Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Central African Republic

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Central African Republic

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, the Central African Republic made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. In May, 10 armed groups signed a formal agreement with the Transitional Government to end the recruitment and use of children in armed combat and facilitate the separation of children from their ranks. Additionally, the Government established an Interministerial Committee to Combat Human Trafficking and approved an Education Program to rehabilitate and equip more than 300 schools. However, children in the Central African Republic are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in illicit activities and armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forced or compulsory recruitment by nongovernmental armed groups. An estimated 1.4 million children lacked access to education as a result of ongoing instability and limited resources hampered the Government’s ability to implement policies and programs to address child labor, including its worst forms.

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Children in the Central African Republic (CAR) are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in illicit activities and armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forced or compulsory recruitment by nongovernmental armed groups.(1-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in CAR.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

31.0 (373,742)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

63.1

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

28.0

Primary completion rate (%):

44.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2010.(9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Working in agriculture,* activities unknown (3)

Fishing,* activities unknown (2, 3)

Industry

Diamond and gold* mining† (3, 10-14)

Services

Domestic work* (3)

Street work,* including carrying heavy loads* and market vending* (3, 10)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forced or compulsory recruitment by armed groups (1, 3-7, 15-28)

Domestic work, working in agriculture, markets, and mining, including in diamond mines, each as a result of human trafficking* (4, 29, 30)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (3, 4, 29-31)

Forced labor of Ba’aka children in agriculture* (4)

Use in illicit activities, including as spies for armed forces and carrying stolen goods* (1, 3, 4, 6, 7)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Sectarian violence has plagued CAR since 2013, and armed groups remain in control of large parts of the country. The ongoing insecurity has impacted the Government’s ability to address the worst forms of child labor.(6, 22, 32-44) Despite a July 2014 cease-fire agreement, armed groups have continued to perpetrate violence against civilians and engage in fighting with other armed factions, displacing an estimated 800,000 civilians.(5, 7, 13, 22, 26, 43, 45-47) Reports indicate that some children in refugee camps may be vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation by peacekeeping troops, sometimes in exchange for food.(5, 7, 13, 31, 46, 48-55)

The UN reported that non-state armed groups continued to recruit and use child soldiers during the reporting period, sometimes as a result of forced or compulsory recruitment.(4, 5, 7, 14, 18, 27, 42, 56-58) An estimated 6,000 to 10,000 children associated with armed groups, some as young as age 8, are used to carry supplies; monitor checkpoints; and serve as combatants, cooks, lookouts, and concubines.(1, 5-7, 18, 19, 24, 28, 30, 59-64) Some children have reportedly been used as human shields by armed men.(5, 7) There are also reports that children from neighboring countries have been recruited by CAR armed groups, and that children in CAR have been abducted for forced labor and/or forced soldiering by the Lord’s Resistance Army, a rebel group that operates in CAR.(4-7, 14, 16, 30, 65) Catholic Relief Services reported that 145 children were abducted from CAR between April 2015 and January 2016 for use by the Lord’s Resistance Army; 128 had been released as of February 2016.(30) The Government worked with the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in CAR (MINUSCA), UNICEF, and other partner agencies to prioritize the demobilization and reintegration into community life of these children.(22, 44, 47, 64, 66)

Although the Constitution provides free education, associated fees and a severe lack of textbooks, schools, and teachers, particularly in rural areas, limit access to education for an estimated 1.4 million, or 30 percent, of school-aged children.(6, 14, 43, 58, 65, 67, 68) Teachers and civil servants who fled during the conflict have yet to return and others have been threatened, attacked, or killed. Some schools have been used by armed groups, including as military bases and for recruiting children into their ranks.(5-7, 14, 65, 68, 69) Many schools have been closed for lengthy periods of time due to destruction, damage, or looting as a result of the conflict, and others are occupied by displaced civilians.(5-7, 14, 27, 65, 68-71) Additionally, some students do not attend school due to safety concerns.(14) Birth registration is required for children to enroll in school; however, birth registration was not possible in all areas of CAR in 2015 and the associated cost of registering births made it prohibitive to some.(30, 65, 71, 72) Additionally, members of the armed group ex-Séléka reportedly looted and destroyed the records at birth registration offices throughout the country.(65)

CAR has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 259 of the Labor Code (73)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 263 of the Labor Code (73)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations and/or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 262 of the Labor Code; Article 190 of the Mining Code (73, 74)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 7 of the Labor Code; Article 151 of the Penal Code (73, 75)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 151 of the Penal Code (75)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 262 of the Labor Code; Articles 110 and 111 of the Penal Code (73, 75)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 262 of the Labor Code (73)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Legislation title unknown (30)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Ordinance N° 84/031 Orienting the Teaching System; Article 7 of the Constitution; Article 13 of Law N° 97/014 Orienting the Education System (67, 76, 77)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Ordinance N° 84/031; Article 7 of the Constitution (67, 76, 77)

* No conscription (30)

Article 261 of the Labor Code mandates that the Ministry of Labor and Ministry of Public Health, in consultation with the Permanent National Labor Council, issue a joint order determining the types of activities and occupations prohibited for children, but this has yet to be issued.(72, 73) The types of hazardous work prohibited for children are not comprehensive, and do not cover diamond mining, an area of work where there is evidence of children working in hazardous conditions, under water, and carrying heavy loads.(10-12) Additionally, the law does not sufficiently prohibit commercial sexual exploitation, as the possession and distribution of child pornography are not criminally prohibited. In addition, the law does not criminally prohibit an individual from benefiting from the sexual exploitation of children.(73, 75) Research did not uncover a public version of the Government’s legislation with regard to minimum age for voluntary military recruitment.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Labor, Social Security, and Employment

Monitor and enforce laws related to child labor.(78) In 2015, established the Child Labor Prevention Service dedicated to combatting child labor through inspections, investigations, and awareness-raising activities.(3, 79) Although allocated a provisional budget of $1.3 million to carry out activities for 2015, the Child Labor Prevention Service did not receive this funding.(3, 79)

Ministry of Justice (MOJ)

Investigate cases of the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation of children, child trafficking, and the use of children in illicit activities. The MOJ shares this responsibility with CAR’s police forces.(78)

Ministry of Social Affairs, Promotion of Gender, and Humanitarian Action (MSA)

Oversee child soldier issues and lead the Government’s anti-trafficking policy efforts through the National Council on Child Protection.(30) Refer victims of child trafficking to NGOs and maintain an orphanage for children at risk of trafficking.(30)

Special Criminal Court*

Comprised of national and international magistrates, the Court investigate serious human rights abuses committed since 2003, including the use of children in armed conflict.(13, 44, 46, 80, 81)

* Agency responsible for child labor enforcement was created during the reporting period.

In June 2015, the Transitional Government promulgated a law that was passed in April to establish the Special Criminal Court.(5, 13, 44, 80, 81) Although the Government drafted the decrees necessary to implement the Court’s functioning, developed job descriptions to recruit staff, and identified a building to enable the investigation and prosecutorial activities of the Court, it was not operational during the reporting period.(13, 81) The Ministry of Justice (MOJ), with the support of MINUSCA, developed a strategic plan to gradually reopen courts and detention facilities throughout the country and process the backlog of cases. In 2015, 18 of the country’s 28 courts were staffed with magistrates.(44)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in CAR took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown* (3)

Number of Labor Inspectors

18 (82, 83)

41 (3)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

Unknown

5 (3)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (79)

Yes (79)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (3)

Yes (3)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (82, 84)

Yes (3)

Number of Labor Inspections

0 (82, 84)

Unknown* (3)

Number Conducted at Worksite

0 (82, 84)

Unknown* (3)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (82, 84)

Unknown* (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (82, 84)

Unknown* (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (82, 84)

Unknown* (3)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A

Unknown* (3)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (82, 84)

Yes (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (73)

Yes (73)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (82, 84)

Yes (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (3)

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (3)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

Labor inspectors receive training on topics such as statistics, law, and sociology when they are first hired, in addition to on-the-job training during a probationary period. When funding is available, inspectors are sent to Cameroon or other countries for additional training.(79) Despite an increase since 2014, the number of labor inspectors remains insufficient to address the scope of the problem according to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, which is roughly 56 inspectors for CAR.(3, 85-87)

The ongoing violence in CAR has limited the Government’s ability to enforce child labor laws in many areas, especially in areas controlled by armed groups.(3, 22) The Government’s efforts were further hindered by a lack of labor inspectorate capacity and inadequate financial and material resources, including transportation, office facilities and supplies, and computers. Child labor violations may be reported in person to the labor inspectorate in Bangui, but there is no mechanism to report child labor violations in other parts of the country.(79) Research indicates that violations were common in all sectors of the economy.(3, 65, 79, 82, 83, 88) The Ministry of Public Service, Labor, Social Security, and Employment works closely with the MOJ; Ministry of Social Affairs, Promotion of Gender, and Humanitarian Action (MSA); and UNICEF to provide assistance to victims of child labor.(79)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in CAR took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (3)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (42, 89)

Yes (4)

Number of Investigations

0† (90)

Unknown (79)

Number of Violations Found

0† (90)

2,679 (7)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0† (90)

0 (30)

Number of Convictions

0† (90)

0 (30)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

No (22)

Yes (4)

† Data are from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2014.

The first criminal trials since 2011 were held in Bangui in June and July 2015; however, none of these trials were related to the worst forms of child labor.(30, 79) Of the six juvenile courts in CAR, only the one located in Bangui functions. However, it lacks the staff and resources to conduct investigations.(14) The weak judicial system and absence of state authority outside of Bangui has led to a lack of trust in the system and the inability to access formal judicial processes.(5, 14) Criminal acts were widely resolved through traditional methods across the country, often to the exclusion of formal legal proceedings.(4) Research also indicates that although law enforcement officials received training on how to identify and investigate cases of human trafficking, government officials outside of the capital may lack the means and the capacity to enforce the law, including not having access to copies of relevant laws.(4, 30)

There are no formal referral mechanisms, and the Government did not identify any child trafficking victims during the reporting period. UNICEF and MINIUSCA identified and separated at least 2,679 children from armed groups during the reporting period and NGOs identified and provided services to 104 victims of human trafficking, including shelter, psychosocial care, health services, and resettlement.(4, 7)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Council for the Protection of Children

Coordinate policies and strategies to protect children from sexual exploitation and child soldiering. Overseen by the Prime Minister’s Office and comprised of government ministries, NGOs, and international organizations.(10, 30, 57, 91)

Interministerial Committee to Combat Human Trafficking*

Overseen by the Ministry of Public Security, investigates and combats human trafficking in CAR.(4)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

The National Council for the Protection of Children did not meet in 2015 for the third straight year. The Interministerial Committee to Combat Human Trafficking, which was created in March 2015, did not carry out any activities during the reporting period.(72, 79)

The Government of CAR has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Bangui Forum Agreement†

Formal agreement signed by 10 armed groups and the Transitional Government on May 5, 2015, to end the recruitment and use of children in armed combat and facilitate the separation of children from their ranks.(3, 5, 7, 13, 24, 28, 44, 47, 64, 92, 93) Since the signing of the agreement, 1,446 child soldiers were released from armed groups and received psychosocial support and reintegration services from UNICEF, some as part of this agreement.(5, 7, 23, 30, 57, 62)

Child Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Policy†

MSA policy that aims to facilitate the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of child soldiers in CAR.(5)

UNDAF (2012–2016)

Aims to continue peace-building efforts, strengthen the rule of law, and accelerate progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. Commits to improving reintegration activities for child ex-combatants, improving access to protective services for children, and increasing primary school attendance and access to quality education.(29, 94)

National Action Plan for Education for All (2003–2015)*

Aimed to improve enrollment and completion rates for primary school. Also called for the establishment of informal schools in rural areas to provide access to education for children, between the ages of 8 and 15, who have never attended school.(95, 96)

National Strategy for the Education Sector (2008–2020)*

Aims to improve access and retention in all levels of education by constructing 800 classrooms per year between 2008 and 2015, improving the quality and effectiveness of education, recruiting additional teachers, encouraging the establishment of private schools, and conducting awareness-raising campaigns that promote the importance of education.(97)

National Poverty Reduction Strategy II (2011–2015)*

Established a national framework for encouraging growth and reducing poverty. Focused on promoting security and peace, reviving the economy through regional integration, and developing human capital and social services.(95, 98)

2010 N’Djamena Declaration of the Regional Conference: Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups

Represents a commitment among the signatory countries, including CAR, to eliminate the use of child soldiers. All efforts to demobilize and reintegrate child soldiers have been taken under this declaration.(99)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

Although the Government of CAR has adopted the Bangui Forum Agreement that seeks to address child soldiering, research found no evidence of a policy on other worst forms of child labor. In 2015, the MSA, in collaboration with an NGO, began drafting a National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking.(4, 72, 79) This replaces a previous action plan drafted in collaboration with UNICEF in 2007 that was not implemented due to a lack of resources.(30) A draft of a national policy addressing the elimination of child labor has yet to be adopted.(72, 88) Research was unable to determine whether the UNDAF, National Action Plan for Education for All, National Strategy for the Education Sector, or the National Poverty Reduction Strategy II were implemented during the reporting period.(79)

In 2015, the Government of CAR participated in programs that may contribute to the prevention or elimination of child labor (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Regional Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking and Smuggling of Migrants (2015–2020)*

$24.7 million UNODC-funded program implemented in conjunction with ECOWAS and the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) that aims to improve the capacity of West and Central African countries to combat human trafficking and the smuggling of migrants in accordance with the Palermo Protocol.(100) Aims to improve regional coordination in terms of data collection, information sharing, criminal prosecution, and victim protection.(100)

Education Cluster

Funded by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) and led by UNICEF, develops and coordinates the implementation of an education program in collaboration with the Ministry of Education for schools that are able to reopen. Establishes Temporary Spaces for Learning and Child Protection (ETAPE) in internally displaced persons sites in Bangui to provide safe learning environments and child protection services.(68, 70)

Shelters for Unaccompanied Children

UNICEF-supported centers in Bangui that provide immediate care, food, and psychosocial support to unaccompanied children and former child soldiers.(56)

Education Program*

$23.4 million European Union-funded program to strengthen educational services by rehabilitating and equipping more than 300 schools in 4 prefectures and the capital, Bangui. Provides training for teachers, support for parent-teacher associations, and care for children released from armed groups.(101)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.

Although the Government participates in a program that assists former child soldiers, the scope of this program is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(5, 14, 102) Additionally, the Government was unable to provide direct reintegration programs to former child soldiers due to a lack of resources, which left victims vulnerable to exploitation or re-recruitment by armed groups.(4, 5) Research found no evidence that the Government has programs to assist children engaged in other worst forms of child labor, largely due to a lack of governmental capacity and funding.(3, 22)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in CAR (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict.

2013 – 2015

Make the Government’s legislation for a minimum age for voluntary military service publicly available.

2015

Create a comprehensive list of hazardous occupations and/or activities prohibited for children in consultation with employers’ and workers’ organizations.

2013 – 2015

Establish criminal prohibitions for the possession and distribution of child pornography, and for benefiting from the proceeds of the sexual exploitation of children.

2009 – 2015

Enforcement

Ensure that enforcement agencies have sufficient resources and allocated funding to enable government officials to enforce laws related to child labor throughout the country.

2009 – 2015

Make data publicly available on the labor inspectorate’s funding level, the number and type of investigations conducted, violations found, penalties imposed, prosecutions initiated, and convictions made.

2014 – 2015

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in accordance with the ILO’s standards.

2009 – 2015

Coordination

Ensure that existing coordination mechanisms function as intended and aim to combat all forms of child labor, including its worst forms.

2011 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into education and poverty reduction policies.

2009 – 2015

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant worst forms of child labor and ensure adequate funding to fully implement action plans and policies.

2014 – 2015

Implement established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms.

2013 – 2015

Social Programs

Improve access to education by eliminating school-related fees; ensure that there are an adequate number of teachers and classrooms throughout the country; ensure that children can safely access education; and ensure that schools are safe spaces, free from armed groups.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that all children have access to birth registration.

2013 – 2015

Expand programs to assist former child combatants and children associated with armed groups.

2009 – 2015

Implement programs to address the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2015

 

 

1.         Perez, L. An Uncertain Future: Children and Armed Conflict in the Central African Republic. New York, Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict and Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre; May 2011. http://watchlist.org/an-uncertain-future-children-and-armed-conflict-in-the-central-african-rupublic-watchlistidmc/.

2.         Schlein, L. "Survey Finds Previously Isolated Community in CAR Faces Acute Hardship," News. Voice of America; November 15, 2011; radio broadcast; accessed January 27, 2014; http://www.voanews.com/english/news/africa/Survey-Finds-Previously-Isolated-Community-in-CAR-Faces-Acute-Hardship-133886753.html.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Bangui. reporting, February 3, 2016.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Central African Republic," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243412.htm.

5.         UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict in the Central African Republic; February 12, 2016. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N16/037/46/PDF/N1603746.pdf?OpenElement.

6.         Aubert, V. Caught in a Combat Zone: The urgent need to demobilise children from armed groups in the Central African Republic. London, Save the Children; 2014. https://www.savethechildren.org.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/67124/Caught-in-a-Combat-Zone-FINAL_11-December-PDF.pdf.

7.         UN General Assembly Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/70/836–S/2016/360) April 20, 2016. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2016/360.

8.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

9.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from MICS 4, 2010. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

10.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Central African Republic (ratification: 2000) Published: 2012; accessed December 23, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:1:0::NO:::.

11.       Agence France Presse. "Amnesty warns of conflict diamonds stockpile in C. Africa." September 30, 2015 [cited [source on file].

12.       Chains Of Abuse: The global diamond supply chain and the case of the Central African Republic. London, Amnesty International; 2015. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr19/2494/2015/en/.

13.       Amnesty International Report 2015/16: The State of the World's Human Rights. London, Amnesty International February 23, 2016. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/pol10/2552/2016/en/.

14.       African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Mission Report of the ACERWC to assess the Situation of Children Affected by the conflict in Centra l Africa n Republic. Addis-Ababa, ACERWC, December 2014. http://www.acerwc.org/?wpdmdl=9478.

15.       UN Security Council. Resolution 2149; April 10, 2014. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_res_2149.pdf.

16.       Xinua General News Service. "UN Official Says LRA Still Major Violator of Children's Rights in Africa." news.xinuanet.com [online] June 6, 2012 [cited February 29, 2016]; http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/world/2012-06/07/c_123245878.htm.

17.       "UN: Half of Central African Republic Needs Aid." Washington Post, Washington, DC, January 6, 2014. http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refdaily?pass=52fc6fbd5&id=52cba3345.

18.       UN News. "More than 6,000 child soldiers may now be involved in the conflict in CAR." un.org [online] January 17, 2014 [cited December 30, 2014]; http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=46954#.VKMXOtLF-So.

19.       Al Jazeera. "UN decries use of child soldiers in CAR." aljazeera.com [online] January 5, 2013 [cited January 27, 2014]; http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2013/01/201314231056418553.html.

20.       Agence France-Presse. "Child soldiers killed in Central African Republic, South African troops claim." [online] March 31, 2013 [cited January 27, 2014]; http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/afp/130331/safrican-troops-claim-child-soldiers-killed-c-africa.

21.       UN High Commissioner for Refugees. "UN increasingly worried for civilians as fighting spreads in Central African Republic." March 15, 2013. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,COI,,,CAF,456d621e2,5148312e2,0.html.

22.       U.S. Embassy- Bangui official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 27, 2015.

23.       Agence France Presse. "Centrafrique: 163 enfants-soldats libérés par les anti-balaka." [online] August 29, 2015 [cited December 2, 2015]; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dBrcVZNLjc&feature=player_embedded.

24.       "Central African Republic militias to free child soldiers." BBC.co.uk [online] May 5, 2015 [cited May 5, 2015]; http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-32592869.

25.       "Militia releases 163 child soldiers from ranks in CAR: AntiBalaka group releases children in country where as many as 10,000 child soldiers may have been forced into combat." aljazeera.com [online] August 25, 2015 [cited September 1, 2015]; http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/08/militia-releases-163-child-soldiers-ranks-car-150829070207389.html.

26.       ILO. Report of the Committee on the Application of Standards. Geneva, ILO; 2014. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_246782.pdf.

27.       APA. "Des enfants centrafricains parlent de leur condition de vie à Samba Panza." JournalDeBangui.com [online] March 17, 2015 [cited December 2, 2015]; http://www.journaldebangui.com/article.php?aid=7934.

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49.       "UN peacekeepers face new sex abuse allegations in CAR." Al Jazeera.com [online] August 20, 2015 [cited September 28, 2015]; http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/08/peacekeepers-face-sex-abuse-allegations-car-150820050749087.html.

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52.       Kelemen, M. "Abuse Allegations Against French Soldiers Raise Troubling Questions," Morning Edition. Washington, D.C.: NPR; May 11,, 2015; 3 min., 53 sec., radio broadcast; [cited May 12, 2015]; http://www.npr.org/2015/05/11/405816887/abuse-allegations-against-u-n-peacekeepers-raise-troubling-questions.

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86.       UN. "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex." (2012); http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

87.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

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99.       Government of Cameroon, Government of Central African Republic, Government of Chad, Government of Nigeria, Government of Niger, and Government of Sudan. N'djamena Declaration of Regional Conference: Ending Recruitment and Use of Children by Armed Forces and Groups; Contributing to Peace, Justice and Development, enacted June 9, 2010. http://www.unicef.org/protection/files/DDR_Conference_Declarations_de_NDjamena.pdf.

100.     UNODC. Stratégie de régionale de lutte contre la traite des personnes et le trafic illicite de migrants, 2015-2020. Dakar; 2015. https://www.unodc.org/documents/westandcentralafrica/ONUDC_Strategie_regionale_de_lutte_contre_TdP_et_TiM_Afrique_de_lOuest_et_du_Centre_2015-2020.pdf.

101.     Diallo, A. "Centrafrique: l'UNICEF et l'Union européenne s'engagent dans la réhabilitation des écoles et de la santé infantile," Geneva: United Nations Radio; June 12, 2015; 15 min, radio broadcast; [cited November 18, 2015]; http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/french/2015/06/centrafrique-lunicef-et-lunion-europeenne-sengagent-dans-la-rehabilitation-des-ecoles-et-de-la-sante-infantile/#.Vk6d6MLbKM_.

102.     U.S. Embassy- Bangui official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 5, 2015.

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