745.

28.       Government of Ghana. "Ghana; National stakeholders conference on child protection held in Accra." allafrica.com [online] February 9, 2015 [cited November 18, 2015]; [source on file].

29.       ECPAT International. The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Africa: Developments, progress, challenges and recommended strategies. Bangkok; November 2014. http://www.ecpat.org/wp-content/uploads/legacy/Regional%20CSEC%20Overview_Africa.pdf.

30.       Suleman, M. "MTN Ghana Capitalize on Child-Kayayei to Amass More Cash." [online] November 13, 2016 [cited April 11, 2016]; http://www.newsghana.com.gh/mtn-ghana-capitalize-on-child-kayayei-to-amass-more-cash/.

31.       Yeebo, Y. "Inside a Massive Electronics Graveyard." TheAtlantic.com [online] December 29, 2014 [cited June 21, 2017]; http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/12/inside-a-massive-electronics-graveyard/383922/?single_page=true.

32.       Beschke, S. "'The bottom line is: It is criminal.' Mike Anane on the E-waste menace." [online] August 19, 2014 [cited November 19, 2015]; http://blog.faire-computer.de/mike-anane-on-the-e-waste-menace/.

33.       Lundgren, K. The global impact of e-waste: Addressing the challenge. Geneva, ILO SafeWork and SECTOR; 2012. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_dialogue/@sector/documents/publication/wcms_196105.pdf.

34.       McConnell, A. "Rubbish Dump 2.0." AndrewMcConnell.Photoshelter.com [online] No Date [cited November 19, 2015]; http://andrewmcconnell.photoshelter.com/gallery-image/Rubbish-Dump-2-0/G0000oLuiBLHIsmM/I0000XOQfQxbyCWA.

35.       All Things Considered. A Shadow Economy Lurks In An Electonics Graveyard [audio]. Washington, D.C.: NPR; January 4, 2015, 5 min. 37 sec., [accessed November 10, 2015]; http://www.npr.org/2015/01/04/374780916/a-shadow-economy-lurks-in-an-electronics-graveyard.

36.       Hirsch, A. "'This is not a good place to live': inside Ghana's dump for electronic waste." The Guardian UK [online] December 14, 2013 [cited November 19, 2015]; http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/14/ghana-dump-electronic-waste-not-good-place-live.

37.       Kirkpatrick, N. "Making a living in the toxic world of discarded electronics." Washington Post [online] April 15, 2015 [cited November 10, 2015]; https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/in-sight/wp/2015/04/15/the-children-who-make-a-living-in-the-toxic-world-of-discarded-electronics/.

38.       U.S. Embassy- Accra. Reporting, January 15, 2015.

39.       Albert Sore, and Hashmin Mohammed. "Child Labour rampant in Ghana despite strict laws against it." MyJoyOnline.com [online] September 24, 2015 [cited December 2, 2015]; http://www.myjoyonline.com/news/2015/September-24th/child-labour-rampant-in-ghana-despite-strict-laws-against-it.php.

40.       U.S. Embassy- Accra. Reporting, January 24, 2017.

41.       Ghana Web. "Anti-Trafficking Unit rescued over 200 people." ghanaweb.com [online] September 18, 2014 [cited June 21, 2017]; http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/regional/artikel.php?ID=326341.

42.       Angela Hawke, and Alison Raphael. Global Study on Sexual Exploitation of Children in Travel and Tourism. Bangkok, ECPAT International; May 2016. http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/global-report-offenders-move-final.pdf.

43.       Quist, E. "Tourism Authority uncovers teen brothel in Kumasi." [online] September 7, 2016 [cited February 28, 2017]; http://pulse.com.gh/news/sex-trade-in-ghana-tourism-authority-uncovers-teen-brothel-in-kumasi-id5245086.html#.

44.       U.S. Department of State. "Ghana," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/index.htm.

45.       Emma Seyram Hamenoo, and Sottie Cynthia Akorfa. "Stories from Lake Volta: The lived experiences of trafficked children in Ghana." Child Abuse & Neglect, 40(2015); [source on file].

46.       "10 Boys Rescued from Slavery on Ghana's Lake Volta." IJM.org [online] March 27, 2015 [cited March 31, 2015]; http://news.ijm.org/10-boys-rescued-from-slavery-on-ghanas-lake-volta/preview/918410ac590ede442cd8f4f1118ae25086bc8035.

47.       Government of Ghana. Child and Family Welfare Policy. Accra, Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection; February 2015. https://s3.amazonaws.com/ndpc-static/CACHES/PUBLICATIONS/2015/08/23/Child&FamilyWelfarePolicy.pdf.

48.       Ministry of the Interior. National Migration Policy for Ghana. Accra; April 2016. http://migratingoutofpoverty.dfid.gov.uk/files/file.php?name=national-migration-policy-for-ghana.pdf&site=354.

49.       Mistiaen, V. "Virgin wives of the fetish Gods - Ghana's trokosi tradition." trust.org [online] October 4, 2013 [cited March 4, 2014]; http://www.trust.org/item/20131003122159-3cmei/.

50.       ILO Committee of Experts. Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention (No. 182) Ghana (ratified: 2000) Published: 2016; accessed October 31, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3242593.

51.       Jackson, RP. "Launch of the UN Day Against Human Trafficking Remarks by Ambassador." [online] July 13, 2016 [cited November 15, 2016]; https://gh.usembassy.gov/launch-un-day-human-trafficking/.

52.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. October 3, 2016.

53.       Government of Ghana. Constitution of the Republic of Ghana, enacted 1992. http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/republic/constitution.php.

54.       Government of Ghana. The Education Act, Act 778, enacted 2008. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/83622/92463/F2061259086/GHA83622.pdf.

55.       Government of Ghana. Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS6) Child Labour Report. Accra,  August 26, 2014. [Source on file].

56.       U.S. Department of State. "Ghana," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265472.pdf.

57.       Ghanian Chronicle. "Ghana; School girls sell bodies for phones." allafrica.com [online] January 23, 2015 [cited November 18, 2015]; [source on file].

58.       "New Automated Birth Registration System Launched." Business and Financial Times, Ghana, May 9, 2016. [source on file].

59.       Government of Ghana. The Children's Act, Act 560, enacted September 24, 1998. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/56216/65194/E98GHA01.htm.

60.       Government of Ghana. Labour Act of 2003, Act 651, enacted March 31, 2004. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/66955/63431/F1429852156/GHA66955.pdf.

61.       Government of Ghana. Labour Regulations Arrangement Of Regulations, L.I. 1833, enacted 2007. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/1198/Labour%20Regulations%202007.pdf.

62.       Government of Ghana. Human Trafficking Act, Act 694, enacted December 5, 2005.

63.       Government of Ghana. Human Trafficking Prohibition (Protection and Reintegration of Trafficked Persons Regulations), L.I. 2219, enacted June 22, 2015. [Source on file].

64.       Government of Ghana. Consolidation of Criminal Code of 1960, Act 29, enacted December 10, 1999. http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/gh/gh010en.pdf.

65.       Government of Ghana. Criminal Offenses (Amendment) Act, Act 849, enacted June 27, 2012. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/44bf823a4.pdf.

66.       U.S. Embassy- Accra. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

67.       UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Second periodic reports of States parties due in 1997 - Ghana; July 14, 2005. Report No. CRC/C/65/Add.34. http://www.refworld.org/country,,CRC,,gha,,43f3054a0,0.html.

68.       Government of Ghana. Recruitment into Ghana Armed Forces 2017 General Eligibility, [Online] [cited February 2, 2017]; http://i.gafrecruitment.com.gh/general-eligibility/index.html.

69.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

70.       Ghana Business News. "DSWU calls for ratification of ILO convention on domestic workers." GhanaBusinessNews.com [online] September 25, 2016 [cited January 24, 2017]; https://www.ghanabusinessnews.com/2016/09/25/dswu-calls-for-ratification-of-ilo-convention-on-domestic-workers/.

71.       Ablordeppey, A. "Gov’t. Committed to Sanity in Domestic Work – Labour Minister." ModernGhana.com [online] September 22, 2016 [cited September 26, 2016]; http://www.modernghana.com/news/721385/govt-committed-to-sanity-in-domestic-work-labour-ministe.html.

72.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 21, 2017.

73.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 24, 2016.

74.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Minimum Age Convention (No, 138) Ghana (ratification: 2011) Published: 2016; accessed October 31, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3242590.

75.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention (No. 182) Ghana (ratification: 2000) Publication: 2016; accessed October 31, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3247758.

76.       U.S. Embassy- Accra. Reporting, February 14, 2017.

77.       Government of Ghana. Ghana Child Labour Monitoring System (GCLMS). Accra, Ministry Of Employment And Social Welfare; September 2010. http://www.africanchildforum.org/clr/policy%20per%20country/ghana/ghana_labour_2010_en.pdf.

78.       Government of Ghana, and Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations. Pilot Report on Ghana Child Labor Monitoring System (GCLMS). Accra; July 2013. [Source on file].

79.       Ghana Business News. "Ministry signs MOU to end child labour." GhanaBusinessNews.com [online] October 10, 2016 [cited October 13, 2016]; https://www.ghanabusinessnews.com/2016/10/10/ministry-signs-mou-to-end-child-labour/.

80.       Mensah, M. "Human trafficking, child labor abuses. Worst form of human rights violation - Mrs. Mahama." Graphic.com [online] September 14, 2016 [cited September 19, 2016]; http://www.graphic.com.gh/news/general-news/human-trafficking-child-labour-abuses-worst-form-of-human-rights-violation-mrs-mahama.html.

81.       Government of Ghana. Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report on Ghana - 2016 Responses. Accra; January 2017. [Source on file].

82.       Ghana Web. "Gov’t admits challenges in fighting human trafficking." [online] October 4, 2016 [cited October 5, 2016]; http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/regional/Gov-t-admits-challenges-in-fighting-human-trafficking-474662.

83.       Ghanaian Times. "Ghana intensifies fight against human trafficking." GhanaianTimes.com [online] August 1, 2016 [cited March 1, 2017]; http://www.ghanaiantimes.com.gh/ghana-intensifies-fight-against-human-trafficking/.

84.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 5, 2017.

85.       U.S. Embassy- Accra. Reporting, February 1, 2016.

86.       Government of Ghana. Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) For 2014-2016; Programme Based Budget Estimates For 2014. Accra, Ministry Of Gender, Children And Social Protection; 2014. http://www.mofep.gov.gh/sites/default/files/pbb_/2014/Gender.pdf.

87.       Sudhanshu Handa, Michael Park, Robert Osei Darko, Isaac Osei-Akoto, Silvio Diadone, and Benjamin Davis. Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty Program Impact Evaluation. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina; University of Ghana; Food and Agriculture Organization; October 2013. http://www.unicef.org/ghana/gh_resources_LEAP_Quant_impact_evaluation_FINAL_OCT_2013.pdf.

88.       "Department of Social Welfare changes name." GhanaNewsAgency.org [online] October 26, 2015 [cited January 24, 2016]; http://www.ghananewsagency.org/social/department-of-social-welfare-changes-name--96242.

89.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 22, 2016.

90.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

91.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

92.       UN. "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex." (2012); http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

93.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. October 27, 2016.

94.       Ghana Web. Ministry of Interior Profile, [online] [cited January 22, 2017]; http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/republic/ministry.profile.php?ID=29.

95.       Labour Department Head Office Accra. List of Private Employment Agencies Licensed by the Labour Department of Ghana to Undertake Recruitment for Foreign Employment. Accra, Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations; November 3, 2016. http://www.melr.gov.gh/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/LIST-OF-PRIVATE-EMPLOYMENT-AGENCIES-LICENSED-BY-THE-LABOUR-DEPARTMENT-TO-UNDERTAKE-RECRUITMENT-FOR-PRIVATE-EMPLOYMENT-AGENCIES-%E2%80%93-FOREIGN-RECRUITMENT-ONLY-1.pdf.

96.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. November 10, 2016.

97.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 19, 2016.

98.       Government of Ghana. Ghana Immigration Service Anti-Human Smuggling and Trafficking in Persons Unit (ASHTIP) Reporting Template. Accra; 2017. [Source on file].

99.       Naatogmah, AK. "41 children rescued from traffickers in N/Region." [online] February 19, 2016 [cited February 19, 2016]; http://citifmonline.com/2016/02/19/41-children-rescued-from-traffickers-in-nregion/.

100.     Government of Ghana. In the Circuit Court at Ho: The Republic vs. Nanor Yaw Tseko (Court Case N. 021/40/2016). Accra; April 15, 2016. [Source on file].

101.     Government of Ghana, Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare. Institutional and Management Framework for the National Child Labour Elimination Programme: The National Steering Committee on Child Labour- Terms of Reference. Accra; 2010. [Source on file].

102.     U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 17, 2017.

103.     "Ghana ups human trafficking fight." [online] July 27, 2016 [cited March 1, 2017]; http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Ghana-ups-human-trafficking-fight-458410.

104.     Government of Ghana. Hazardous Child Labour Activity Framework for the Cocoa Sector, enacted June 2008. [Source on file].

105.     Government of Ghana. Hazardous Child Labour Activity Framework for Ghana (HAF), enacted 2012. [Source on file].

106.     Senator Thomas Harkin, Congressman Eliot Engel, USDOL, Government of Côte d'Ivoire, Government of Ghana, and International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry. Framework of Action to Support Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol. Abidjan; September 13, 2010. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/CocoaFrameworkAction.pdf.

107.     Senator Thomas Harkin, Congressman Eliot Engel, USDOL, Government of Côte d'Ivoire, Government of Ghana, and International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry. Declaration of Joint Action to Support Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol. Abidjan; September 13, 2010. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GhanaSignedDeclaration.pdf.

108.     Congressman Eliot Engel, USDOL, Government of Côte d’Ivoire, Government of Ghana, and the International Chocolate and Cocoa Industry. Child Labor Cocoa Coordinating Group (CLCCG) 2016 Annual Report. Washington DC; 2017. https://www.dol.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ilab/CLCCG%202016%20Annual%20Report.pdf.

109.     Government of Ghana and Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Joint Declaration of the First Ladies of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire and the Republic of Ghana on the Fight Against Cross-Border Ch Ild Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labour, enacted September 13, 2016. [Source on file].

110.     Government of Ghana and Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Cooperation Agreement to Combat Cross-Border Child Trafficking and the Worst Forms oF Child Labour, enacted November 3, 2016. [Source on file].

111.     "Lordina and Dominique Ouattara Commit to Fight Against Child Labour." The Herald, Ghana, September 16, 2016. [Source on file].

112.     Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations. National Employment Policy. Accra; November 2014. http://www.melr.gov.gh/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/National-Employment-Policy-2015.pdf.

113.     Government of Ghana. Minerals and Mining Policy of Ghana, enacted February 2016. [Source on file].

114.     BaduAgyei, B. "Workshop On Child Protection Policy In Ghana Held." NewsGhana.com [online] April 28, 2016 [cited April 29, 2016]; http://www.newsghana.com.gh/workshop-on-child-protection-policy-in-ghana-held/.

115.     UNDAF. United Nations Development Assistance Framework, 2012-2016: Ghana. Accra; December 2011. http://www.gh.undp.org/content/dam/ghana/docs/UNDAF_Action_Plan_2012-2016.pdf.

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