Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Fiji

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Fiji

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Fiji made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government launched a national 24‐hour toll‐free helpline for children to seek counseling, advice, and referrals for support services, as well as to report cases of child neglect and abuse. In addition, the Government led student leadership seminars in Labasa and Nadi through its Tackling Child Labor Through Education Project. However, children in Fiji perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Fiji has limited support services for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.

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Children in Fiji perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Fiji. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

Unavailable

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

106.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(5)
Data were unavailable from Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis, 2016.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cutting,† loading,† weeding, and spraying chemicals† on sugarcane (7, 8)

Planting, picking, and using chemicals† on tobacco (3, 9)

Collecting and splitting coconuts, harvesting rice; planting, harvesting, weeding, and spraying fertilizers on roots (including dalo and yaqona); and planting and harvesting other kinds of fruits and vegetables† (3)

Pig farming and goat and cattle herding (3)

Fishing† and deep-sea diving† (3, 9)

Services

Street work, including pushing wheelbarrows for shoppers in markets, vending, washing cars, shining shoes, and begging (2, 3, 10-13)

Domestic work (3, 13)

Working in garages or in retail shops (4, 10, 13)

Selling fruit (3, 10)

Collecting bottles† and scrap metal† (3, 13)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 14-18)

Forced labor in agriculture, begging, domestic work, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 18-20)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking (3, 13)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Commercial sexual exploitation of children continued to occur in Fiji, particularly by family members, taxi drivers, foreign tourists, businessmen, and crew on foreign fishing vessels.(2, 3, 17, 18) Parents sometimes send their children to live with families in cities or near schools to facilitate their continuing education and to perform light household work. Research found that some of these children are vulnerable to involuntary domestic work or are forced to engage in sexual activity in exchange for food, clothing, or shelter.(2, 18, 21, 22)

Fiji has ratified some key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Fiji's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 92 of the Employment Relations Promulgation (23)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 40 of the Employment Relations (Administration) Regulations; Hazardous Occupations Prohibited to Children Under 18 Years of Age Order (9, 24)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Occupations Prohibited to Children Under 18 Years of Age Order (9)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 6 and 91 of the Employment Relations Promulgation; Articles 20 and 21 of the Immigration Act; Articles 102 and 103 and 111–121 of the Crimes Decree; Article 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of Fiji (23, 25-27)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 91 of the Employment Relations Promulgation; Article 20 of the Immigration Act; Article 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of Fiji; Articles 111–121 of the Crimes Decree (23, 25-27)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 91 of the Employment Relations Promulgation; Articles 225–227 of the Crimes Decree; Juveniles (Amendment) Act (23, 27, 28)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 91 of the Employment Relations Promulgation; Article 58 of the Juveniles Act (23, 29)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

Article 7 of the Royal Fiji Military Forces Act (30)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 7 of the Royal Fiji Military Forces Act (30)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Compulsory Education Order; Compulsory Education Regulations (31)

Free Public Education

No

 

 

* No conscription (30)

The Employment Relations Promulgation specifies the conditions under which children ages 13–15 may engage in light work, but does not include a list of activities that are permissible.(4, 23)

Although it does not appear that there are any laws that provide free basic education, the Government has a policy that provides for free basic education.(32, 33)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment, Productivity, and Industrial Relations

Monitor compliance with the minimum age for employment requirements and the Employment Relations Promulgation.(1, 11) Oversee 14 Divisional Labor Offices responsible for investigating cases of child labor and making appropriate referrals.(11) In the case of the Child Labor Unit, coordinate activities at the national, divisional, and district levels through interagency committees on child abuse, including conducting trainings on child labor and maintaining a 24-hour phone line to accept reports of child labor and refer children to social services when appropriate.(4, 11)

Employment Relations Tribunal

Adjudicate alleged violations of child labor provisions in the Employment Relations Promulgation.(4)

Fiji Police Force

Enforce laws on child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and illicit activities. Maintain a Human Trafficking Unit and provide training to other police units focused on combating human trafficking.(11, 34). Employ five officers responsible for enforcing criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(4) Collaborate with the Australian Federal Police to combat potential child sex tourism by Australian nationals that comprise the largest tourist group visiting Fiji.(21){U.S. Department of State official, 2013 #169;U.S. Embassy- Suva,  #206}

Department of Immigration

Coordinate with the Fiji police force to investigate cases involving underage victims of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking, which are then tried in the criminal court system.(34, 35)

Departments of Social Welfare and Public Prosecutions

Enforce laws on child trafficking.(1) Operate four homes and provide social services for child trafficking victims.(11, 36)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Fiji took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (12)

Unknown(4)

Number of Labor Inspectors

63 (37)

68 (4)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (12)

No (4)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (37)

Yes (4)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Yes (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (37)

Yes (4)

Number of Labor Inspections

4,128 (37)

3,475‡ (4)

Number Conducted at Worksite

4,128 (37)

3,475‡ (4)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

0

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

7 (12)

5 (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

1 (12)

0 (4)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

0 (37)

0 (4)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (12)

Yes (4)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (12)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (12)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (37)

Yes (4)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (12)

Yes (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (12)

Yes (4)

‡ Data are from January 1, 2016 to November 30, 2016.

Information was not available on the amount of funding dedicated for labor inspections. However, in 2016, the aggregate estimated operating expenditures for the Ministry of Employment, Productivity, and Industrial Relations (MEPIR) were $7.75 million.(4) In addition to MEPIR's 68 labor inspectors, there were also 30 health and safety inspectors and 40 police officers, as well as farmers from Fiji's northern and western divisions, who have received training on child labor and may provide coverage when needed. All labor inspectors are trained by MEPIR's Child Labor Unit on child labor, including hazardous work.(4) Other civil society organizations and district community leaders involved in child protection also received training on this topic. As of November 2016, labor inspectors conducted 3,475 targeted routine inspections in the retail, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors in which children in Fiji are known to be employed. Inspections are conducted in the workers' language, including English, Hindi, and vernacular Fijian.(4)

In April 2016, the Ministry of Women, Children and Poverty Alleviation launched a national 24‐hour toll‐free helpline for children to seek counseling, advice, and referrals for support services, as well as to report cases of child neglect and abuse. Calls are screened for their authenticity and referred to the Ministry of Children, which can further refer the caller to the appropriate agency. Data were unavailable on the number of calls received related to child labor.(4)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Fiji took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (37)

Yes (34)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Yes (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (38)

Yes (34)

Number of Investigations

4 (38)

Unknown (34)

Number of Violations Found

3 (12)

5 (34)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (38)

0 (34)

Number of Convictions

0 (12, 38)

0 (34)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (20)

Yes (34)

 

In 2016, the Minister for Employment recorded five child labor violations, and these children were referred to schools to receive vocational and technical training.(4)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Inter-Agency Network

Focus on child labor issues at the district and provincial level. Monitor and report cases of non-compliance. Conduct awareness-raising activities in collaboration with the Child Labor Unit.(39) Comprises interagency committees in nine towns in Fiji.(1, 40)

Inter-Agency Taskforce on Beggars

Address issues concerning children who beg and other exploited children.(1) Enforce zero-tolerance policy on child begging.(12)

Inter-Agency Trafficking Task Force

Implement the National Plan of Action to Eradicate Trafficking in Persons and Child Trafficking. Headed by the Department of Immigration.(1, 11, 36)

 

The Inter-Agency Trafficking Task Force has not been active since 2012.(11, 12) This lack of coordination may limit the Government’s effectiveness in efforts to combat child trafficking.

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action to Eradicate Trafficking in Persons and Child Trafficking

Guides the Government's efforts to prevent and combat trafficking in persons. Focuses on increasing public awareness and education on human trafficking-related issues and prioritizes anti-trafficking training for Government officials.(36) Chaired by the Immigration Department, with the Fiji Police Force's Human Trafficking Unit serving as the lead coordinator.(12) Government coordinated interagency efforts to investigate and begin formal charges in suspected human trafficking cases.(21)

Free Education Grant

Provides 12 years of tuition-free education for children with Fijian citizenship in 904 eligible primary and secondary schools. Provided approximately $97 million for tuition-free education and textbooks during the 2016–2017 fiscal year, an increase from the previous year.(22, 32, 41-43)

 

In 2016, the Government incorporated the 5-year Strategic Plan for Combating Child Labor, including its worst forms, into the draft National Action Plan for Child Labor. Neither the Strategic Plan nor the National Action Plan, however, has been approved.(4, 22, 44) In addition, the Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Pacific UN Development Assistance Framework.(45, 46)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Tackling Child Labor Through Education Project (2015–2017)

European Union-funded project that seeks to enhance coordination, enforcement, and monitoring mechanisms to build the capacity of stakeholders in the implementation of policies and programs on formal and non-formal education, school retention, and access to education for out-of-school children; and to promote research and raise awareness on child labor issues.(47) Organized student leadership seminars in Labasa and Nadi to advocate positive change on child labor issues.(48)

Safety Net Project†

Program that funds rehabilitation services for female victims of commercial sexual exploitation under age 18. Receive referrals from various entities, including the Fiji Police.(49)

Food Voucher and Bus Fare Assistance†

Ministry of Education program that provides food vouchers and subsidized bus fares for families who earn less than $7,382 as combined income, to offset the cost of education for children attending remote schools.(22, 39, 41)

Tuition-Fee Free Grant†

Ministry of Education began to provide a subsidized tuition fee-free grant for early childhood education centers or students attending preschool. Government allocated $1,561,476 to all special-needs primary schools, an increase of $267,343.(22)

† Program is funded by the Government of Fiji.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(12, 38)

Fiji has insufficient social programs available to address the particular needs of child victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, especially for boys and for children in remote areas.(37, 50) NGOs provide limited support services, but these are concentrated in the capital city of Suva.(37, 40, 50)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Fiji (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography; UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict; and the Palermo Protocol.

2013 – 2016

Establish by law free basic public education.

2016

 

 

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Ensure that the law's light work provisions are specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor.

2015 – 2016

Enforcement

Publish information on the labor inspectorate funding and the number of criminal law enforcement investigations related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Publish data on the number of calls received through the national 24‐hour toll‐free helpline related to child labor

2016

Coordination

Ensure that the Inter-Agency Trafficking Task Force meets regularly to address implementation of the National Plan of Action to Eliminate Trafficking in Persons and Child Trafficking.

2014 – 2016

Government Policies

Finalize and implement the National Action Plan for Child Labor and 5-year Strategic Plan for Combating Child Labor, including its worst forms.

2013 – 2016

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into Fiji's country program framework for the Pacific UN Development Assistance Framework for the Pacific Region.

2015 – 2016

Social Programs

Increase the availability of support services for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking, including effective counseling and specialized shelters.

2010 – 2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, January 26, 2014.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Fiji " in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2016; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265548.pdf.

3.         ILO-IPEC. Child Labour in Fiji: A Survey of Working Children in Commercial Sexual Exploitation, on the Streets, in Rural Agricultural Communities, in Informal and Squatter Settlements and in Schools. Suva; 2010. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=16815.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, December 19, 2016.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Survey on Children, 2011. Analysis received April 13, 2017. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         "Children Belong in Schools Not in Cane Fields." fijisun.com February 27, 2013. http://www.fijisun.com.fj/2013/02/27/children-belong-in-schools-not-in-cane-fields/.

8.         Taleitaki, S. "Cane Growers Undergo Child Labor Training." fijisun.com May 25, 2013. http://fijisun.com.fj/2013/05/25/cane-growers-undergo-child-labour-training/.

9.         FAO, and ILO. Good Practice Guide for Addressing Child Labor in Fisheries and Aquaculture: Policy and Practice (Preliminary Version). Geneva; December 2011. ftp://ftp.fao.org/FI/DOCUMENT/child_labour_FAO-ILO/child_labour_FAO-ILO.pdf.

10.       Australian Broadcasting Corporation. "Child labour a big concern in western Fiji: charity." abc.net.au [online] May 24, 2013 [cited 2014]; http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-05-24/an-study-reveals-fiji-child-labour/4711066.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, January 15, 2015.

12.       U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, December 31, 2015.

13.       ILO. Sub-regional child labour and trafficking forum. Nadi; April 2015. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-suva/documents/publication/wcms_405960.pdf.

14.       Kate, T. "Human Trafficking Rated Third Highest." fijisun.com, February 23; 2013. http://www.fijisun.com.fj/2013/02/23/human-trafficking-rated-third-highest/.

15.       Swami, N. "Fiji Police On The Lookout For Domestic Child Sex Trafficking." pidp.eastwestcenter.org [online] April 25, 2013 [cited December 14, 2015]; http://pidp.org/pireport/2013/April/04-26-12.htm.

16.       ILO-IPEC. "Fiji- Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children." ilo.org [online] February 26, 2013 [cited October 24, 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/tackle/fiji/WCMS_207185/lang--en/index.htm.

17.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Fiji (ratification: 2002) Published: 2015; accessed November 5, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3174267:YES.

18.       U.S. Department of State. "Fiji," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf.

19.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 13, 2014.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, February 17, 2015.

21.       U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, February 6, 2017.

22.       U.S. Embassy- Suva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 17, 2017.

23.       Government of Fiji. Employment Relations Promulgation 2007, 36, enacted (2007). http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/820/Employment%20Relations%20Promulgation%202007.pdf.

24.       Government of Fiji. Employment Relations (Administration) Regulations, enacted (2008). http://www.labour.gov.fj/erp2008/ERPREGS/ERP_Admin_Regs_2008.pdf.

25.       Government of Fiji. Immigration Act 2003, 17, enacted (2003). http://www.paclii.org/fj/legis/num_act/ia2003138/.

26.       Government of Fiji. Constitution of the Republic of Fiji, enacted (2013). http://www.fiji.gov.fj/getattachment/8e981ca2-1757-4e27-88e0-f87e3b3b844e/Click-here-to-download-the-Fiji-Constitution.aspx.

27.       Government of Fiji. Crimes Decree 2009, 44, enacted (2009). http://www.fiji.gov.fj/getattachment/604e31fc-c7b1-41a0-9686-71377917b6eb/Decree-No-44---Crimes-Decree-2009-(pdf).aspx.

28.       Government of Fiji. Juveniles (Amendment) Act, 29, enacted (1997). http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Zl5_Y8j9g8IJ:www.paclii.org/fj/legis/num_act/ja1997209.rtf+&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us.

29.       Government of Fiji. Juveniles Act, Chapter 56, enacted (1997). http://www.paclii.org/fj/legis/consol_act/ja129/.

30.       ILO, and Philippine National Statistics Office. 2011 Survey on Children. Manila; June 26, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-manila/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_184097.pdf.

31.       UNESCO. World Data on Education: VII Ed. 2010/11; June 2011. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Fiji.pdf.

32.       Valemei, R. "Education allocation." fijitimes.com, July 5; 2016. http://www.fijitimes.com/story.aspx?id=361056.

33.       Government of Fiji. Policy on Tuition Fee Free Grant for Primary and Secondary Schools. Ministry of Education HaA, 2016. http://www.education.gov.fj/images/2016/Tuition_Fee_Free_Grant_Policy_for_Primary_and_Secondary_Schools.pdf.

34.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 23, 2013.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, January 20, 2012.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, February 18, 2014.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Suva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 31, 2016.

38.       U.S. Embassy- Suva. reporting, February 1, 2016.

39.       Government of Fiji. Child Labour Unit Progress Update on Tackling Child Labour in Fiji: Report Compiled for the United States Department of Labour. Submitted in response to USDOL Federal Register Notice (December 14, 2013) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor.". Suva; February 6, 2014. [Source on file].

40.       U.S. Embassy- Suva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 6, 2014.

41.       Government of Fiji. 2014 Fijian Government Education Grant Factsheet. Press Release. Suva; November 24, 2013. http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/2014-Fijian-Government-Education-Grant-Factsheet.aspx.

42.       Government of Fiji. Final Batch of Free Education Grant Disbursement to School. Press Release. Suva; January 9, 2014. http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/FINAL-BATCH-OF-FREE-EDUCATION-GRANT-DISBURSEMENT-T.aspx.

43.       Government of Fiji. Child Labour Unit Progress Update on Tackling Child Labour in Fiji: Report Compiled for the United States Department of Labour. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 13, 2014) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Suva; November 11, 2014. [source on file].

44.       Silaitoga, S. "188 child labour cases." The Fiji Times Online, October 25, 2016 2016. http://www.fijitimes.com/story.aspx?id=375966.

45.       United Nations Development Programme. United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) For the Pacific Region 2013-2017. Suva; 2013. http://pacific.one.un.org/images/stories/2013/UNDAF_Summary_Report.pdf.

46.       United Nations Development Programme. Fiji: UNDAF Results Matrix 2013-2017; 2013. http://www.pacific.one.un.org/images/stories/2013/fiji_crm.pdf.

47.       ILO. TACKLE FIJI: Tackling Child Labour through Education in Fiji Phase 2. Project Description; 2015. http://www.ilo.org/suva/projects/WCMS_359154/lang--en/index.htm.

48.       ILO. Ending Child Labour in the Supply Chains, It’s Everyone’s Business, [cited http://www.ilo.org/suva/public-information/press-releases/WCMS_491112/lang--en/index.htm.

49.       Targeted News Service. "Social Welfare Ministry Tackles Child Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation." fiji.gov.fj [online] September 13, 2013 [cited January 20, 2015]; http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/SOCIAL-WELFARE-MINISTRY-TACKLES-CHILD-TRAFFICKING-.aspx.

50.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Fiji; 2014. https://www.crin.org/sites/default/files/attachments/crc_fiji.doc.

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