Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Egypt

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Egypt

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Egypt made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government participated in a school feeding program that reached 13.3 million students and participated in a new program intended to expand access to education to 36,000 children. Almost all Syrian refugee children were enrolled in formal or non-formal education in 2016. The Government held trainings and awareness-raising events on issues of child trafficking. However, children in Egypt are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in quarrying limestone and in commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking. The Government did not publish data on the enforcement of child labor laws. In addition, programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Egypt engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in quarrying limestone and in commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking.(1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Egypt.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

10 to 14

2.9 (246,179)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

53.2

Industry

 

16.5

Services

 

30.4

Attending School (%)

10 to 14

93.8

Combining Work and School (%)

10 to 14

1.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

103.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Survey of Young People in Egypt, 2009.(8) Data on working children, school attendance, and children combining work and school are not comparable with data published in the previous version of this report because of differences between surveys used to collect the data.

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cotton (3, 9-11)

Caring for livestock (3, 12)

Fishing, activities unknown (3, 13)

Industry

Quarrying† limestone (1-4)

Making bricks (3, 14-16)

Working in carpentry workshops (3, 17)

Construction, activities unknown (3, 18)

Working in aluminum factories (3, 19)

Services

Domestic work (3, 12, 20)

Repairing automobiles (3, 14)

Street work, including selling goods, collecting garbage, and sweeping (3, 11, 17, 21)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Domestic work as a result of human trafficking (3, 5)

Commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking (3, 5, 6)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 5, 22)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Some girls are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation under the pretext of “temporary marriage” to wealthy foreign men, mostly from Persian Gulf countries.(3, 5) Some Egyptian children are trafficked to Italy, where they are used for bonded child labor, commercial sexual exploitation, and illicit activities.(5, 23-27)

According to the Child Law, education is free through the basic level, consisting of 6 years of basic and 3 years of preparatory education.(28, 29)  However, in practice, some schools charge fees for attendance, and the costs of books and uniforms are prohibitive for many families.  As a result, children drop out of school.(13) In addition, cultural factors prevent some parents from sending their daughters to school.(13)

Egypt has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Egypt’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 64 of the Child Law (28)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 1 of Ministry of Manpower’s Decree 118 (30)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 1-2 of Ministry of Manpower’s Decree 118 (30)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 89 of the Constitution; Article 291 of the Penal Code as amended in the Child Law; Articles 2-3 of the Law on Combating Human Trafficking (28, 29, 31)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 89 of the Constitution; Article 291 of the Penal Code as amended in the Child Law; Articles 2-3 of the Law on Combating Human Trafficking (28, 29, 31)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Article 116-bis (a) of the Child Law and Article 291 of the Penal Code as amended in the Child Law; Articles 2-3 of the Law on Combating Human Trafficking (28, 31)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 34 of the Law on Narcotics; Article 65 of the Child Law; Article 2.2 of Ministry of Manpower’s Decree 118 (28, 30, 32)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 1 of the Law on Military and National Service (33)

State Voluntary

Yes

15

Ministry of Defense Guidelines on Youth Volunteers in the Armed Forces (34)

Non-State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 7-bis(b) of the Child Law (28)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 59(1) of the Child Law; Articles 80 and 238 of the Constitution (28, 29)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 54 of the Child Law (28)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (29)

Laws prohibiting the commercial sexual exploitation of children are not comprehensive enough to criminally prohibit the procuring of a child in all circumstances for pornography or pornographic performances.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Manpower

Enforce child labor laws and regulations, including receiving and investigating child labor complaints.(35) Inspectors conduct routine labor inspections and refer instances of illegal child labor to the Ministries of the Interior and Justice.(36)

Ministry of the Interior

Enforce laws and regulations prohibiting human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children.(37)

Ministry of Justice, Prosecutor General’s Office

Prosecute violation of laws related to the worst forms of child labor and human trafficking.(37)

Ministry of Local Development

Provide administrative and logistical support for the enforcement of child labor laws.(38) Administer the Child Protection Committees.(36)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Egypt took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (35)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown (35)

Unknown

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown

Unknown

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (39)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown (35)

21,735 (39)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

21,735 (39)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

0

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (35)

1,531 (39)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (35)

56 (39)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (35)

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (35)

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (35)

Yes (35)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (35)

Yes (35)

 

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Egypt took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (35)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (35)

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (40)

Yes (41)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (35)

13 (41)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (35)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (35)

2 (41)

Number of Convictions

2 (40)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (35)

Yes (35)

 

In 2016, the Government held 22 training events, including for prosecutors, law enforcement officials, and judges. The Government also held awareness-raising events on topics such as child trafficking, reaching almost 4,000 individuals.(41) The Government investigated 11 cases of selling children, kidnapping children for the purpose of exploitation, and using children in illicit activities, and charged 2 individuals. However, comprehensive statistics on the number of investigations, violations, and prosecutions were unavailable because the data that the Government provided did not distinguish among several categories of cases, including child trafficking and organ trafficking.(41)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Council for Childhood and Motherhood (NCCM)

Coordinate enforcement of laws related to child labor, including its worst forms.(3) Provide technical support and training for the Ministry of Manpower’s inspectors on child labor.(36) Identify and monitor at-risk children. Manage two 24-hour hotlines, receiving reports of child labor and child trafficking.(36)

National Coordinating Committee to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinate the efforts of the Ministries of Manpower, Justice, Social Solidarity, and the Interior; the Council for Human Rights, Childhood, and Motherhood; and the Council for Women to draft a National Strategy to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(35)

National Coordination Committee on Preventing Illegal Migration and Combating Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate efforts to combat human trafficking. In 2016, merged with the National Coordinating Committee on Combating and Preventing Illegal Migration to improve coordination and accelerate Government efforts to address human trafficking.(3, 42) Led by an Ambassador appointed by the Prime Minister, the new committee comprises 18 government entities, including the Ministries of the Interior and Manpower.(39)

Child Protection Committees

Coordinate child protection efforts at the local level. Organized by the Ministry of Local Development and the NCCM, and chaired by the local governors in each governorate, with subcommittees at each police station.(36)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Second National Plan of Action Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Aims to provide timelines and identify roles of Government agencies responsible for assisting children engaged in child labor.(35) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this policy during the reporting period.

Third National Plan of Action Against Human Trafficking (2016–2021)†

Aims to maintain referral mechanisms, train law enforcement officials, and combat trafficking of street children.(35, 42)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Enhancing Access of Children to Education and Fighting Child Labor (2014–2018)

$65 million, EU-funded, 4-year project implemented by the WFP provides food security for up to 100,000 children at risk of child labor, and financial assistance to 400,000 family members to compensate for wages that child labor would have otherwise generated, enabling children to attend school. Supports 50,000 households in income-generating activities to help keep their children in school.(43) By the end of 2016, the project reached 13.3 million students in in 16 governorates. The Government is working to expand this project to include all students enrolled in public schools.(3)

Expanding Access to Education and Protection for at Risk Children in Egypt (2016–2021)*

$32 million, EU-funded, project implemented by UNICEF in cooperation with the Ministry of Education and NCCM to expand access to education for 36,000 children, including 6,000 children with disabilities, and to support 15 Child Protection Committees in 15 governorates.(44)

Solidarity and Dignity Initiative of the Cash Transfer Program (2015–2017)†

Provides a monthly income supplement to poor families, conditional on keeping their children at school, or unconditional for the elderly and family members with disabilities. The Initiative aims to reach 1.5 million households by 2017.(45)

Positive Life Alternatives for Egyptian Youth at-Risk of Irregular Migration Program (2015–2017)

$3.2 million, USAID-funded, 2-year project implemented by the IOM supports activities that include the goal of eliminating the worst forms of child labor, specifically through raising awareness among children and youth on the dangers of irregular migration and trafficking in persons, and building technical capacity of service providers for at-risk children.(46, 47) In 2016, the project held a workshop and study tour for 28 Government officials and community leaders in advance of a campaign to raise awareness about the risk of irregular migration and increase prosecutions and convictions of traffickers.(39)

Shelters for Children†

Shelters operated by the Ministry of Social Solidarity for victims of trafficking, and Dar as-Salam, operated by the NCCM and an NGO called Face, for a variety of project participants, including child victims of trafficking and forced labor. Dar as-Salam provides social services, including psychological counselling and health services.(41) In 2016, just under 5,600 children benefited from Dar as-Salam services.(41)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Egypt.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(3, 48, 49)

As of August 2016, UNHCR announced that almost all Syrian refugee children were enrolled in formal or non-formal education.(50) In 2016, the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood (NCCM) held 66 awareness-raising events on human trafficking, reaching approximately 3,000 teachers, students, and residents in areas determined to be at high risk of human trafficking. The NCCM also printed pamphlets on the dangers of child trafficking and raised awareness of existing social services.(41) Although Egypt has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Egypt (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law clearly criminally prohibits the procuring of children for pornography and pornographic performances under all circumstances.

2015 – 2016

Enforcement

Publish information on the labor inspectorate funding; the number of child labor inspectors, their training, and whether they can assess penalties; the number of penalties imposed that were collected; whether routine and targeted inspections were conducted; and whether unannounced inspections were permitted and conducted.

2011 – 2016

Publish information on the training of criminal investigators, the numbers of violations found, and convictions.

2011 – 2016

Government Policies

Take steps to implement the Second National Plan of Action Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor.

2016

Social Programs

Ensure universal access to free public education, especially for girls, by addressing the cost of school fees, supplies, and other barriers to education.

2010 – 2016

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2010 – 2016

1.         Brook, P. "Haunting Photos of the Children Toiling in Egypt’s Limestone Mines." Wired [online] September 3, 2014 [cited March 10, 2014]; http://www.wired.com/2014/09/myriam-abdelaziz-menyas-kids.

2.         Crowder, N. "Down in the quarry." The Washington Post, Washington, DC, February 23, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/in-sight/wp/2015/02/23/down-in-the-quarry/.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Cairo. reporting, January 24, 2017.

4.         Elshamy, M. Powder-covered workers toil in Egypt's quarries, The Associated Press Images, [blog] April 6, 2015 [cited January 13, 2016]; [no longer online].

5.         U.S Department of State. "Egypt," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258879.pdf.

6.         ILO Committee of Experts. "Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Egypt (ratification: 2002)." 2015 [cited December 5, 2016]; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186222:NO.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Survey of Young People in Egypt, 2009. Analysis received April 13, 2017. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9.         UNICEF. Working children: issues and impact; [no date]. [Source on file].

10.       World Vision. "Forced and Child Labour in the Cotton Industry." [online] 2012 [cited December 5, 2016]; http://campaign.worldvision.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Forced-and-child-labour-in-the-cotton-industry-fact-sheet.pdf.

11.       Ouf, I. "No easy solution for Egypt’s child labour problem." The Arab Weekly, (May 29, 2016); http://www.thearabweekly.com/Opinion/5250/No-easy-solution-for-Egypt%E2%80%99s-child-labour-problem.

12.       ILO and Egyptian Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS). Working Children in Egypt: Results of the 2010 National Child Labour Survey. Cairo; 2012. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_21017/lang--en/index.htm.

13.       WFP. Baseline Study, Combating Worst Forms of Child Labor through Education and Livelihood Interventions in Egypt. Rapid Assessment. Cairo; February 2012.

14.       Hamra, K. "In workshops, fields, Egyptian children at work." The Associated Press [online] October 30, 2012 [cited March 1, 2017]; https://www.yahoo.com/news/workshops-fields-egyptian-children-153401163--finance.html.

15.       Abouel Dahab, M. "Child labour: A fact of life in Egypt's brick factories." middleeasteye.net [online] March 4, 2015 [cited January 12, 2016]; http://www.middleeasteye.net/in-depth/features/child-labour-fact-life-egypts-brick-factories-1079867304.

16.       Arab Trade Union Organization. "Egypt: Ten thousand children bury their dreams in brick factories." [online] August 7, 2016 [cited November 4, 2016]; http://www.arabtradeunion.org/en/content/egypt-ten-thousand-children-bury-their-dreams-brick-factories.

17.       Samir, S. "Child labor: the hidden cost of small industries." The Cairo Post [online] November 6, 2014 [cited November 26, 2014]; http://thecairopost.com/news/128469/inside_egypt/child-labor-the-hidden-cost-of-small-industries.

18.       U.S. Department of State. "Egypt " in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236808.pdf.

19.       Eddin, MA. "Egypt’s aluminium industry thrives on child labour." scidev.net [online] August 26, 2015 [cited February 8, 2016]; http://www.scidev.net/global/children/multimedia/egypt-s-aluminum-industry-thrives-child-labour.html.

20.       ICF Macro. Child Domestic Labor in Egypt. Fairfax; January 2012. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/pdf/2012clegypt.pdf.

21.       Diaa, R. "Childhood sold off the back of a cart." The Cairo Post [online] December 17, 2013 [cited November 28, 2014]; http://thecairopost.com/news/57174/inside_egypt/childhood-sold-cart.

22.       Fazza, R. "The plight of Syrian children in Egypt." The Cairo Post [online] January 12, 2014 [cited November 28, 2014]; http://thecairopost.com/news/71852/inside_egypt/the-plight-of-syrian-children-in-egypt.

23.       Elbagir, N. "How children are trafficked into Europe." CNN [online] June 16, 2015 [cited December 5, 2016]; http://www.cnn.com/2015/06/15/europe/freedom-project-misery-trail-children/.

24.       Trew, B. "Death ship won't stop Egypt's migrants." The Daily Beast [online] October 3, 2016 [cited November 4, 2016]; http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/10/04/death-ship-won-t-stop-egypt-s-migrants.html.

25.       Save the Children UK. "As Number of Lone Children Fleeing to Italy Soars, New Report Reveals Brutal Child Trafficking Practices." [online] 2016 [cited December 5, 2016]; http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/2016-08/number-lone-children-fleeing-italy-soars-new-report-reveals-brutal-child-trafficking.

26.       Muzi, L. "Thousands of African child migrants feared in thrall to Italian traffickers." The Guardian, October 17, 2014. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/oct/17/african-child-migrants-italian-traffickers-forced-labour-sexual-exploitation.

27.       IOM. Egyptian Unaccompanied Migrant Children: A case study on irregular migration. Geneva; 2016. https://publications.iom.int/books/egyptian-unaccompanied-migrant-children-case-study-irregular-migration.

28.       Government of Egypt. Child Law, Promulgated by Law No. 12 of 1996, as amended by Law No. 126 of 2008, enacted 2008.

29.       Government of Egypt. Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2014- unofficial translation, enacted January 18, 2014. http://www.sis.gov.eg/Newvr/Dustor-en001.pdf.

30.       Government of Egypt. Ministry of Manpower and Migration Decree 118 of the Year 2003, enacted 2003.

31.       Government of Egypt. Law No. 64 of 2010 regarding Combating Human Trafficking, enacted 2010.

32.       Government of Egypt. Law on Narcotics No 182, enacted June 5, 1960.

33.       Government of Egypt. Law No 127 on Military and National Service, enacted 1980.

34.       Ministry of Defense. Guidelines on Youth Volunteers in the Armed Forces. Cairo. http://www.mod.gov.eg/Mod/Mod_TagnedServices11.aspx.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Cairo. reporting, January 21, 2016.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Cairo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 30, 2015.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Cairo. reporting, February 10, 2014.

38.       WFP- Cairo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 13, 2014.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Cairo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 17, 2017.

40.       U.S. Embassy- Cairo. reporting, March 23, 2016.

41.       U.S. Embassy- Cairo. reporting, March 19, 2017.

42.       U.S. Embassy- Cairo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 12, 2017.

43.       WFP. The EU and WFP Launch a Project to Fight Child Labour through Education in Egypt, [online] 2014 [cited November 10, 2014]; http://www.wfp.org/news/news-release/eu-and-wfp-launch-project-fight-child-labour-through-education-egypt.

44.       European Union - External Action Service. European Union supports Egypt in collaboration with UNICEF to expand educational opportunities and enforce child protection systems. October 24, 2016. https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/12826/european-union-supports-egypt-collaboration-unicef-expand-educational-opportunities-and_en.

45.       The World Bank. Building Resilience and Opportunity: Social Protection Reform in Egypt. Washington, DC; June 9, 2015. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2015/06/09/building-resilience-and-opportunity-social-protection-reform-in-egypt.

46.       IOM. Positive Life Alternatives for Egyptian Youth at-Risk of Irregular Migration Program (PLAYA) - Fact sheet; March 2016. [source on file].

47.       U.S. Embassy- Cairo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 10, 2016.

48.       IOM. Action to protect and assist vulnerable and exploited migrant workers in the Middle East and North Africa (PAVE) - Fact sheet; March 2016. [source on file].

49.       IOM. Lebanon Launches Public Service Announcement to Combat Human Trafficking. Press Release; October 20, 2015. https://www.iom.int/news/lebanon-launches-public-service-announcement-combat-human-trafficking.

50.       UNHCR. Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan -- Regional Strategic Overview 2017-2018; 2016. http://www.3rpsyriacrisis.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/3RP-Regional-Strategic-Overview-2017-2018.pdf.

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