Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Chad

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Chad
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Chad made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. In March 2018, the Government of Chad ratified an ordinance prohibiting trafficking in persons and sent three labor inspectors to attend a 45-day refresher training at the ILO-accredited African Regional Center for Labor Administration in Cameroon. The government also launched the Refugees and Host Communities Support Project, which aims to improve access to health and education services for refugees, including children engaged in the worst forms of child labor. However, children in Chad engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced labor in cattle herding and domestic work, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking. The country’s legal framework does not contain criminal penalties for the use of children in illicit activities, and austerity measures imposed in 2016 continue to limit government funding for efforts to combat child labor. The government does not collect data on law enforcement efforts and has no active policies for relevant sectors of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation, and forced labor in domestic work and herding cattle.

Children in Chad engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced labor in cattle herding and domestic work, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Chad.


Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

48.8 (Unavailable)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

49.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

28.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

41.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (6)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2014–2015. (7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.


Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivating and harvesting crops, including rice and corn (4) 

Collecting and chopping wood (1,2)

Production of charcoal (4) 

Herding cattle (3,4,8)   

Fishing, including catching, smoking, and selling fish (4)  

Industry

Brick making and building walls (2)

Carpentry (4) 

Gold mining† (4) 

Working in auto repair shops (4) 

Services

Domestic work (1,2,4,5)    

Working in restaurants as barmaids and servers (4) 

Street work, including vending, garbage scavenging, and carrying heavy loads† (2,4,9)   

Begging† (4,5)   

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-3)  

Forced labor in agriculture, begging, cattle herding, domestic work, fishing, and street vending, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1,3,5)   

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Child trafficking occurs primarily in Chad for the purposes of forced labor in cattle herding, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation. Boko Haram may be responsible for some child trafficking in Chad, and refugee children from the Central African Republic are particularly vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation. (3,4) In isolated incidents, boys may be forced to herd cattle for military or government officials. (3) Domestically, boys may be sent to Koranic schools to receive an education, but they are forced to beg and then surrender the money they receive to their teachers. (3-5)

The Constitution and the Law Orienting the Education System mandate free and compulsory education in Chad. (10,11) However, there is a lack of schools, classrooms, and teachers throughout the country. (4,12,13) Some schools do not offer all grade levels, and parents are often required to pay for school-related fees. (4,12) In 2018, a 3-month teacher strike due to non-payment of wages significantly disrupted the school year. (4,14,15) In addition, birth certificates may be required for enrollment in school, but only 12 percent of children nationwide are registered at birth, with some areas experiencing birth registration rates as low as 5 percent. (4,16)

Government resources for addressing social issues continued to be limited during the reporting period due to Chad’s continuing economic crisis, large refugee population, and security spending. (4,17)

Chad has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).


Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Chad’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the use of children in illicit activities.


Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 52 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of the Decree Relating to Child Labor (18,19) 

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 6–7 of the Decree Relating to Child Labor (18)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 6 and 10 of the Decree Relating to Child Labor; Articles 5, 19, and 22 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons (18,20)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 20 of the Constitution; Chapter 1, Article 5 of the Labor Code; Articles 5 and 15 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons; Articles 292(e), 292(c), 327, 328, and 331 of the Penal Code (11,19-21)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 3, 5, 6.2, and 7.1 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons; Articles 10, 330, and 331 of the Penal Code (20,21)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 335 and 336.a of the Penal Code; Articles 81–85 of the Law on Cyber Security and Fight Against Cyber Criminality; Articles 5, 16, and 22 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons; Articles 362 and 364 of the Penal Code (20-22)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

   

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 32 of the Law on the Organization of the Armed Forces; Article 1 of the Ordinance Prohibiting the Use of Children in Armed Conflict; Article 52 of Military Statute N° 006/PR/06; Article 5 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons; Articles 10, 286 (cc), 288 (g), and 370 of the Penal Code (20,21,23-25)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes

 

Article 32 of the Law on the Organization of the Armed Forces; Article 22 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child; Article 5, 18, and 22 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons; Articles 10, 286 (cc), 288 (g), and 370 of the Penal Code (20,21,23,26)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Article 1 of the Ordinance Prohibiting the Use of Children in Armed Conflict; Articles 5, 18, and 22 of the President’s Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons; Articles 10, 286 (cc), 288 (g), and 370 of the Penal Code (20,21,24)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16‡

Articles 21, 23, 25, and 28 of the Law Orienting the Education System; Article 35 of the Constitution (10,11)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 9 of the Law Orienting the Education System; Article 35 of the Constitution (10,11) 

‡ Age calculated based on available information (10) 

In March 2018, the Government of Chad issued an Ordinance prohibiting trafficking in persons, which was ratified into law in June. (20,27) Several laws are still awaiting approval by the National Assembly, including the Child Protection Code, Labor Code, and Family Code, which contain additional provisions criminalizing child trafficking and extending protection to children working in the informal sector. (4,5,8,28,29)

As the minimum age for work is lower than the compulsory education age, children may be encouraged to leave school before the completion of compulsory education. (8,10,19)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5).  However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Public Service, Employment, and Social Dialogue that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.


Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Employment, and Social Dialogue (MOPS)

Drafts and implements child labor laws. (4,12) Includes a directorate and specific point of contact to assist in coordinating child protection and human trafficking issues. (4) 

Ministry of Justice, Human Rights, and Guardian of the Seal (MOJ)

Drafts and enforces laws and coordinates efforts to protect human rights. Through its Directorate for Protection and Legal Monitoring of Children, enforces child labor laws. (4) 

National Police

Enforce and investigate criminal laws against the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking, and refer them to other ministries as appropriate. (3,4) Through its Child Protection Brigade, work in collaboration with the MWCPNS, MOPS, and MOJ to specifically monitor violations of children's rights. Active in six cities: N’Djamena, Moundou, Sarh, Mongo, Mao, and Abéché. (4)

Ministry of Women, Childhood Protection and National Solidarity (MWCPNS)

Protects children’s rights, provides temporary shelter to victims, and assists with reintegration when appropriate. Through its Child Protection Directorate, leads government efforts on child protection, including from child labor, and liaises with the Child Protection Directorate at the MOJ. (4,17)  

Research indicates that the Child Protection Brigade within the National Police is not well known by the public, thus limiting its impact. (30) 

Labor Law Enforcement
Research did not find information on whether labor law enforcement agencies in Chad took actions to combat child labor.


Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (30)

Unknown (4) 

Number of Labor Inspectors

30 (30)

30 (4) 

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (19)

No (4) 

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

No (30)

No (4) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (30)

No (4)  

Refresher Courses Provided

No (30)

Yes (4) 

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown (30)

Unknown (4) 

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (30) 

Unknown (4) 

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (30) 

Unknown (4) 

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (30)

Unknown (4) 

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (30)

Unknown (4) 

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown (30)

Unknown (4) 

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (30)

Unknown (4) 

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown (30)

Unknown (4) 

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (30)

Unknown (4) 

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (30)

Yes (4) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (30)

Yes (4) 

In 2018, three labor inspectors attended a 45-day refresher training at the ILO-accredited African Regional Center for Labor Administration in Yaoundé, Cameroon. (4) 

In addition to 30 inspectors, the government employs 50 labor controllers who assist labor inspectors. Although a hiring freeze has prevented any new labor inspectors from joining the Labor Inspectorate, 12 trainees from the National Administration School are scheduled to graduate in 2020. (4) However, the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Chad’s workforce, which includes approximately 5.6 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Chad would employ about 140 labor inspectors. (5,31,32) In addition, the government did not provide information on its labor law enforcement efforts for inclusion in this report.

Continued austerity measures limited funding and affected inspectors’ ability to conduct inspections. (3,4) Inspectors lack sufficient resources, including transportation, to conduct investigations outside the city in which they are based. (4,12) Research indicates that the informal sector, in which the majority of children work, is largely unmonitored. (5,12) 

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Chad took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including financial resources.


Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (30)  

No (17)  

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (30)

No (17)   

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (30)

No (17) 

Number of Investigations

Unknown (30)

Unknown (4) 

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (30)

2 (3) 

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (30)

Unknown (4) 

Number of Convictions

Unknown (30)

Unknown (4) 

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (30) 

Unknown (4) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (30)

Yes (3) 

In July 2018, Chad's Minister of Justice issued a directive to all prosecutors and attorneys general to proactively enforce the new Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons. (33) The government also issued a press release to the public advertising the new Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons and increased border patrols, and enforced a requirement that children travelling unaccompanied by their parents must have authorization from a competent authority. As a result, approximately 30 children were identified and reunited with their families. (33) Two cases of child trafficking are currently being investigated. However, because knowledge of the new law is uneven within the judiciary and enforcement agencies, some perpetrators of human trafficking were released. (17,33,34) Furthermore, child victims may be detained with their traffickers due to a lack of available service providers. (34) The government did not provide information on its criminal law enforcement efforts for inclusion in this report because it does not maintain a centralized electronic system. (4)

Civil society organizations typically assist with providing temporary shelter, legal assistance, and family reintegration services; they also track prosecutions and convictions. (4) A lack of infrastructure, erratic and insufficient funding allocations, and under-enforcement of existing penalties also pose barriers to enforcement. (4,12,17) Prolonged strikes during the reporting period also affected the judicial system's ability to function. (3,14)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including funding and efficacy in accomplishing mandates.


Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Working Group on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinates government efforts on child trafficking, including providing training, conducting awareness-raising activities, and strengthening the network of government organizations that address human trafficking. Chaired by the MWFNS Child Protection Directorate and includes representatives from four other ministries, including MOPS. (30) In 2018, met regularly and supported the work of the Child Protection Brigade, including by purchasing beds for children removed from abusive situations. (34) 

MWFNS’s Regional Child Protection Committees

Coordinate regional government efforts to address the worst forms of child labor and refer victims as appropriate. (3,17) Includes representatives from relevant ministries, police, and civil society. (17) In 2018, facilitated the placement of child victims in safe spaces. (34) 

In January 2019, the Minister of Justice authorized the creation of a technical committee to create a national action plan to combat trafficking in persons, in accordance with the Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons. (17) Research was unable to determine whether existing coordination bodies were active during the reporting period.

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including funding and implementation.


Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Five-Year Plan for Development (2017–2021)

Ministry of Economy and Development Planning policy which aims to conduct a survey on child labor every 3 years, increase the rate of birth registrations, increase educational opportunities, and strengthen the human and financial capacity of the MOPS’s directorate charged with combating the worst forms of child labor. (34,35)  

Vision 2030

Ministry of Economy and Development Planning policy which aims to increase educational opportunities, establish social protection policies, and implement a national employment policy with a youth focus. (36)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (4,37,38) 

The Ministry of Justice drafted an Action Plan for 2019 to publicize the Ordinance on Trafficking in Persons, which focuses on training members of the courts, local authorities, traditional and religious leaders, members of civil society, and members of enforcement agencies. (33) Research was unable to determine whether existing policies were implemented during the reporting period and found no evidence of a policy on relevant forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor in domestic work, and herding cattle.

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that may contribute to eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including funding and adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.


Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

World Bank-Funded Projects

Projects which aim to improve access to basic services and improve safety nets. Includes: Safety Nets Project (2016–2020), a $10 million project which provides conditional cash transfers and cash-to-work programs; Refugees and Host Communities Support (2018–2023),* a $60 million project to improve access to health and education services for refugees and host communities by rehabilitating and constructing primary schools; and the Education Sector Reform Project Phase 2 (2013–2020), a $65 million project to improve education conditions in primary and secondary schools. (39-42) By the end of 2018, the Safety Nets Project provided on-time cash transfers to 6,200 households, and the Education Sector Reform Project provided training to 9,000 teachers and extended coverage throughout all of the country. (43,44) 

Reception Centers†

Run by MWFNS with the assistance of UNICEF and local NGOs; centers located throughout the country provide temporary assistance to victims of child trafficking, including food, education, medical and psychological care, and reintegration services. (3,4) The National Solidarity Fund, maintained by the Prime Minister’s Office, funds temporary shelter or reunification assistance for victims. (45) Child Protection Directorates at various ministries and the Child Protection Brigade work together to provide support and reintegration services to victims of exploitation. (4) Shelters continued to provide victim services during the reporting period. (4) 

UNDAF (2017–2021)

Aims to provide access to quality education for children who are school age, refugees, and vulnerable, and to improve social protection and promote good governance. (46) As of August 2018, the government, in cooperation with UNHCR, issued 28,500 birth certificates to refugees, internally displaced persons, returnees, and community members living around refugee camps. (12) 

WFP Strategic Plan (2019–2023)*

$1.3 billion program funded by the WFP to improve food security and educational outcomes. Aims to provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Education and distribute school lunches to crisis-affected areas and cash to girls who are attending school. (47) 

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Chad.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (17) 

The government’s funding to social programs continued to be limited due to austerity measures during the reporting period, and social services are limited to urban areas. (3,4) Although Chad has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem, particularly the use of forced child labor in herding cattle, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation. (48)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Chad (Table 11).


Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws specifically prohibit children from being used, offered, or procured for illicit activities.

2011 – 2018

Raise the minimum age for work to the age up to which education is compulsory.

2018

Enforcement

Ensure that the roles of enforcement agencies are well known and understood by the public, that law enforcement agencies receive sufficient resources to carry out their mandate, and that children are not detained with alleged perpetrators due to a lack of available service providers.

2016 – 2018

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by authorizing inspectors to assess penalties, ensuring inspectors are authorized to conduct unannounced inspections, and by providing sufficient resources to conduct inspections in both the formal and informal sectors and to prosecute offenders.

2014 – 2018

Institutionalize training for labor inspectors and criminal law investigators, including at the beginning of labor inspectors’ employment, and ensure that criminal investigators receive regular refresher courses and training on new laws related to child labor.

2014 – 2018

Collect data on law enforcement efforts and publish information about Labor Inspectorate funding, the number and type of inspections conducted, whether violations were found, penalties imposed and fees collected, and the number of criminal investigations conducted, prosecutions initiated, and convictions obtained.

2014 – 2018

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO technical advice.

2012 – 2018

Ensure that penalties are enforced according to the law.

2015 – 2018

Coordination

Ensure that coordinating committees receive adequate resources to meet and carry out their mandates to coordinate efforts and respond to child labor issues.

2014 – 2018

Government Policies

Adopt a policy to combat all relevant worst forms of child labor in Chad and ensure that existing policies are implemented.

2009 – 2018

Social Programs

Ensure access to education for all children by eliminating school-related fees and paying teacher salaries; ensure that schools are safe spaces; and increase the number of schools, grade levels, classrooms, and teachers available throughout the country, including for children in refugee camps.

2014 – 2018

Make additional efforts to provide all children with birth certificates, as they may be required for school enrollment.

2014 – 2018

Ensure that existing programs receive adequate funding and can support victims of child labor throughout the country.

2016 – 2018

Establish or expand programs to provide services to children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, such as the use of forced child labor in herding cattle, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2018

  1. Sufi, Qasim. Chad Human Trafficking Challenge: IOM Report. June 10, 2014.
    https://www.iom.int/news/chad-human-trafficking-challenge-iom-report.

  2. Redmond, Ron. La faim, et des choix difficiles, pour les réfugiés luttant pour leur survie en Afrique. July 1, 2014.
    http://www.unhcr.org/fr/news/stories/2014/7/53b2cadcfe/faim-choix-difficiles-refugies-luttant-survie-afrique.html.

  3. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report-2018: Chad. Washington, DC: June 28, 2018.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/chad/.

  4. U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, January 7, 2019.

  5. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Chad (ratification: 2000). Published 2018.
    https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3339122:NO.

  6. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  7. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2014-2015. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  8. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Chad (Ratification: 2005). Published: 2018.
    https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3338745:NO.

  9. Daniel, Jules. Tchad: Ces enfants qui ne vivent que de la poubelle. July 10, 2016.
    http://tchadinfos.com/tchad/tchad-ces-enfants-qui-ne-vivent-que-de-la-poubelle/.

  10. Government of the Republic of Chad. Orientation du système éducatif Tchadien, Loi N° 016/PR/06. Enacted: March 13, 2006.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/79409/85373/F-30051095/TCD-79409.pdf.

  11. Government of the Republic of Chad. Constitution, Loi N° 05-008 2005-07-15 PR. Enacted: March 31, 1996.
    http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/fr/td/td001fr.pdf.

  12. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices-2018: Chad. Washington, DC: March 13, 2019.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/.

  13. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Humanitarian Bulletin Chad, Issue 05. August 31, 2016.
    http://reliefweb.int/report/chad/humanitarian-bulletin-chad-issue-05-august-2016.

  14. Amnesty International. Amnesty International Report 2017/18: The State of the World's Human Rights. Chad. London: 2018.
    https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/POL1067002018ENGLISH.PDF.

  15. News 24. Chad public sector back to work after seven-week strike. March 20, 2018.
    https://www.news24.com/Africa/News/chad-public-sector-back-to-work-after-seven-week-strike-20180320.

  16. Tchadinfos. Tchad: faible déclaration de naissances 12% seulement. February 13, 2017.
    http://tchadinfos.com/tchad/tchad-faible-declaration-de-naissances-12-seulement/.

  17. U.S. Embassy-N'Djamena. Reporting, February 12, 2019.

  18. Government of the Republic of Chad. PR-MT JS-DTMOPS du février 1969 relatif au travail des enfants, Décret N° 55. Enacted: 1969. Source on file.

  19. Government of the Republic of Chad. Code du Travail, Loi N° 038/PR/96. Enacted: December 11, 1996.
    http://www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Tchad/Tchad - Code du travail.pdf.

  20. Government of the Republic of Chad. Ordonnance N° 006/PR/2018 Portant Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes en République du Tchad. Enacted: March 30, 2018. Source on file.

  21. Government of the Republic of Chad. Loi N° 001/PR/2017 Portant Code Pénal. Enacted: May 8, 2017. Source on file.

  22. Government of the Republic of Chad. Loi N° 009/PR/2015 portant sur la cybersécurisation et la lutte contre la cybercriminalité. Enacted: February 10, 2015. Source on file.

  23. Government of the Republic of Chad. Loi N° 06-012 2006-03-10 PR portant réorganisation des Forces Armées et de Sécurité. Enacted: March 10, 2006. Source on file.

  24. Government of the Republic of Chad. Ordonnance N° 001/PR/2014 Portant Interdiction et Répression de l'Enrôlement et de l'utilisation des enfants dans les conflits armés. Enacted: January 27, 2014. Source on file.

  25. Government of the Republic of Chad. Statut general des militaires, Loi N° 006/PR/92. Enacted: April 28, 1992. Source on file.

  26. Government of the Republic of Chad. African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Enacted: March 20, 2000.
    http://www.achpr.org/files/instruments/child/achpr_instr_charterchild_eng.pdf.

  27. Government of Chad. Loi No. 012/PR/2018 Portant Ratification de l'Ordonnance No. 006/PR/2018 du 30 Mars 2018, portant lutte contre la traite des personnes en Republique du Tchad. June 20, 2018. Source on file.

  28. Government of the Republic of Chad. DRAFT Loi Portant Code de Protection de l'Enfant. 2014. Source on file.

  29. Child Soldiers International. Concerns about Chad's child protection record one year after delisting. July 28, 2015.
    https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/concerns-about-chads-child-protection-record-one-year-after-delisting-1.

  30. U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting. January 23, 2018.

  31. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed January 19, 2018. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html.

  32. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York: 2017. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf.

  33. Ministère des affaires étrangères, de l'intégration africaine, de la coopération internationale et de la diaspora de la République du Tchad. Official Communication to U.S. Embassy N'Djamena Official. February 8, 2019. Source on file.

  34. U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Email communication with USDOL Official. May 22, 2019.

  35. Government of the Republic of Chad. Plan Quinquennal (PQ) 2016–2020. N'Djamena: November 2016. Source on file.

  36. Prime Minister and Ministry of the Economy and Development Planning. Vision 2030, the Chad We Want. July 2017.
    http://www.pnd-tchad.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/VISION-2030-ANGLAIS.pdf.

  37. UN Secretary-General. Children and armed conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. May 15, 2014.
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  38. Government of Cameroon, Government of Central African Republic, Government of Chad, Government of Nigeria, Government of Niger, and Government of Sudan. Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups: Contributing to Peace, Justice and Development: N'Djamena. June 7-9, 2010.
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