Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Djibouti

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Djibouti

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Djibouti made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government drafted an updated National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons and legislation to strengthen the legal framework on human trafficking. In addition, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. However, children in Djibouti are engaged in child labor, including in street work, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. The law neither establishes a minimum age for hazardous work nor fully protects children from all forms of commercial sexual exploitation. Law enforcement efforts were inadequate to prevent and combat child labor, including its worst forms.

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Children in Djibouti are engaged in child labor, including in street work. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Djibouti.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

12.3 (23,693)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

67.4

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

10.2

Primary completion rate (%):

63.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2006.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Caring for livestock* (1, 2)

Farming,* activities unknown (2)

Services

Domestic work† (1, 2, 7)

Street work, including shining shoes,* washing and guarding cars,* cleaning storefronts,* sorting merchandise,* collecting garbage,* begging, and selling items, including khat* (1, 2, 4, 7)

Working in restaurants, small shops, and family businesses (1, 2, 7)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (1, 2, 8, 9)

Forced domestic work and begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (1-3)

Use in illicit activities, including theft* (2, 3)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Research found an increase in children, younger than in previous years, who migrated through Djibouti from Ethiopia, Somalia, and Eritrea to reach Yemen and other locations in the Middle East.(3) Limited evidence suggests children, including undocumented migrant girls, experience commercial sexual exploitation in Djibouti City and the Ethiopia-Djibouti trucking corridor.(2, 9) Girls from poor Djiboutian families may engage in commercial sexual exploitation as a means of income.(1) Limited evidence suggests older children sometimes exploit younger children in commercial sexual exploitation.(2, 3)

While primary and middle school are tuition-free, other expenses may be prohibitive for poor families.(2) Enrollment rates are lower for girls, children living in rural areas, and children living in poverty.(2, 10)

Djibouti has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 5 of the Labor Code (11)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

No

 

 

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 110 of the Labor Code (11)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 2 and 290 of the Labor Code; Article 23 of the Law Regarding Terrorism and Other Serious Crimes (11, 12)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 2 and 6 of the Law on the Fight Against Human Trafficking; Article 23 of the Law Regarding Terrorism and Other Serious Crimes (12, 13)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 394 and 463 of the Penal Code (14)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 461 of the Penal Code (14)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

National Army Amendment Decree (15)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 4 of the Law on the Orientation of the Education System (16)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 16 of the Law on the Orientation of the Education System (16)

* No conscription (17)

During the reporting period, the Government drafted new legislation that strengthens the legal framework on human trafficking. The law prohibits all forms of human trafficking and prescribes sufficiently stringent penalties; however, contrary to international legal standards, it requires an element of force, fraud, or coercion for child sex trafficking offenses. The law was not passed by the end of the reporting period.(18)

The law’s minimum age provisions do not apply to children working outside formal employment relationships.(11, 19)

The Labor Code prohibits the employment of children between ages 16 and 18 in domestic work, hotels, and bars; however, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not include street work, an area where there is evidence of work in an unhealthy environment which may expose children to hazardous substances, agents, or processes damaging to their health(11, 19)

The law does not sufficiently prohibit the commercial sexual exploitation of children because using and offering a child for prostitution, pornography, and pornographic performances are not criminally prohibited. Additionally, the law does not criminally prohibit possessing child pornography and procuring and benefiting from a monetary or in-kind transaction involving the sexual exploitation of a child for the production of pornography and for pornographic performances.(14)

The Penal Code criminalizes the use of children to commit crimes; however, the law does not criminalize using, procuring, and offering a child in both the production and trafficking of drugs.(14)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)

Enforce all labor laws, including child labor laws and regulations.(4)

National Police, including the Vice Squad

Enforce criminal laws and investigate criminal offenses related to the worst forms of child labor.(20)

Ministry of Justice

Prosecute child labor cases after they have been referred by the MOL.(4)

National Commission on Human Rights

Receive complaints and investigate cases of human rights violations, including the worst forms of child labor.(21, 22) Assist victims in obtaining legal aid to prosecute violators.(21)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Djibouti did not take actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

4 (20)

13 (18)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown

Yes (4)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

No (18)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

No (18)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

30 (18)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

30 (18)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

0 (18)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (20)

0 (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A

N/A

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

No (4)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

No (20)

Yes (18)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

N/A

No (18)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

No (20)

No (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (20)

No (4)

 

In 2015, the Government found the number of labor inspectors inadequate. According to the MOL, the labor inspectorate has insufficient funding and training to adequately enforce child labor laws.(2, 4)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Djibouti took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (23)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (20)

0 (4)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

N/A

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (20)

0 (4)

Number of Convictions

0 (20)

0 (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

No (20)

No (4)

 

In 2015, the Vice Squad included four officers, but they lacked sufficient training and resources to effectively enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(4) The Government collaborated with international organizations to train law enforcement officials on the definitions of human trafficking versus smuggling, and issues related to the protection of unaccompanied migrant children.(23) However, no child victims were identified or referred to social services.(4)

The Government continued to detain street children, including potential child trafficking victims, following sweeps to clear the streets in advance of holidays and national events. After detention, immigration officials transported children identified as Ethiopian or Somali to the Ethiopian border, leaving them abandoned and vulnerable to re-trafficking.(3)

Although the Government has established a Senior Human Trafficking Taskforce, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Human Trafficking Taskforce

Coordinate efforts to combat human trafficking. Led by the Ministry of Justice.(3)

National Council for Children (CNE)

Promote children’s rights and oversee the implementation of the National Strategic Plan for Children in Djibouti (PASNED). Members include six ministers, two representatives of the Youth Parliament, two representatives of the private sector, and two representatives of women’s associations.(24)

The Government of Djibouti has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

PASNED (2011–2015)

Aims to create a protective environment for all children to ensure the protection of their human rights and equitable access to basic services. Interventions to combat the worst forms of child labor include a study on the worst forms of child labor, awareness campaigns, and social services for victims of human trafficking and other worst forms of child labor.(25, 26)

National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons (2014–2020)

Aims to strengthen the legislative framework to combat human trafficking, protect and assist human trafficking victims, and establish a national referral mechanism between law enforcement officials and social service providers.(27) In 2015, the Ministry of Justice drafted an updated plan that extends the Government’s anti-human-trafficking strategy through the year 2020.(23)

UNDAF (2013–2017)

Provides access to basic social services in order to protect children against all forms of violence and exploitation. Includes plans for boys and girls in both rural and urban areas to have equal and quality access to basic education.(28)

National Strategy (2013–2017)*

Supports street children and other marginalized populations through an emphasis on protecting the rights of children and developing social programs.(1, 29)

Education Sector Strategic Plan (2014–2017)*

Incorporates strategies to address the needs of children who have not previously attended school and children living in the most impoverished areas.(29)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

In 2015, the Government of Djibouti funded and participated in programs that may contribute to the prevention or elimination of child labor (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description and Objectives

Strengthening the National Criminal Justice System’s Response to Trafficking in Persons in Djibouti*

$500,000 USDOS-funded program, implemented by UNODC in partnership with the Government, to establish a national referral mechanism for victims of human trafficking, establish a mechanism for data collection, raise awareness of human trafficking, and conduct law enforcement trainings.(23)

National Family Solidarity Program*†

Government-funded program implemented by the State Secretariat for National Solidarity that establishes cash transfers to support Djiboutian households in extreme poverty.(30)

UNICEF Country Program (2013–2017)

UNICEF program in collaboration with the Government that promotes access to quality education for children, especially from rural and poor urban areas, increases birth registration, and provides support for orphans and vulnerable children.(29, 31)

Humanitarian Action for Children

UNICEF-funded program in partnership with the Government that identifies the needs of vulnerable women and children. In 2015, the program provided migrant and street children with access to non-formal education, vocational training, and recreational activities.(32)

IOM Program

IOM program in partnership with the Government to address the risks of irregular migration, including a Migrant Response Center along the route most frequently traveled by undocumented migrants from Somalia and Ethiopia on their way to Yemen.(1, 20, 23) In 2015, the program worked with local and international actors to identify appropriate solutions for unaccompanied and separated children who were victims of human trafficking or at risk of being trafficked upon arrival in Djibouti after conflict broke out in Yemen. The program reintegrated and rehabilitated a number of children into their communities of origin in Ethiopia.(33)

Enhancing Income Opportunities Program (2015–2019)*

World Bank-funded program in partnership with the Government that aims to provide training and business opportunities for youth. One objective is to provide at least 2,200 youth with basic life-skill training and coaching in business plan development and link these youth with technical training centers.(34)

Access to Quality Education Project

Global Partnership for Education-funded program in collaboration with the World Bank and Government to improve the learning environment in the first 3 years of primary education.(10, 35) Aims to construct classrooms, rehabilitate and extend schools in rural areas, train teachers, procure student learning materials, and distribute hearing aids and glasses to students who need them.(10)

School Meal Program

WFP-funded project in partnership with the Government that provides daily meals at schools in rural parts of Djibouti for 15,000 children. Distributes take-home rations to girls to encourage regular school attendance.(36)

Urban Poverty Reduction Program

African Development Bank program implemented by the Government to promote socioeconomic development in Djibouti’s towns and cities, where the majority of working children live.(29, 37)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Djibouti.

Although the Government of Djibouti has implemented programs that target migrant and street children, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs specifically designed to assist children involved in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Djibouti (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish a minimum age for hazardous work and ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that all children are protected by law, including children working outside formal employment relationships.

2015

Ensure that laws criminally prohibit using and offering a child for prostitution, pornography, and pornographic performances; possessing child pornography; and procuring and benefiting from a monetary or in-kind transaction involving the sexual exploitation of a child for the production of pornography and for pornographic performances.

2012 – 2015

Ensure that using, procuring, and offering a child in both the production and trafficking of drugs are criminally prohibited.

2015

Enforcement

Make law enforcement information publicly available, including the labor inspectorate's funding and training for criminal investigators.

2010 – 2015

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by training new employees and providing refresher courses, initiating routine inspections, and establishing a mechanism to receive child labor complaints.

2015

Provide additional resources to the labor inspectorate and criminal law enforcement agencies so that more inspectors and officers can be hired and receive adequate training, including on identifying victims of child labor, commercial sexual exploitation, and human trafficking.

2011 – 2015

Cease the detention of street children and establish referral mechanisms between labor and criminal law enforcement agencies and social service providers so that exploited children, particularly victims of child trafficking, receive the appropriate care and reintegration services.

2014 – 2015

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including in all its worst forms.

2009 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children working in agriculture in order to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that all vulnerable children, particularly girls, have access to education.

2015

Implement programs to specifically address children involved in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2015

1.         U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, January 20, 2014.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Djibouti," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236564.pdf.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Djibouti," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243428.htm.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, January 14, 2016.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2006. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, November 15, 2015.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, February 17, 2015.

9.         Hannah Kooy, Jennifer Schulte, and Sanne Terlingen. Fear and Loathing in Djibouti, One World Longreads, [online] 2015 [cited December 20, 2015]; http://longreads.oneworld.nl/en/djibouti_trafficking/.

10.       Djibouti Needs to Build and Expand on Achievements to Educate the Next Generation, World Bank, [online] February 4, 2015 [cited October 14, 2015]; http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2015/02/04/djibouti-needs-to-build-and-expand-on-achievements-to-educate-the-next-generation.

11.       Government of Djibouti. Loi n°133/AN/05/5ème L portant Code du Travail, enacted January 26, 2006. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_126983.pdf.

12.       Government of Djibouti. Loi n°111/AN/11/6ème L relative à la lutte contre le terrorisme et autres infractions graves, enacted May 25, 2011. http://www.vertic.org/media/National%20Legislation/Djibouti/DJ_Loi_Terrorisme.pdf.

13.       Government of Djibouti. Loi n°210/AN/07/5ème L relative à la Lutte Contre le Trafic des Etres Humains, enacted October 2, 2007. http://www.presidence.dj/jo/2007/loi210an07.php.

14.       Government of Djibouti. Le Code Penal, enacted 2002. http://www.africanchildforum.org/clr/Legislation%20Per%20Country/djibouti/djibouti_penal_2002_fr.pdf.

15.       Government of Djibouti. National Army Amendment Decree, Decree No. 79-001/PR/DEF, enacted 1979.

16.       Government of Djibouti. Loi n°96/AN/00/4ème L portant orientation du systeme educatif Djiboutien, enacted August 10, 2000. http://www.presidence.dj/jo/2000/loi96an00.htm.

17.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; September 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 12, 2016.

19.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Djibouti (ratification: 2005) Published: 2015; accessed November 20, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185711:NO.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, January 9, 2015.

21.       Government of Djibouti. Loi Portant organisation et fonctionnement de la Commission Nationale de Droit de l'Homme (CNDH), Law No. 59/AN/ 14/7ème L, enacted July 20, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/99841/119306/F24816027/DJI-99841.pdf.

22.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 2, 2016.

23.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, February 4, 2016.

24.       Government of Djibouti. Création et organisation du Conseil National de l’Enfant (CNE), Decree No. 2012-067/PR/MPF, enacted April 4, 2012. http://www.presidence.dj/jo/texte.php?num=2012-067&date_t=2012-04-04&nat....

25.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Djibouti (ratification: 2005) Published: 2014; accessed November 6, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3129251:NO.

26.       Government of Djibouti. National Strategic Plan for Children in Djibouti (PASNED); 2011. http://www.djiboutinfo.org/app/download/5797484978/Plan+d'Actions+pour+l'Enfance+2011-2015,+Minist%C3%A8re+Promotion+de+la+Femme.pdf.

27.       Government of Djibouti. Plan national pour combattre le trafic des êtres humains et protéger les victimes du trafic - Djibouti (2014-2020); 2015. [hardcopy on file].

28.       UN. Plan Cadre des Nations Unies pour l’Aide au Développement (UNDAF/2013-2017). Djibouti, Systeme des Nations Unies en Republique de Djibouti; February 15, 2012. https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/portal-document/Djibouti_UNDAF%202013-2017-FR.pdf.

29.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 26, 2015.

30.       Government of Djibouti. Décret Portant création, organisation et fonctionnement du Programme National de Solidarité Famille (PNSF), Decree No. 2015-279/PR/SESN, enacted October 11, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/100232/120165/F1124840398/DJI-100232.pdf.

31.       UNICEF. Republic of Djibouti Country programme document 2013-2017. New York; September 14, 2012. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Djibouti-2013-2017-final_approved-English-14Sept2012.pdf.

32.       UNICEF. Humanitarian Action for Children. New York; 2015. http://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/Final_2015_HAC_Djibouti.pdf.

33.       International Organization for Migration (IOM). Addressing Human Trafficking and Exploitation in Times of Crisis; December 2015. https://www.iom.int/sites/default/files/press_release/file/CT_in_Crisis_FINAL.pdf.

34.       World Bank Projects Database. Enhancing income opportunities in DJ; accessed November 20, 2015; http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/MNA/2015/10/15/090224b08314a4a7/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Djibouti000Enh0Report000Sequence001.pdf.

35.       World Bank Projects Database. Access to Quality Education Project; accessed December 22, 2015; http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/MNA/2015/07/20/090224b08300f605/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Djibouti000Acc0Report000Sequence003.pdf.

36.       Djibouti - WFP Activities, World Food Programme, [online] [cited November 11, 2014]; http://www.wfp.org/countries/djibouti/operations.

37.       Urban Poverty Reduction Project, African Development Bank Group, [online] [cited April 9, 2014]; http://www.afdb.org/en/projects-and-operations/project-portfolio/project/p-dj-ie0-002/.

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