Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Chad

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2014, Chad made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government issued Ordinance 001/PR/2014, which criminalized the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict, and signed a protocol with the UN that includes protections for children associated with armed groups, regardless of their country of origin. The Ministry of Women, Social Action, and National Solidarity also integrated a mandatory course on child protection into the curriculum of training institutions for police, gendarmerie, judges, military personnel, and social workers. Additionally, the UN Secretary General removed Chad from its list of governments that recruit and use child soldiers. However, children in Chad are engaged in child labor, including in cattle herding and agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Many gaps remain in the legal framework and there are no specific laws that prohibit the use of children in illicit activities.

 

Expand All

Children in Chad are engaged in child labor, including in cattle herding and agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-9) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Chad.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

29.6 (1,073,282)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

47.7

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

18.4

Primary completion rate (%):

35.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(10)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2010.(11)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting crops,* activities unknown (1, 3)

Collecting and chopping wood* (8, 9)

Herding cattle (1-3, 7)

Industry

Mining,*† including panning for gold (3)

Building walls* (9)

Making bricks* (1, 9)

Services

Domestic work (1-3, 5, 7-9)

Street work,* including vending and carrying heavy loads (1, 2, 9)

Begging (1-3, 7)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 5-9)

Forced labor in fishing sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (3, 12)

Forced labor in domestic work, herding cattle, begging,* street vending,* and work in agriculture* each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-3, 5-8, 13)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Child trafficking occurs primarily within Chad, although children are occasionally trafficked to neighboring countries for forced labor in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.(3, 5, 7, 12, 13) Domestically, boys known as mahadjirine may be sent to Koranic schools to receive an education. Some of these boys are forced to beg and surrender the money they receive to their teachers.(1-3, 5, 14)

The Constitution and Law N°016/PR/06 Orienting the Education System mandate free and compulsory education in Chad.(15, 16) However, there is a lack of schools throughout the country and parents are often required to pay for part of teachers' salaries, textbooks, and other school-related fees, which may prevent some children from attending school.(3)

In 2014, Chad was removed from the UN Secretary General's list of governments that recruit and use child soldiers.(1, 17, 18) The Government fully implemented the June 2011 Action Plan to End the Recruitment and Use of Children in Armed Conflict and there were no new reports of children being recruited into armed groups.(18) Verification visits conducted by UNICEF and the Government of Chad in military zones across the country confirmed this.(1, 13)

During the reporting period, Chad continued to experience food insecurity and hosted an estimated 526,000 foreign refugees, including adults and children associated with armed conflict, displaced by instability in neighboring Nigeria, the Central African Republic (CAR), and South Sudan.(13, 18-22) The influx of refugees, especially children, from CAR has overwhelmed Chad's existing social services and shelters, detracting from the Government's efforts to combat child labor.(1) Given Chad's limited resources, both of these ongoing situations may affect the Government's ability to address the worst forms of child labor.

Back to Top

Chad has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 52 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of Decree N° 55 PR/MTJS-DTMOPS Relating to Child Labor (23, 24)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

16

Articles 6 and 7 of Decree N° 55 PR/MTJS-DTMOPS Relating to Child Labor (23)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations and/or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 6 of Decree N° 55 PR/MTJS-DTMOPS Relating to Child Labor (23)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 20 of the Constitution; Article 5 of the Labor Code ; Articles 286 and 290 of the Penal Code (16, 24, 25)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

 

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 279-282 of the Penal Code (26)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

20

Article 32 of Law N° 06-012 2006-03-10 PR 91 on the Organization of the Armed Forces (27)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 32 of Law N° 06-012 2006-03-10 PR 91 on the Organization of the Armed Forces; Article 52 of Military Statute N°006/PR/06 (27, 28)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Articles 21, 23, 25 and 28 of Law N° 016/PR/06 Orienting the Education System; Article 35 of the Constitution (15, 16)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 9 of Law N° 016/PR/06 Orienting the Education System; Article 35 of the Constitution (15, 16)

Decree N° 55 PR/MTJS-DTMOPS Relating to Child Labor prohibits certain hazardous activities for children under age 18, and prohibits other activities for children under age 16. Children ages 16 and 17 can legally be employed in hazardous tasks such as working with hand-or foot-powered machinery, operating machinery with sharp blades, and working on scaffolding in construction sites.(23) Additionally, there are no laws prohibiting child pornography.(26) Articles 279 and 280 of the Penal Code penalize the act of placing a child in a position of "debauchery" or commercial sexual exploitation with imprisonment of two to five years and fines ranging from $200 - $4,000. This language is not explicit in criminalizing the use of children in illicit activities or pornography, however.(26)

In February 2014, the Government issued Ordinance N° 001/PR/2014, which criminalized the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict.(13, 29, 30) The Ordinance includes penalties of 5 to 10 years imprisonment and a fine ranging from $200 to $2,000.(31) In September, the Government and the United Nations signed a protocol that includes protections for children associated with armed groups and/or detained during military operations, regardless of their country of origin.(17, 18)

Existing laws and regulations are not sufficient deterrents against the worst forms of child labor. The Government, UNICEF, and local NGOs all support this assessment.(1) A draft of the Child Protection Code and an amendment to the Penal Code are waiting to be ratified by the National Assembly and signed into law by the President. Both laws contain provisions specifically criminalizing child trafficking, and the Child Protection Code criminalizes the use of children in illicit activities.(1, 13, 17, 32-35) The Ministry of Justice and Human Rights worked with the UNODC to draft specific legislation addressing trafficking in persons, which should be completed in 2015.(1, 13) Existing legislation does not explicitly prohibit differentiate between domestic and international human trafficking or prohibit trafficking in persons for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor. However, the Government of Chad has used Articles 286 and 290 of the Penal Code to prosecute cases of child trafficking.(1, 25) The Government is also revising the Labor Code to extend protection to children working in the informal sector and update its hazardous work list, which has not been reviewed since 1969. The existing hazardous work list is not specific enough to facilitate enforcement and was not drafted in consultation with employers' and workers' unions.(2, 23, 36)

Back to Top

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Employment

Implement and enforce child labor laws.(1, 3)

Ministry of Women, Social Action, and National Solidarity's (MWSANS) Coordination Committee's Children and Justice Working Group

Work to prevent child abuse and endangerment and train government personnel on the rights of women and children, including victims of human trafficking.(1, 12) Provide interim accommodation for children removed from dangerous situations, including child soldiers removed from the military, victims of child trafficking, and children removed from situations of exploitative child labor.(1, 3) In the case of the Coordination Committee's Children and Justice Working Group, coordinate MWSANS's efforts on trafficking in persons, including training, community education programs, and improving the nationwide network of government organizations that address trafficking in persons.(37) In December 2014, the Government of Chad, in coordination with UNICEF, developed training modules and drafted police guidelines for handling cases involving women and children. MWSANS also mapped the judicial and security sectors to identify players and gaps in the system, andtrained police officers and Child Protection point of contacts assigned to police stations.(12)

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights

Draft and enforce laws, including child labor laws and laws on human trafficking, which include fines and prison sentences.(1, 3) In the case of the Directorate General of Human Rights, coordinate efforts by local and international NGOs to protect human rights. Chair the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Trafficking in Persons (ICTIP).(1, 3)

National Police's Child Protection Brigade

Enforce criminal laws against child labor, including its worst forms. Investigate cases involving women and children, including victims of human trafficking. Brigades are housed in police stations throughout the country.(1, 34)

In 2014, the Ministry of Women, Social Action, and National Solidarity (MWSANS) was combined with the Ministry of Public Health for several months, during which non-emergency programming slowed.(1, 12)

Law enforcement agencies in Chad took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Employment employed approximately 20 inspectors, who were deployed throughout the country.(1, 34) However, both the Government and local NGOs acknowledge that the number of labor inspectors is insufficient and inspectors receive inadequate training.(1, 3, 38) The International Bureau of Children's Rights (IBCR), in collaboration with MWSANS, held two training sessions from March to April 2014, and November to December 2014, for police officers and Child Protection points of contact at police stations on new police procedures for handling cases involving minors and women.(12) Inspectors did not receive training during the reporting period however, and they do not have adequate financial or material resources, including office equipment, vehicles, and fuel to conduct sufficient investigations outside the capital.(1, 38) The Government also reports labor inspectors spend the majority of their time reconciling disputes, rather than enforcing labor laws.(38) The Labor Code does not grant inspectorates authority to determine or assess penalties for violations.(24)

Although Article 479 of the Labor Code permits inspectors to conduct unannounced visits, this did not occur in 2014. Inspections were typically conducted in response to complaints.(24, 34) Inspectors conducted site visits, primarily to raise awareness on child labor laws rather than inspect work conditions.(1, 34) During the reporting period, the Government did not collect or publish comprehensive statistics on the number of inspections conducted, child labor violations, or citations and penalties.(36) Research did not find evidence of a referral mechanism between labor enforcement and social welfare services.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2014, the National Police's Child Protection Brigade employed 50 labor investigators, and has expanded its presence beyond the original six offices established in 2013. However, the number of investigators remains insufficient to enforce labor laws.(1) UNICEF, MWSANS, and IBCR provided trainings on the rights of children throughout the year. Additionally, MWSANS integrated a mandatory course on child protection into the curricula of training institutions for police, gendarmerie, judges, military personnel, and social workers.(1) In 2014, MWSANS, with support from UNICEF, also provided training on child protection and child trafficking to 1,500 Chadian peacekeepers prior to their deployment to Mali.(13, 18) Despite assistance from UNICEF, which included constructing a headquarters building in N'Djamena and providing computers and other equipment, investigators still had inadequate resources, which hindered their ability to respond to complaints of child labor violations.(1, 13) The judicial system in Chad is underfunded, which makes prosecuting cases of child labor difficult. Courts are generally weak, and in rural areas are largely still governed by traditional laws. As a result, the judicial system is ill-equipped to enforce laws against the worst forms of child labor.(3, 39)

During the reporting period, the Government demobilized 44 child soldiers who fled from CAR militias and provided them with shelter. Some of these children were reunited with their families.(1, 18, 34) The Government conducted a field assessment and investigation to identify and map trafficking in persons circuits, identifying source, destination, and transit regions within the country.(13) Inspectors conducted investigations in four regions in Southern Chad where child labor is most prevalent, which included domestic work, herding cattle, and mahadjirine children from Islamic schools.(1) Three individuals were convicted of child trafficking during the reporting period, including a military officer.(12) The individuals were sentenced to prison terms and at least one individual received a fine as well. Two of the children in these cases were reunited with their families.(1, 12) Additionally, 26 mahadjirine children were removed from Koranic schools and returned to their families.(12) The Islamic teacher was tried but acquitted of child labor violations since he was deemed to be acting within the scope of his religious duties.(1) When victims of child labor violations are found, the National Police refer victims to MWSANS for social services and notifies the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights or the Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Employment for prosecution.(1)

Back to Top

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Inter-Ministerial Committee on Child Soldiers

Coordinate government efforts to eliminate the use of children in armed conflict.(36) Located in each of the eight military regions, committees are comprised of representatives from MWSANS; Ministries of Justice and Human Rights; Health; Education; the army; gendarmerie; and civil society organizations.(34, 40) Also conduct awareness-raising activities and trainings in the military.(1, 29, 41)

Inter-Ministerial Committee on Trafficking in Persons (ICTIP)

Coordinate Government efforts to combat exploitative child labor, including its worst forms and propose revision of national legislation to conform to international standards.(1, 37, 42) Led by the Directorate General of Human Rights and includes representatives from the Presidency; Prime Minister's Office; National Assembly; MWSANS; Ministries of Economy; Planning and Cooperation; Foreign Affairs; Territorial Administration; and Public Security; as well as international NGOs and civil society.(13) The ICTIP's structure is based on recommendations by the UN and modeled after the existing Inter-Ministerial Committee on Child Soldiers.(36)

MWSANS's Regional Child Protection Committees

Coordinate regional government efforts to address the worst forms of child labor.(6, 40) Includes representatives from the Ministry of National Education; Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; and MWSANS, as well as a representative from the police.(1)

The Inter-Ministerial Committee on Trafficking in Persons (ICTIP) is the primary body charged with addressing exploitative child labor. Although the Government merged and renamed several ministries during the reporting period, there was no change to ICTIP's structure and it met four times in 2014.(1, 37, 43) Additionally, MWSANS reports the Regional Child Protection Committees were not very active during the reporting period.(34)

Back to Top

The Government of Chad has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

2013 Child Soldiers Action Plan

In partnership with the UN, aims to eliminate the use of child soldiers.(33, 41, 44-46) The Government, in collaboration with UNICEF, created a road map of 10 specific objectives to achieve this action plan and successfully implemented seven of the 10 objectives.(36, 41, 47)

N'djamena 2010 Declaration of Regional Conference: Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups; Contributing to Peace, Justice, and Development

Represents a commitment among six signatory countries, including Chad, to eliminate the use of child soldiers in their territories.(33, 48-50) Forms the basis for the 2013 Child Soldiers Action Plan and accompanying UNICEF Road Map.(34)

Child Protection Program (2013–2015)

MWSANS and UNICEF policy which aims to improve the Government's ability to protect women and children in accordance with the Child Protection Code and Ordinance 001/PR/2014, which criminalized the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict.(12) Provides training on child labor and child trafficking issues for police, gendarmes, military, social workers, and the judiciary. Under this program, 22 Child Protection points of contact in 28 police stations and the Child Protection Brigade are responsible for collecting data on child trafficking.(12)

National Development Plan (2013–2015)*

Places emphasis on education, economic growth, poverty reduction, improving food security, developing human capital, and creating additional youth employment opportunities.(33, 51) The African Development Bank-funded Project to Support the Education Sector (PASE) provides ongoing training for teachers and strengthens public administration capacities was consolidated into the NDP in 2014.(1, 52) The Government funded three other projects as part of the NDP: (1) Intermediate Strategy for Education and Literacy (SIPEA); (2) Project in support of reform of the education sector in Chad (PARSET); and (3) Project in support of the implementation of the sectoral policy for education in Chad (PAPST). These projects support educational and institutional reform with the aim of achieving universal quality primary education by 2015 by building 1,500 classrooms per year until 2015 and purchasing textbooks and manuals for students.(33) In 2014, the Government conducted a donor appeal that raised nearly $200 million for this plan.(1)

Education Initiative (2000–2015)*

Aims to increase access and equity to schooling and improve the quality of teaching and school infrastructure, with an emphasis on girls and other marginalized groups.(52, 53)

UNDAF (2012–2015)*

Aims to alleviate extreme poverty, improve food security, and increase human capital, particularly for youth and women.(54)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

Although the Government of Chad has adopted policies on child trafficking and child soldiers, research found no evidence of a policy on other worst forms of child labor such as commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor in domestic work and herding cattle.(3)

Back to Top

In 2014, the Government of Chad funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms.(Table 8)

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Decent Work Country Program (2013–2015)*

Aims to improve work conditions in Chad through the promotion of employment opportunities and strengthening social protection. Emphasizes quality universal primary education and non-agricultural job opportunities.(55)

Transition Center‡

Centers run by the Ministry of Defense that provides family reunification and reintegration assistance to former child soldiers. MWSANS, in collaboration with UNICEF, implements a program for the demobilization and reinsertion of child soldiers.(33, 42, 56)

Reception Centers‡

Centers run by MWSANS located throughout the country that provide temporary assistance to victims of child trafficking, including food, education, medical and psychological care, and reintegration services.(13)

Awareness-Raising Activities‡

Government program that conducts outreach campaigns to raise awareness and prevent child trafficking, the use of children in armed conflict, and the exploitation of children as herders.(3, 33, 57)

Income-Generating Activities‡

Government program that provides grants to women's groups as part of MWSANS's strategy to empower women and children in the fight against child trafficking and gender based violence.(40)

Birth Registration Campaign*

UN-funded program as part of the National Birth Registry Code that conducts birth registrations and deploys mobile registration units. Includes the development of a 2-year strategy for capacity-building in civil registration.(29, 41, 42) The Government, in collaboration with the Chadian Association for the Promotion of Fundamental Freedoms and UNICEF, launched awareness campaigns in 12 municipalities to promote birth registration.(12) The Government also issued birth certificates to Sudanese and CAR refugees living in Chad in July and August.(12)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Chad.

Although Chad has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to address the extent of the problem adequately, particularly in agriculture, herding, forced begging, and domestic work.(2)

Back to Top

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Chad (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure laws differentiate between domestic and international human trafficking, and prohibits trafficking in persons for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor.

2009–2014

Ensure laws specifically prohibit children from being used, offered, or procured for illicit activities.

2011–2014

Ensure all children under age 18 are prohibited from engaging in hazardous occupations or activities.

2014

Ensure laws specifically prohibit the production, distribution, possession, and benefiting from the proceeds of child pornography.

2014

Ensure the draft Child Protection Code, the revised Labor Code, and the revised Penal Code provide protection to all children engaged in work, regardless of sector.

2009–2014

Periodically review and update as necessary the hazardous occupations and/or activities prohibited for children in consultation with employers' and workers' organizations and ensure it is specific enough to facilitate enforcement.

2009–2014

Enforcement

Strengthen enforcement of child labor laws by:

  • Increasing the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce;

  • Providing additional training on child labor issues;

  • Ensuring inspectors' primary duty is the enforcement of labor laws;

  • Providing adequate resources for inspectors to conduct investigations, particularly outside the capital;

  • Proactively planning inspections and including unannounced inspections;

  • Authorizing inspectorates to determine and/or assess penalties; and

  • Establishing a referral mechanism between labor law enforcement and social welfare services.

2012–2014

Make statistics regarding the enforcement of child labor laws publically available, including the number of inspections, prosecutions, violations, and citations/penalties.

2009–2014

Provide law enforcement officials and judges with adequate resources to enforce laws against the worst forms of child labor.

2009–2014

Coordination

Ensure Regional Child Protection Committees are active.

2014

Government Policies

Adopt a policy to combat all worst forms of child labor in Chad, such as commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor in domestic work and herding cattle.

2009–2014

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Development Plan, Education Initiative, and UNDAF.

2014

Social Programs

Ensure access to education for all children by eliminating school-related fees and improving access to schools throughout the country.

2014

Assess the impact that existing programs may have on child labor.

2014

Establish and expand programs providing services to children engaged in child labor, especially in agriculture, herding, domestic service, and forced begging.

2009–2014

 

Back to Top

1.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, January 21, 2015.

2.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Chad (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed December 31, 2014;.

3.U.S. Department of State. "Chad," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014;.

4.U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. December 21, 2010.

5.Zwaenepoel, C. Le phénomène de la traite des personnes au Tchad: Observations Qualitatives. Geneva, International Organization for Migration; n.d.

6.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 20, 2013.

7.U.S. Department of State. "Chad," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014;.

8.Sufi, Q. "Chad Human Trafficking Challenge: IOM Report." International Organization for Migration, N'Djamena, June 10, 2014. http://www.iom.int/cms/en/sites/iom/home/news-and-views/press-briefing-notes/pbn-2014/pbn-listing/chad-human-trafficking-challenge.html.

9.UNHCR. "La faim, et des choix difficiles, pour les réfugiés luttant pour leur survie en Afrique." July 1, 2014.

10.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16,2015];. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

11.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from MICS 4, 2010. Analysis recieved January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

12.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 28, 2015.

13.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 18, 2015.

14.U.S. Department of State. "Chad," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013;.

15.Government of Chad. Orientation du système éducatif Tchadien, Loi No. 016/PR/06, enacted March 13, 2006.

16.Government of Chad. Constitution, Loi No. 05-008 2005-07-15 PR, enacted March 31, 1996.

17.UNHRC. Annual report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, Leila Zerrougui. Geneva, UNHRC; 2014.

18.United Nations Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/69/926 — S/2015/409); June 5, 2015.

19.WFP. Chad Overview, [cited January 5, 2015];.

20.UNHCR. 2015 UNHCR country operations profile: Chad, UN, [online] [cited January 5, 2015];.

21.Andriamasinoro, LF. "An influx of returnees raises humanitarian needs in Chad." [online] 2014 [cited January 6, 2015];.

22.IRIN. "Statelessness = invisibility in West Africa." Integrated Regional Information Networks, Dakar, July 15, 2014.

23.Government of Chad. PR-MT JS-DTMOPS du février 1969 relatif au travail des enfants, Décret No. 55, enacted 1969. [source on file].

24.Government of Chad. Code du Travail, Loi No. 038/PR/96, enacted December 11, 1996.

25.Government of the Central African Republic. Code Penal de la République Centrafricaine, Loi N°10.001, enacted 2010.

26.Government of Chad. Promulgation d'un code pénal, Loi No. 12-67-PR-MJ, enacted June 9, 1967.

27.Government of Chad. Loi 06-012 2006-03-10 PR Loi portant réorganisation des Forces Armées et de Sécurité, enacted March 10, 2006.

28.Government of Chad. Statut general des militaires, Loi No. 006/PR/92, enacted April 28, 1992.

29.Child Soldiers International. Briefing on the status of implementation of the June 2011 Action Plan on children associated with armed forces and groups and its 10-Point Roadmap. London; March 13, 2014.

30.Government of Chad. Ordinance N° 001/PR/2014 Portant Interdiction et Répression de l'Enrôlement et de l'utilisation des enfants dans les conflits armés, enacted January 27, 2014. [source on file].

31.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 2, 2014.

32.RFI. "Tchad: le nouveau code pénal pénalise fortement l'homosexualité." September 15, 2014.

33.UNHRC. National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21: Chad. Geneva, United Nations General Assembly, July 17, 2013.

34.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 13, 2015.

35.Government of Chad. DRAFT Loi Portant Code de Protection de l'Enfant, enacted Drafted 2014. [source on file].

36.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, January 22, 2014.

37.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 26, 2015.

38.ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No.81) Chad (ratification: 1965) Published: 2014; accessed October 26, 2014;.

39.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 14, 2011.

40.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 14, 2014.

41.UN Secretary-General. Children and armed conflict: Report of the Secretary-General, May 15, 2014.

42.UNHCR. Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Chad. Geneva, United Nations General Assembly.

43.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, January 13, 2015.

44.Un enfant ne doit pas être un soldat! UNICEF, Child Soldiers International, N'Djaména: UNICEF Tchad; May 2014.

45.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Chad (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed December 31, 2014;.

46.La Rose, T. "Chad Signs An Action Plan To End Recruitment And Use Of Children In Its National Army And Security Forces." UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict, June 16, 2011.

47.Tremblay, S. "Chad Commits to an Acceleration of the Action Plan to End the Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers." UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict, May 22, 2013.

48.Government of Cameroon, Government of Central African Republic, Government of Chad, Government of Nigeria, Government of Niger, and Government of Sudan. "Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups; Contributing to Peace, Justice and Development," in N'djamena; June 7-9, 2010;.

49.Zulfiqar, S, H Calderon. "Chad and five other Central African countries pledge to end use of children in armed conflict." June 11, 2010.

50.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, June 29, 2011.

51.Government of Chad. Plan National de Développement (PND 2013-2015), enacted April 2013.

52.African Development Bank. Project d'Appui au Secteur de l'Education (PASE) Rapport d'Achevement de Projet (RAP),; September 2013.

53.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Chad (ratification: 2000) Published: 2011; accessed January 14, 2013;.

54.Government of Chad. Cadre intérimaire d'Assistance au Développement 2012-2015: Extension du Cadre 2012-2013 sur la période 2014 — 2015. N'Djamena, UNDAF; 2014. http://www.undg.org/docs/13560/Cadre_interimaire-undaf-final-version_FINAL_web.pdf.

55.Government of Chad. Programme Pays pour un Travail Décent (PPTD) 2013-2015; March 2013.

56.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting part 2, October 23, 2013.

57.U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, November 22, 2013.

Related Content