Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Chad

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Chad

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2017, Chad made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The President promulgated a new Penal Code in May 2017 that brings criminal prohibitions against child trafficking in line with international standards. However, children in Chad engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced labor in cattle herding and domestic work. The country’s legal framework does not contain criminal penalties for the use of children in illicit activities, and austerity measures imposed in 2016 continue to limit government funding for efforts to combat child labor. The Ministry of Justice dissolved the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Trafficking in Persons, and the government has no active policies for relevant sectors of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation, and forced labor in domestic work and herding cattle.

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Children in Chad engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced labor in cattle herding and domestic work. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Chad.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

48.8

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

49.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

28.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

37.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2014–2015. (7)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivating and harvesting crops, including rice and corn (8)

Collecting and chopping wood (3; 4)

Production of charcoal (9)

Herding cattle (10; 9)

Fishing, including catching, smoking, and selling fish (9)

Industry

Building walls (4)

Carpentry (9)

Gold mining† (9)

Working in auto repair shops (9)

Making bricks (4)

Services

Domestic work (8; 1; 2; 3; 4)

Working in restaurants as barmaids and servers (9)

Street work, including vending, garbage scavenging, and carrying heavy loads† (4; 10; 11; 9)

Begging (1; 9)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2; 3; 4; 5)

Recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict, including as suicide bombers (5; 12)

Forced labor in cattle herding, domestic work, fishing, begging, street vending, and agriculture, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 2; 3; 5; 9)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Child trafficking occurs primarily within Chad for the purposes of forced labor in cattle herding, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation. In isolated incidents, boys may be forced to herd cattle for military or government officials. (2; 5; 9) Domestically, boys known as mahadjirine may be sent to Koranic schools to receive an education, but they are forced to beg and then surrender the money they receive to their teachers. (1; 2; 5)

The Constitution and the Law Orienting the Education System mandate free and compulsory education in Chad. (13; 14) However, there is a lack of schools, classrooms, and teachers throughout the country. (15; 9; 16) Some schools do not offer all grade levels, parents are often required to pay for school-related fees, and some schools near Lake Chad were occupied or attacked by Boko Haram elements. (15; 16; 9) In addition, the 2016–2017 school year was truncated due to prolonged teacher strikes in 2016, re-entry after the strikes concluded was slow, and the amended school calendar extended into the beginning of rainy season when many children are expected to assist their parents with agricultural duties rather than attend classes. (17) Furthermore, birth certificates are often required for enrollment in school, but only 12 percent of children nationwide are registered at birth, with some areas experiencing birth registration rates as low as 5 percent. (18; 9) Children in refugee camps may have a particularly hard time accessing education due to a lack of qualified teachers, poor infrastructure, and teacher strikes. (19)

Government resources for addressing social issues continued to be limited during the reporting period due to Chad’s continuing economic crisis, large refugee population, and security spending. (20)

Chad has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Chad’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the use of children in illicit activities.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 52 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of the Decree Relating to Child Labor (21; 22)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 6–7 of the Decree Relating to Child Labor (21)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 6 and 10 of the Decree Relating to Child Labor; Articles 5, 19, and 22 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons (21; 23)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 20 of the Constitution; Article 5 of the Labor Code; Articles 5, 15, and 22 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons; Article 292 (e) and (c) of the Penal Code (14; 22; 23; 24)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 3, 5, 6.2, and 7.1 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons; Article 10 of the Penal Code (23; 24)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 335 and 336.a of the Penal Code; Articles 81–85 of the Law on Cyber Security and Fight Against Cyber Criminality; Articles 5, 16, and 22 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons; Articles 362 and 364 of the Penal Code (24; 25; 23; 24)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

20

Article 32 of the Law on the Organization of the Armed Forces; Article 22 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 5, 18, and 22 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons; Articles 10, 286 (cc), 288 (g), and 370 of the Penal Code (26; 27; 23; 24)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 32 of the Law on the Organization of the Armed Forces; Article 1 of the Ordinance Prohibiting the Use of Children in Armed Conflict; Article 52 of Military Statute N° 006/PR/06; Article 5 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons; Articles 10, 286 (cc), 288 (g), and 370 of the Penal Code (26; 28; 29; 23; 24)

Non-state

Yes

18

Article 1 of the Ordinance Prohibiting the Use of Children in Armed Conflict; Articles 5, 18, and 22 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons; Articles 10, 286 (cc), 288 (g), and 370 of the Penal Code (28; 23; 24)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16‡

Articles 21, 23, 25, and 28 of the Law Orienting the Education System; Article 35 of the Constitution (13; 14)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 9 of the Law Orienting the Education System; Article 35 of the Constitution (13; 14)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (13)

 

President Idriss Déby promulgated a new Penal Code in May 2017 and issued a Presidential Ordinance on Combating Trafficking in Persons that brings criminal prohibitions against child trafficking in line with international standards. (30; 31; 32) Several laws are awaiting approval by the National Assembly, including the Child Protection Code, Labor Code, and Family Code, which contain additional provisions criminalizing child trafficking and extending protection to children working in the informal sector. (1; 33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 9)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Public Service, Employment, and Social Dialogue (MOPS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Employment, and Social Dialogue (MOPS)

Implement and enforce child labor laws. (15) Includes a directorate and specific point of contact to assist in coordinating child protection and human trafficking issues. (9)

Ministry of Justice, Human Rights, and Guardian of the Seal (MOJ)

Draft and enforce laws and coordinate efforts to protect human rights. Through its Directorate for Protection and Legal Monitoring of Children, enforce child labor laws. (9)

Ministry of Women, Family and National Solidarity (MWFNS)

Protect children’s rights, provide temporary shelter to victims, and assist with reintegration when appropriate. Through its Child Protection Directorate, lead government efforts on child protection, including from child labor, and liaise with the Child Protection Directorate at the MOJ. (9)

National Police Child Protection Brigade

Enforce and investigate criminal laws against child labor, including child trafficking, and refer them to other ministries as appropriate. (5; 9) Role expanded in 2017 to include the enforcement of laws related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children, use of children in illicit activities, and prevention of the recruitment of children by armed groups. The MWFNS, MOJ, and MOPS maintain detachments at the Child Protection Brigade to facilitate collaboration. (9; 38)

 

Research indicates that the Child Protection Brigade within the National Police is not well-known by the public, thus limiting its effectiveness. (9)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Chad took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the MOPS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including the authority to assess penalties.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$0 (8)

Unknown* (9)

Number of Labor Inspectors

30 (8)

30 (9)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (22)

No (22)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (39)

No (9)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (8)

No (9)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (8; 40)

No (9)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

0 (8)

Unknown* (9)

Number Conducted at Worksites

0 (8)

Unknown* (9)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (8)

Unknown* (9)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

0 (8)

Unknown* (9)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

0 (8)

Unknown* (9)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (8)

Unknown* (9)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A (8)

Unknown* (9)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown (8)

Unknown* (9)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (8)

Unknown* (9)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (8)

Yes (9)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (9)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

In addition to 30 inspectors, the government employs 50 labor controllers who assist labor inspectors. (9) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Chad’s workforce, which includes approximately 5.5 million workers. (41) According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Chad should employ roughly 136 labor inspectors. (41; 42; 43) Continued austerity measures limited funding and affected inspectors’ ability to conduct inspections. (9) Inspectors lack sufficient resources, including transportation, to conduct investigations outside the city where they are based. (15; 9) Research indicates that the informal sector, in which the majority of children work, is largely unmonitored, and some establishments in the formal sector may go years without receiving an inspection. (1; 15; 40)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Chad took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including financial resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (8)

Yes (44; 45)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (8)

Unknown* (9)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (8)

Unknown* (9)

Number of Investigations

0 (8)

Unknown* (9)

Number of Violations Found

235 (46)

Unknown* (9)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (8)

Unknown* (9)

Number of Convictions

0 (8)

Unknown* (9)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (9)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

Continued austerity measures limited the ability of criminal law enforcement agencies to investigate the worst forms of child labor during the reporting period. The judicial system has experienced prolonged strikes and closures since November 2016. (47) In addition, comprehensive statistics on criminal law enforcement are unavailable as the government maintains hand-written records of criminal cases at local courts and regional tribunals, rather than in a centralized electronic system. (9)

Civil society organizations typically assist with providing temporary shelter, legal assistance, and family reintegration services; they also track prosecutions and convictions. (44; 48) An underdeveloped judicial system, inadequate deterrents, and under-enforcement of existing penalties also pose barriers to prosecution. (15; 48) A police commissioner who was arrested in 2016 following allegations of complicity in a child trafficking network was released in 2017; the investigation remains ongoing but research was unable to determine if it is being actively investigated. (5)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including funding and efficacy in accomplishing mandates.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Working Group on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinate government efforts on child trafficking, including providing training, conducting awareness-raising activities, and strengthening the network of government organizations that address human trafficking. Chaired by the MWFNS Child Protection Directorate and includes representatives from four other ministries, including MOPS. (9)

MWFNS’s Regional Child Protection Committees

Coordinate regional government efforts to address the worst forms of child labor and refer victims as appropriate. (5; 47) Includes representatives from relevant ministries, police, and civil society. (9; 47)

 

In 2017, the government’s inability to pay many officials and turnover at the MOJ contributed to the dissolution of the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Trafficking in Persons. (38) Furthermore, the Regional Child Protection Committees lacked the resources to investigate every case they received, and the Working Group on the Worst Forms of Child Labor failed to meet during the reporting period. (5; 38)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including funding and implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Five-Year Plan for Development (2016–2020)

Ministry of Economy and Development Planning policy which aims to conduct a survey on child labor every 3 years, increase the rate of birth registration, increase educational opportunities, and strengthen the human and financial capacity of MOPS’s directorate charged with combating the worst forms of child labor. (49)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (50; 51)

 

Since the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Trafficking in Persons was dissolved by the government, the National Action Plan on Human Trafficking was never completed. (9) Research found no evidence of a policy on relevant forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation, and forced labor in domestic work and herding cattle.

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that may contribute to eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including funding and adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Transition Centers†

Run by the Ministry of Defense; provides family reunification and reintegration assistance to former child soldiers. MWFNS, in collaboration with UNICEF, assists in demobilizing and reinserting child soldiers into community life. (33; 52)

Reception Centers†

Run by MWFNS with the assistance of UNICEF and local NGOs; centers located throughout the country provide temporary assistance to victims of child trafficking, including food, education, medical and psychological care, and reintegration services. (5; 47) The National Solidarity Fund, maintained by the Prime Minister’s Office, funds temporary shelter or reunification assistance for victims. (47) Child Protection Directorates at various ministries work together to provide support and reintegration services to victims of exploitation. (53) In 2017, UNICEF funded the construction of a new reception center just south of the capitol in Koundoul, which includes a shelter for victims of exploitation and abuse as well as office space for social workers. (9; 47)

Safety Nets Project (2016–2020)*

$10 million World Bank-funded project that aims to provide cash transfers and cash-for-work disbursements to 15,000 vulnerable families. (54)

UNDAF (2017–2021)*

Aims to provide access to quality education for children who are school age, refugee, and vulnerable, and to improve social protection and promote good governance. (55)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Chad.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (52; 56; 50; 57)

 

The government’s funding to social programs continued to be limited due to austerity measures during the reporting period, hampering the country’s capacity to provide adequate care and reintegration support for victims of child labor. (5; 9) Although Chad has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem, particularly the use of forced child labor in herding cattle, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation. (10)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Chad (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws specifically prohibit children from being used, offered, or procured for illicit activities.

2011 – 2017

Enforcement

Ensure that law enforcement agencies receive sufficient resources to carry out their mandate and that their role is understood by the public.

2016 – 2017

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by authorizing inspectors to assess penalties, ensuring inspectors are authorized to conduct unannounced inspections, and by providing sufficient resources to conduct inspections in both the formal and informal sectors and prosecute offenders.

2014 – 2017

Institutionalize training for labor inspectors and criminal law investigators, including at the beginning of labor inspectors’ employment, and ensure both labor inspectors and criminal investigators receive regular refresher courses, as well as training on new laws related to child labor.

2014 – 2017

Systematically collect data on law enforcement efforts and publish information about labor inspectorate funding, the number and type of inspections conducted, whether violations were found, penalties imposed and fees collected, as well as the number of criminal investigations conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions obtained.

2014 – 2017

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors in accordance with the ILO’s technical advice.

2012 – 2017

Ensure that penalties are severe enough to deter offenders and are enforced according to the law.

2015 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure that coordinating committees receive adequate resources to meet and carry out their mandates to coordinate efforts and respond to child labor issues.

2014 – 2017

Government Policies

Adopt a policy to combat all relevant worst forms of child labor in Chad, including commercial sexual exploitation, and forced labor in domestic work and herding cattle.

2009 – 2017

Social Programs

Ensure access to education for all children by eliminating school-related fees; ensure that schools are safe spaces; make additional efforts to provide all children with birth certificates; and increase the number of schools, classrooms, and teachers throughout the country, including for children in refugee camps.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that existing programs receive adequate funding and can support victims of child labor.

2016 – 2017

Establish or expand programs to provide services to children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, such as the use of forced child labor in herding cattle, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2017

1. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Chad (ratification: 2000) Published: 2015. Accessed November 10, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3190954.

2. Zwaenepoel, C. Le phénomène de la traite des personnes au Tchad: Observations Qualitatives. http://www.iom.int/files/live/sites/iom/files/pbn/docs/Le-Phenomene-de-la-Traite-des-Personnes-au-Tchad.pdf.

3. Sufi, Qasim. Chad Human Trafficking Challenge: IOM Report. June 10, 2014. https://www.iom.int/news/chad-human-trafficking-challenge-iom-report.

4. Redmond, Ron. La faim, et des choix difficiles, pour les réfugiés luttant pour leur survie en Afrique. July 1, 2014. http://www.unhcr.org/fr/news/stories/2014/7/53b2cadcfe/faim-choix-difficiles-refugies-luttant-survie-afrique.html.

5. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Chad. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/271341.pdf.

6. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2014-2015. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, January 30, 2017.

9. —. Reporting, January 23, 2018.

10. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Chad (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014. Accessed December 31, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3190954:NO.

11. Daniel, Jules. Tchad: Ces enfants qui ne vivent que de la poubelle. July 10, 2016. http://tchadinfos.com/tchad/tchad-ces-enfants-qui-ne-vivent-que-de-la-poubelle/.

12. Tribune de Genève. Boko Haram a sacrifié 117 enfants kamikazes. April 12, 2017. https://www.tdg.ch/monde/Boko-Haram-a-sacrifie-117-enfants-kamikazes/story/31741376.

13. Government of the Republic of Chad. Orientation du système éducatif Tchadien, Loi N° 016/PR/06. Enacted: March 13, 2006. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/79409/85373/F-30051095/TCD-79409.pdf.

14. —. Constitution, Loi N° 05-008 2005-07-15 PR. Enacted: March 31, 1996. http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/fr/td/td001fr.pdf.

15. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Chad. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265450.pdf.

16. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Humanitarian Bulletin Chad, Issue 05. August 31, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/report/chad/humanitarian-bulletin-chad-issue-05-august-2016.

17. U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 7, 2017.

18. Tchadinfos. Tchad: faible déclaration de naissances 12% seulement. February 13, 2017. http://tchadinfos.com/tchad/tchad-faible-declaration-de-naissances-12-seulement/.

19. Xinhua News Agency. Tchad : situation difficile pour les retournés de la RCA. July 19, 2017. [Source on file].

20. UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in the Lake Chad Basin region S/2017/764. September 7, 2017. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2017/764.

21. Government of the Republic of Chad. PR-MT JS-DTMOPS du février 1969 relatif au travail des enfants, Décret N° 55. Enacted: 1969. [Source on file].

22. —. Code du Travail, Loi N° 038/PR/96. Enacted: December 11, 1996. www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Tchad/Tchad%20-%20Code%20du%20travail.pdf.

23. —. Ordonnance N° 006/PR/2018 Portant Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes en République du Tchad. Enacted: March 30, 2018. [Source on file].

24. —. Loi N° 001/PR/2017 Portant Code Pénal. Enacted: May 8, 2017. [Source on file].

25. —. Loi N° 009/PR/2015 portant sur la cybersécurisation et la lutte contre la cybercriminalité. Enacted: February 10, 2015. [Source on file].

26. —. Loi N° 06-012 2006-03-10 PR portant réorganisation des Forces Armées et de Sécurité. Enacted: March 10, 2006. [Source on file].

27. —. AFRICAN CHARTER ON THE RIGHTS AND WELFARE OF THE CHILD. Enacted: March 20, 2000. http://www.achpr.org/files/instruments/child/achpr_instr_charterchild_eng.pdf.

28. —. Ordonnance N° 001/PR/2014 Portant Interdiction et Répression de l'Enrôlement et de l'utilisation des enfants dans les conflits armés. Enacted: January 27, 2014. [Source on file].

29. —. Statut general des militaires, Loi N° 006/PR/92. Enacted: April 28, 1992. [Source on file].

30. —. Ordonnance N° 006/PR/2018 Portant Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes en République du Tchad. Enacted March 30, 2018. Source on file.

31. U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, January 23, 2018.

32. Government of the Republic of Chad. Loi N° 001/PR/2017 Portant Code Pénal. Enacted: May 8, 2017. Source on file.

33. UN Human Rights Council. National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21: Chad. July 17, 2013: A/HRC/WG.6/17/TCD/1. http://www.upr-info.org/sites/default/files/document/chad/session_17_-_october_2013/a_hrc_wg.6_17_tcd_1_chad_e.pdf.

34. —. Annual report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, Leila Zerrougui. December 29, 2014: A/HRC/28/54 . http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session28/Documents/A_HRC_28_54_ENG.doc.

35. Government of the Republic of Chad. DRAFT Loi Portant Code de Protection de l'Enfant. 2014. [Souce on file].

36. Child Soldiers International. Concerns about Chad's child protection record one year after delisting. July 28, 2015. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/concerns-about-chads-child-protection-record-one-year-after-delisting-1.

37. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Chad (ratification: 2005) Published: 2015. Accessed November 10, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3191160.

38. U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 4, 2018.

39. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 24, 2017.

40. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Chad (ratification: 1965) Published: 2016. Accessed October 21, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3255246.

41. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed January 19, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

42. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

43. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva: Committee on Employment and Social Policy. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

44. U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 4, 2016.

45. U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 29, 2016.

46. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Chad: Situation in the Lac region and impact of the Nigerian crisis. November 16, 2016: Situation Report N° 19. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Sitrep%2019%20-%2016112016%20-%20English.pdf.

47. U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 14, 2018.

48. —. Reporting, February 8, 2016.

49. Government of the Republic of Chad. Plan Quinquennal (PQ) 2016–2020. November 2016. [Source on file].

50. UN Secretary-General. Children and armed conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. May 15, 2014. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/N1431583.pdf.

51. Government of Cameroon, Government of Central African Republic, Government of Chad, Government of Nigeria, Government of Niger, and Government of Sudan. Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups: Contributing to Peace, Justice and Development: N'Djamena. June 7-9, 2010. https://www.unicef.org/protection/files/DDR_Conference_Declarations_de_NDjamena.pdf.

52. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Chad. January 3, 2014: A/HRC/25/14. http://www.refworld.org/docid/52f8c8f54.html.

53. U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 16, 2017.

54. World Bank. PROJECT APPRAISAL DOCUMENT ON A PROPOSED GRANT IN THE AMOUNT OF US$5.0 MILLION AND A PROPOSED ADAPTIVE SAFETY NET MULTI-DONOR TRUST FUND GRANT IN THE AMOUNT US$5.0 MILLION TO THE REPUBLIC OF CHAD. August 9, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/221251471265217930/pdf/Project-Appraisal-Document-PAD-disclosable-version-P156479-08122016.pdf.

55. UN. Plan cadre des Nations Unies d'Assistance au Développement (UNDAF) 2017-2021. 2017. https://undg.org/country-detail/?country_code=TD.

56. Child Soldiers International. Briefing on the status of implementation of the June 2011 Action Plan on children associated with armed forces and groups and its 10-Point Roadmap. March 13, 2014. http://reliefweb.int/report/chad/briefing-status-implementation-june-2011-action-plan-children-associated-armed-forces-0.

57. UN. Feuille de Route Formulation Plan Cadre des Nations Unies d’Assistance au Développement (UNDAF) 2017-2021. 2016. https://ims.undg.org/downloadFile/3078f5d8ded1be98ea5d6c25370f6dd029ee9f6efa38030c9f45792dfab57ffc.

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