Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Chad

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Chad

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Chad made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government approved a Five-Year Plan for Development that aims to strengthen the Labor Inspectorate's directorate charged with combating the worst forms of child labor and drafted a guide for law enforcement officials on assisting victims of human trafficking. The Project to Revitalize Basic Education in Chad, which is led by the Ministry of Education, received an additional $7 million from UNICEF and UNESCO to expand access to education for 8,500 children affected by conflict. However, children in Chad engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced labor in cattle herding and domestic work. The country's legal framework does not contain criminal penalties for forced child labor, child trafficking, or the use of children in illicit activities.

Expand All

Children in Chad engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced labor in cattle herding and domestic work.(1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Chad.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

48.8

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

49.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

28.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

38.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2014 – 2015.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivating and harvesting crops, including rice and corn (1)

Collecting and chopping wood (5, 6)

Production of charcoal (1)

Herding cattle (1, 9)

Fishing, including catching, smoking, and selling fish (1)

Industry

Building walls (6)

Gold mining† (1)

Working in auto repair shops (1)

Making bricks (6, 10)

Services

Domestic work (1-3, 5, 6)

Street work, including vending, garbage scavenging, and carrying heavy loads† (1, 6, 9, 11)

Begging (2, 12)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3-6)

Forced labor in domestic work, fishing, herding cattle, begging, street vending, and agriculture, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-5)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Child trafficking occurs primarily within Chad for the purposes of forced labor in cattle herding and domestic sex tourism. Children are occasionally trafficked to neighboring countries for forced labor in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.(1, 3, 4) Domestically, boys known as mahadjirine may be sent to Koranic schools to receive an education, but they are forced to beg and to surrender the money they receive to their teachers.(2-4)

The Constitution and the Law Orienting the Education System mandate free and compulsory education in Chad.(13, 14) However, there is a lack of schools, classrooms, and teachers throughout the country. Some schools do not offer all grade levels, and parents are often required to pay for school-related fees, which may prevent some children from attending school.(15-17) In addition, some schools near Lake Chad were occupied or attacked by Boko Haram elements, or closed as a result of military operations, forcing approximately 180,000 children ages 3 to 17 to miss the 2015–2016 school year.(12, 18-22) In September 2016, teacher strikes closed schools throughout the country for several months. Only 7 of the 450 public schools in the Lake Region opened for the 2016–2017 school year, leaving more than 200,000 children unenrolled.(1, 23-26) The Government, supported by UNICEF and other partners, encouraged schools to reopen by distributing school supplies to more than 22,000 children, but the majority of schools remain closed, with the exception of 64 schools located in refugee camps in Eastern and Western Chad.(24)

During the reporting period, Chad experienced an economic crisis, which led to significant cuts to public servant allowances as part of severe austerity measures, as well as internal unrest due to presidential elections. These issues affected the Government's ability to address the worst forms of child labor.(1, 21, 27, 28)

Chad has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Chad's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 52 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of the Decree Relating to Child Labor (29, 30)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 6–7 of the Decree Relating to Child Labor (29)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 6 of the Decree Relating to Child Labor (29)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

No

 

Article 20 of the Constitution; Article 5 of the Labor Code (14, 30)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

 

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 279–282 of the Penal Code; Articles 81–85 of the Law on Cyber Security and Fight Against Cyber Criminality (12, 31)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

20

Article 32 of the Law on the Organization of the Armed Forces; Article 22 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (32, 33)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 32 of the Law on the Organization of the Armed Forces; Article 1 of the Ordinance Prohibiting the Use of Children in Armed Conflict; Article 52 of Military Statute N° 006/PR/06 (32, 34, 35)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 1 of the Ordinance Prohibiting the Use of Children in Armed Conflict (34)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16‡

Articles 21, 23, 25, and 28 of the Law Orienting the Education System; Article 35 of the Constitution (13, 14)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 9 of the Law Orienting the Education System; Article 35 of the Constitution (13, 14)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (13)

In December 2016, the National Assembly adopted a new Penal Code that has provisions criminalizing trafficking in persons; it is awaiting signature by the president and promulgation.(36) Several laws are awaiting approval by the National Assembly, including the Child Protection Code, Labor Code, and Family Code, which contain additional provisions criminalizing child trafficking and extending protection to children working in the informal sector.(1, 2, 37-41) A draft law on trafficking in persons, which has been pending adoption by the General Assembly since March 2015, will bring Chad's laws into compliance with international standards.(4, 36, 42-44) Existing laws do not criminally prohibit child trafficking.(14, 30, 31)

In addition, the Decree Relating to Child Labor prohibits certain hazardous activities for children under age 18 and some other activities for children under age 16.(29, 41) This means that children ages 16 and 17 can work legally in hazardous tasks, such as working with hand- or foot-powered machinery, operating machinery with sharp blades, and working on scaffolding in construction sites.(29)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Employment, and Social Dialogue (MOL)

Implement and enforce child labor laws.(1, 15) Includes a directorate and specific point of contact to assist in coordinating child protection and human trafficking issues.(45)

Ministry of Justice, Human Rights, and Guardian of the Seal (MOJ)

Draft and enforce laws and coordinate efforts to protect human rights.(1) Through its Directorate for Protection and Legal Monitoring of Children, enforce child labor laws.(46)

Ministry of Women, Childhood Protection, and National Solidarity (MWCPNS)

Protect children's rights, provide temporary shelter to victims, and assist with reintegration when appropriate.(4, 36) Through its Child Protection Directorate, lead Government efforts on child protection, including child labor, and liaise with the Child Protection Directorate at the MOJ.(36) In 2016, drafted a guide for civil society and law enforcement officials on assisting victims of human trafficking, particularly during investigations and prosecutions.(36)

National Police

Enforce and investigate criminal laws against child labor, including child trafficking, and refer them to the MOJ for prosecution. In the case of the Child Protection Brigade, specifically monitor violations of children's rights.(1) Located throughout the country.(45, 47)

 

The Child Protection Committees did not carry out activities during the reporting period due to a lack of resources. Research indicates that although the Child Protection Brigade within the National Police is tasked with responding to child welfare concerns, it was not well-known by the public.(1) In addition, the judicial system ceased functioning in November 2016 when magistrates and court clerks went on strike to protest government austerity measures.(26)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Chad did not take actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (12)

$0 (1)

Number of Labor Inspectors

20 (12)

30 (1)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (30)

No (30)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

No (46)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (12)

No (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (12)

No (1, 48)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown* (12)

0 (1)

Number Conducted at Worksite

0 (12)

0 (1)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown* (12)

0 (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (12)

0 (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (12)

0 (1)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (12)

0 (1)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (12)

No (1)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A (12)

N/A (1)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (30)

Unknown (1)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (49)

Unknown (1)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (49)

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (12)

Yes (1)

* The Government does not publish this information.

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Chad's workforce, which includes almost 5.5 million workers.(50) According to the ILO's recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Chad should employ roughly 136 labor inspectors.(50-52) Inspectors lack sufficient resources such as equipment, transportation, and fuel to conduct investigations outside the city where they are based.(15, 36) In 2016, the labor inspectorate did not receive any funding to conduct inspections, and inspectors were on strike from September 2016 to January 2017 to protest the nonpayment of salaries and government austerity measures.(1, 36, 46) Research indicates that the informal sector, in which the majority of children work, is largely unmonitored, and some establishments in the formal sector may go years without receiving an inspection.(2, 15, 48)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Chad took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (12)

Unknown (1)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (12)

N/A (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (12)

No (1)

Number of Investigations

5 (53)

0 (1)

Number of Violations Found

9 (49)

235 (25)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

2 (49)

0 (1)

Number of Convictions

3 (12)

0 (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (12)

Yes (1)

 

Research indicates that investigators had inadequate resources, which hindered their ability to respond to complaints of child labor violations.(1) All newly hired law enforcement officials—including police, military, judiciary officials, and social workers—receive a mandatory course on child protection as part of their training.(12, 49, 53)

Civil society organizations typically assist with providing temporary shelter, legal assistance, and family reintegration; they also track prosecutions and convictions.(12, 45) An underdeveloped judicial system, inadequate deterrents, and under-enforcement of existing penalties pose barriers to prosecution.(4, 15, 45) Police and traditional leaders sometimes resolved cases of child trafficking outside the legal system.(15) In addition, the police commissioner in Kélo was arrested in February 2016 following allegations of complicity in a child trafficking network; the investigation remains ongoing.(4)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Working Group on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinate government efforts on child trafficking, including by providing training, conducting awareness-raising activities, and strengthening the network of government organizations that address human trafficking.(45, 54) Chaired by the MWCPNS's Child Protection Directorate and includes representatives from four other ministries, including the MOL.(36)

Inter-Ministerial Committee on Trafficking in Persons (ICTIP)

Coordinate government efforts to combat child labor, including its worst forms, and propose revision of national legislation to conform to international standards.(12, 36, 55, 56) Led by the MOJ's Directorate General of Human Rights and includes representatives from four ministries, including the MOL, international NGOs, and civil society organizations.(36)

Inter-Ministerial Committee on Child Soldiers

Coordinate government efforts to eliminate the use of children in armed conflict and address the worst forms of child labor.(36) Located in each of the eight military regions and includes representatives from the government, army, gendarmerie, and civil society organizations.(36) Conduct awareness-raising activities and trainings in the military.(10, 57, 58)

MWCPNS's Regional Child Protection Committees

Coordinate regional government efforts to address the worst forms of child labor.(59) Includes representatives from three ministries and the police.(10)

 

None of the coordinating bodies met in 2016, and the Government noted that a lack of technical and financial resources has hampered its ability to improve its coordination and response to child labor.(36, 46)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

2013 Child Soldiers Action Plan

Aims to permanently eliminate the use of child soldiers in partnership with the UN.(37, 58, 60-62) Integrates training modules on child soldiers for all military personnel and includes monitoring and age verification in all military training centers by officials from the MOJ, the MWCPNS, and the Ministry of Defense.(4, 45) In 2016, developed modules on child soldiers with the support of UNICEF and integrated them into all military training, established cells to perform age verification at military centers, and raised awareness of child soldiering issues in all eight military zones. In addition, conducted several joint missions with government and UN representatives to sites in the Lake region housing alleged Boko Haram affiliates who had surrendered. Children were referred to a transition center in Bol for family reunification.(22, 24, 25)

N'Djamena 2010 Declaration of Regional Conference: Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups

Represents a commitment among six signatory countries, including Chad, to eliminate the use of child soldiers in their territories.(37, 63) Forms the basis for the 2013 Child Soldiers Action Plan and accompanying UNICEF Roadmap.(47)

MWCPNS's 2016 National Action Plan

Aims to provide free birth registration to 27,000 children in targeted areas, establish or strengthen the capacity of 70 child protection committees, reinforce law enforcement comprehension of standards on child protection, and develop a system for preventing and responding to cases of child exploitation.(64) In 2016, carried out many of its planned activities.(46)

Five-Year Plan for Development (2016–2020)†

Ministry of Economy and Development Planning policy which aims to conduct a survey on child labor every three years, increase the rate of birth registration, increase educational opportunities, and strengthen the human and financial capacity of the MOL's directorate charged with combating the worst forms of child labor.(65)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(66)

Although the Government has adopted policies on child trafficking and child soldiers, research found no evidence of a policy on other worst forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor in domestic work, and herding cattle. Although the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Trafficking in Persons began drafting a National Action Plan on Human Trafficking, it was never completed.(46)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Transition Centers†

Run by the Ministry of Defense; provides family reunification and reintegration assistance to former child soldiers. MWCPNS, in collaboration with UNICEF, assists in demobilizing and reinserting child soldiers.(37, 55) In December 2016, reunited 58 children with their families.(22)

Reception Centers†

Run by MWCPNS and UNICEF, centers located throughout the country provide temporary assistance to victims of child trafficking, including food, education, medical, and psychological care, and reintegration services.(4, 45) The National Solidarity Fund, maintained by Prime Minister's Office, funds temporary shelter or reunification assistance for victims.(36) Child Protection Directorates at various ministries work together to provide support and reintegration services to victims of exploitation.(36)

UNICEF Country Program

In support of the UNDAF, aims to increase primary school enrollment, support training of community teachers, and promote birth registration rates.(67) Establishes child-friendly spaces and schools in refugee camps.(68) In 2016, drafted the UNICEF Country Program (2017–2021), which continues promotion of birth registration and access to education, and aims to promote a justice system that is sensitive to child rights.(28)

Project to Revitalize Basic Education in Chad (PREBAT)

$47.4 million program implemented by UNESCO and UNICEF, led by the Ministry of Education in support of the Transitional Education Plan, which aims to promote access to education, improve physical infrastructure, and reduce educational costs.(69, 70) In February 2016, an additional $7 million was approved to provide school lunches and access to education for 8,500 children in the Lake Chad region affected by conflict.(69) By the end of 2016, constructed 1,300 classrooms, distributed almost 2 million textbooks to teachers, and provided training to 1,100 teachers.(71)

† Program is funded by the Government of Chad.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(55, 57, 58, 72)

Research indicates that the Government decreased funding to existing programs during the reporting period due to austerity measures, and it lacks the capacity to provide adequate care and reintegration support for demobilized child soldiers.(1, 40) Although Chad has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to address the extent of the problem adequately, particularly forced child labor in herding, begging, and domestic work.(9)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Chad (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws specifically prohibit children from being used, offered, or procured for illicit activities.

2011 – 2016

Establish criminal prohibitions for debt bondage, slavery, and forced labor of children.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that laws criminally prohibit both domestic and international child trafficking for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor, and all the steps in the trafficking process, including recruiting, harboring, transporting, transferring, and receiving.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that all children under age 18 are prohibited from engaging in hazardous occupations or activities.

2014 – 2016

Enforcement

Ensure that law enforcement agencies receive sufficient resources to carry out their mandate and that their role is understood by the public.

2016

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors in accordance with the ILO recommendation and ensure that inspectors have adequate resources to carry out their mandate.

2012 – 2016

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by authorizing inspectors to assess penalties, and by providing sufficient resources to conduct inspections in both the formal and informal sectors and prosecute offenders.

2014 – 2016

Institutionalize training for labor inspectors, including at the beginning of their employment, and provide regular refresher courses.

2014 – 2016

Publish information about whether unannounced inspections are permitted.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that penalties are severe enough to deter offenders and are enforced according to the law.

2015 – 2016

Investigate allegations of government officials who are complicit in a child trafficking network and ensure that no Government of Chad officials are complicit in perpetuating the worst forms of child labor.

2016

Coordination

Ensure that coordinating committees receive adequate resources to meet and carry out their mandates to coordinate and respond to child labor issues.

2014 – 2016

Government Policies

Adopt a policy to combat all worst forms of child labor in Chad, including commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor in domestic work, and herding cattle.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that all policies are implemented as intended.

2016

Social Programs

Ensure access to education for all children by eliminating school-related fees, preventing prolonged teacher strikes, ensuring that schools are safe spaces, and improving access to schools throughout the country.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that existing programs receive adequate funding and are able to support demobilized child soldiers.

2016

Establish or expand programs to provide services to children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, such as use of forced labor in herding, begging, and domestic work.

2009 – 2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, January 30, 2017.

2.         ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Chad (Ratification: 2000) Published: 2015; accessed November 10, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3190954.

3.         Zwaenepoel, C. Le phénomène de la traite des personnes au Tchad: Observations Qualitatives. Geneva, International Organization for Migration; n.d. http://www.iom.int/files/live/sites/iom/files/pbn/docs/Le-Phenomene-de-la-Traite-des-Personnes-au-Tchad.pdf.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Chad," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

5.         Sufi, Q. "Chad Human Trafficking Challenge: IOM Report." International Organization for Migration, N'Djamena, June 10, 2014. https://www.iom.int/news/chad-human-trafficking-challenge-iom-report.

6.         UNHCR. "La faim, et des choix difficiles, pour les réfugiés luttant pour leur survie en Afrique." [online] July 1, 2014 [cited March 16, 2017]; http://www.unhcr.org/fr/news/stories/2014/7/53b2cadcfe/faim-choix-difficiles-refugies-luttant-survie-afrique.html.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2014-2015. Analysis received April 13, 2017. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Chad (Ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed December 31, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3190954:NO.

10.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, January 21, 2015.

11.       Daniel, J. "Tchad : ces enfants qui ne vivent que de la poubelle." tchadinfos.com [online] July 10, 2016 [cited October 21, 2016]; http://tchadinfos.com/tchad/tchad-ces-enfants-qui-ne-vivent-que-de-la-poubelle/.

12.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 4, 2016.

13.       Government of Chad. Orientation du système éducatif Tchadien, Loi No. 016/PR/06, enacted March 13, 2006. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/79409/85373/F-30051095/TCD-79409.pdf.

14.       Government of Chad. Constitution, Loi No. 05-008 2005-07-15 PR, enacted March 31, 1996. http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/fr/td/td001fr.pdf.

15.       U.S Department of State. "Chad," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2017. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265450.pdf.

16.       UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Humanitarian Bulletin Chad. New York; August 31, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/report/chad/humanitarian-bulletin-chad-issue-05-august-2016.

17.       Government of Chad. Stratégie intérimaire pour l’Education et l’alphabétisation 2013-2015. N'Djamena, République du Tchad; July 2012. http://www.globalpartnership.org/fr/content/tchad-plan-sectoriel-education.

18.       UN General Assembly Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict. A/70/836–S/2016/360. April 20, 2016. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2016/360.

19.       UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2016 Plan de réponse humanitaire révisé. New York; June 2016. https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/system/files/documents/files/tcd_str_revisionhrp2016_20161018.pdf.

20.       UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Tchad: impact de la crise nigériane dans la région du Lac Rapport de Situation N°20. New York; December 22, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Chad%20Sitrep%2020%20-%2022122016.pdf.

21.       UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Central Africa and the activities of the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa. New York; May 25, 2016. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2016/482.

22.       UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Chad: Update on the people having allegedly surrendered in the Lac region Situation Report N°3. New York; December 23, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/report/chad/chad-update-people-having-allegedly-surrendered-lac-region-situation-report-no-3.

23.       Hamer, A. "The human cost of Chad's war against Boko Haram." IRINnews.org [online] December 5, 2016 [cited December 7, 2016]; http://features.irinnews.org/lake-chad.

24.       UNICEF. Chad Humanitarian Situation Report. New York; October 31, 2016. https://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/UNICEF_Chad_Sitrep_October_2016.pdf.

25.       UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Chad: situation in the Lac region and impact of the Nigerian crisis Situation Report N°19. New York; November 16, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Sitrep%2019%20-%2016112016%20-%20English.pdf.

26.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. December 28, 2016.

27.       Feltman, J. "Security Council briefing on the situation in the Lake Chad Basin Region." UN.org [online] July 27, 2016 [cited August 1, 2016]; http://www.un.org/undpa/en/speeches-statements/27072016/lake-chad-basin.

28.       UNICEF. Draft country programme document - Chad. E/ICEF/2016/P/L.33. New York: June 21, 2016. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2016-PL33-Chad_draft_CPD-EN-21June2016.pdf.

29.       Government of Chad. PR-MT JS-DTMOPS du février 1969 relatif au travail des enfants, Décret No. 55, enacted 1969. [source on file].

30.       Government of Chad. Code du Travail, Loi No. 038/PR/96, enacted December 11, 1996. www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Tchad/Tchad%20-%20Code%20du%20travail.pdf.

31.       Government of Chad. Promulgation d'un code pénal, Loi No. 12-67-PR-MJ, enacted June 9, 1967. http://www.vertic.org/media/National%20Legislation/Chad/TD_Code_Penal.pdf.

32.       Government of Chad. Loi 06-012 2006-03-10 PR Loi portant réorganisation des Forces Armées et de Sécurité, enacted March 10, 2006. [Source on file].

33.       Government of Chad. African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, enacted March 20, 2000. http://www.achpr.org/files/instruments/child/achpr_instr_charterchild_eng.pdf.

34.       Government of Chad. Ordonnance N° 001/PR/2014 Portant Interdiction et Répression de l'Enrôlement et de l'utilisation des enfants dans les conflits armés, enacted January 27, 2014. [source on file].

35.       Government of Chad. Statut general des militaires, Loi No. 006/PR/92, enacted April 28, 1992. [Source on file].

36.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 16, 2017.

37.       UNHRC. National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21: Chad. A/HRC/WG.6/17/TCD/1. Geneva: July 17, 2013 http://www.upr-info.org/sites/default/files/document/chad/session_17_-_october_2013/a_hrc_wg.6_17_tcd_1_chad_e.pdf.

38.       UNHRC. Annual report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, Leila Zerrougui. Geneva, UNHRC; 2014. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session28/Documents/A_HRC_28_54_ENG.doc.

39.       Government of Chad. DRAFT Loi Portant Code de Protection de l'Enfant. 2014. [source on file].

40.       Child Soldiers International. Concerns about Chad's child protection record one year after delisting. London,  July 28, 2015. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/concerns-about-chads-child-protection-record-one-year-after-delisting-1.

41.       ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Chad (ratification: 2005) Published: 2015; accessed November 10, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3191160.

42.       United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Chad strengthens legislation against human trafficking thanks to UNODC support, [online] [cited November 10, 2015]; https://www.unodc.org/westandcentralafrica/en/chad---anti-human-trafficking-law---25-26-march-2015.html.

43.       United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Sahel Programme 2013-2017: Strengthening the Sahel against Crime and Terrorism. Progress Report; January 2016. http://www.unodc.org/documents/westandcentralafrica/Sahel_Programme_Progress_Report_January_2016.pdf.

44.       DRAFT Loi Portant Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes en République du Tchad. Government of Chad: 2015. [source on file].

45.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 8, 2016.

46.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 24, 2017.

47.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 13, 2015.

48.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Chad (ratification: 1965) Published: 2016; accessed October 21, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3255246.

49.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 29, 2016.

50.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

51.       UN. "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex." (2012); http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

52.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

53.       U.S. Department of State. "Chad," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243413.htm.

54.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 26, 2015.

55.       UNHRC. Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Chad. Geneva,  January 3, 2014. http://www.refworld.org/docid/52f8c8f54.html.

56.       ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Chad (ratification: 1960) Published: 2015; accessed November 10, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3189964.

57.       Child Soldiers International. Briefing on the status of implementation of the June 2011 Action Plan on children associated with armed forces and groups and its 10-Point Roadmap. London; March 13, 2014. http://reliefweb.int/report/chad/briefing-status-implementation-june-2011-action-plan-children-associated-armed-forces-0.

58.       UN Secretary-General. Children and armed conflict: Report of the Secretary-General, May 15, 2014. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/N1431583.pdf.

59.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena. Reporting, February 14, 2014.

60.       UNICEF, Child Soldiers International. Un enfant ne doit pas être un soldat! N’Djaména: UNICEF Tchad; May 2014. https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/sites/default/files/documents/csichadbooklet2014316114.pdf.

61.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Chad (Ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed December 31, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3131476.

62.       La Rose, T. "Chad Signs An Action Plan To End Recruitment And Use Of Children In Its National Army And Security Forces." UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict, June 16, 2011. http://reliefweb.int/report/chad/chad-signs-action-plan-end-recruitment-and-use-children-its-national-army-and-security.

63.       Government of Cameroon, Government of Central African Republic, Government of Chad, Government of Nigeria, Government of Niger, and Government of Sudan. "Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups; Contributing to Peace, Justice and Development," in N'djamena; June 7-9, 2010; https://www.unicef.org/protection/files/DDR_Conference_Declarations_de_NDjamena.pdf.

64.       Government of Chad. Programme: Protection de l'Enfant. N'Djamena; 2016. [Source on file].

65.       Government of Chad. Plan Quinquennal (PQ)2016–2020. N'Djamena; Novembre 2016. [Source on file].

66.       U.S. Embassy- N'Djamena official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 28, 2015.

67.       Government of Chad. Chad Country Program Document 2012 - 2016. Geneva, UNICEF September 15, 2011. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Chad_final_approved_2012-2016_20_Oct_2011.pdf.

68.       UNICEF Chad. "School brings hope to child refugees in Chad." medium.com [online] June 2015 [cited February 11, 2016]; https://medium.com/photography-and-social-change/school-brings-hope-to-child-refugees-in-chad-eb668241d526#.une6bkp3n.

69.       Global Partnership for Education. Chad, [online] [cited December 29, 2016]; http://www.globalpartnership.org/country/chad.

70.       UNICEF. Mère et Enfant: Bulletin d’Information de l’UNICEF Tchad. Newsletter. N'Djamena; October 2015. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/UNICEF%20Tchad%20Bulletin%20Mere%20et%20Enfant%20Oct%202015.pdf.

71.       Rondouba, B. "Au Tchad, une éducation de qualité pour plus d’un million d’enfants." Tchadinfos.com [online] March 5, 2016 [cited December 29, 2016]; http://tchadinfos.com/tchad/au-tchad-une-education-de-qualite-pour-plus-dun-million-denfants/.

72.       UN. Feuille de Route Formulation Plan Cadre des Nations Unies d’Assistance au Développement (UNDAF) 2017-2021. New York; 2016. https://ims.undg.org/downloadFile/3078f5d8ded1be98ea5d6c25370f6dd029ee9f6efa38030c9f45792dfab57ffc.

Download ILAB's Sweat & Toil app today. #endChildLabor