Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports
In 2022, Georgia made moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Labor Inspectorate created a group of expert labor inspectors to identify instances of forced labor and trafficking for labor exploitation and opened branch offices in Batumi and Kutaisi to increase its operational presence in Western Georgia. The Prosecutor’s Office adopted a new strategy for 2022–2027 to increase efforts to identify and effectively prosecute child trafficking and labor exploitation by using a victim-centered approach. In addition, the government approved a new National Strategy for the Protection of Human Rights in Georgia for 2022–2030, with a focus on protection of the rights of certain vulnerable groups, including children. However, children in Georgia are subjected to the worst forms of child labor, including forced begging. Children also engage in agricultural labor. Georgia's minimum age for work does not meet international standards because it does not apply to children working in the informal sector. The Criminal Code does not explicitly prohibit the use of children in illicit activities. Furthermore, lack of effective coordination between the entities involved in addressing human trafficking hinders efforts to adequately assist child victims.
Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Georgia.
|Working (% and population)||5 to 14||2.9 (13,547)|
|Working children by sector||5 to 14|
|Attending School (%)||5 to 14||96.9|
|Combining Work and School (%)||7 to 14||3.7|
|Primary Completion Rate (%)||90.7|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2021, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2023. (1)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from National Child Labor Survey (NCLS), 2015. (2)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Farming of potatoes, citrus, blueberries, tea, hazelnuts, and hay (3-9)|
|Raising cattle, activities unknown (7,9)|
|Work in factories (7)|
|Services||Street work, including begging, vending, car washing, carrying cargo, and collecting scrap metal (3-5,7,8,11-14)|
|Domestic work (7,8)|
|Work in hospitality (restaurants, hotels, and at beaches and resorts), wholesale and retail, small advertising services, and food delivery services (3,7,8)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (13,15,16)|
|Forced begging and street vending (3-5,13-16)|
|Coerced criminality, such as theft (3,16)|
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.
Estimates suggest that 1,000 to 2,000 children earn a living by begging in Georgia, primarily caused by poverty, homelessness, or domestic violence. (3,5,7,8,12,14) Many child beggars are from Roma communities. (11,13) Children also engage in seasonal labor migration, both within Georgia and to Türkiye, where children as young as age 13 work during the summers to harvest tea and hazelnuts, as well as in construction. (7,8) In the regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which are occupied by Russian forces and not under control of the central government, lack of information limits an assessment of the types of work children perform and the sectors in which they work. (4,5,16,17)
Roma and Azerbaijani Kurd ethnic minorities and refugee and internally displaced children from Georgia, Armenia, and Moldova are subjected to forced begging and coerced into criminality in Georgia. (12-16) There are instances in which Georgia is a source and transit country for child trafficking, especially of girls being taken to Cyprus, Egypt, Türkiye, and the United Arab Emirates for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. (12-16) According to the IOM, child sexual exploitation is also an issue within Georgia. (8) Limited evidence indicates children may perform hazardous activities in construction. (10)
Children who do not attend school in Georgia are vulnerable to child labor. Some children systematically miss or drop out of school due to their involvement in seasonal work, household labor, or seasonal labor migration. (3,7) School employees, such as teachers and administrative personnel, do not always record absenteeism by students or the reasons for it. As a result, many cases of potential child labor are not recorded or investigated. (3,7,18) Migrant children and some Roma children may not attend school due to language barriers; however, there are some mixed language schools with Georgian, Russian, and Azeri or Armenian languages. (3,18,19) Socially vulnerable children, children from impoverished families, children with disabilities, Roma children, those who live in rural areas, and asylum-seeking and refugee children may have difficulty accessing education. This is in part due to a lack of identity documents, which help children access state-funded services, including social, medical, and educational programs. (4,8,20-22) UNICEF notes that some migrant and Roma families continue to destroy identification and other documents in an effort to avoid interaction with state officials. (9,12)
Georgia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✓|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✓|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✓|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✓|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✓|
The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Georgia's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including a lack of minimum age protections in the informal sector.
|Standard||Meets International Standards||Age||Legislation|
|Minimum Age for Work||No||16||Article 4 of the Labor Code of Georgia (23)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Article 4 of the Labor Code of Georgia; Articles 2 and 5 of the Law on Occupational Safety (23,24)|
|Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children||Yes||Article 4(4) of the Labor Code of Georgia; Articles 2 and 5 of the Law on Occupational Safety; Resolution 381 Approving the List of Dangerous, Heavy, Harmful, and Hazardous Works (23-25)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Article 30 of the Constitution of Georgia; Articles 143/1, 143/2, and 143/3 of the Criminal Code of Georgia; Law of Georgia on Combating Human Trafficking; Article 55 of the Code on the Rights of the Child (26-29)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Articles 143/1, 143/2, 143/3, and 172 of the Criminal Code of Georgia; Law of Georgia on Combating Human Trafficking (27,28)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Articles 143/1, 143/2, 143/3, 253–255, 255/1, and 255/2 of the Criminal Code of Georgia; Article 56 of the Code on the Rights on the Child (28,29)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||No||Article 171 of the Criminal Code of Georgia (28)|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment||Yes||18||Article 10 of the Law of Georgia on Military Duty and Military Service (30)|
|Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military||Yes||Articles 9 and 21 of the Law of Georgia on Military Duty and Military Service (30)|
|Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups||No||Article 410 of the Criminal Code of Georgia; Article 59 of the Code on the Rights of the Child (28,29)|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||15‡||Articles 2 and 9 of the Law of Georgia on General Education (31)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||Article 22 of the Law of Georgia on General Education (31)|
‡ Age calculated based on available information. (31)
No legislative changes were introduced during the reporting period. (8)
Labor Code provisions related to the minimum age for work are not in compliance with international standards because they do not apply to the informal sector. (23) In Georgia, some employers hire children informally specifically because they are not covered by the Labor Code. (7) Georgia's law on education allows children to leave school at age 15. (31) These children are vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor because they are no longer required to be in school but are not legally permitted to work full time until they are 16 years old. Article 4 of the Labor Code specifies conditions under which children ages 14 and 15 may perform light work, and Article 14 prescribes the number of hours that may be worked, but the law does not specify the activities in which light work is permissible. (23) Article 4 of the Labor Code stipulates that children under age 14 are allowed to work only in sport, art, and culture, as well as some advertising activities. (23) Lastly, Georgia's laws do not criminally prohibit the use of children in illicit activities, including the use, procuring, or offering of children for the production or trafficking of drugs. (28)
The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.
|Organization/Agency||Role & Activities|
|Ministry of Labor, Health, and Social Affairs (MoLHSA)||The Labor Inspectorate under MoLHSA operates as a semi-autonomous legal entity of public law. (8,9) The Labor Inspectorate enforces labor laws related to forced labor, labor exploitation, and occupational safety and health norms through routine targeted and unannounced inspections. (8) Labor inspectors may inspect any facility or economic activity, including private farms and private residential houses where economic activity takes place. In 2022, labor inspectors went through 24 intensive short-term and long-term professional and technical trainings, to include occupational safety and health topics, labor rights, and child labor. (8) The Labor Inspectorate created a group of specialized labor inspectors to identify instances of forced labor and trafficking for labor exploitation, and opened branch offices in Batumi and Kutaisi to increase its operational presence in Western Georgia. (32) Additionally, 37 inspectors completed a training course on forced labor and labor exploitation organized by the Ministry of Justice, Labor Inspectorate, and the IOM, with the financial support of the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) of the U.S. Department of State. (8,33) Throughout the year, the Labor Inspectorate conducted outreach to employers and the general population to share information on child labor and forced labor, with focus on the border regions with Türkiye where, according to reports, children engage in seasonal work in country and in Türkiye. (8) In addition, MoLHSA, through the Department of Labor and Employment Policy, revises laws and policies to be in accordance with international standards. (34) Through the Social Services Agency, administers social benefits such as targeted social assistance, health care, and vouchers for day care, and employs social workers who oversee child protection. (5) Receives complaints through the Child Protection and Social Programs sub-department and refers complaints of child labor violations to law enforcement agencies for investigation. (34) Operates a hotline in eight languages (Georgian, English, Russian, Turkish, Azeri, Armenian, Arabic, and Persian). (32)|
|Ministry of Internal Affairs (MoIA)||Enforces criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking. (3,4) Through the Human Rights Protection and Investigation Quality Monitoring Department, ensures prompt responses to human trafficking crimes, and suggests recommendations for investigations and for legislation implementation. (8) Identifies human traffickers and collates data on traffickers across various agencies through the Information-Analytical Department. (35) Within MoIA, the Central Criminal Police Department leads criminal investigations of human trafficking, including the trafficking of children, through the Division for Combating Human Trafficking and Illegal Migration. Operates a hotline that is available in Georgian, Russian, and English. (3,4,32,35) Mobile task force units within MoIA, dedicated to anti-trafficking activities, proactively interview individuals in vulnerable occupations and demographics, including hospitality workers and children living and working on the streets, to identify possible cases of labor exploitation and to advise them of their legal rights and available government services. (3,32,36) MoIA’s National Police Academy is the primary institution responsible for training law enforcement officials on organized crime and trafficking, including referral procedures for child protection. (8) In 2022, MoIA launched child trafficking investigations of 15 cases of unlawful adoption of minors dating back to the 1980s. (8,37) In addition to initial trainings, 10 employees of the Division for Combating Human Trafficking participated in 10 trainings on the topic of transnational crime and human trafficking, to include child exploitation. Two investigators of the Police Department of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (Adjara Police Department) of MoIA received trainings on child labor. (8)|
|Prosecutor's Office of Georgia (POG)||An independent entity, separate from the Ministry of Justice, which prosecutes criminal cases involving child exploitation, forced labor, and human trafficking. (15,38) Manages an interagency working group on child labor trafficking issues under the framework of the POG operational strategy. The working group was active during the reporting period. (3,32) In 2022, the POG adopted a new Strategy for 2022–2027, to include a child victim-centered approach and to increase efforts to identify and effectively prosecute child trafficking and labor exploitation. (8,39)|
Labor Law Enforcement
In 2022, labor law enforcement agencies in Georgia appeared to function adequately in addressing child labor (Table 6).
|Overview of Labor Law Enforcement||2021||2022|
|Labor Inspectorate Funding||$1,927,900 (3)||$2,041,903 (8)|
|Number of Labor Inspectors||109 (3)||123 (8)|
|Mechanism to Assess Civil Penalties||Yes (40)||Yes (40)|
|Training for Labor Inspectors Provided||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
|Number of Labor Inspections Conducted at Worksite||58,607 (3)||845 (8)|
|Number of Child Labor Violations Found||1 (3)||15 (8)|
|Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed||0 (3)||15 (8)|
|Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected||0 (3)||15 (8)|
|Routine Inspections Conducted||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
|Routine Inspections Targeted||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
|Unannounced Inspections Permitted||Yes (40)||Yes (40)|
|Unannounced Inspections Conducted||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
|Complaint Mechanism Exists||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
|Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
During the reporting period, the Labor Inspectorate increased its staffing to 123 labor inspectors. Research indicates that Georgia has an adequate number of labor inspectors to carry out their mandated duties. (8,41) There are two inspectors specifically assigned to monitor forced labor and child labor issues, but all inspectors are trained on six technical and general topics and provided with continuing education to have the skills required to detect and respond to child labor. (3,8)
The number of inspections decreased significantly during the reporting period; however, all inspections in 2022 were conducted on occupational safety and health issues and labor code violations, including child labor, compared to inspections conducted in 2021 that mostly focused on pandemic-related regulations. In 2022, out of 845 inspections conducted in different economic sectors, including agriculture, 830 were scheduled and 15 were unannounced. (8) During the reporting period, labor inspectors identified 15 cases of child labor (11 were found during scheduled and 4 during unannounced inspections), in wholesale and retail, accommodations, and food delivery services in the Tbilisi, Adjara, Shida Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti and Imereti regions. (8,9) All of the companies were fined, and penalties were collected in the amount of $32,592 (85,300 GEL). (8) The Russia-occupied regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia are not under the control of Georgian central authorities, who are prevented from carrying out inspections and law enforcement there. (4,14,17)
Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2022, criminal law enforcement agencies in Georgia took actions to address child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including limited efforts to investigate, prosecute, and convict child labor crimes during the reporting period.
|Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement||2021||2022|
|Training for Criminal Investigators Provided||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
|Number of Investigations||6 (3)||3 (8)|
|Number of Prosecutions Initiated||2 (3)||1 (32)|
|Number of Convictions||2 (3)||0 (8)|
|Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor||Yes (3)||No (8)|
|Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
The Georgian government made limited efforts to investigate, prosecute, and convict child labor crimes during the reporting period. In 2022, Georgian law enforcement agencies initiated three investigations of child labor exploitation cases (compared to six in 2021); two of those investigations remained ongoing at the end of the reporting period. (8) One case was referred for prosecution and involved child exploitation through forced begging and criminal activities. (32) Criminal investigators were unable to investigate and prosecute any potential human trafficking cases, including of children, in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, because they remain occupied by Russian forces and outside of central government control. (4,14,16) In addition, according to the IOM, the Central Criminal Police Department in Tbilisi still has no direct supervision over the team of specialized police investigators in the Adjara region and there are indications that the lack of effective communication between specialized investigators in Tbilisi and Batumi may hinder human trafficking investigations in the Adjara region. (9,32)
In 2022, 22 employees of the Prosecutor's Office (POG) and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MoIA) completed a training course on investigating cases of child exploitation and conducting interviews of child victims, organized by the IOM with financial support from the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL). In addition, the IOM facilitated discussion for 20 government representatives, including the Ministry of Justice, MoIA, and POG employees, on the main challenges and performance of Georgia's law enforcement entities in investigating and prosecuting human trafficking. (32) During the reporting period, the Ministry of Justice, with financial support from the OSCE and the Swiss Embassy in Georgia, led the first national simulation‐based training on human trafficking for 40 investigators, prosecutors, labor inspectors, psychologists, social workers, and staff working with human trafficking victims and survivors. (32)
The government has established a key mechanism to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including a lack of coordinating mechanism with sufficient scope to address all forms of child labor.
|Coordinating Body||Role & Activities|
|Interagency Anti-Trafficking Coordination Council for the Implementation of Measures Against Human Trafficking (A-TIP Council)||Coordinates government efforts against human trafficking, including efforts to protect and rehabilitate survivors. (15) Drafts national action plans and other strategic government programs to address human trafficking, and publishes biannual statistics on human trafficking, including sexual and labor exploitation of minors. Refers child survivors to shelters to receive social services. (3,4) Chaired by the Minister of Justice and comprises representatives from state agencies and non-state entities. (11,15) In December 2022, adopted a new National Action Plan (NAP) for 2023–2024 and issued a report on the implementation of the previous NAP for 2021–2022. (8,32,42) In addition, it adopted and submitted for the government’s approval a Governmental Strategy on Protection of Homeless Children from Violence, including Trafficking in Persons (2023–2026). (8,32) The A-TIP Council published information and statistics on anti-trafficking efforts on the Ministry of Justice's website; however, observers continued to report the A-TIP Council did not provide regular public assessments of government efforts and, as a result, appeared to lack transparency. (9,16)|
In December 2022, the Interagency Human Rights Council, in collaboration with the ILO, released an online training course, “Business, human rights, and decent work in Georgia,” that included topics on elimination of child labor. (8,45,46) In addition, the Ministry of Labor, Health, and Social Affairs (MoLHSA)’s Labor Inspectorate and MoIA signed a Memorandum of Cooperation that allows carrying out joint inspections to counter trafficking of minors and to continue to identify children working on the street. (8) However, lack of effective coordination between the three entities involved in addressing human trafficking—the MoIA's Human Rights Department and victim assistance coordinators, the POG with its witness and victim assistance coordinators, and the Agency for State Care—may hinder efforts to assist child victims. (3,9)
The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including the insufficient scope of existing policies.
|Policy||Description & Activities|
|National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons (2021–2022)||Aimed to prevent human trafficking with improved detection mechanisms and effective criminal prosecution; promoted reintegration of victims, including child victims, into society; and improved interagency coordination in the fight against trafficking. (8)|
|Code on the Rights of the Child||Seeks to establish and implement a range of measures to protect children from violence and hazardous child labor. (4,5,29) In 2022, the Permanent Parliamentary Council for the Protection of Children’s Rights, responsible for monitoring the Code’s implementation, conducted an assessment of seven primary areas of the Code's Action Plan, including the deinstitutionalization process, alternative care systems, preventive and family support programs, child poverty, protection of children from violence, assessment of children's disabilities, and reform of the status-granting system. (8,47) Throughout the year, 10 municipalities either established or amended programs for protection and support of children’s rights. (8)|
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (21,48)
In September 2022, the government adopted and submitted for Parliament's approval the new National Strategy for the Protection of Human Rights in Georgia for 2022–2030. While the new strategy does not address all fundamental human rights and freedoms, it does put a special emphasis on the protection of the rights of certain vulnerable groups, including children. (8,49) The government drafted and submitted for adoption the Governmental Strategy on Protection of Homeless Children from Violence, including Trafficking in Persons 2023–2026, which covers child labor issues. (8) Although the government has established policies to address child begging, child trafficking, child labor in street work, and hazardous child labor, it does not have a policy to address child labor in agriculture or other forms of informal work.
In 2022, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the inadequacy of programs to address the full scope of the country's child labor problem.
|Program||Description & Activities|
|Programs Administered by the Agency for State Care and Assistance for the (Statutory) Victims of Human Trafficking†||MoLHSA legal public entity that provides care and administers social benefits, including targeted social assistance for survivors of child labor, human trafficking, domestic abuse, and sexual violence, as well as for elderly, disabled, and orphan populations. (3,4) Operates six shelters and seven crisis centers for children living and working on the street. (8,14) Implements the government's Rehabilitation and Reintegration Strategy, which includes operating shelters for survivors of human trafficking. (21) Operates eight mobile groups to identify street children. In addition, operates a hotline for potential victims of human trafficking with assistance available in eight languages. (32) The hotline provides both over-the-phone and in-person psychological support and counseling services for children and parents. (3) Continued to implement the Social Rehabilitation and Childcare program with an increased budget of $19.3 million (52.1 million GEL), up from $12.82 million (40.0 million GEL) in 2021. The program identifies and provides psychosocial rehabilitation and integration assistance to homeless children at high risk of abandonment or separation and provides placement of abandoned children into foster care, guardianship, or small group homes. (8) During the reporting period, assisted 296 street children, 151 of whom were directed to crisis centers and 67 of whom were directed to 24-hour shelters under MoLHSA management in four cities: Tbilisi, Rustavi, Kutaisi, and Batumi. (8,9)|
|Programs Overseen by the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture, and Sport (MoES)†||MoES oversees national primary education curriculum and vocational training programs. (4) Funds programs that promote the inclusion of vulnerable children in education. (4,21) Initiatives include a program designed to increase the participation in school by street children, children forced into begging, and children who are seasonal agricultural workers; and a program to distribute free textbooks to public school students. (8,21) Conducts anti-trafficking activities in elementary schools, high schools, and institutions of higher education. (13) Addresses the educational needs of vulnerable children by funding education for children living in MoHLSA shelters, vocational programs, and a program to increase the number of Georgian language teachers in communities with a high number of ethnic minorities. (3) In 2022, the government approved a new Unified Strategy of Education and Science 2022–2030, aiming to ensure equal access to education for all children, including children with disabilities, minorities, and marginalized children, as well as those who are at risk of dropping out. (49,50)|
|Targeted Social Assistance Program and Child Benefit Program†||Social Services Agency-administered social assistance programs designed to eliminate poverty, especially child poverty. Provides a variety of services, including support for impoverished families, and daycare for vulnerable children. (3) In 2022, increased child monthly benefits from $37 to $56 (from 100 GEL to 150 GEL). (51)|
For information about USDOL’s projects to address child labor around the world, visit https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/ilab-project-page-search
† Program is funded by the Government of Georgia.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (4,8,11,21)
During the reporting period, the government continued to provide identification documents to street children to enable them to access healthcare, education, social and other state programs; however, government outreach remains insufficient to address the issue. (21,49,52) In 2022, the government conducted public awareness campaigns throughout Georgia to raise awareness of child labor and trafficking of minors. (8) In addition, the Public Defender of Georgia, with the support of UNICEF, published a Child Rights Impact Assessment of COVID-19 Related State Measures, including the impact on children living and working on the streets, and specific recommendations to other government agencies. (53) Although Georgia has programs that target child labor, including ones to address the problem of street children, their scope does not fully address the extent of the problem, sometimes due to limited resources at the local level. (4,7,8,54) Furthermore, according to the Public Defender, the number of shelters, day care centers, and specialists working with homeless children in the country remain insufficient and there are no additional rehabilitation and resocialization services or mechanisms to prevent these children from returning to the street. (8)
Additionally, the government adopted a simplified school enrollment procedure and opened classrooms in the Ukrainian language for Ukrainian refugee children. (17,55,56) Despite the government's efforts to implement an inclusive education system, the Public Defender of Georgia noted that educational access remains inadequate for vulnerable children, including students with disabilities, street children, and children in state care. (4,57)
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Georgia (Table 11).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Legal Framework||Ensure that the minimum age for work applies to all children, including those in informal work.||2017 – 2022|
|Raise the compulsory education age from 15 to 16 to be consistent with the minimum age for work.||2009 – 2022|
|Ensure that the law's light work provisions are sufficiently specific, including the list of activities in which light work is permissible for 15-year-old children, to prevent them from involvement in child labor.||2016 – 2022|
|Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the use, procuring, and offering of children for the production and trafficking of drugs.||2019 – 2022|
|Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.||2016 – 2022|
|Enforcement||Impose penalties for convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.||2022|
|Continue to increase communication between the Ministry of Internal Affairs' specialized investigators across the country, including with investigators from Adjara region, to ensure coordinated human trafficking investigations.||2022|
|Coordination||Establish coordinating mechanisms to prevent and eliminate all worst forms of child labor.||2022|
|Increase coordination between the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Prosecutor's Office, the Agency for State Care, and other government agencies.||2018 – 2022|
|Government Policies||Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant forms of child labor, including child labor in agriculture and other forms of informal work.||2017 – 2022|
|Social Programs||Collect and publish data on the extent and nature of child labor, including in agriculture, to inform policies and programs.||2018 – 2022|
|Make additional efforts to register all children in school, including those from Roma communities, provide them with identity documents, and ensure that these groups can access education.||2018 – 2022|
|Improve access to education for children who speak languages other than Georgian or Russian, as well as for socially vulnerable children, children from impoverished families, children with disabilities, and children who live in rural areas.||2019 – 2022|
|Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem, especially for street children, and increase resources available at the local level.||2018 – 2022|
- UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 15, 2023. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Child Labor Survey (NCLS), 2015. Analysis received March 2023. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi. Reporting, January 14, 2022.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi. Reporting, January 15, 2021.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi. Reporting, January 14, 2020.
- ILO and National Statistics Office of Georgia (GEOSTAT). Georgia National Child Labour Survey 2015 Analytical Report. 2016.
- Government of Georgia. Public Defender of Georgia and UNICEF. Child Labour During the New Coronavirus Pandemic and Beyond. April 2, 2021.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi. Reporting, January 30, 2023.
- USDOS official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 14, 2023.
- JAM News. Tbilisi: 16-year-old teenager died working on a construction site. July 17, 2019.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi. Reporting. March 1, 2019.
- UNICEF. Children Living and/or Working in the Streets of Georgia. Tbilisi: UNICEF. July 2018.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi. Reporting. February 24, 2021.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi. Reporting. February 2, 2022.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi. Reporting, February 13, 2020.
- U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2022: Georgia. Washington, D.C., July 19, 2022.
- U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2022: Georgia. Washington, D.C., March 20, 2023.
- ADC Memorial. The Situation of Roma and Roma-like Groups in Georgia. October 14, 2022.
- UN CERD. Concluding Observations on Elimination of Racial Discrimination. December 13, 2022.
- UNICEF. Overcoming barriers for children with disabilities in Georgia. December 1, 2022.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi. Reporting. February 11, 2019.
- Gogoberidze, Khatia and Nino Memanishvili. Georgia: the children left outside the classroom. JAMNews. April 2, 2019.
- Government of Georgia. Labor Code of Georgia. Enacted: 2010. Accessed June 10, 2021.
- Government of Georgia. Occupational Safety Law. March 4, 2019.
- Government of Georgia. Resolution No. 381 Approving the list of dangerous, heavy, harmful and hazardous works. Enacted: July 27, 2018.
- Government of Georgia. The Constitution of Georgia. Enacted: 1995.
- Government of Georgia. Law of Georgia on Combating Human Trafficking. Enacted: June 16, 2006.
- Government of Georgia. Criminal Code of Georgia. Enacted: 1999.
- Government of Georgia. Children's Rights Code. Enacted: September 20, 2019.
- Government of Georgia. Law of Georgia on Military Duty and Military Service. Enacted: 1997.
- Government of Georgia. Law of Georgia on General Education. Enacted: April 8, 2005.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi. Reporting. February 7, 2023.
- IOM. Training About Forced Labor and Labor Exploitation for Georgian Labor Inspectors. April 8, 2022.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 22, 2019.
- Government of Georgia. Human Trafficking, Ministry of Internal Affairs. Accessed December 1, 2022.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi. Communication to USDOL official. February 18, 2021.
- The Telegraph. Thousands of children in Georgia ‘stolen and sold’ on an adoption black market. December 7, 2022.
- Government of Georgia. Prosecutor's Office of Georgia: History. Website. Accessed March 18, 2020.
- Government of Georgia. Prosecutor's Office of Georgia. Strategy of the Prosecutor's Office of Georgia 2022-2027. 2022.
- Government of Georgia. Law on Rights of Responsibilities of the Labor Inspectorate. February 13, 2020.
- ILOSTAT. ILO Labor Force Statistics (LFS)- Population and labor force. Accessed: January 31, 2023. Labor force data is government-reported data collected by the ILO. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- Government of Georgia. 2023-2024 Action Plan on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. December 2022.
- European Network of National Human Rights Institutions. Public Defender (Ombudsman) of Georgia. Accessed January 21, 2021.
- Parliament of Georgia. About Human Rights and Civil Integration Committee. Accessed January 21, 2021.
- U.S. Embassy- Tbilisi official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 13, 2023.
- Government of Georgia. Human Rights Secretariat. Course "Business, human rights and decent work in Georgia." 2022.
- Government of Georgia. Parliament of Georgia. The Permanent Parliamentary Council for Protection of Rights of Child discussed the implementation of the Action Plan. February 11, 2022
- Government of Georgia. National Strategy 2019-2023 for Labor and Employment Policy of Georgia. December 30, 2019.
- Government of Georgia. CERD Opening Statement Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs. November 23, 2022.
- Government of Georgia. Unified National Strategy of Education and Science 2022–2030. 2022.
- UNICEF. UNICEF welcomes Government initiative to increase child benefits for the most vulnerable children. April 18, 2022.
- OHCHR. Experts of HRC Welcome New Mechanism for Responding to Views, Raise Issues Concerning Elections in Georgia. July 6, 2022.
- Government of Georgia. Public Defender of Georgia and UNICEF. Child Rights Impact Assessment of COVID-19-related State Measures in Georgia. April 2022.
- UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the report submitted by Georgia under Article 12(1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. CRC/C/OPSC/GEO/CO/1. October 30, 2019.
- Agenda Portal. Ukrainian children to join Georgian schools in simplified procedure. March 18, 2022.
- Agenda Portal. UN, OSCE representatives welcome opening of classes in Ukrainian at Tbilisi school. April 27, 2022.
- Interpressnews. According to the Public Defender, the inclusive educational process is flawed. December 10, 2020.