Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Chad

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Chad

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Chad made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government drafted a National Action Plan on Human Trafficking and created a Working Group on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. The Government also adopted a law on cybercrime that makes the production, distribution, and possession of child pornography a crime. However, children in Chad are engaged in child labor, including in domestic work, and in the worst forms of child labor, including forced labor in cattle herding and domestic work. The legal framework does not contain criminal penalties for forced child labor, child trafficking, or the use of children in illicit activities. Additionally, the labor inspectorate lacks an adequate number of inspectors and resources to effectively enforce child labor laws throughout the country.

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Children in Chad are engaged in child labor, including in domestic work. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including forced labor in cattle herding and domestic work.(1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Chad.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

29.6 (1,073,282)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

47.7

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

18.4

Primary completion rate (%):

38.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2010.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivating* and harvesting* crops, including rice* and corn* (1)

Collecting* and chopping* wood* (5, 6)

Herding cattle (1, 9)

Fishing,* including catching,* smoking,* and selling* fish (1)

Industry

Building walls* (6)

Gold mining* (1)

Working in auto repair shops* (1)

Making bricks* (6, 10)

Services

Domestic work (1-3, 5, 6)

Street work, including vending* and carrying heavy loads* (1, 6, 9)

Begging* (1, 2)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3-6)

Forced labor in domestic work, fishing,* herding cattle, begging, street vending,* and agriculture,* each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2-5, 11, 12)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Child trafficking occurs primarily within Chad, although children are occasionally trafficked to neighboring countries for forced labor in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.(3, 4, 11, 12) Boko Haram members sometimes kidnap children from Chad for use in armed conflict in Nigeria.(13) Domestically, boys known as mahadjirine are sent to Koranic schools to receive an education; some of them are forced to beg and to surrender the money they receive to their teachers.(2-4, 9, 11, 14)

The Constitution and the Law Orienting the Education System mandate free and compulsory education in Chad.(15, 16) However, there is a lack of schools throughout the country, and parents are often required to pay for part of teachers’ salaries, textbooks, and other school-related fees, which may prevent some children from attending school.(14) Additionally, Boko Haram’s attacks on villages around the Lake Chad region have forced an estimated 1,100 to 2,000 schools to close in Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria, and have displaced up to an estimated 1.4 million children.(1, 17-21)

During the reporting period, Chad hosted an estimated 526,140 foreign refugees—including separated and unaccompanied children displaced by instability in neighboring Nigeria, the Central African Republic, and South Sudan.(1, 11, 14, 22-28) In addition, decreased revenue from falling oil prices and increased costs associated with combating Boko Haram has affected the Government’s ability to address the worst forms of child labor.(11)

Chad has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 52 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of the Decree Relating to Child Labor (29, 30)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 6 and 7 of the Decree Relating to Child Labor (29)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations and/or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 6 of the Decree Relating to Child Labor (29)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 20 of the Constitution; Article 5 of the Labor Code (16, 30)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 289 and 290 of the Penal Code (31)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 279–282 of the Penal Code; Articles 81–85 of the Law on Cyber Security and Fight Against Cyber Criminality (1, 31)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

20

Article 32 of the Law on the Organization of the Armed Forces (32)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 32 of the Law on the Organization of the Armed Forces; Article 52 of Military Statute N° 006/PR/06 (32, 33)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16‡

Articles 21, 23, 25, and 28 of the Law Orienting the Education System; Article 35 of the Constitution (15, 16)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 9 of the Law Orienting the Education System; Article 35 of the Constitution (15, 16)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (15)

In February 2015, the Government adopted the Law on Cyber Security and Fight Against Cyber Criminality that criminally prohibits the production, distribution, and possession of child pornography.(1, 34) Several additional laws are awaiting approval by the National Assembly, including the Child Protection Code and an amendment to the Penal Code. Both laws contain provisions criminalizing child trafficking.(2, 4, 11, 25, 35-38) During the reporting period, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights (MOJHR) also worked with UNODC to draft specific legislation on trafficking in persons, which is pending adoption; this legislation will supplement the Child Protection Code and amendments to the Penal Code.(4, 11, 39, 40) Existing laws related to forced labor do not criminally prohibit debt bondage, slavery, or the forced labor of children.(16, 30, 31) In addition, laws related to child trafficking are insufficient, as they do not criminally prohibit domestic or international child trafficking, child trafficking for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor. The draft legislation prohibiting human trafficking addresses these concerns, including for child trafficking victims.(41) In the past, the Government of Chad has used Articles 289 and 290 of the Penal Code, which prohibit kidnapping, to prosecute cases of child trafficking.(10, 11, 31)

The Government drafted a revision to the Labor Code in 2013 to extend protection to children working in the informal sector and to update its hazardous worklist, which had not been reviewed since 1969. However, this draft has not been formally adopted.(1, 11, 42) The Decree Relating to Child Labor prohibits certain hazardous activities for children under age 18 and some other activities for children under age 16.(29, 38) This means that children ages 16 and 17 can work legally in hazardous tasks, such as working with hand- or foot-powered machinery, operating machinery with sharp blades, and working on scaffolding in construction sites.(29)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Employment (MOL)

Implement and enforce child labor laws.(10, 14) Includes a directorate and specific point of contact to assist in coordinating child protection and human trafficking issues.(11)

Ministry of Women, Childhood Protection, and National Solidarity (MWCPNS)

Work to prevent child abuse and endangerment, and train government personnel on the rights of women and children, including victims of human trafficking.(1, 11, 12) Provide protection, assistance, and interim accommodations for children removed from dangerous situations, including child soldiers removed from the military, child trafficking victims, and children removed from exploitative child labor.(1, 11, 14) Through its Child Protection Directorate, act as the Government’s focal point for issues related to human trafficking and liaise with Child Protection Directorates in other ministries.(11)

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights (MOJHR)

Draft and enforce laws, including child labor laws and laws on human trafficking.(11) Through its Directorate General of Human Rights, coordinate efforts by local and international NGOs to protect human rights. Chair the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Trafficking in Persons (ICTIP).(10, 14)

National Police’s Child Protection Brigade

Enforce criminal laws against child labor, including its worst forms, and investigate cases of child labor, including those involving human trafficking.(1, 10, 39) Located throughout the country.(11, 43)

Ministry of Defense’s Child Protection Committees

From its locations in N’Djamena and in each of the eight defense and security zones, coordinate the MWCPNS’ protection of children’s rights and implements awareness-raising activities.(44) Comprising representatives from 10 government agencies, the National Army, the Gendarmerie, the National Nomadic Guard, and civil society organizations.(11, 39) Prevent abuse and exploitation of children, including child labor, child trafficking, use of children in armed conflict, and forced labor through policy and advocacy.(1, 11, 39)

 

In 2015, the Government addressed the need for a specific program focusing on children’s rights and child protection issues by realigning the Ministry of Women, Social Action, and National Solidarity to become the Ministry of Women, Childhood Protection, and National Solidarity (MWCPNS). The change became official in February 2016.(1, 39) The MWCPNS’s Child Protection Committees, which function at the regional level to address child labor, worked effectively with NGOs to identify some victims of exploitation and provide support during the reporting period. However, they lacked adequate support from MWCPNS, as well as financial resources.(4, 11, 45) The Government and UNICEF also inaugurated new headquarters for the Child Protection Brigade.(1, 11)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Chad took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (10)

Unknown* (1)

Number of Labor Inspectors

20 (10, 43)

20 (1)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (30)

No (30)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (10)

No (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (10)

Yes (1)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown* (10)

Unknown* (1)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (10)

0 (1)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (10)

Unknown* (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

1 (10)

Unknown (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (10)

Unknown (1)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown (10)

Unknown (1)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (10)

No (1)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A (10)

N/A (1)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (30)

Yes (30)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (30, 43)

No (39)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Unknown (10)

Yes (39)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (10)

Yes (1)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Chad should employ roughly 127 labor inspectors to enforce labor laws adequately throughout the country.(46-48) The Government also acknowledges that inspectors lack resources, including transportation, and primarily respond to complaints.(1, 11, 14, 49) Research indicates that the informal sector, in which the majority of children work, is largely unmonitored.(2) In addition, the Government also reports that labor inspectors spend the majority of their time reconciling disputes rather than enforcing labor laws.(49) Individuals may file complaints with the local police, which refers cases of child labor violations to the Ministry of Justice, which in turn collaborates with the MOL as necessary.(39) The Child Protection Brigade responds to reports of child labor and refers cases to the MOL. Victims are referred to MWCPNS for temporary shelter, legal assistance, and social reintegration, which NGOs sometimes facilitate.(1)

During the reporting period, MWCPNS worked with UNICEF to provide training to law enforcement and judges on children’s rights, including child labor, and held a workshop with social workers, police, judiciary officials, and labor inspectors to develop standards for protecting children in conflict with the law, as required by its National Action Plan.(1, 11)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Chad took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (10)

Yes (1)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (10)

Unknown (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (10, 50, 51)

Yes (1)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (10)

5 (4)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (10)

9 (1, 11, 39)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (10)

2 (1, 11, 39)

Number of Convictions

3 (12)

3 (1, 11)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (10)

Yes (1, 11)

 

In 2015, the National Police’s Child Protection Brigade employed 50 labor investigators, which was insufficient to enforce criminal labor laws. The Government, UNICEF, and a local NGO have also acknowledged this.(1, 10) In addition, research indicates investigators had inadequate resources, which hindered their ability to respond to complaints of child labor violations.(10, 50) All newly hired law enforcement officials—including police, military, judiciary officials, and social workers—receive a mandatory course on child protection as part of their training.(1, 4, 11, 14, 39) The Ministry of Defense integrated modules on child soldiers and the protection of children’s rights into its training curriculum for all military personnel, and provided anti-trafficking training to its troops before deploying them on peacekeeping missions.(4, 11, 25, 39) During the reporting period, the Child Protection Brigade received training from UNICEF on investigating and responding to cases of child exploitation.(11) Local authorities, the local police commissioner, civil society members, and children’s rights observers attended a 3-day, workshop funded by foreign entities, which provided training on how to detect, report, and respond to suspected cases of child exploitation, including child trafficking and child labor.(52)

Police officials report cases of exploitative child labor to MOJHR for prosecution.(1, 11) Civil society organizations typically assist with providing temporary shelter, legal assistance, and family reintegration; they also track prosecutions and convictions.(1, 11) However, prosecuting cases of child labor is difficult because of an underdeveloped judicial system, inadequate penalties that do not deter future offenses, and under-enforcement of existing penalties.(4, 11, 14) During the reporting period, allegations arose that a police commissioner in Kélo was complicit in a child trafficking network; the investigation remains ongoing.(4, 11) Despite these barriers, at least six children were removed from situations of exploitative child labor during the reporting period and reunited with their families. During the reporting period, the Government sentenced two human traffickers and their driver each to 5 years in prison for trafficking seven children.(39) A man arrested in southern Chad paid restitution of $167 for forcing a 13-year-old boy to herd cattle; his case remains under investigation.(1, 11)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Working Group on the Worst Forms of Child Labor*

Chaired by the MWCPNS, includes the MOL; MOJHR; Ministries of Education; Health; and Interior and Public Security.(1) Addresses child-related issues through four working groups: (1) Female Genital Mutilation and Child Marriage; (2) Birth Registration; (3) Orphans and At-risk Children; and (4) Children and Justice.(11) Coordinates government efforts on child trafficking, including by providing training, conducting awareness-raising activities, and strengthening the network of government organizations that address human trafficking.(11, 53)

Inter-Ministerial Committee on Trafficking in Persons (ICTIP)

Coordinate government efforts to combat exploitative child labor, including its worst forms, and propose revision of national legislation to conform to international standards.(1, 11, 54, 55) Led by the Directorate General of Human Rights from MOJHR and includes representatives from the Presidency; the Prime Minister’s Office; the National Assembly; MWCPNS; the Ministry of Interior; and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs; Territorial Administration; and Economy, Planning, and Cooperation. Also includes international NGOs and civil society.(11) ICTIP structure is based on UN recommendations and modeled after the existing Inter-Ministerial Committee on Child Soldiers.(56)

Inter-Ministerial Committee on Child Soldiers

Coordinate government efforts to eliminate the use of children in armed conflict and address exploitative child labor.(11, 53) Located in each of the eight military regions, comprise representatives from MWCPNS; MOJHR; the Ministries of Health and Education; the Army; the Gendarmerie; and civil society organizations.(43, 57) Conduct awareness-raising activities and trainings in the military.(10, 58, 59)

MWCPNS’s Regional Child Protection Committees

Coordinate regional government efforts to address the worst forms of child labor.(57) Includes representatives from the Ministry of Education; MOJHR; MWCPNS; and the police.(10)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

In 2015, the ICTIP met five times and drafted a National Action Plan on Human Trafficking.(4, 11, 39) The Working Group on the Worst Forms of Child Labor developed and launched a series of training modules for the protection of at-risk populations, including women and children.(1, 11) However, the Government noted that a lack of technical and financial resources has hampered its ability to improve its coordination and response to child labor.(1) Additionally, the MWCPNS reports that the activities and effectiveness of Regional Child Protection Committees were limited by budget constraints during the reporting period.(1)

The Government of Chad has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

2013 Child Soldiers Action Plan

In partnership with the UN, aims to permanently eliminate the use of child soldiers.(35, 59-62) Integrates training modules on child soldiers for all military personnel and includes monitoring and age verification in all military training centers by officials from MOJHR; MWCPNS; and the Ministry of Defense.(4, 11) In February 2015, convened a meeting with local authorities to disseminate the 2014 Presidential Ordinance criminalizing the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict.(4, 63)

N’Djamena 2010 Declaration of Regional Conference: Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups; Contributing to Peace, Justice, and Development

Represents a commitment among six signatory countries, including Chad, to eliminate the use of child soldiers in their territories.(35, 64) Forms the basis for the 2013 Child Soldiers Action Plan and accompanying UNICEF Roadmap.(43)

National Action Plan on Human Trafficking†

MOJHR plan led by the ICTIP that aims to promote human rights and address human trafficking.(4, 11, 65) Planned activities include submitting an anti-trafficking law to Parliament for adoption, training judges and law enforcement on human trafficking issues, and organizing awareness-raising workshops.(11, 65)

MWCPNS’s National Action Plan†

Aims to establish standards for law enforcement and NGOs on identifying and assisting victims of child trafficking, and implement a mandatory training course on child protection.(11)

Child Protection Policy (2013–2015)

MWCPNS and UNICEF policy that aims to improve the Government’s ability to protect women and children in accordance with the Child Protection Code and the 2014 Presidential Ordinance criminalizing the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict.(12) Provides training on child labor and child trafficking issues for the police, gendarmes, the military, social workers, and the judiciary. Has established points of contact in 22 out of 28 police stations that are responsible for collecting data on child trafficking.(12)

UNDAF (2012–2015)

Aims to alleviate extreme poverty, improve food security, and increase human capital, particularly for youth and women. Intends to enhance child protection measures by increasing access to birth registration and eliminating the worst forms of child labor.(66)

National Development Plan (2013–2015)*

Places emphasis on education, economic growth, poverty reduction, food security, developing human capital, and creating additional youth employment opportunities.(35, 67, 68)

Education Initiative (2000–2015)*

Aims to increase equal access to schooling, and improve the quality of teaching and school infrastructure, with an emphasis on female students and other marginalized groups.(69, 70)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

Although the Government of Chad has adopted policies on child trafficking and child soldiers, research found no evidence of a policy on other worst forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor in domestic work, and herding cattle.(14)

In 2015, the Government of Chad funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Transition Centers†

Run by the Ministry of Defense, provides family reunification and reintegration assistance to former child soldiers. MWCPNS, in collaboration with UNICEF, assists in demobilizing and reinserting child soldiers.(35, 54)

Reception Centers†

Run by MWCPNS and UNICEF, centers located throughout the country provide temporary assistance to victims of child trafficking, including food, education, medical and psychological care, and reintegration services.(4, 11) The Prime Minister’s Office maintains a National Solidarity Fund that funds temporary shelter or reunification assistance for victims.(11) Child Protection Directorates at various ministries work together to provide support and reintegration services to victims of exploitation.(11)

Decent Work Country Program (2013–2015)

Aims to improve work conditions in Chad through the promotion of employment opportunities and strengthening social protection. Emphasizes quality universal primary education and nonagricultural job opportunities.(71)

Awareness-Raising Activities†

Government program that conducts outreach campaigns to raise awareness of and prevent child trafficking, the use of children in armed conflict, and the exploitation of children as herders.(4, 14, 35)

Income-Generating Activities†

Government program that provides grants to women’s groups as part of MWCPNS’s strategy to empower women and children in the fight against child trafficking and gender-based violence.(57)

Birth Registration Campaign

UN-funded program as part of the National Birth Registry Code that conducts birth registrations and deploys mobile registration units. Includes the development of a 2-year strategy for capacity building in civil registration.(54, 58, 59) In 2015, the Government, in collaboration with the Chadian Association for the Promotion of Fundamental Freedoms and UNICEF, launched awareness campaigns in 12 municipalities to promote birth registration.(12) Granted government-issued birth certificates to Sudanese and CAR refugees living in Chad.(14)

Projects in Support of the National Development Plan (NDP)†

Includes the Intermediate Strategy for Education and Literacy (SIPEA); Project in Support of Reform of the Education Sector in Chad (PARSET); and Project in Support of the Sectoral Policy for Education in Chad (PAPST). In 2014, the African Development Bank-funded Project to Support the Education Sector (PASE) was consolidated into the NDP. Supports educational and institutional reform to achieve universal quality primary education by 2015 by providing ongoing training for teachers, strengthening public administration capacities, building 1,500 classrooms per year until 2015, and purchasing textbooks and manuals for students.(35, 69)

UNICEF Country Program

In support of the UNDAF, aims to increase primary school enrollment, support training of community teachers, and increase the percentage of children with a birth certificate. Intends to institutionalize programs for children associated with armed groups and prevent sexual and gender-based violence.(72) Implemented and published an evaluation of the existing child protection system in Chad in 2015.(1, 11) Establishes child-friendly spaces and schools in refugee camps.(26)

† Program is funded by the Government of Chad.

The status of the progress of the Projects in Support of the National Development Plan is unknown at this time.(39) Research also indicates that the Government lacks the capacity to provide adequate care and reintegration support for demobilized child soldiers.(25) Although Chad has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to address the extent of the problem adequately, particularly forced child labor in herding, begging, and domestic work.(9)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Chad (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure laws specifically prohibit children from being used, offered, or procured for illicit activities.

2011 – 2015

Establish criminal prohibitions for debt bondage, slavery, and forced labor of children.

2015

Ensure laws criminally prohibit child trafficking, both domestic and international, and trafficking for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor.

2009 – 2015

Ensure all children under age 18 are prohibited from engaging in hazardous occupations or activities.

2014 – 2015

Enforcement

Make statistics regarding the enforcement of child labor laws publicly available, including the amount of funding received by the labor inspectorate, the number and type of inspections conducted, the violations found, and the penalties issued.

2009 – 2015

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors in accordance with the ILO recommendation and ensure inspectors receive the necessary resources to enforce labor laws throughout the country.

2012 – 2015

 

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by authorizing inspectors to assess penalties and conduct inspections that are routine, at the worksite, and in the informal sector.

2014 – 2015

 

Institutionalize training for labor inspectors and provide training on new laws related to child labor.

2014 – 2015

 

Ensure penalties are severe enough to deter offenders and are enforced according to the law.

2015

Coordination

Ensure coordinating committees receive adequate resources to carry out their mandates to coordinate and respond to child labor issues.

2014 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2014 – 2015

Adopt a policy to combat all worst forms of child labor in Chad, including commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor in domestic work, and herding cattle.

2009 – 2015

Social Programs

Ensure access to education for all children by eliminating school-related fees and improving access to schools throughout the country.

2014 – 2015

Establish and expand programs providing services to children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, such as use of forced labor in herding, begging, and domestic work. Ensure adequate care and support for demobilized child soldiers.

2009 – 2015

1.         U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 4, 2016.

2.         ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Chad (ratification: 2000) Published: 2015; accessed November 10, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3190954.

3.         Zwaenepoel, C. Le phénomène de la traite des personnes au Tchad: Observations Qualitatives. Geneva, International Organization for Migration; n.d. http://www.iom.int/files/live/sites/iom/files/pbn/docs/Le-Phenomene-de-la-Traite-des-Personnes-au-Tchad.pdf.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Chad," in Trafficking in Persons Report- Chad. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243413.htm.

5.         Sufi, Q. "Chad Human Trafficking Challenge: IOM Report." International Organization for Migration, N'Djamena, June 10, 2014. https://www.iom.int/news/chad-human-trafficking-challenge-iom-report.

6.         UNHCR. "La faim, et des choix difficiles, pour les réfugiés luttant pour leur survie en Afrique." July 1, 2014. http://www.unhcr.fr/53b2cadcfe.html.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16,2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from MICS 4, 2010. Analysis recieved December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

9.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Chad (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed December 31, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

10.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, January 21, 2015.

11.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 8, 2016.

12.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 28, 2015.

13.       Nan. "Chad's Troops Rescue 43 Boko Haram Child Soldiers in Nigeria." AllAfrica.com [online] April 22, 2015 [cited May 12, 2015]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201504231456.html.

14.       U.S. Department of State. "Chad," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015;

http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2014&dlid=236342.

15.       Government of Chad. Orientation du système éducatif Tchadien, Loi No. 016/PR/06, enacted March 13, 2006.

16.       Government of Chad. Constitution, Loi No. 05-008 2005-07-15 PR, enacted March 31, 1996. http://legitchad.cefod-tchad.org/texte/519.

17.       "Boko Haram destroyed more than 1,000 schools this year, UN says." AlJazeera.com [online] November 16, 2015 [cited November 17, 2015]; http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/11/16/boko-haram-destroyed-more-than-1000-schools-this-year-un.html.

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47.       UN. "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex." (2012); http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

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