Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Egypt

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Egypt

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Egypt made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Ministry of Social Solidarity began operating 17 mobile units, providing services to over 4,000 street-based children. The National Coordination Committee on Preventing Illegal Migration and Combating Trafficking in Persons provided training to media professionals on reporting on human trafficking and victim protection. Social media messaging on irregular migration and human trafficking produced by the same Committee reached one million individuals. Moreover, the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood conducted 35 awareness-raising campaigns. However, children in Egypt engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and in quarrying limestone. The government did not publish data on the enforcement of child labor laws. In addition, programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Egypt engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and in quarrying limestone. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Egypt.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

10 to 14

2.9 (246,179)

Working Children by Sector

10 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

53.2

Industry

 

16.5

Services

 

30.4

Attending School (%)

10 to 14

93.8

Combining Work and School (%)

10 to 14

1.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

93.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Survey of Young People in Egypt, 2009. (7)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including the production of cotton (8; 9; 10; 5; 11)

Caring for livestock (12; 5; 11)

Fishing, activities unknown (13; 5)

Industry

Quarrying† limestone (1; 2; 3; 5)

Making bricks (14; 15; 16; 5; 17)

Working in carpentry workshops (18; 19; 5)

Working in marble workshops (20; 21)

Construction, activities unknown (22; 5; 11)

Working in aluminum factories (23; 5)

Services

Domestic work (12; 9; 5)

Driving tuktuks (24; 25)

Repairing automobiles (13; 5)

Street work, including selling goods, collecting garbage, and sweeping (8; 18; 26; 22; 27)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Domestic work as a result of human trafficking (4; 5)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4; 5; 28)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (29; 4; 5)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Some girls are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation under the pretext of temporary marriage to wealthy foreign men, mostly from Persian Gulf countries. (4; 5; 28) Some Egyptian children are trafficked to Italy, and although the number of arrivals decreased significantly in 2017, Egyptian children continue to be used for bonded child labor, commercial sexual exploitation, and illicit activities in Italy. (30; 31; 32; 33; 34; 4; 11; 35)

According to the Ministry of Education, thousands of children dropped out of school in 2016 and 2017 because of school-related costs, such as transportation, clothing, and food. (10; 5) Girls face additional barriers to education, including long distances to school, harassment and violence at school and on the way to school, lack of sanitation facilities, and cultural barriers. (36; 5) Approximately 600,000 girls were out of school in 2017. (36) Despite a 2016 UN program aiming to enroll all Syrian refugee children in school, UNICEF reported that as of November 2017, 39,000 Syrian refugee children were out of school. (37; 38)

Egypt has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Egypt’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the prohibition of commercial sexual exploitation of children.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 64 of the Child Law (39)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 1 of Ministry of Manpower’s Decree 118 (40)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 1–2 of Ministry of Manpower’s Decree 118 (40)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 89 of the Constitution; Article 291 of the Penal Code; Articles 2–3 of the Law on Combating Human Trafficking (39; 41; 42)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 89 of the Constitution; Article 291 of the Penal Code; Articles 2–3 of the Law on Combating Human Trafficking (39; 41; 42)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Article 116-bis (a) of the Child Law and Article 291 of the Penal Code; Articles 2–3 of the Law on Combating Human Trafficking; Articles 1–4 and 6 of the Law on the Combating of Prostitution (39; 42; 43)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 34 of the Law on Narcotics; Article 65 of the Child Law; Article 2.2 of Ministry of Manpower’s Decree 118 (39; 40; 44)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 1 of the Law on Military and National Service (45)

State Voluntary

Yes

15

Ministry of Defense Guidelines on Youth Volunteers in the Armed Forces (46)

Non-state

Yes

18

Article 7-bis(b) of the Child Law (39)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 59(1) of the Child Law; Articles 80 and 238 of the Constitution (39; 41)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 54 of the Child Law (39)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (29)

 

Laws prohibiting the commercial sexual exploitation of children are not comprehensive because they do not criminally prohibit the use of a child in prostitution.

The law prohibits hazardous occupations and activities for children, including in quarrying, tanning, welding, spraying pesticides, and carrying heavy loads. (40) However, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover brick production, an area of work in which there is evidence of exposure to hazardous temperatures. (15; 14; 17)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Manpower that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Manpower

Enforce child labor laws and regulations, including receiving and investigating child labor complaints. Inspectors conduct routine labor inspections and report violations to the Ministry of the Interior, which then refers the case for prosecution. (5)

Ministry of the Interior

Enforce laws and regulations prohibiting human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children. (5)

Ministry of Justice, Prosecutor General’s Office

Prosecute violation of laws related to the worst forms of child labor and human trafficking. (5)

Ministry of Local Development

Provide administrative and logistical support for the enforcement of child labor laws. Administer the Child Protection Committees. (5)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Egypt took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Manpower that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including penalty assessment authorization.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown* (5)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown

Unknown* (5)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown

No (5)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (5)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (47)

Yes (5)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

21,735 (47)

Unknown* (5)

Number Conducted at Worksites

21,735 (47)

3,388 (48)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

1,531 (47)

509 (48)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

56 (47)

Unknown* (5)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

Unknown* (5)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (5)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown* (5)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown

Yes (5)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (5)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (49)

Yes (5)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (49)

Yes (5)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

In 2017, the Ministry of Manpower conducted a training for labor inspectors, in cooperation with the WFP, using a checklist on a mobile tablet application to increase efficiency. The Ministry of Manpower conducted 3,388 worksite inspections, issued formal warnings at 509 worksites, and filed police reports against 61 employers. (48)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Egypt took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder their capacity to enforce child labor laws, including disaggregation of human trafficking enforcement data on children.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown (5)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown (5)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (50)

Yes (51)

Number of Investigations

13 (50)

Unknown (5)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (5)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

2 (50)

Unknown (5)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown (5)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (49)

Yes (5)

 

In 2017, 20 Ministry of Interior’s law enforcement officials received training on human trafficking, identifying victims, and investigating crime scenes, with particular focus on protecting children and women who are victims of human trafficking. (51) The Ministry also added a module on human trafficking to its curriculum that officials periodically complete. The Ministry of Justice held 11 trainings on human trafficking for 321 judges. (48) The Ministry of Defense provided training to all soldiers on identifying and interacting with victims of human trafficking. (48)

The Prosecutor General published and circulated a toolkit for officials who investigate cases of human trafficking. The toolkit includes guidelines on identifying cases of human trafficking, providing services to victims, and cooperating with international judicial actions. (48)

During the reporting period, the Ministry of Interior opened 144 human trafficking cases and referred 41 cases to the Prosecutor General’s Office. Five individuals were convicted of human trafficking crimes. (52) However, it is unknown how many of these cases may have involved child trafficking.

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including among government agencies.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Council for Childhood and Motherhood (NCCM)

Coordinate enforcement of laws related to child labor, including its worst forms. Provide technical support and training about child labor for the Ministry of Manpower’s inspectors. (5) Identify and monitor at-risk children. Manage two 24-hour hotlines and receive reports of child labor and child trafficking. (5) In 2017, the Council held 35 awareness-raising campaigns that reached 1,740 students, educators, migrants, and others. (48)

National Coordinating Committee to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinate the efforts of the Ministries of Manpower, Justice, Social Solidarity, and the Interior; the Council for Human Rights, Childhood, and Motherhood; and the Council for Women in drafting a National Strategy to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor. (5) Research was unable to determine whether the National Coordinating Committee to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor was active during the reporting period.

National Coordination Committee on Preventing Illegal Migration and Combating Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate efforts to combat human trafficking. Led by an Ambassador appointed by the Prime Minister, comprises 18 government entities, including the Ministries of the Interior and Manpower. (5) In 2017, provided training for reporters on human trafficking, victim protection, and ethical considerations when covering human trafficking issues. (53) Reached over one million people through social media messaging on the dangers of irregular migration and human trafficking. (48) However, during the reporting period, there was a lack of coordination between arresting officers and prosecutors. In 2017, began revisions to improve the national referral mechanism. (48)

Child Protection Committees

Coordinate child protection efforts at the local level. Led by the Ministry of Social Solidarity and chaired by local governors in each governorate, with subcommittees at each police station. (5) Research was unable to determine whether the Child Protection Committees were active during the reporting period.

The government has established policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Supporting Families

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by 2025 and identify roles of government agencies responsible for assisting child laborers. (5) In 2017, government agencies, in cooperation with international organizations, concluded the main Action Plan elements, including expansion of the child labor knowledge base; capacity building of agencies providing support; social protection, with links to existing programs; enhanced education, including vocational education for children; and advocacy and awareness raising. (5)

Third National Plan of Action Against Human Trafficking (2016–2021)

Aims to maintain referral mechanisms, train law enforcement officials, and combat trafficking of street children. (5) During the reporting period, the National Coordination Committee on Preventing Illegal Migration and Combating Trafficking in Persons began to work on improving the national referral mechanism. Several government agencies provided human trafficking training to officials. (48) In 2017 and 2018, the Ministry of Social Solidarity provided services to thousands of street-based children. (48)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Enhancing Access of Children to Education and Fighting Child Labor (2014–2018)

$65 million, EU-funded, 4-year project implemented by the WFP to provide food security for up to 100,000 children at risk of child labor and financial assistance to 400,000 family members to compensate for wages that child labor would have otherwise generated, enabling children to attend school. Supports 50,000 households in income-generating activities to help keep their children in school. (54) In 2017, under the National School Feeding Program, in-kind and cash transfers continued for vulnerable families, but the exact number of these families was unavailable. (5)

Expanding Access to Education and Protection for at Risk Children in Egypt (2016–2021)

$32 million, EU-funded project implemented by UNICEF in cooperation with the Ministry of Education and the NCCM to expand access to education for 36,000 children, including 6,000 children with disabilities, and to support 15 Child Protection Committees in 15 governorates. (55) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement Expanding Access to Education and Protection for at Risk Children in Egypt during the reporting period.

Solidarity and Dignity Initiative of the Cash Transfer Program (2015–2017)†

Provided a monthly income supplement to poor families, conditional on keeping their children at school, or unconditional for the elderly and family members with disabilities. Aimed to reach 1.5 million households by 2017. (56) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Solidarity and Dignity Initiative of the Cash Transfer Program during the reporting period.

Positive Life Alternatives for Egyptian Youth at-Risk of Irregular Migration Program (2015–2017)

$3.2 million, USAID-funded, 2-year project implemented by the IOM to support activities that included the goal of eliminating the worst forms of child labor, specifically through raising awareness among children and youth on the dangers of irregular migration and human trafficking, and building technical capacity of service providers for at-risk children. (57; 58) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Positive Life Alternatives for Egyptian Youth at-Risk of Irregular Migration Program during the reporting period.

Children without Shelter†

The Ministry of Social Solidarity operated shelters for victims of human trafficking, child victims of trafficking and forced labor, and other vulnerable individuals. Dar as-Salam, operated by the NCCM and an NGO, Face, provides social services, including psychological counseling and health services. (50) In 2017, the Ministry of Solidarity began operating 17 mobile units, providing services to over 4,000 street children. (48) The Ministry also reintegrated almost 400 street children back into their families. (5)

† Program is funded by the Government of Egypt.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (5)

 

Although Egypt has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, particularly to address commercial sexual exploitation and in quarrying limestone.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Egypt (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the use of children for commercial sexual exploitation.

2017

Ensure that the types of work that children perform in Egypt that expose them to hazardous temperatures, such as brick production, are prohibited for children under age 18.

2017

Enforcement

Publish information on the Labor Inspectorate funding, the number of labor inspectors, penalties imposed and collected, and whether targeted inspections were conducted.

2011 – 2017

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by authorizing inspectors to assess penalties.

2017

Publish information on training for criminal investigators and the disaggregated numbers of violations, investigations, prosecutions, and convictions for criminal violations of child labor laws.

2011 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure all coordinating bodies are able to carry out their intended mandates.

2017

Ensure coordination between arresting officers and prosecutors in cases of human trafficking.

2017

Social Programs

Ensure universal access to free public education, especially for refugee children and girls, by addressing the cost of school fees, supplies, and other barriers to education.

2010 – 2017

Ensure that the Solidarity and Dignity Initiative of the Cash Transfer Program is implemented.

2017

Expand programs to address the full scope of the child labor problem, particularly in commercial sexual exploitation and in quarrying limestone.

2010 – 2017

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2. Crowder, Nicole. Down in the quarry. The Washington Post. February 23, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/in-sight/wp/2015/02/23/down-in-the-quarry/.

3. Elshamy, Mosa'ab. Powder-covered workers toil in Egypt's quarries. The Associated Press . April 6, 2015. https://www.apnews.com/3eab905b7430405b96dc601030193ba1.

4. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Egypt. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271181.htm.

5. U.S. Embassy- Cairo. Reporting, January 22, 2018.

6. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Survey of Young People in Egypt, 2009. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. Ouf, Ibrahim. No easy solution for Egypt’s child labour problem. The Arab Weekly. May 29, 2016. http://www.thearabweekly.com/Opinion/5250/No-easy-solution-for-Egypt%E2%80%99s-child-labour-problem.

9. El Badri, Haitham. White Gold: Open Treasure in the Dunes. Youm 7. September 7, 2017. [Source on file].

10. Emam, Amr. Egyptian children dropping out of school because of poverty. The Arab Weekly. April 16, 2017. http://www.thearabweekly.com/Opinion/8260/Egyptian-children-dropping-out-of-school-because-of-poverty.

11. Save the Children. Young Invisible Enslaved: Children Victims of Trafficking and Labor Exploitation in Italy. July 2017. http://www.childlinesa.org.za/wp-content/uploads/Young_Invisible_Enslaved.pdf.

12. ILO, and Egyptian Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS). Working Children in Egypt: Results of the 2010 National Child Labour Survey. Cairo. May 1, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_21017/lang--en/index.htm.

13. U.S. Embassy- Cairo. Reporting, January 24, 2017.

14. Abouel Dahab, Magreb. Child labour: A fact of life in Egypt's brick factories. Middle East Eye. March 4, 2015. http://www.middleeasteye.net/in-depth/features/child-labour-fact-life-egypts-brick-factories-1079867304.

15. Arab Trade Union Organization. Egypt: Ten thousand children bury their dreams in brick factories. August 7, 2016. http://www.arabtradeunion.org/en/content/egypt-ten-thousand-children-bury-their-dreams-brick-factories.

16. Darder, Belal. Exposing the Inhumanity of Slaving Away at Egypt’s Brick Factories. Egyptian Streets. September 9, 2015. https://egyptianstreets.com/2015/09/09/exposing-the-inhumanity-of-slaving-away-at-egypts-brick-factories/.

17. Charbel, Jano. Egypt’s most dangerous professions. Mada Masr. June 2, 2014. https://www.madamasr.com/en/2014/06/02/feature/economy/egypts-most-dangerous-professions/.

18. Samir, Samar. Child labor: the hidden cost of small industries. The Cairo Post. November 6, 2014. http://thecairopost.youm7.com/news/128469/inside_egypt/child-labor-the-hidden-cost-of-small-industries.

19. Gulf News. Regional spike in child labour amid global low. June 11, 2017. http://gulfnews.com/news/mena/other/regional-spike-in-child-labour-amid-global-low-1.2041998.

20. Fathi, Ahmed. Shaq El Tho’ban: Child Labor Fuels Egypt’s Marble Industry. Raseef 22. April 2, 2017. https://raseef22.com/en/life/2017/04/02/shaq-el-thoban-child-laborers-fuel-egypts-marble-industry/.

21. El-Behary, Hend. March saw highest rates of child abuse in Egypt in 5 years. Egypt Independent. April 24, 2017. http://www.egyptindependent.com/efacc-march-saw-highest-rates-child-abuse-egypt-5-years/.

22. Galal, Youssef. Child Labour in Egypt: 4 Underage Workers Document Their Struggles. Cairo Scene. February 8, 2017. http://cairoscene.com/In-Depth/Child-Labour-in-Egypt-4-Underage-Workers-Document-Their-Struggle.

23. Eddin, Mohhamad Ali. Egypt’s aluminium industry thrives on child labour. August 26, 2015. http://www.scidev.net/global/children/multimedia/egypt-s-aluminum-industry-thrives-child-labour.html.

24. The Associated Press. Rise in children quitting school to drive tuktuks. July 3, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3wcdLlrHG0.

25. Awad, Sherif. Documentary Offers Candid Look At Lives Of Child Tuk-Tuk Drivers. Egypt Today. August 21, 2016. https://www.egypttoday.com/Article/4/3146/Documentary-Offers-Candid-Look-At-Lives-Of-Child-Tuk-Tuk.

26. Diaa, Rahma. Childhood sold off the back of a cart. The Cairo Post. December 17, 2013. http://thecairopost.com/news/57174/inside_egypt/childhood-sold-cart.

27. Curnow, Walt. Child poverty increases in Egypt as critical support languishes. Al Monitor. January 9, 2017. [Source on file].

28. Borisova, Nevena. In Egypt, Both Sexual Harassment and Child Marriages Continue to Plague the Country. Global Voices. December 15, 2017. https://globalvoices.org/2017/12/15/in-egypt-both-sexual-harassment-and-child-marriages-continue-to-plague-the-country/.

29. Fazza, Rania. Childhood sold off the back of a cart. The Cairo Post. January 12, 2014. http://thecairopost.com/news/71852/inside_egypt/the-plight-of-syrian-children-in-egypt.

30. Elbagir, Nima. How children are trafficked into Europe. CNN. June 16, 2015. http://www.cnn.com/2015/06/15/europe/freedom-project-misery-trail-children/.

31. Trew, Bel. Death ship won't stop Egypt's migrants. The Daily Beast. October 4, 2016. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/10/04/death-ship-won-t-stop-egypt-s-migrants.html.

32. Save the Children. As Number of Lone Children Fleeing to Italy Soars, New Report Reveals Brutal Child Trafficking Practices. July 29, 2016. https://www.savethechildren.net/article/number-lone-children-fleeing-italy-soars-new-report-reveals-brutal-child-trafficking.

33. Muzi, Luca. Thousands of African child migrants feared in thrall to Italian traffickers. The Guardian. October 17, 2014. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/oct/17/african-child-migrants-italian-traffickers-forced-labour-sexual-exploitation.

34. IOM. Egyptian Unaccompanied Migrant Children: A case study on irregular migration. Geneva. 2016. https://publications.iom.int/books/egyptian-unaccompanied-migrant-children-case-study-irregular-migration.

35. U.S. Embassy- Rome. Reporting, February 26, 2018.

36. CARE Egypt. Barriers to Girls’ Education. November 21, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=26&v=rtIArAuJI30.

37. UNHCR. Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan- Regional Strategic Overview 2017-2018. 2016. http://www.3rpsyriacrisis.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/3RP-Regional-Strategic-Overview-2017-2018.pdf.

38. UNICEF. Syria Crisis Situation Report. November 20, 2017. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/UNICEF%20Syria%20Crisis%20Situation%20Report%20-%20November%202017%20.pdf.

39. Government of Egypt. Child Law, Promulgated by Law No. 12 of 1996 (amended by Law No. 126 of 2008), also amending the Penal Code, Law No 58 of 1937. Enacted: 2008.

40. —. Ministry of Manpower and Migration Decree 118 of the Year 2003. Enacted: 2003.

41. —. Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2014- unofficial translation. Enacted: January 18, 2014. http://www.sis.gov.eg/Newvr/Dustor-en001.pdf.

42. —. Law No. 64 of 2010 regarding Combating Human Trafficking. Enacted: 2010.

43. —. Law No. 10 of 1961, on the Combating of Prostitution. 1961. http://www.refworld.org/docid/5492d8784.html.

44. —. Law on Narcotics No. 182. Enacted: June 5, 1960.

45. —. Law No. 127 on Military and National Service. Enacted: 1980.

46. Government of Egypt, Ministry of Defense. Guidelines on Youth Volunteers in the Armed Forces. Cairo. [Source on file].

47. U.S. Embassy- Cairo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 17, 2017.

48. U.S. Embassy- Cairo. Reporting, March 13, 2018.

49. —. Reporting, January 21, 2016.

50. —. Reporting, March 19, 2017.

51. Mareeg. Egyptian Officials Trained on Identifying, Investigating Cases of Human Trafficking, Smuggling. March 14, 2017. http://mareeg.com/egyptian-officials-trained-on-identifying-investigating-cases-of-human-trafficking-smuggling/.

52. U.S. Embassy- Cairo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 28, 2018.

53. IOM. UN Migration Agency, Government of Egypt Train Media Professionals on Migration and Human Trafficking. August 22, 2017. https://www.iom.int/news/un-migration-agency-government-egypt-train-media-professionals-migration-and-human-trafficking.

54. WFP. The EU and WFP Launch a Project to Fight Child Labour through Education in Egypt. September 22, 2014. http://www.wfp.org/news/news-release/eu-and-wfp-launch-project-fight-child-labour-through-education-egypt.

55. European Union- External Action Service. European Union supports Egypt in collaboration with UNICEF to expand educational opportunities and enforce child protection systems. October 24, 2016: Press Release. https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/12826/european-union-supports-egypt-collaboration-unicef-expand-educational-opportunities-and_en.

56. The World Bank. Building Resilience and Opportunity: Social Protection Reform in Egypt. Washington, DC. June 9, 2015. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2015/06/09/building-resilience-and-opportunity-social-protection-reform-in-egypt.

57. IOM. Positive Life Alternatives for Egyptian Youth at-Risk of Irregular Migration Program (PLAYA)- Fact sheet. March 2016. [Source on file].

58. U.S. Embassy- Cairo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 10, 2016.

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