Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Chile

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Chile

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Chile made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Ministry of Labor began implementing the National Strategy to Eradicate Child Labor, strengthened Regional Advisory Committees for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Workers, and supported the design and implementation of regional operating plans to address child labor at the local level. The Government created 21 new Offices for the Protection of Children’s Rights, published a comprehensive guide for the detection and referral of human trafficking victims, including children, and began updating its list of hazardous occupations for children. However, children in Chile perform dangerous tasks in construction. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production and distribution of drugs, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and in commercial sexual exploitation. Information regarding the number of criminal violations found and prosecutions initiated related to the worst forms of child labor is not publicly available.

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Children in Chile are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production and distribution of drugs, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and in commercial sexual exploitation. Children are also engaged in construction, an industry that is considered dangerous in Chile.(1-12) The results of the 2012 National Survey on Activities of Children and Adolescents (Encuesta de Actividades de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes) indicate that 70.6 percent of working children ages 5 to 17 are engaged in work classified as dangerous.(8, 10) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Chile.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

3.8 (94,025)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

29.3

Industry

 

10.3

Services

 

60.4

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

99.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

4.5

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

95

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(13)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta de Actividades de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes Survey, 2012.(14)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting, collecting, and selling crops, including wheat, and working on agricultural loading docks (4, 10, 12)

Livestock rearing and raising farm animals (9, 10, 12)

Forestry,† activities unknown (9, 10)

Hunting, activities unknown (9, 10)

Fishing,† activities unknown (9, 10)

Industry

Construction, activities unknown (4, 8-10, 12, 15)

Production of ceramics and books (4, 12)

Services

Repairing shoes and garments (4, 12)

Domestic work (4, 8, 10, 16)

Working in retail, hospitality, and restaurants (4, 12, 15, 17, 18)

Street work, including street vending and washing cars (4, 8, 9, 15, 19)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including in the production and distribution of drugs, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-7, 11, 12, 20)

Forced labor in agriculture, mining, construction, street vending, domestic work, and garment and hospitality sectors (3-5, 11, 12, 18)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 4, 6-8, 12, 18, 20)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In Chile, children are subjected to human trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation and domestic work.(3, 11, 16) In 2016, the National Minors’ Service (SENAME) detected 346 cases of commercial sexual exploitation of children—the majority of them Chilean.(20) Children are also used to steal, or to produce, sell, and transport drugs on the borders with Peru and Bolivia.(4, 11) In 2016, the Government identified 184 children—some of whom may have been trafficking victims—involved in illicit activities, including drug trafficking and theft.(20, 21)

Indigenous children and adolescents from Otavalo, Ecuador, are especially vulnerable to human trafficking for labor exploitation in Chile.(2, 18) Children are also involved in street work, especially in Santiago, including selling handicrafts, clothes, or other goods.(22-24) In 2016, SENAME detected 730 cases of children involved in the worst forms of child labor, including 68 in hazardous labor.(20) The Government reports that 90 percent of working children between the ages of 5 and 17 are engaged in hazardous work.(25)

Education is compulsory in Chile through secondary school.(26) However, barriers to education exist, including a lack of transportation in rural areas.(18)

Chile has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). The legal framework appears to be sufficient to address and protect children from the worst forms of child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 13 of the Labor Code (27)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 13, 14, and 18 of the Labor Code (27)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 18 of the Labor Code; Articles 1–11 of Law No. 50; Article 1 of Law No. 20.539 (27, 28)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 19 of the Constitution; Article 411 of the Penal Code; Law 20.507 (29, 30)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 411 of the Penal Code (30)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 367 and 411 of the Penal Code; Law No. 20.594; Law No. 20.526 (30-32)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Paragraph 1, Article 5 and Paragraph 2, Article 19 of Law No. 20.000; Law No. 20.084 (33, 34)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Chapter 1, Article 13 of the Armed Forces Recruitment and Mobilization Law No. 2.306 (35)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Chapter 1, Article 13 of the Armed Forces Recruitment and Mobilization Law No. 2.306 (35)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18‡

Articles 4, 25, and 27 of the General Education Law No. 20.370 (26)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 4 of the General Education Law No. 20.370 (26)

* No conscription (35)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (26)

Chilean law does not sufficiently protect children from forced labor as it does not generally prohibit forced labor except when it results from human trafficking.

In 2016, the Government began updating its list of hazardous occupations and prohibited activities for children.(18) The President also sent a draft bill to Congress to create the Children’s Rights Defender’s Office.(18)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MINTRAB)

Design and implement national strategy on child labor and generate public awareness of child labor and commercial sexual exploitation.(8, 36) The National Labor Directorate, functioning in parallel with MINTRAB, enforces child labor laws.(18)

National Minors’ Service (SENAME)

Coordinate the provision of services to vulnerable children in collaboration with Rights Protection Offices.(37, 38) Operates under Ministry of Justice.(18)

National Investigations Police (PDI)

Investigate and prevent the worst forms of child labor by conducting community outreach activities, including trainings and information sessions.(39) Operates under Ministry of Interior.(18) Within PDI, sex crime brigades (BRISEXME) specifically look for CSEC.(40)

National Uniformed Police (Carabineros)

Investigate, prevent, and detect crimes, including child labor violations, by conducting community policing and specialized investigations. The Directorate for Family Protection provides specialized orientation on policies and operatingoperating plans for detection and prevention of domestic violence and child abuse, including sexual exploitation of children.(20) Operates under Ministry of Interior.(18)

National Prosecutor’s Office (Fiscalía Nacional)

Investigate and prosecute crimes, including those involving commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking of children. Train and coordinate with interagency partners, including the PDI and Carabineros, and regional and local prosecutor’s offices.(41, 42)

Rights Protection Offices (Oficinas de Proteccion de Derechos)

Refer cases of children whose rights have been violated to appropriate social services, and monitor and raise awareness of the worst forms of child labor. Located in municipalities throughout the country and part of a social protection network overseen by SENAME.(9)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Chile took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$30,464,007 (17)

$30,590,726 (18)

Number of Labor Inspectors

550 (17)

549 (18)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (17)

Yes (18)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (18)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (11)

Yes (18, 21)

Number of Labor Inspections

124,565 (17)

116, 535 (18)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

116,535 (18)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

N/A

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

526 (17)

344 (18)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (17)

Yes (18)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (17)

No (18)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (17)

Yes (18)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (17)

Yes (18)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (17)

Yes (18)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (17)

Yes (18)

 

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Chile’s workforce, which includes over 8 million workers. According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Chile should employ about 585 labor inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(18, 43-45) Additionally, the Labor Inspectorate has only 133 vehicles to conduct inspections in all of Chile, and must share them with other departments of the Directorate.(18)

In 2016, the Government conducted two qualitative studies on child labor in the agricultural and commercial sectors.(18, 46-48)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Chile took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (18)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (17)

Yes (18, 21)

Number of Investigations

91 (17)

23 (18)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

23 (21)

Number of Convictions

30 (17)

21 (20)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (17)

Yes (18)

 

In 2016, the Interagency Task Force on Trafficking in Persons published a comprehensive guide to facilitate detection and referral of trafficking victims, including children.(21, 49) The Government opened 266 investigations related to commercial sexual exploitation of children—including 103 for promotion or facilitation of commercial sexual exploitation of children, 12 for procurement of sexual services from children, and 151 for production of pornographic material involving children.(18) The Government also initiated seven prosecutions for facilitation of prostitution of children, five for solicitation of sexual services from children, and convicted three individuals for facilitation of prostitution of children and three individuals for labor trafficking of children.(21) However, the penalties for promoting or facilitating the commercial sexual exploitation of children are not commensurate with those for other serious crimes.(11) Additionally, all sentences for crimes involving children were served on parole.(20)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Advisory Committee to Eradicate Child Labor

Oversee implementation of the “National Strategy for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Workers (2015–2025),” formulated with the Social Observatory to Eradicate Child Labor.(20) Led by MINTRAB, includes representatives from the Ministries of Agriculture, Education, and Justice; the National Statistics Institute; the National Tourism Service; SENAME; the PDI and the National Uniformed Police.(50) In 2016, met regularly and brought together civil society organizations and government agencies to raise awareness, provide services to victims, and protect victims’ rights.(12)

Regional Advisory Committees for the Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Workers

Replicate the functioning of the National Advisory Committee at the regional level.(18) Led by the Regional Secretary of Labor, committees bring together local government agencies, civil society organizations, and the business community to address child labor. In 2016, committees began implementing a strategy to eradicate child labor and operatingoperating plans at the regional, provincial, and municipal levels, in line with the National Strategy 2015–2025.(18, 51, 52)

Worst Forms of Child Labor (WFCL)Task Force

Oversee the WFCL Registry, which tracks incidents of the worst forms of child labor and provides information on programs designed to assist child workers.(53) Compile data in the WFCL Registry and present it to the National Advisory Committee to Eradicate Child Labor and other government stakeholders.(20) In 2016, maintained the registry and continued to implement a multisector protocol to identify, register, and care for children and adolescents who are victims of commercial sexual exploitation.(12)

National Council for Children

Integrate efforts across government agencies to uphold the rights of the child. Implement policies, strategic plans, and programs at national, regional, and local levels.(17) Managed by the Ministry General Secretariat of the Presidency.(17)

Interagency Task Force on Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate the Government’s anti-human trafficking efforts. Led by the Ministry of the Interior, comprises law enforcement agencies, the Ministry of Foreign Relations, the Ministry of Justice, the National Prosecutor’s Office, SENAME, and others.(54)

Social Observatory to Eradicate Child Labor

Established by Decree No. 131 to coordinate the study of child and adolescent labor issues among working groups, foundations, educational study centers, and institutions. Conduct technical studies on child and adolescent labor issues and evaluate current child labor elimination policies.(1, 55) Disaggregate child labor survey data from the 2012 National Survey on Activities of Children and Adolescents.(55)

 

In 2016, the Government strengthened the Regional Advisory Committees and supported the implementation of regional strategies based on the challenges experienced by Chile’s diverse local communities.(18) With assistance from the ILO, each regional government developed operatingplans to combat child labor and planned at least two activities related to child labor in 2016.(18)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Strategy for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Workers (2015–2025)

Establishes a strategy to eradicate child labor by (1) combining efforts across national and regional agencies and private and public entities and (2) requiring regions to establish a strategy adapted to issues particular to the area to effectively eradicate child labor.(56) The Ministry of Labor oversaw the implementation of regional strategies, including the design and implementation of regional operatingplans.(20)

National Policy for Childhood and Adolescence (2015–2025)

Creates an Integrated System of Guarantee of Rights and an Inter-Agency Task Force, which is developing a 2016–2025 plan of action for childhood and adolescence. MINTRAB also participates and provides information and guidance regarding child labor.(57, 58) The National Council for Children worked with Congress to pass a bill to create a new system guaranteeing the rights of children in accordance with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.(20)

Anti-Trafficking National Action Plan (2015–2018)

Acts to prevent and combat human trafficking, with a focus on women and children. Encompasses four strategic areas: (1) prevention and awareness raising, (2) control (prosecution), (3) victims’ assistance and protection, and (4) interinstitutional cooperation and coordination.(59) The Government provided specialized training on trafficking to law enforcement and judicial officials and published a comprehensive guide on identifying and referring trafficking victims.(20)

Cooperative Agreement for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Workers in Chile

Creates mechanisms to detect child labor in the capital region school system. Signed by the Ministry of Education and MINTRAB.(60) Provided for 24 training programs on child labor through the Ministry of Labor to educate stakeholders, including teachers and students.(20)

Inter-Agency Protocol on Assistance for TIP Victims

Creates a system to register, monitor, and assist victims of trafficking. Provides safe housing; health and psychological services; and legal, employment, and immigration assistance.(21) Coordinated by the Under Secretariat for Crime Prevention and Citizen Security at the Ministry of the Interior.(21) In 2016, two adolescent minors received assistance under this protocol.(21)

Chilean Ministry of the Interior and Public Security and U.S. Department of Homeland Security Joint Statement on Trafficking in Persons

Seeks to enhance collaboration and information exchanges between enforcement agencies on combating human trafficking and protecting vulnerable populations. Signed in 2015 by Chile and the United States.(61) The PDI provided training to Chilean and Peruvian border police to increase cross-border law enforcement cooperation and the U.S. Deparment of Homeland Security provided training for officers from Chilean Customs, Carabineros, and Navy to build host national capacity for targeting and risk management in the seaport and maritime environment, including rescue of trafficking victims.(20)

‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(62-64)

In 2016, the Government began implementing the National Strategy to Eradicate Child Labor and took important steps to ensure that this strategy remains a priority, including establishing regional advisory committees to address child labor and protect young workers.(18)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Guides on Eliminating Child Labor and Safe Work for Adolescent Workers

MINTRAB collaborates with the Confederation of Production and Commerce and the Chilean Safety Association to fight against child labor. Distributes guides to employers on eliminating child labor through public-private partnerships, and develops and distributes a manual to promote safety for adolescent workers.(65)

Regional Action Group for the Americas†

Conduct prevention and awareness-raising campaigns to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Latin America.(66) Administered in Chile by the National Tourism Service (SERNATUR), conducts child labor prevention and awareness-raising campaigns in the tourism sector.(8) SERNATUR conducted regular training nationally for tourism students and businesses on commercial sexual exploitation of children. Collaborated with the PDI to provide training to 110 hotels, travel agents, and tour operators that applied for quality certification seals.(20)

SENAME Programs for Children at Risk of or Engaged in the Worst Forms of Child Labor†

Approximately 125 programs serving disadvantaged youth and children at risk of or engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation. Includes projects implemented along with municipal governments and involves 126 local branches of the Office for the Protection of Children’s Rights (OPCR).(1, 9, 21, 37, 67) In 2016, SENAME added 21 OPCRs.(21)

Here I am and I act (Aqui Estoy y Actuo)

led by Fundacion Telefonica and MINTRAB under the fifth principle of the UN Global Pact to help businesses contribute to the eradication of child labor in supply chains. Adopted by 17 businesses, this program feeds into the National Strategy for the Erradication of Child Labor.(68, 69)

Programs on Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)

Administered by SENAME, includes 17 programs and 1 residential center to serve victims of CSEC.(21) The Child Labor Survey on CSEC is a collaboration of the Government and ILO to collect data on CSEC from police and other governmental agencies.(7, 8) In 2016, SENAME continued its social media campaign, “There is no Excuse: Commercial Sex with Those Under 18 is a Crime.”(18)

Indigenous Language Sector Program (Sector de la Lengua Indígena)†

Ministry of Education program that seeks to increase the quality of education available to indigenous children.(70) The Ministry of Education finalized fifth and sixth grade study programs for the indigenous languages Aymara, Quechua, and Rapa Nui y Mapuzugun.(20)

† Program is funded by the Government of Chile.
‡The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(9, 37, 71-75)

Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Guides on Eliminating Child Labor and Safe Work for Adolescent Workers and the Here I Am and I Act program.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Chile (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits forced labor.

2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 into non-state armed groups.

2016

Enforcement

Hire a sufficient number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO recommendation.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that inspectors receive adequate resources, such as transportation, to effectively carry out their duties.

2016

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by initiating targeted inspections based on analysis of data related to risk-prone sectors and patterns of serious incidents.

2015 – 2016

Publish information on the number of child labor violations found for which penalties were imposed and collected, and criminal violations found related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that penalties for promoting or facilitating the commercial sexual exploitation of children are commensurate with those for other serious crimes.

2016

Social Programs

Improve access to education for all children by removing barriers such as a lack of transportation in rural areas.

2016

Undertake activities to implement the Guides on Eliminating Child Labor and Safe Work for Adolescent Workers and the Here I Am and I Act Program.

2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- Santiago. reporting, January 15, 2015.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Santiago. reporting, March 5, 2015.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Chile," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243558.pdf.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Chile," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253211.pdf.

5.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Chile (ratification: 2000) Published: 2015; accessed February 8, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3183493:NO.

6.         U.S. Embassy- Santiago. reporting, February 28, 2014.

7.         Government of Chile District Attorney's Office. Responses of Chile: Request of Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor- USDOL; January 28, 2014. [Source on file].

8.         Government of Chile. Responses of Chile. Submitted in response to USDOL Federal Register Notice "Request for Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor". Santiago; January 28, 2014. [Source on file].

9.         Government of Chile. Responses of Chile. Submitted in response to USDOL Federal Register Notice "Request for Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor". Santiago; February 6, 2013. [Source on file].

10.       Government of Chile- ILO. Magnitud y Características del Trabajo Infantil en Chile; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_23635/lang--es/index.htm.

11.       U.S. Department of State. "Chile " in Trafficking in Persons Report; June 30, 2016; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258878.pdf.

12.       U.S. Department of State. "Chile," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265784.pdf.

13.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

14.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta de Actividades de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes, 2012. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

15.       U.S. Department of State. "Chile," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236886.pdf.

16.       U.S. Department of State. "Chile," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 19, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226845.pdf.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Santiago. reporting, January 27, 2016.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Santiago. reporting, January 31, 2017.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Santiago official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 30, 2015.

20.       U.S. Embassy - Santiago official. E-mail communication to, USDOL official. April 20, 2017.

21.       U.S. Embassy - Santiago. reporting, February 24, 2017.

22.       Government of Chile- SENAME. Boletín Temático Niños/as y Adolescentes Primer Trimestre 2014; 2014. http://www.sename.cl/wsename/otros/bestnacionales/2014/TEMATICO_201409.pdf.

23.       Government of Chile- SENAME. Boletín Temático Niños/as y Adolescentes Segundo Trimestre 2014; 2014. http://www.sename.cl/wsename/otros/bestnacionales/2014/2/BE_DEPRODE_201406.pdf.

24.       Government of Chile- SENAME. Boletín Temático Niños/as y Adolescentes Tercer Trimestre 2014; 2014. http://www.sename.cl/wsename/otros/bestnacionales/2014/1/TEMATICO_201403.pdf.

25.       Government of Chile. Erradicacion del Trabajo Infantil, Agenda Laboral. Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social; 2016. http://www.mintrab.gob.cl/trabajo-infantil/.

26.       Government of Chile. Ley General de Educación,, Ley Núm. 20.370, enacted 2009. http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar?idLey=20370#180.

27.       Government of Chile. Código del Trabajo de Chile, enacted 2002. http://bit.ly/zrXHdz.

28.       Government of Chile. Ley Núm. 20.539, enacted 2011. https://www.leychile.cl/Navegar?idNorma=1030767&idParte=.

29.       Government of Chile. Constitución Política de 1980 incluidas las Reformas hasta el 2005, enacted 2005. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Chile/chile05.html.

30.       Government of Chile. Código Penal de la República de Chile, enacted 1875. http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar?idNorma=1984.

31.       Government of Chile. Sanciona el acoso sexual de menores, la pornografía infantil virtual y la posesión de material pornográfico infantil, Ley Núm . 20.526, enacted 2011. http://bit.ly/wDxXeE.

32.       Chile. Crea Inhabilidades para Condenado por Delitos Sexuales contra Menores y Establece Registro de Dichas Inhabilidades Ley Núm 20.594, enacted 2012. http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar?idNorma=1041136.

33.       Government of Chile. Sustituye la Ley Núm 20.594 19.366 que sanciona el tráfico ilícito de estupefacientes y sustancias sicotrópicas, Ley Núm 20.594, enacted 2005. http://bit.ly/xN08YQ.

34.       Government of Chile. Establece un Sistema de Responsabilidad de los Adolescentes por Infracciones a la Ley Penal, Ley Núm. 20.084, enacted 2005. http://bcn.cl/4tx0.

35.       Government of Chile. Dicta Normas Sobre Reclutamiento y Movilización de las Fuerzas Armadas, Decreto Ley Núm 2.306, enacted 1978. http://www.dgmn.cl/transparencia/leyes_dgmn/nuevas/D.Ley%202.306%20Dicta%20normas%20sobre%20reclutamiento.pdf.

36.       Government of Chile, Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social. MINTRAB Summary, [online] 2014 [cited January 12, 2015]; http://www.mintrab.gob.cl/trabajo-infantil/.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Santiago. reporting, February 7, 2014.

38.       Government of Chile, Servicio Nacional de Menores. Nuestra Institución, Servicio Nacional de Menores, [online] 2014 [cited January 12, 2015]; http://www.sename.cl/web/nuestra-institucion/.

39.       Policía de Investigaciones de Chile. Departamento de Apoyo y Acción Comunitaria (DACOM) PDI Chile, [online] [cited April 27, 2016]; http://www.pdichile.cl/jenafam/sitio_jenafam/jenafam/dacom/d.htm.

40.       Government of Chile. Jefatura Nacional de Delitos Contra la Familia, BRIXESME, Policia de Investigaciones de Chile, [Online] [cited March 20, 2017]; http://www.policia.cl/.

41.       La Fiscalía de Chile. Quienes Somos, La Fiscalía de Chile, [online] [cited April 27, 2016]; http://www.fiscaliadechile.cl/Fiscalia/quienes/index.jsp.

42.       La Fiscalía de Chile. Unidad Especializada de Delitos Sexuales y Violencia Intrafamiliar, La Fiscalía de Chile, [online] [cited April 27, 2016]; http://www.fiscaliadechile.cl/Fiscalia/areas/sex-unidad.jsp.

43.       UN. "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex"; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies," “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies," and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

44.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

45.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

46.       Government of Chile, Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social. Estudio Cualitativo sobre el Trabajo de Ninos, Ninas y Jovenes en el Sector Agricola en las Regiones del Maule, del Bio Bio y de la Araucania. Santiago; May 2016. [Source on file].

47.       Government of Chile, Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social. Estudio Cualitativo sobre Trabajo Infantil en el Sector Comercio en las Regiones de Antofagasta, Valparaiso y Metropolitana. Santiago June 14, 2016. [Source on file].

48.       Fundacion Telefonica. El Trabajo Infantil Visto Por los Ninos y Ninas Trabajadores. 2016. http://www.fundaciontelefonica.cl/2016/06/15/estudios-muestran-como-ven-los-ninos-el-trabajo-infantil/.

49.       Government of Chile, Ministerio del Interior y Seguridad Publica. Guide for the Detection and Referral of Trafficking in Persons Victims,; 2016. http://tratadepersonas.subinterior.gov.cl/media/2016/08/Gu%C3%ADa-de-detecci%C3%B3n-y-derivaci%C3%B3n-de-v%C3%ADctimas-de-trata-de-personas.pdf.

50.       Government of Chile, Ministerio del Trabajo y Previsión Social. Comité Asesor para la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil y la Protección del Menor Trabajador, [previously online] 2014 [cited January 12, 2015]; [source on file].

51.       Government of Chile. Autoridades de Aysen Conforman Gabinete Regional de Infancia. Ministerio de Desarrollo Social July 18 2016. http://www.ministeriodesarrollosocial.gob.cl/noticias/2016/07/18/autoridades-de-aysen-conforman-gabinete-regional-de-infancia.

52.       Government of Chile. Comite Para la Erradicacion del Trabajo Infantil Definio Actividades para el 2016. April 12 2016. http://www.minjusticia.gob.cl/tarapaca-comite-para-la-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-definio-actividades-para-2016/.

53.       U.S. Embassy- Santiago. reporting, February 7, 2011.

54.       U.S. Embassy- Santiago. reporting, February 23, 2012.

55.       Government of Chile, Ministerio del Trabajo y Previsión Social. Observatorio Social [previously online] 2014 [cited January 12, 2015]; http://observatorio.ministeriodesarrollosocial.gob.cl/index.php [source on file].

56.       OIT Ministerio del Trabajo y Previsión Social. Crecer Felices. Estrategia nacional para la erradicación del trabajo infantil y proteccion del adolescente trabajador, 2015--2025; May 5, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/santiago/publicaciones/WCMS_380838/lang--es/index.htm.

57.       Government of Chile. Presidenta Bachelet entregó al país la Política Nacional de Niñez y envío del proyecto de ley de la Defensoría de la Niñez. 2016. http://www.consejoinfancia.gob.cl/2016/03/17/presidenta-bachelet-entrego-al-pais-la-politica-nacional-de-ninez-y-envio-del-proyecto-de-ley-de-la-defensoria-de-la-ninez/.

58.       Government of Chile, Consejo Nacional de la Infancia. Politica Nacional de Niñez y Adolescencia 2015-2025: Sistema Integral de Garantías de Derechos de la Niñez y Adolescencia; 2016. http://www.consejoinfancia.gob.cl/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/POLITICA-2015-2025_versionweb.pdf.

59.       Mesa Intersectorial sobre Trata de Personas. Plan de Acción Nacional contra la Trata de Personas 2015-2018. http://tratadepersonas.subinterior.gov.cl/media/2015/12/Plan-de-Accion-contra-la-Trata-de-Personas-2015-2018.pdf.

60.       Government of Chile. USDOL Request for Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor. Submitted in response to USDOL Federal Register Notice, "Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in Foreign Countries and Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Washington, DC; April 8, 2011. [Source on file].

61.       U.S. Embassy- Santiago. New Pacts Aim to Enhance U.S.-Chilean Cooperation, [online] 2014 [cited January 5, 2015,]; http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/inbrief/2014/07/20140702303126.html#axzz3NyNIOjJy.

62.       "Declaración de Constitución de la Iniciativa Regional América Latina y el Caribe Libre de Trabajo Infántil, signed at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas, October 14, 2014." wordpress.com [online] October 14, 2014 [cited November 17, 2014]; [source on file].

63.       ILO. "18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean Sign a Declaration to Free the Region from Child Labour." October 17, 2014, [[Online]] [cited November 17, 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/caribbean/WCMS_314428/lang--en/index.htm.

64.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 9, 2017.

65.       U.S. Embassy- Santiago official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 20, 2013.

66.       Mercosur. Reunión de la Comisión Permanente para la Coordinación e Implementación de las Acciones Relativas a la Iniciativa Niñ@ Sur para la Protección y Promoción de los Derechos de los Niños y Niñas y Adolescentes. Buenos Aires; March 27, 2012. [Source on file].

67.       Government of Chile. Report on Status of Child Labor in Chile. Submitted in response to USDOL Federal Register Notice "Request for Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor". Washington, DC; February 3, 2012. [Source on file].

68.       Fundacion Telefonica. Aqui Estoy Y Actuo: la herramienta de Fundacion Telefonica para erradicar el trabajo infantil en las cadenas de produccion. 2016. http://www.fundaciontelefonica.cl/2016/06/02/aqui-estoy-y-actuo-la-herramienta-de-fundacion-telefonica-para-erradicar-el-trabajo-infantil-en-las-cadenas-de-produccion/.

69.       Telefonica, F. Empresas Se Suman a la Erradicacion del Trabajo Infantil en Chile. 2016. http://www.fundaciontelefonica.cl/2016/06/20/empresas-se-suman-a-la-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-en-chile/.

70.       UNICEF. La Lengua Indigena Entra en la Escuela: Cartilla de Apoyo para el Sector de la Lengua Indigena; 2013. http://unicef.cl/web/la-lengua-indigena-entra-en-la-escuela/.

71.       Government of Chile, National Women's Service. Programa 4 a 7, 2013 [cited January 12, 2015]; http://portal.sernam.cl/?m=programa&i=5.

72.       U.S. Embassy- Santiago. reporting, February 13, 2013.

73.       Government of Chile, Departamento de Protección de Derechos Servicio Nacional de Menores. Informe de gestión programa Vida Nueva año 2013. Santiago; 2013. http://www.sename.cl/wsename/otros/03_DOC_PUB_VN/02_Informes_Gestion/IGA_2013.pdf

74.       Government of Chile. ¿Qué es el Ingreso Ético Familiar?; August 2012. http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/IPCPolicyResearchBrief26.pdf.

75.       Government of Chile. What is Chile Solidario?, [online] [cited January 12, 2015]; http://www.chilesolidario.gob.cl/en/chs_en.php.

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