Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Central African Republic

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Central African Republic

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, the Central African Republic made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The National Assembly ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict before submitting it to the President for approval, and the Government launched a National Recovery and Peacebuilding Plan. In addition, the Ministry of Education issued an official directive providing free school admission to children from internally displaced persons camps, and 1,526 child soldiers were released from armed groups under the Bangui Forum Agreement. However, children in the Central African Republic engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in illicit activities and armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forced or compulsory recruitment by nongovernmental armed groups. An estimated 1.4 million children lacked access to education as a result of ongoing instability, and limited resources hampered the Government’s ability to implement policies and programs to address child labor, including its worst forms.

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Children in the Central African Republic (CAR) engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in illicit activities and armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forced or compulsory recruitment by nongovernmental armed groups.(1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in CAR.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

31.0 (373,742)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

63.1

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

28.0

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

44.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2010.(7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Working in agriculture, activities unknown (1)

Working in forestry, including carrying tools and assisting with slaughter (8)

Fishing, activities unknown (1)

Industry

Diamond and gold mining† (1, 9-13)

Working in sawmills, forges, and foundries, including sharpening sawblades and maintaining fires (1, 8)

Construction, activities unknown (1)

Services

Domestic work (14)

Street work, including carrying heavy loads, garbage scavenging, and market vending (1, 8, 9)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict, including as porters, concubines, domestic workers, and guards (2, 3, 5, 15-26)

Domestic work, working in agriculture, markets, and mining, including in diamond mines, each as a result of human trafficking (2, 26-28)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 26-31)

Use in illicit activities, including as spies for armed forces and carrying stolen goods (2, 4, 5, 32, 33)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Sectarian violence has plagued CAR since 2013, and although a new President and National Assembly were elected in February 2016, the new Government has limited authority outside of the capital.(4, 24, 32, 34-36) Non-state armed groups continued to forcibly recruit children during the reporting period, some as young as age 8.(2, 3, 5, 22, 37-39) There was also a significant increase in the number of children abducted for forced soldering by the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), a rebel group that operates in CAR.(2, 25, 32, 38, 39) The Government worked with the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in CAR (MINUSCA), UNICEF, and other partner agencies to prioritize these children's demobilization and reintegration into community life.(1, 20, 35, 40) There were no new allegations of children in refugee camps subject to commercial sexual exploitation in exchange for food or other compensation by peacekeeping troops, although displaced children remain vulnerable to child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation by organized criminal groups.(26, 41)

In 2016, the Ministry of Education issued an official directive providing free school admission to children from internally displaced persons (IDP) camps and waiving school exam fees for refugees, IDPs, and returnees.(26, 42-44) The Government has also waived birth registration requirements for primary school enrollment in areas still affected by conflict and is making a concerted effort to ensure all children have birth registration, including by providing free birth registration to all children born during the conflict, from 2012 – 2014, and by rebuilding the national civil administration.(24, 26, 28, 44-48) As birth registration is required for secondary school enrollment, lack of birth registration may be a barrier to education for some children.(41) An estimated 33 percent of school-age children had difficulty accessing education because of school fees, an absence of teachers, security concerns, and unavailability of schools, especially in rural areas.(4, 13, 26, 28, 34, 45, 49-52) As of April 2016, an estimated 25 percent of schools throughout the country were non-functional due to destruction, damage, or looting as a result of the conflict, and others were occupied by displaced civilians or armed groups, causing some students to lose more than 2 years of schooling.(3-5, 13, 15, 22, 24, 31, 33, 45, 46, 49, 50, 52-56) However, the Government indicates that with the exception of the three provinces in which conflict persists, 98 percent of schools reopened for the 2016–2017 school year.(26)

CAR has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

In 2016, the Government ratified the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child.(43, 44) The National Assembly ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict, and it is awaiting approval from the President.(8, 43, 44)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in CAR’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 259 of the Labor Code (57)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 263 of the Labor Code (57)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

No

 

Article 262 of the Labor Code; Article 190 of the Mining Code (57, 58)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 7 of the Labor Code; Article 151 of the Penal Code (57, 59)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 151 of the Penal Code (59)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Article 262 of the Labor Code; Articles 90–93 and 110–111 of the Penal Code (57, 59)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 262 of the Labor Code (57)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

Article 22 of the Constitution; Articles 262 and 393 of the Labor Code (57, 60)

State Voluntary

No

N/A

Legislation title unknown (47)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 262 and 393 of the Labor Code (57)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Ordinance N° 84/031 Orienting the Teaching System; Article 7 of the Constitution; Article 13 of Law N° 97/014 Orienting the Education System (60, 61)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Ordinance N° 84/031; Article 7 of the Constitution (60, 61)

* No conscription (24, 60)

A draft of the Child Protection Code was revised to harmonize its protections with the CRC and was sent to the National Assembly for adoption.(26, 44) In 2016, the Government, with the support of UNICEF, conducted a study of child labor with the intention of updating the list of hazardous activities prohibited to children.(1) The existing types of hazardous work prohibited for children are not comprehensive and do not cover diamond mining, an area of work in which there is evidence of children working in hazardous conditions and carrying heavy loads.(9-11) Additionally, the law does not sufficiently prohibit the commercial sexual exploitation of children, as the possession and distribution of child pornography are not criminally prohibited.(57, 59)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Modernization of Administration, Labor, Employment and Social Protection (MOL)

Monitor and enforce laws related to child labor.(1)

Ministry of Justice

Protect the rights of the child and combat the worst forms of child labor through its courts and tribunals.(8) In 2016, created a national Rapid Response for Child Protection team.(28, 62)

Ministry of Social Affairs, Promotion of Gender, and Humanitarian Action (MSA)

Oversee child soldier issues and lead the Government’s anti-trafficking policy efforts through the National Council on Child Protection. Refer victims of child trafficking to NGOs and maintain an orphanage for children at risk of child trafficking.(38, 47)

Special Criminal Court

Investigate serious human rights abuses committed since 2003, including the use of children in armed conflict. Comprises national and international magistrates.(12, 43, 63-65)

 

The Special Criminal Court was not operational in 2016, and the only functioning juvenile court in CAR lacks the staff and resources to conduct investigations.(3, 12, 13, 22, 25, 26, 35, 62, 63, 65, 66) The weak judicial system, absence of state authority outside the capital, and limited resources hinder the Government’s ability to combat the worst forms of child labor.(3, 13, 24-26, 33, 38) In addition, all 135 lawyers in CAR are in Bangui, and some magistrates have been prevented from being deployed to the regions due to threats by armed groups or continued insecurity.(14, 25)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in CAR took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (14)

Unknown* (1)

Number of Labor Inspectors

41 (14)

Unknown* (1)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

5 (14)

Unknown* (1)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (67)

Yes (67)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (14)

Unknown* (1)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (14)

N/A (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (14)

Yes (1)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown* (14)

Unknown* (1)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown* (14)

Unknown* (1)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown* (14)

Unknown* (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (14)

Unknown* (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (14)

Unknown* (1)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown* (14)

Unknown* (1)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (14)

Unknown* (1)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (14)

Unknown* (1)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (57)

Yes (1)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (14)

Unknown* (1)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (14)

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (14)

Yes (41)

* The Government does not publish this information.

Research indicates that violations were common in all sectors of the economy.(14, 67-69) Although child labor violations may be reported in person to the labor inspectorate in Bangui, there is no mechanism to report child labor violations in other parts of the country.(67) Although the Ministry of Public Service, Labor, Social Security, and Employment is supposed to work with the Ministry of Justice; Ministry of Social Affairs, Promotion of Gender, and Humanitarian Action; and UNICEF to provide assistance to victims of child labor, a lack of resources limited the ability of these ministries to provide adequate support to victims.(41, 67) During the reporting period, UNICEF provided training to regional directors and labor inspectors responsible for enforcing child labor laws.(1)

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of CAR’s workforce, which includes over 2.4 million workers.(70) According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, CAR needs about 56 inspectors.(70-72) The Government’s efforts to combat child labor were hindered by a lack of labor inspectorate capacity and inadequate financial and material resources, including transportation, office facilities and supplies, and computers.(1)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in CAR took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (14)

Unknown (1)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (14)

N/A (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (73)

No (2)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (67)

39 (1, 43, 44)

Number of Violations Found

2,679 (5)

1,404 (74)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (47)

0 (38)

Number of Convictions

0 (47)

0 (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (73)

Yes (41)

 

Research indicates members of the armed forces and the Central African Office for the Suppression of Banditry committed extra-judicial killings of minors suspected to be members of rival factions. Research also found that law enforcement officials detained some children released from the LRA for interrogation rather than turn them over to social services providers, and children may have been held in detention centers with adults despite a 2016 decree that states children and adults should be kept separate.(25, 28, 44) Criminal acts were widely resolved through traditional methods across the country, often to the exclusion of formal legal proceedings.(2) Research also indicates that government officials outside of the capital may lack the means and capacity to enforce the law, including not having access to copies of relevant laws.(47, 62, 73) In addition, the Government primarily relies on NGOs to provide social services to victims.(28, 41)

Although the Government has established a coordination mechanism on trafficking or other type of child labor, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Interministerial Committee to Combat Human Trafficking

Investigate and combat human trafficking in CAR. Overseen by the Ministry of Public Security.(73)

Disarmament, Demobilization, Reinsertion, and Repatriation Committee (DDRR)*

Secures the release of children used in armed conflict and provide appropriate care.(38) In October 2016, with the support of MSA and the UN, hosted an international workshop on the use of children in armed conflict and conducted a mission to Vakaga prefecture to verify and separate 133 children affiliated with armed groups.(42)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

The National Child Protection Council in the Prime Minister’s Office no longer appears to be functioning, and research was unable to determine whether the Interministerial Committee was active in 2016.(8, 28)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Bangui Forum Agreement

Formal agreement signed by 10 armed groups and the Transitional Government on May 5, 2015, to end the recruitment and use of children in armed combat and to facilitate the separation of children from the ranks of armed groups.(3, 5, 12, 20, 38, 40) Between January and March 2016, 1,526 child soldiers were released from armed groups and received psychosocial support and reintegration services from UNICEF.(21)

Child Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Policy

Based on the Bangui Forum Agreement, MSA policy that aims to facilitate a policy to disarm, demobilize, and reintegrate child soldiers in CAR in cooperation with UN agencies, other ministries, and armed groups.(1, 3, 21, 24, 44) Through its National Strategy for Community Reinsertion of Children Formerly Associated with Armed Groups, provides temporary care to children separated from armed groups and establishes child protection networks (RECOPE) throughout the country.(21, 37, 43) By the end of 2016, 7,506 children had been removed from armed groups.(43, 44)

National Recovery and Peacebuilding Plan (RCPCA) (2017–2021)†

Aims to re-establish peace, security, and support reconciliation, including by disarming and reintegrating children associated with armed groups, promoting legal reform, seeking justice for victims, and improving access to education. Aims to construct 218 schools and 1,200 school canteens, to train 1,000 teachers, and to distribute 150,000 school kits.(24, 26)

National Strategy for the Community-based Reintegration of Children Associated with Armed Groups in CAR†

Aims to coordinate the reintegration of ex-combatant children into communities as civilians and prevent re-recruitment by armed groups.(75)

UNDAF (2012–2016)

Aims to continue peace-building efforts, strengthen the rule of law, and accelerate progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. Commits to improving reintegration activities for child ex-combatants, improving access to protective services for children, and increasing primary school attendance and access to quality education.(27, 76)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

Although the Government of CAR has adopted the Bangui Forum Agreement, which seeks to address child soldiering, research found no evidence of a policy on other worst forms of child labor.(47) A draft of a national policy addressing the elimination of child labor has yet to be adopted.(48, 68) Research was unable to determine whether the UNDAF was implemented during the reporting period.(8, 67) The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Strategy for the Education Sector (2008–2020).(77)

In 2016, the Government participated in programs that may contribute to the prevention or elimination of child labor (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Awareness Raising Programs*

MOL program aims to raise awareness of child labor and international conventions. In 2016, local inspectorates conducted awareness-raising campaigns in the forested and mining areas of Lobaye and Mambere-Kadei Prefectures, where children are vulnerable to exploitation.(1, 43, 44)

Shelters for Unaccompanied Children

MSA- and UNICEF-supported centers in Bangui provide immediate care, food, and psychosocial support to unaccompanied children and former child soldiers.(38, 78) In 2016, the Government adopted national guidelines for the care of children in temporary care.(43, 44)

Education Programs

Programs to restore educational infrastructure. Includes: $23.4 million European Union-funded Education Program, which will rehabilitate and equip more than 300 schools in 4 prefectures and the capital; Bangui Ministry of Mines and Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research program to construct schools in mining zones; and UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs’ Education Clusters led by UNICEF and in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, that provides access to education in conflict-affected areas .(1, 42-44, 49, 51, 53, 79-81) In 2016, trained 1,312 teachers and 1,518 volunteer teachers; constructed or rehabilitated 144 schools; distributed school kits and textbooks to 390,000 students and 6,000 teachers; established new Temporary Spaces for Learning and Child Protection (ETAPE), which serve 40,258 children; and reopened 5 schools in Kaga-Bandoro.(36, 44, 51, 55)

Birth Registration Campaign†

In support of the 2014 decree mandating free birth registration to children born during the 2012–2014 conflict, opened 176 civil registration centers in areas affected by conflict; registered over 25,000 children since 2014. In 2016, provided birth registration to 8,199 children in Bangui, Bimbo, and Begoua and to 1,951 children in 3 other provinces.(44)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of CAR.

Although the Government participates in a program that assists former child soldiers, coordination with non-government actors is weak and the scope of this program is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(3, 13, 37, 82) The Government was unable to provide direct reintegration programs to former child soldiers due to a lack of resources, which left victims vulnerable to exploitation or re-recruitment by armed groups.(2, 3, 8) Research found no evidence that the Government has programs to assist children engaged in other worst forms of child labor, largely due to a lack of governmental capacity and funding.(14)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in CAR (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict.

2013 – 2016

Determine the types of hazardous work prohibited for children, in consultation with employers’ and workers’ organizations, and ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2013 – 2016

Establish criminal prohibitions for possession and distribution of child pornography.

2009 – 2016

Publish the Government's legislation for a minimum age for voluntary military service.

2015 – 2016

Enforcement

Ensure that courts are operational and that citizens can report violations and access formal judicial processes throughout the country.

2016

Publish information on the labor inspectorate’s funding level, type of training provided to inspectors and investigators, and data related to enforcement efforts, including the number and type of investigations conducted, violations found, penalties imposed and collected, and whether routine and unannounced inspections were conducted.

2014 – 2016

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in accordance with the ILO’s recommendation and ensure enforcement officers have the resources necessary to fulfill their mandate.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that enforcement agencies have sufficient resources and allocated funding to enable government officials to enforce laws related to child labor throughout the country and provide services to victims.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that children are not subject to unlawful punishment, are not kept in detention centers with adults, and are turned over to social service providers when released from armed groups.

2016

Coordination

Ensure coordinating mechanisms are functional and combat all forms of child labor, including all its worst forms.

2011 – 2016

Government Policies

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2016

Implement established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms.

2013 – 2016

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into education and poverty reduction policies.

2009 – 2016

Social Programs

Ensure that children in displaced persons camps are not vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.

2016

Improve access to education by eliminating school-related fees, making additional efforts to provide all children with birth registration, establishing an adequate number of teachers and classrooms throughout the country, and ensuring that schools are safe spaces and free from armed groups.

2009 – 2016

Expand programs to assist former child combatants and children associated with armed groups and improve coordination among relevant actors.

2013 – 2016

Implement programs to address the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- Bangui. Reporting, January 27, 2017.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Central African Republic," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

3.         UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict in the Central African Republic. Geneva; February 12, 2016. Report No. S/2016/133. http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws.asp?m=S/2016/133.

4.         Aubert, V. Caught in a Combat Zone: The urgent need to demobilise children from armed groups in the Central African Republic. London, Save the Children; 2014. https://www.savethechildren.org.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/67124/Caught-in-a-Combat-Zone-FINAL_11-December-PDF.pdf.

5.         UN General Assembly Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict. Geneva; April 20, 2016. Report No. A/70/836–S/2016/360. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2016/360.

6.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2010. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Bangui official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 9, 2017.

9.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Central African Republic (Ratification: 2000) Published: 2012; accessed December 23, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:1:0::NO:::.

10.       Holmes, R. Amnesty warns of conflict diamonds stockpile in C. Africa; September 30, 2015. https://www.yahoo.com/news/amnesty-warns-conflict-diamond-stockpile-c-africa-010824182.html.

11.       Amnesty Internationa. Chains of Abuse: The global diamond supply chain and the case of the Central African Republic. London; 2015. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr19/2494/2015/en/.

12.       International, A. Amnesty International Report 2015/16: The State of the World's Human Rights. London, February 23, 2016. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/pol10/2552/2016/en/.

13.       African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Mission Report of the ACERWC to Assess the Situation of Children Affected by the Conflict in Central African Republic. Addis-Ababa, ACERWC, December 2014. http://www.acerwc.org/?wpdmdl=9478.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Bangui. reporting, February 3, 2016.

15.       APA. "Des enfants centrafricains parlent de leur condition de vie à Samba Panza." JournalDeBangui.com [online] March 17, 2015 [cited December 2, 2015]; http://www.journaldebangui.com/article.php?aid=7934.

16.       UN News Centre. "Centrafrique: des groupes armés acceptent de libérer les enfants soldats." un.org [Online] May 5, 2015 [cited November 11, 2015]; http://www.un.org/apps/newsFr/storyF.asp?NewsID=34730#.VkYKUDZdFjp.

17.       BBC. "Central African Republic: Child soldiers learning to be children again," October 18, 2015; 3 min. 2 sec., film clip; October 19, 2015; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HyvFm_TUKDw.

18.       Le Parisien. "Centrafrique: plus de 350 enfants-soldats libérés par des groupes armés." leparisien.fr [online] May 14, 2015 [cited November 11, 2015]; http://goo.gl/dJpQ9G.

19.       Human Rights Watch. "Central African Republic: Muslims Held Captive, Raped." HRW.org [online] April 22, 2015 [cited August 21, 2015]; http://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/22/central-african-republic-muslims-held-captive-raped.

20.       UNICEF USA. We  are children, not soldiers. Geneva; May 5, 2015. http://www.unicefusa.org/stories/we-are-children-not-soldiers/24696.

21.       Child Soldiers International. Des Milliers de vies à réparer - Les défis de la démobilisation et réintégration des enfants associés aux groupes armés en République centrafricaine. London; May 2016. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/des-milliers-de-vies-rparer.

22.       UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2017: Aperçu des Besoins Humanitaires. Bangui; October 2016. https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/system/files/documents/files/rca_ocha_171123_hno_french.pdf.

23.       Sylvain Degbe, and Léopold Kouandongui. Mission d’élaboration du CCA de la RCA: Rapport provisoire N°1, United Nations Development Group, [previously online] [cited November 5, 2016]; https://undg.org/home/country-teams/africa-western-central/central-african-republic/.

24.       Government of the Central African Republic. Central African Republic: National Recovery and Peacebuilding Plan (2017–21). Bangui; November 17, 2016. https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/car_main_report-a4-english-web.pdf.

25.       UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Central African Republic - Note by the Secretariat. Geneva; July 22, 2016. Report No. A/HRC/33/63. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/164/08/PDF/G1616408.pdf?OpenElement.

26.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Committee on the Rights of the Child Examines the Report of the Central African Republic. Geneva; January 20, 2017. Report No. CRC/C/SR.2171. http://www.unog.ch/unog/website/news_media.nsf/(httpNewsByYear_en)/C077C21F39478306C12580AE004957F0?OpenDocument.

27.       ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Central African Republic (Ratification: 2000) Published: 2015; accessed November 9, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3187463:NO.

28.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the second periodic report of the Central African Republic. Geneva; March 8, 2017. Report No. CRC/C/CAF/CO/2. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fCAF%2fCO%2f2&Lang=en.

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31.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. List of issues in relation to the second periodic report of the Central African Republic. Geneva; July 19, 2016. Report No. CRC/C/CAF/Q/2. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fCAF%2fQ%2f2&Lang=en.

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35.       UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in the Central African Republic. Geneva; July 29, 2015. Report No. S/2015/576. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_576.pdf.

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37.       Child Soldiers International. Briefing note on child recruitment and use in Central African Republic (CAR). London; March 14, 2016. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/briefing-note-on-child-recruitment-and-use-in-central-african-republic-car.

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40.       UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Central African Republic, Marie-Thérèse Keita Bocoum. Geneva; July 24, 2015. Report No. A/HRC/30/59. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session30/Pages/ListReports.aspx.

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43.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. List of issues in relation to the second periodic report of the Central African Republic: Addendum - Replies of the Central African Republic to the list of issues. Geneva; December 27, 2016. Report No. CRC/C/CAF/Q/2/Add.1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FCAF%2FQ%2F2%2FAdd.1&Lang=en.

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46.       UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Concluding observationson the combined initial and second to fifth periodic reports of the Central African Republic. Geneva; July 24, 2014. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2fC%2fCAF%2fCO%2f1-5&Lang=en.

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50.       Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict. Élèves vulnérables, écoles en danger. New York; September 2015. https://www.crin.org/sites/default/files/fr2144-watchlist-car-exec-sum_lr.pdf.

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52.       Petesch, C. "Armed groups occupy Central African Republic schools." WashingtonPost.com [online] March 23, 2017 [cited March 23, 2017]; http://www.voanews.com/a/armed-group-central-african-republic/3778643.html.

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64.       Human Rights Watch. World Report 2015 | Events of 2014. New York,; 2015. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/wr2015_web.pdf.

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70.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

71.       UN. "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex." (2012); http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

72.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

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81.       UNICEF. The UNICEF Response to the Crisis in the Central African Republic. Evaluation Report. New York; March 2016. http://www.unicef.org/evaldatabase/files/CAR_UNICEF_Eval_Final_English_LR_2016-002.pdf.

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