Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Fiji

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Fiji

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Fiji made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Ministry of Employment, Productivity, and Industrial Relations significantly increased the number of labor inspections conducted throughout the year. In addition, the Government was actively involved in the launch and implementation of the Tackling Child Labor Through Education Project, which aims to strengthen Government coordination, monitoring, and enforcement of policies and programs related to the eradication of child labor. During the year, the Government also opened a new rehabilitation center for children found begging on the street. However, children in Fiji are engaged in child labor, including in street work, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Fiji has not ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, or the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons. It is challenging for labor inspectors to inspect for child labor violations in remote areas of the country, and Fiji has limited support services for child victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.

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Children in Fiji are engaged in child labor, including in street work. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Fiji. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

Unavailable

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

Unavailable

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

Unavailable

Primary completion rate (%):

102.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(4)
Data were unavailable from Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis, 2015.(5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

 

 

 

Cutting,*† loading,*† weeding,* and spraying chemicals on sugarcane*† (3, 6-9)

Planting, picking, and using chemicals† on tobacco* (1)

Collecting and splitting coconuts,* harvesting rice,* planting, harvesting, weeding, and spraying fertilizers on roots (including dalo and yaqona),* and planting and harvesting other kinds of fruits and vegetables* (1)

Pig farming* and goat and cattle herding* (1)

Fishing*† and deep-sea diving*† (1)

Services

Street work, including pushing wheelbarrows for shoppers in markets,* vending, washing cars,* shining shoes,* and begging (1, 3, 8-11)

Domestic work (1, 11)

Working in garages* or in retail shops* (9-11)

Selling fruit* (1, 10)

Collecting bottles* and scrap metal*† (1, 11)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human

trafficking (1, 12-16)

Forced labor in agriculture,* begging,* domestic work,* and industrial sectors,* each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 12, 17, 18)

Use in illicit activities, activities unknown* (1, 11)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Commercial sexual exploitation of children continued to occur in Fiji, particularly in urban centers and near ports where fishing vessels dock.(1, 3, 16, 19) Parents sometimes send their children to live with families in cities or near schools to facilitate their continuing education and to perform light household work. Research found that some of these children are vulnerable to involuntary domestic work or are forced to engage in sexual activity in exchange for food, clothing, shelter, or school fees.(3, 12)

Fiji has ratified some key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 92 of the Employment Relations Promulgation (20)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 40 of the Employment Relations (Administration) Regulations; Hazardous Occupations Prohibited to Children Under 18 Years of Age Order (21, 22)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Occupations Prohibited to Children Under 18 Years of Age Order (22)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 6 and 91 of the Employment Relations Promulgation; Articles 20–21 of the Immigration Act; Articles 102–103 and 111–121 of the Crimes Decree; Article 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of Fiji (20, 23-25)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 91 of the Employment Relations Promulgation; Article 20 of the Immigration Act; Article 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of Fiji; Articles 111–121 of the Crimes Decree (20, 23-25)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 91 of the Employment Relations Promulgation; Articles 225–227 of the Crimes Decree; Juveniles (Amendment) Act (20, 25, 26)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 91 of the Employment Relations Promulgation; Article 58 of the Juveniles Act (20, 27)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 7 of the Royal Fiji Military Forces Act (28)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Compulsory Education Order; the Compulsory Education Regulations (3, 29)

Free Public Education

No

 

 

* No conscription (30)

The Employment Regulations Promulgation specifies the conditions under which children ages 13 to 15 may engage in light work, but it does not limit the number of hours for light work, nor does it include a list of activities that are permissible.(20)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment, Productivity, and Industrial Relations (MEPIR)

Enforce child labor laws, including its worst forms. Monitor child employment, including compliance with the requirement on the minimum age for employment and the Employment Relations Promulgation.(2, 8) Oversee 14 Divisional Labor Offices responsible for investigating cases of child labor and making appropriate referrals.(8)

Child Labor Unit

Serve as the mechanism in MEPIR for filing and responding to child labor complaints.(2) Coordinate activities at the national, divisional, and district levels through Interagency Committees on Child Abuse. These committees include the police; Ministries of Social Welfare, Labor, Health, and Education; the Public Prosecutor’s Office; the Solicitor General’s Office; and NGOs working on child labor issues.(2) Conduct training on child labor in MEPIR and in communities, schools, and industries where child labor occurs. Maintain a 24-hour phone line to accept reports of child labor and refer children to social services when appropriate.(2, 8)

Employment Relations Tribunal

Adjudicate alleged violations of child labor provisions in the Employment Relations Promulgation.(8)

Fiji Police Force

Enforce laws on child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and other illicit activities.(8) Maintain a Human Trafficking Unit (HTU) to investigate allegations of human trafficking and to provide training focused on combating human trafficking to other police units.(19) Collaborate closely with the Department of Immigration and the Police Transnational Crime Unit.(31)

The Department of Immigration

Coordinate with Fiji Police Force to investigate cases involving underage victims of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking, which are then tried in the criminal court system.(19, 32)

The Department of Social Welfare and the Department of Public Prosecutions

Enforce laws on child trafficking.(2) Operate four homes for child trafficking victims.(31)

 

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Fiji took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

 Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown (9)

Number of Labor Inspectors

63 (33, 34)

63 (35)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (8)

No (9)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (35)

Yes (35)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (35)

Yes (35)

Number of Labor Inspections

2,735 (33)

4,128 (35)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

4,128 (35)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

5 (8)

7 (9)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

 1 (8, 36)

1 (9)

Number of Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

0 (35)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (8)

Yes (9)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (35)

Yes (9)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (8)

Yes (9)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (35)

Yes (35)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (8)

Yes (9)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (9)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

Information was not available on the amount of funding dedicated for labor inspections; however, in 2015, the aggregate estimated operating expenditures for the Ministry of Employment, Productivity, and Industrial Relations (MEPIR) were $7.97 million.(9) In addition to MEPIR’s 45 labor inspectors, there were also 30 health and safety inspectors, who have received training on child labor and may provide coverage when needed. All inspectors were stationed in larger, more populated areas and sometimes found it challenging to access smaller, rural communities and outer islands.(9) MEPIR provided up to three months of competency-based trainings for all new labor inspectors, including standardized instruction on child labor. Subsequently, labor inspectors received quarterly refresher courses.(35) Other civil society organizations and district community leaders involved in child protection also received training on this topic.(9)

In 2015, labor inspectors conducted targeted routine inspections in the retail, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors, where children in Fiji are known to be employed.(9) If child labor cases are identified through inspections, MEPIR initially refers the cases to one of MEPIR’s 14 Divisional Labor Offices for further investigation. The Divisional Labor Office then refers the case to MEPIR’s Child Labor Unit, which will determine whether to remove the child from the situation with the help of the Social Welfare Department and the Ministry of Education, or whether to involve another appropriate agency.(9) During the reporting period, MEPIR removed all seven children identified during labor inspections from worksites, and the Government assisted them in returning to formal education.(9)

In September 2015, the Department of Social Welfare established a national child helpline to promote child protection and access to health care.(9) Data were unavailable on the number of calls received related to child labor.(8)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Fiji took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (18, 31)

Yes (35)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (37)

Number of Investigations

1 (8)

4 (37)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (8)

3 (9)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

1 (8)

0 (37)

Number of Convictions

1 (8)

0 (9, 37)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (18)

Yes (18)

 

The Human Trafficking Unit (HTU) in the Fiji Police Force employs five officers responsible for enforcing criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(9) In 2015, ILO facilitated a regional seminar for some law enforcement officials, which included training on trafficking in persons. Police officers from the HTU also provided training for labor inspectors on the identification of potential child trafficking cases during labor inspections.(37) In 2015, investigators recorded three cases of commercial sexual exploitation of children and zero cases of forced child labor.(9) When child victims are identified, law enforcement officials refer them to the Department of Social Welfare to receive social services.(8)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Inter-Agency Network

Focus on child labor issues at the district and provincial level. Monitor and report cases of non-compliance. Conduct awareness-raising activities in collaboration with the Child Labor Unit.(36) Network consists of interagency committees in nine towns in Fiji: Ba, Labasa, Lautoka, Nadi, Rakiraki, Sigatoka, Suva, Taveuni, and Tavua.(2, 38) Committees comprise the Fiji Police Force; Director of Public Prosecutions Office; Ministry of Woman, Children, and Poverty Alleviation; Ministry of Education; and various NGOs.(33)

Inter-Agency Taskforce on Beggars

Address issues concerning children who beg and other exploited children. Includes Fiji Police Force, Department of Social Welfare, Ministry of Local Government, Suva City Council, Fiji National Council for Disabled Persons, Ministry of Health, the Ministry of i’Taukei Affairs, and local NGOs.(2) Enforce zero-tolerance policy on child begging.(9)

Inter-Agency Trafficking Task Force

Implement the National Plan of Action to Eradicate Trafficking in Persons and Child Trafficking. Government-wide task force, headed by the Department of Immigration.(2, 8, 31)

 

The Inter-Agency Trafficking Task Force has not been active since 2012.(8, 9) This lack of coordination may limit the Government’s effectiveness in efforts to combat child trafficking.

The Government of Fiji has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action to Eradicate Trafficking in Persons and Child Trafficking

Guides the Government’s efforts to prevent and combat trafficking in persons. Focuses on increasing public awareness and education on human trafficking-related issues and prioritizes anti-trafficking training for Government officials.(31) Implementing committee is chaired by the Immigration Department, with the Fiji Police Force’s Human Trafficking Unit serving as the lead coordinator.(9)

Free Education Grant

Provides 12 years of tuition-free education for children in Fiji. Covers the cost of school fees and textbooks for students in 904 eligible primary and secondary schools.(33, 39, 40) Fiji has established free public education by policy, but not by law.

UNDAF Pacific (2013–2017)*

Promotes sustainable development and economic growth for vulnerable groups in 14 Pacific Island Countries and Territories: Cook Islands, Fiji, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Marshall Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. In Fiji, includes initiatives to improve access to quality education, health, and housing services for children and to strengthen child protective systems.(41, 42)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

In 2015, the Government of Fiji continued consultation on the National Action Plan for Child Labor and the accompanying 5-year Strategic Plan for Combating Child Labor, including its worst forms.(34) The Government anticipated the Plan would be implemented by September 2013 and operational through 2018, but at the close of the reporting period, the plan remained in draft form.(2, 36)

In 2015, the Government of Fiji funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Tackling Child Labor through Education (TACKLE II) Project

(2015-2017)*

$570,700 European Union-funded project, implemented by the ILO in partnership with the Ministry of Employment, Productivity, and Industrial Relations, which strengthens and sustains national efforts to eliminate child labor. Seeks to enhance coordination, enforcement, and monitoring mechanisms to build the capacity of stakeholders in the implementation of policies and programs on formal and non-formal education, school retention, and access to education for out-of-school children, and to promote research and raise awareness on child labor issues.(43) In 2015, held a sub-regional training for participants from seven Pacific island nations, including Fiji, on the development of training and livelihoods programs for older children engaged in child labor and those at risk.(44) Assisted the MEPIR to achieve certification from the International Organization for Standardization for Fiji’s labor compliance system, which includes child labor inspection systems and processes.(45)

Nadi Safe House*†

Government-run safe house in Fiji’s western division of Nadi that provides temporary housing for victims of human trafficking.(37)

Rehabilitation Center*†

Department of Social Welfare and faith-based organization-run rehabilitation center for children found begging on the streets. In 2015, initial capacity of the center was 24 children.(9)

Safety Net Project†

Government program to combat human trafficking at the community level, largely by funding rehabilitation services targeting female victims of commercial sexual exploitation under age 18. Receives referrals from various entities, including the Fiji Police.(46)

Food voucher and bus fare assistance†

Ministry of Education program that provides food vouchers and subsidized bus fares to offset the cost of education for children attending remote schools.(36, 39)

Access Quality Education Program (2011–2015)

Australian Agency for International Development-funded, 5-year program, implemented in partnership with the Ministry of Education, to improve the quality of education in rural and remote schools. Provided grants to improve school infrastructure and to ensure access to schooling for the most poor and marginalized children.(47) In 2015, launched a toolkit for inclusive education for children with disabilities, which will be distributed to every primary and secondary school in Fiji.(48)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Fiji.

During the reporting period, Fiji hosted the Sub-regional Child Labor and Trafficking Forum, which brought together national policymakers from five countries to discuss best practices for addressing child labor and trafficking issues.(49)

Fiji has insufficient support services available to address the particular needs of child victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, especially for boys and for children in remote areas.(35, 50) NGOs provide limited support services, but these are concentrated in the capital city of Suva.(35, 38, 50)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Fiji (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography and the Palermo Protocol.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that the law’s light work provisions are specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor.

2015

Enforcement

Make information publicly available on the amount funding for the labor inspectorate.

2015

Ensure that labor inspectors can access rural areas and outer islands to conduct inspections.

2015

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties.

2015

Coordination

Ensure that the Inter-Agency Trafficking Task Force meets regularly to address implementation of the National Plan of Action to Eliminate Trafficking in Persons and Child Trafficking.

2014 – 2015

Government Policies

Finalize and implement the National Action Plan for Child Labor and 5-year Strategic Plan for Combating Child Labor, including its worst forms.

2013 – 2015

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into Fiji’s country program framework for the Pacific UN Development Assistance Framework for the Pacific Region.

2015

Social Programs

Increase the availability of support services for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking, including effective counseling and specialized shelters.

2010 – 2015

1.         ILO-IPEC. Child Labour in Fiji: A Survey of Working Children in Commercial Sexual Exploitation, on the Streets, in Rural Agricultural Communities, in Informal and Squatter Settlements and in Schools. Suva; 2010. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=16815.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, January 26, 2014.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Fiji," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper.

4.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

5.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received January 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         Fiji Sun. "Children Belong in Schools." fijisun.com [online] February 27, 2013 [cited January 29, 2014]; http://www.fijisun.com.fj/2013/02/27/children-belong-in-schools-not-in-cane-fields/.

7.         Taleitaki, S. "Cane Growers Undergo Child Labor Training." Fiji Sun, Suva, May 25, 2013; News. http://fijisun.com.fj/2013/05/25/cane-growers-undergo-child-labour-training/.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, January 15, 2015.

9.         U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, December 31, 2015.

10.       Australia Network News. "Child labour a big concern in western Fiji: charity." abc.net.au [online] May 24, 2013 [cited 2014]; http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-05-24/an-study-reveals-fiji-child-labour/4711066.

11.       ILO. Sub-regional child labour and trafficking forum. Nadi; April 2015. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-suva/documents/publication/wcms_405960.pdf.

12.       U.S. Department of State. "Fiji," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226846.pdf.

13.       Talebula, K. "Human Trafficking Rated Third Highest." Fiji Sun, Suva, February 23, 2013. http://www.fijisun.com.fj/2013/02/23/human-trafficking-rated-third-highest/.

14.       Swami, N. "Fiji Police On The Lookout For Domestic Child Sex Trafficking." pidp.eastwestcenter.org [online] April 25, 2013 [cited December 14, 2015]; http://pidp.eastwestcenter.org/pireport/2013/April/04-26-12.htm.

15.       ILO-IPEC. "Fiji- Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children." ilo.org [online] February 26, 2013 [cited October 24, 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/tackle/fiji/WCMS_207185/lang--en/index.htm.

16.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Fiji (ratification: 2002) Published: 2015; accessed November 5, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3174267:YES.

17.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 13, 2014.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, February 17, 2015.

19.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 23, 2013.

20.       Government of Fiji. Employment Relations Promulgation 2007, 36, enacted October 2, 2007. http://labour.gov.fj/bills/ER.pdf [source on file].

21.       Government of Fiji. Employment Relations (Administration) Regulations, enacted April 2, 2008. http://www.labour.gov.fj/erp2008/ERPREGS/ERP_Admin_Regs_2008.pdf.

22.       Government of Fiji. The Hazardous Occupations Prohibited to Children Under 18 Years of Age Order 2013, 18, enacted May 28, 2013. [source on file].

23.       Government of Fiji. Immigration Act 2003, 17, enacted November 6, 2003. www.paclii.org/fj/legis/num_act/ia2003138/.

24.       Government of Fiji. Constitution of the Republic of Fiji, enacted 2013. http://www.fiji.gov.fj/getattachment/8e981ca2-1757-4e27-88e0-f87e3b3b844e/Click-here-to-download-the-Fiji-Constitution.aspx.

25.       Government of Fiji. Crimes Decree 2009, 44, enacted November 5, 2009. http://www.fiji.gov.fj/getattachment/604e31fc-c7b1-41a0-9686-71377917b6eb/Decree-No-44---Crimes-Decree-2009-(pdf).aspx.

26.       Government of Fiji. Juveniles (Amendment) Act, Chapter 29, enacted December 24, 1997. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Zl5_Y8j9g8IJ:www.paclii.org/fj/legis/num_act/ja1997209.rtf+&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us.

27.       Government of Fiji. Juveniles Act, Chapter 56, enacted 1997. http://www.paclii.org/fj/legis/consol_act/ja129/.

28.       Government of Fiji. Royal Fiji Military Forces Act, Chapter 81, enacted 1949 [Revised Ed. 1985]. http://www.paclii.org/fj/legis/consol_act/rfmfa276/.

29.       UNESCO. World Data on Education: VII Ed. 2010-2011; June 2011. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Fiji.pdf.

30.       Child Soldiers International. Louder Than Words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers. London; September 2012. http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, February 18, 2014.

32.       U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, January 20, 2012.

33.       Government of Fiji. Child Labour Unit Progress Update on Tackling Child Labour in Fiji: Report Compiled for the United States Department of Labour. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 13, 2014) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Suva; November 11, 2014. [source on file].

34.       Government of Fiji. Child Labour Unit Progress Update on Tackling Child Labour in Fiji: Report Compiled for the United States Department of Labour. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (December 14, 2013) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Suva; December 31, 2013. [source on file].

35.       U.S. Embassy- Suva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 25, 2016.

36.       Government of Fiji. Child Labour Unit Progress Update on Tackling Child Labour in Fiji: Report Compiled for the United States Department of Labour. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (December 3, 2013) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Suva; February 6, 2014. [source on file].

37.       U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, February 1, 2016.

38.       U.S. Embassy- Suva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 6, 2014.

39.       Government of Fiji. 2014 Fijian Government Education Grant Factsheet. Press Release. Suva; November 24, 2013. http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/2014-Fijian-Government-Education-Grant-Factsheet.aspx.

40.       Government of Fiji. Final Batch of Free Education Grant Disbursement to School. Press Release. Suva; January 9, 2014. http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/FINAL-BATCH-OF-FREE-EDUCATION-GRANT-DISBURSEMENT-T.aspx.

41.       United Nations Pacific. United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) For the Pacific Region 2013-2017. Suva; 2013. http://pacific.one.un.org/images/stories/2013/UNDAF_Summary_Report.pdf.

42.       United Nations Pacific. Fiji: UNDAF Results Matrix 2013-2017; 2013. http://www.pacific.one.un.org/images/stories/2013/fiji_crm.pdf.

43.       ILO. TACKLE FIJI: Tackling Child Labour through Education in Fiji Phase 2. Project Description; 2015. http://www.ilo.org/suva/projects/WCMS_359154/lang--en/index.htm.

44.       ILO. "Promoting decent work for older out-of-school children in or at risk of child labour." ilo.org [online] August 6, 2015 [cited November 17, 2015]; http://www.ilo.org/suva/public-information/WCMS_393365/lang--en/index.htm.

45.       ILO official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 26, 2016.

46.       Targeted News Service. "Social Welfare Ministry Tackles Child Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation." fiji.gov.fj [online] September 13, 2013 [cited January 20, 2015]; http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/SOCIAL-WELFARE-MINISTRY-TACKLES-CHILD-TRAFFICKING-.aspx.

47.       Global Accessibility News. "Education program to improve school infrastructure and learning environments in Fiji." globalaccessibilitynews.com [online] April 15, 2013 [cited 2016]; http://globalaccessibilitynews.com/2013/04/15/education-program-to-improve-school-infrastructure-and-learning-environments-in-fiji/.

48.       Prasad, S. "Toolkit to Support Teachers, Schools." Fiji Sun, Suva, May 2, 2015; Nation. http://fijisun.com.fj/2015/05/02/toolkit-to-support-teachers-schools/.

49.       ILO. "Newsletter- TACKLE Fiji Update." ilo.org [online] 2015 [cited November 17, 2015]; http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-suva/documents/publication/wcms_406559.pdf.

50.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Fiji. Geneva; September 19, 2014. Report No. CRC/C/FIJ/CO/2-4. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fFJI%2fCO%2f2-4&Lang=en.

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