Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Djibouti

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Djibouti

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2016, Djibouti made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed the Law on the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Illicit Smuggling of Migrants, which criminally prohibits domestic and international trafficking and addresses all acts in the trafficking process. However, children in Djibouti perform dangerous tasks in street work. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. In addition, the law neither establishes a minimum age for hazardous work nor fully protects children from all forms of commercial sexual exploitation. Law enforcement efforts were inadequate to prevent and combat child labor, including its worst forms.

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Children in Djibouti perform dangerous tasks in street work. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Djibouti.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

12.3 (23,693)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

67.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

10.2

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

64.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2006.(5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Caring for livestock (1, 6)

Farming, activities unknown(6)

Services

Domestic work† (1, 6, 7)

Street work, including shining shoes, washing and guarding cars, cleaning storefronts, sorting merchandise, collecting garbage, begging, and selling items, including khat (1, 2, 6, 7)

Working in restaurants, small shops, and family businesses (1, 6, 7)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 6, 8-10)

Forced domestic work and begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 3, 6)

Use in illicit activities (3, 6, 10)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Limited evidence suggests children, including undocumented migrant girls, are vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation in Djibouti City and the Ethiopia-Djibouti trucking corridor.(6, 9) Girls from poor Djiboutian families may engage in commercial sexual exploitation as a means of income.(1)

While primary and middle school are tuition-free, other school-related expenses or family pressures may prevent children from attending school.(6, 11) Enrollment rates are lower for girls, children living in rural areas, and children living in poverty.(6, 12)

Djibouti has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Djibouti’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 5 of the Labor Code (13)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 108 and 110 of the Labor Code (13)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 110 of the Labor Code (13)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 2 and 290 of the Labor Code; Article 23 of the Law Regarding Terrorism and Other Serious Crimes (13, 14)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 1 of the Law on the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons and the Illegal Smuggling of Migrants; Article 23 of the Law Regarding Terrorism and Other Serious Crimes; Articles 10 and 15 of the Penal Code (14-16)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Articles 462 and 463 of the Penal Code; Article 1 and Article 8 of the Law on the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons and the Illegal Smuggling of Migrants (15, 16)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 355, 356, and 461 of the Penal Code (16)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 1 of the National Army Amendment Decree (17)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 149–151 and 461 of the Penal Code (16)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 4 of the Law on the Orientation of the Education System (18)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 16 of the Law on the Orientation of the Education System (18)

* No conscription (19, 20)

During the reporting period, the Government passed new legislation that strengthens the legal framework on human trafficking. The law prohibits all forms of human trafficking and prescribes sufficiently stringent penalties.(10, 15)

Sources indicate that the Labor Code’s minimum age provisions are not applied effectively to children working outside formal employment relationships.(13, 21-23) In addition, although the Labor Code prohibits the employment of children between the ages 16 and 18 in domestic work, hotels, and bars, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not include street work, an area of work in which there is evidence of work in an unhealthy environment.(13, 21, 23)

The law does not specifically criminally prohibit the offering of a child for prostitution, the production of pornography, or pornographic performances, or the use of a child for prostitution.(15, 16)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)

Enforce all labor laws, including child labor laws and regulations.(2) Through its Inspectorate of Labor and Social Laws, regulate youth employment.(24)

National Police, including the Vice Squad

Enforce criminal laws and investigate crimes related to the worst forms of child labor.(25)

Ministry of Justice

Prosecute child labor cases after they have been referred by MOL.(2)

National Commission on Human Rights

Receive complaints and investigate cases of human rights violations, including the worst forms of child labor.(26, 27) Assist victims in obtaining legal aid to prosecute violators.(26)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Djibouti took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

$5,649.71 (28)

Number of Labor Inspectors

13 (29)

13 (28)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (2)

No (10)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (29)

Yes (28)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Yes (11)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (29)

No (10)

Number of Labor Inspections

30 (29)

30 (10)

Number Conducted at Worksite

30 (29)

30 (10)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (29)

0 (10)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (2)

0 (10)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A

N/A

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (2)

Yes (10)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A

Yes (10)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (29)

Yes (10)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (29)

Unknown (10)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

No (2)

Yes (10)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (2)

No (10)

 

According to the Government, the labor inspectorate has insufficient funding and training to adequately enforce child labor laws.(2, 6) In 2016, the Government held trainings on the new Law on the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Illicit Smuggling of Migrants.(11)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Djibouti did not take actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (28)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (28)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (30)

Yes (28)

Number of Investigations

0 (2)

Unknown (10)

Number of Violations Found

N/A

Unknown (10)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (2)

Unknown (10)

Number of Convictions

0 (2)

Unknown (10)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

No (2)

No (10)

 

The Government continued to detain street children, including potential child trafficking victims, following sweeps to clear the streets ahead of holidays and national events. Immigration officials worked with IOM to assist in returning unaccompanied minors to their countries of origin, including the provision of space for a second Migration Response Center in Loyada.(3, 11, 20) In late December 2016, the Government passed a law that allows unaccompanied minors to apply as asylum seekers.(11, 31)

Although the Government has established an Anti-Trafficking Working Group, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Anti-Trafficking Working Group

Coordinate efforts to combat human trafficking. Led by the Ministry of Justice and includes the Ministry of Labor.(3, 28)

National Council for Children (CNE)

Promote children’s rights. Led by the Prime Minister and includes eight other agencies, representatives from NGOs, the private sector, and elected officials.(32)

 

Research found no evidence of coordination mechanisms to combat the worst forms of child labor.

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons (2014–2020)

Aims to strengthen the legislative framework to combat human trafficking, protect and assist human trafficking victims, and establish a national referral mechanism between law enforcement officials and social service providers.(33) In 2016, with the support of UNODC, approved training of trainer modules to assist law enforcement officials in the identification of trafficking in persons cases.(20, 28)

UNDAF (2013–2017)

Provides access to basic social services to protect children against all forms of violence and exploitation. Includes plans for boys and girls in both rural and urban areas to have equal and quality access to basic education.(34) In 2016, research did not determine whether any activities were undertaken.(28)

 

The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Strategy and the Education Sector Strategic Plan.(1, 35) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement UNDAF during the reporting period.(28)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that may contribute to the prevention or elimination of child labor (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description and Objectives

USDOS-Funded Strengthening the National Criminal Justice System’s Response to Trafficking in Persons in Djibouti

$500,000 USDOS-funded program, implemented by UNODC in partnership with the Government, that establishes a national referral mechanism for victims of human trafficking and a mechanism for data collection, raises awareness of human trafficking, and conducts law enforcement trainings.(20, 30)

National Family Solidarity Program†

Government-funded program implemented by the State Secretariat for National Solidarity that establishes cash transfers to support Djiboutian households in extreme poverty.(36) In 2016, the program continued to provide cash transfers to families.(11)

UNICEF-Funded Projects

Humanitarian Action for Children Project and UNICEF Country Program (2013–2017) that promotes access to quality education for children, especially from rural and poor urban areas, increases birth registration, and provides support for orphans and vulnerable children.(35, 37, 38) In 2016, IOM and UNICEF hosted a workshop with Government officials, including law enforcement officials, who work on unaccompanied minor issues to validate a referral mechanism to address the issue of unaccompanied migrant children, particularly those trafficked.(11)

World Bank-Funded Programs

Enhancing Income Opportunities Program (2015-2019), in partnership with the Government, aims to provide at least 2,200 youth with basic life skills training, coaching in business plan development, and access to finance. Access to Quality Education Project, a Global Partnership for Education-funded program, in collaboration with the World Bank and Government, seeks to improve the learning environment in the first three years of primary education and to construct classrooms, rehabilitate and extend schools in rural areas, train teachers, procure student learning materials, and distribute hearing aids and glasses to students who need them.(12, 39, 40) In 2016, project activities began.(11)

World Food Programme-Funded Projects in Support of Food Security

Alleviates food insecurity and builds resiliency. Support for the National School Feeding Programme provides daily meals at schools for 17,900 children. Enhancing the Resilience of Chronically Vulnerable Rural, Urban and Refugee Populations and Reducing Undernutrition in Djibouti increases resilience of rural food-insecure populations to shocks.(41-43) In 2016, projects continued activities.(11)

† Program is funded by the Government of Djibouti.
‡ The Government had other programs that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(1, 10, 20, 25, 30)

Although the Government of Djibouti has implemented programs that target migrant children, research found no evidence of programs to assist children involved in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Djibouti (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that all children are protected by law, including children working outside formal employment relationships.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that laws criminally prohibit the use and offer of a child for prostitution, production of pornography, and pornographic performances.

2012 – 2016

Enforcement

Publish data on number of criminal investigations, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2016

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by allowing the assessment of penalties, providing refresher courses, and providing information on the number of unannounced labor inspections conducted.

2015 – 2016

Provide additional resources to the labor inspectorate and criminal law enforcement agencies so that more inspectors and officers can be hired and receive adequate training.

2011 – 2016

Cease the detention of street children and establish referral mechanisms between labor and criminal law enforcement agencies and social service providers so that exploited children, particularly victims of child trafficking, receive appropriate care and reintegration services.

2014 – 2016

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including in all its worst forms.

2009 – 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2014 – 2016

Undertake activities to implement UNDAF.

2016

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children working in agriculture to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2016

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, including girls, by removing other school-related expenses.

2015 – 2016

Implement programs to specifically address children involved in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, January 20, 2014.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, January 14, 2016.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Djibouti," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258757.htm.

4.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [Accessed December 16, 2016]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2006. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         U.S. Department of State. "Djibouti," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265460.pdf.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, November 15, 2015.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, February 17, 2015.

9.         Hannah Kooy, Jennifer Schulte, and Sanne Terlingen. "Fear and Loathing in Djibouti." longreads.oneworld.nl [online] December 20, 2015 [cited December 22, 2016]; http://longreads.oneworld.nl/en/djibouti_trafficking/.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, January 17, 2017.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 16, 2017.

12.       Djibouti Needs to Build and Expand on Achievements to Educate the Next Generation, The World Bank, [online] February 4, 2015 [cited October 14, 2015]; http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2015/02/04/djibouti-needs-to-build-and-expand-on-achievements-to-educate-the-next-generation.

13.       Government of Djibouti. Loi n° 133/AN/05/5ème portant Code du Travail, No. 133, enacted 2006. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_126983.pdf.

14.       Government of Djibouti. Loi n° 111/AN/11/6ème relative à la lutte contre le terrorisme et autres infractions graves, No. 111, enacted 2011. http://www.vertic.org/media/National%20Legislation/Djibouti/DJ_Loi_Terrorisme.pdf.

15.       Government of Djibouti. Loi n° 133/AN/16/7ème sur la lutte contre la traite des personnes et le trafic illicite des migrants, No. 133, enacted 2016. http://www.presidence.dj/texte.php?ID=133&ID2=2016-03-24&ID3=Loi&ID4=6&ID5=2016-03-31&ID6=n.

16.       Government of Djibouti. Le Code Pénal, enacted 2002. http://www.africanchildforum.org/clr/Legislation%20Per%20Country/djibouti/djibouti_penal_2002_fr.pdf.

17.       Government of Djibouti. Décret n° 79-001/PR/DEF modificatif au décret n°77-046/PR/DEF fixant le régime des commissions, engagements et rengagements dans l'Armée nationale, No. 79-001, enacted 1979. [Source on file].

18.       Government of Djibouti. Loi n° 96/AN/00/4ème portant orientation du systeme educatif Djiboutien, No. 96, enacted 2000. http://www.presidence.dj/PresidenceOld/LES%20TEXTES/loi96an00.htm.

19.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers. London; 2012; https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=da92581e-7130-40e6-bf3a-a86b944f17dd.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, March 17, 2017.

21.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Djibouti (ratification: 2005) Published: 2015; accessed November 20, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185711:NO.

22.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Djibouti (ratification: 2005) Published: 2016; accessed November 3, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3251516,103044,Djibouti,2015.

23.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Djibouti (ratification: 2005) Published: 2016; accessed November 3, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3251688,103044,Djibouti,2015.

24.       Government of Djibouti. Éléments de Réponse Concernant "La Fiche Pays De Djibouti 2015 Intitulé 2015 Findings On The Worst Forms Of Child Labor". Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (October 27, 2016) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Djibouti; December 7, 2016.

25.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, January 9, 2015.

26.       Government of Djibouti. Loi n° 59/AN/14/7ème portant organisation et fonctionnement de la Commission Nationale de Droit de l'Homme, No. 59, enacted 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/99841/119306/F24816027/DJI-99841.pdf.

27.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 2, 2016.

28.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 27, 2017.

29.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 12, 2016.

30.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti. reporting, February 4, 2016.

31.       Government of Djibouti. Loi n° 159/AN/16/7ème portant statut des réfugiés en République de Djibouti, No. 159, enacted 2017. [Source on file].

32.       Government of Djibouti. Décret n° 2012-067/PR/MPF portant création et organisation du Conseil National de l’Enfant, No. 2012-067, enacted 2012. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/90357/104100/F1513676396/DJI-90357.pdf.

33.       Government of Djibouti. Plan national pour combattre le trafic des êtres humains et protéger les victimes du trafic- Djibouti (2014–2020); 2015. [Source on file].

34.       UN. Plan Cadre des Nations Unies pour l’Aide au Développement (UNDAF/2013–2017). Djibouti, Systeme des Nations Unies en Republique de Djibouti; February 15, 2012. https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/portal-document/Djibouti_UNDAF%202013-2017-FR.pdf.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Djibouti official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 26, 2015.

36.       Government of Djibouti. Décret n° 2015-279/PR/SESN portant création, organisation et fonctionnement du Programme National de Solidarité Famille, No. 2015-279, enacted 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/100232/120165/F1124840398/DJI-100232.pdf.

37.       UNICEF. Humanitarian Action for Children. New York; 2015. http://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/Final_2015_HAC_Djibouti.pdf.

38.       UNICEF. Republic of Djibouti - Country programme document 2013–2017. New York; 2012. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Djibouti-2013-2017-final_approved-English-14Sept2012.pdf.

39.       World Bank Projects Database. Enhancing Income Opportunities in DJ (P148586); accessed November 4, 2016; http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/456551470949639426/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P148586-08-11-2016-1470949629376.pdf.

40.       World Bank Projects Database. Access to Quality Education Project; accessed November 4, 2016; http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/172931470235251986/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P145323-08-03-2016-1470235239760.pdf.

41.       World Food Programme. Support For The National School Feeding Programme in Djibouti, World Food Programme, [cited November 9, 2016 2016]; http://www.wfp.org/operations/200498-support-national-school-feeding-programme-djibouti.

42.       World Food Programme. Enhancing the resilience of chronically vulnerable rural, urban and refugee populations and reducing undernutrition in Djibouti, World Food Programme, [cited November 9, 2016]; http://www.wfp.org/operations/200824-enhancing-resilience-chronically-vulnerable-rural-urban-and-refugee-populations-and-reducing-undernu.

43.       World Food Programme. "WFP Djibouti Country Brief." (September 2016); http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Djibouti%20CB%20September_OIM.pdf.

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