Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Cameroon

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Cameroon

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Cameroon made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed a new Penal Code, which incorporated elements of the 2011 Anti-Trafficking Law; launched a $12 million Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program; and negotiated the identification and repatriation of 14 girls who were trafficked to Kuwait, Lebanon, and the United Arab Emirates for forced labor in domestic work. However, children in Cameroon perform dangerous tasks in cocoa production and engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. The Government has not ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, nor has it prohibited the use of children in illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs.

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Children in Cameroon perform dangerous tasks in cocoa production. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Cameroon.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

56.2

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

79.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

52.7

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

73.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples, 2011.(7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of bananas, cocoa, coffee, onions, palm oil, rubber, and tea, including handling pesticides, machetes, clearing fields, climbing trees, and lifting heavy loads† (4, 5, 8-15)

Raising livestock (4, 13)

Fishing (4, 13, 16)

Industry

Working in artisanal gold mines† and gravel quarries,† transporting heavy loads† of sand or gravel, breaking stones, and digging or standing in stagnant water to extract minerals (3, 12, 13, 15-17)

Construction, including carrying heavy loads† of water, concrete, cement, and bricks (12, 13, 15)

Services

Domestic work (4, 12, 13, 15, 18)

Working in transportation (12, 13)

Street work, including carrying heavy luggage,† vending, and begging (11-13, 15, 19-22)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 3, 13, 15, 20, 23-25)

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict, including as suicide bombers and concubines (26-34)

Forced labor in agriculture in the production of cocoa, cotton, onions, and tea; fishing; livestock raising; domestic work; spare parts shops; in artisanal gold mines and gravel quarries; street vending; and construction, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 13, 15, 25)

Forced begging as talibés in Koranic schools (12, 35, 36)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Cameroon is a source, transit, and destination country for child trafficking from neighboring countries in Central and West Africa.(3, 12, 22, 37) Some parents may entrust their children to intermediaries who pretend to offer education and employment opportunities but instead subject the child to forced domestic work as a result of internal human trafficking.(25, 29) However, improved public awareness about this type of child trafficking has reduced this practice, and perpetrators are increasingly resorting to kidnapping children for human trafficking purposes.(3) Enforcement officials are also becoming more vigilant about requiring parental authorization for children traveling without their parents, and border crossings are increasingly well monitored, particularly at the borders of Nigeria and the Central African Republic.(3)

Although Decree N° 2001/041 on the Organization of Public Schools guarantees free education in Cameroon, families are required to pay for uniforms, books, and other school-related fees.(11, 22, 38-42) A lack of schools and teachers in rural areas also hinders access to education.(19, 22, 40, 41, 43) In addition, children in refugee camps have difficulty accessing education due to a lack of school infrastructure, teachers, language barriers, and resources to pay for school-related expenses.(41, 44-47) Numerous attacks by Boko Haram have closed many schools in northern Cameroon, but some schools reopened for the 2016–2017 school year. Although the Government has dedicated $8.7 million to reconstruct schools in the Far North region, some contractors and teachers are unwilling to work in areas affected by Boko Haram.(22, 27, 33, 34, 36, 39, 44, 45, 48-51) Teacher and student strikes in the Northwest and Southwest regions at the end of 2016 also disrupted students’ access to education.(36, 52-54)

Cameroon has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Cameroon’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Section 86 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of Order N° 017 on Child Labor (55, 56)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 9–23 of Order N° 017 on Child Labor; Section 86 of the Labor Code (55, 56)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 9–23 of the Order on Child Labor (56)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 1–6 of the Law Relating to the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Slavery; Articles 11, 342-1, 352, and 353 of the Penal Code; Section 2 of the Labor Code (55, 57, 58)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 1–6 of the Law Relating to the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Slavery; Articles 11, 342-1, and 352–354 of the Penal Code (57, 58)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 294 and 344–347 of the Penal Code; Articles 76, 81, and 82 of the Law on Cybersecurity and Cybercriminality (57, 59)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

Article 12 of the Decree Concerning the Status of Non-Defense Military Personnel; Article 2a of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Admission to Military Training Schools for Officers (60, 61)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 12 of the Decree Concerning the Status of Non-Defense Military Personnel; Article 2a of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Admission to Military Training Schools for Officers (60, 61)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

No

12‡

Preamble of the Constitution; Articles 9 and 16 of the Law Orienting the Education System (57, 62-64)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 46 (2), 47, and 48 of the Decree on the Organization of Public Schools (42)

* No conscription (65)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (39)

A new Penal Code was passed in July 2016, which includes a new provision punishing parents with a fine of $80–$800 if they choose not to enroll their children in school, despite having adequate means. The new Penal Code also incorporated the 2011 Law Relating to the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Slavery.(57) However, the human trafficking provisions remain discordant with international standards, as they require threats, the use of force, or coercion to be established for the crime of child trafficking, and individuals ages 16 to 18 are not considered children.(57, 58) In addition, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children under age 18 are not comprehensive, as work under water or work at dangerous heights are not prohibited.(18, 56) The Government has acknowledged the need to update the hazardous work prohibitions and is planning to incorporate updates into a revision of the Labor Code.(11, 18)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MINTSS)

Lead efforts to enforce child labor laws, promote decent working conditions, and lead the National Committee to Combat Child Labor (CNLCTE).(11, 66, 67) Advocate on behalf of victims, present complaints to court, and provide social services to victims of child labor.(68)

Ministry of Justice (MOJ)

Prosecute cases referred by the General Delegate for National Security (DGSN) or the Ministry of Defense’s National Gendarmerie (SED) and contribute to investigations as appropriate.(13, 68)

Ministry of Social Affairs (MINAS)

Lead efforts to combat human trafficking, provide social services and repatriation assistance to victims according to the National Referral System, and maintain a hotline for reporting child labor violations.(11, 13, 29, 69, 70) Through its Minors Brigade, work with local police stations to investigate child trafficking and the use of children in hazardous work.(8, 71, 72) Through its Joint Mobile Brigade, prevent and combat the phenomenon of street children through identification, reintegration, and education.(8, 73)

Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Family (MINPROFF)

Promote and protect the rights of the child, including by combating sex tourism and the commercial sexual exploitation of children.(11)

Ministry of Defense’s National Gendarmerie (SED)

Enforce criminal laws against child trafficking and investigate violations of child labor laws in both rural and urban areas.(13, 73) Conduct initial investigations before referring cases to the MOJ or Ministry of Defense.(13)

General Delegate for National Security (DGSN)

Enforce laws against the worst forms of child labor and investigate violations in urban areas.(13, 73) Through its Special Vice Squad, investigate cases of human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and other forms of abuse against women and children through regional and international police cooperation.(13, 18) Refer cases to the MOJ or Ministry of Defense.(13)

Ministry of Territorial Administration and Decentralization

Enforce child labor laws at the regional level. Local representatives may settle child labor disputes amicably or refer the case to the SED, DGSN, or MOJ for further investigation and prosecution.(73)

 

Although many agencies may be involved in the investigation and prosecution of a case, there is no official mandate requiring them to work together or hierarchically. In theory, this allows a greater number of cases to be addressed, but research was unable to determine whether this was the case.(13)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Cameroon took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (1)

$635,610 (74)

Number of Labor Inspectors

79 (1)

80 (13)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (55)

Yes (55)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (1)

Yes (13)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

No (13)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (1)

Unknown (13)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown* (1)

Unknown* (13)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown* (1)

Unknown* (13)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown* (1)

Unknown* (13)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (1)

Unknown* (13)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (1)

Unknown* (13)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown* (1)

Unknown* (13)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (1)

Yes (13)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (1)

Unknown (13)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (55)

Yes (13)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (1)

Yes (13)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (1, 75)

Yes (13)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (75)

Yes (13)

* The Government does not publish this information.

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Cameroon’s workforce, which includes over 9 million workers.(76) According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Cameroon should employ roughly 607 labor inspectors.(76-78) The Labor Inspectorate lacked the necessary resources to carry out its mandate during the reporting period, and inspectors were tasked with reconciliation duties, which may detract from time devoted to their primary duties.(13, 39, 55) In addition, child labor violations are not specifically targeted during inspections because existing legislation does not explicitly extend to the informal sector in which the majority of child labor occurs.(13, 79) Although the Ministry of Social Affairs (MINAS), Interpol, and the police all maintain hotlines for reporting the worst forms of child labor, research was unable to determine how many cases of child labor were identified as a result of complaints made to these lines.(18, 75)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Cameroon took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (1)

Yes (13)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

No (13)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (1, 66)

No (13)

Number of Investigations

17 (66)

13 (29, 74)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (1)

119 (13, 74)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

20 (14)

9 (29, 80)

Number of Convictions

2 (66)

Unknown (29)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (1, 20, 25)

Yes (13)

* The Government does not publish this information.

It is unclear how many investigators the Government employed in 2016, although officers from the National Police and National Gendarmerie, Special Vice Squad, and Cameroon Border Police all worked to enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. In general, these agencies do not receive adequate funding or training to investigate the worst forms of child labor, and high staff turnover is a challenge.(3, 13, 37, 39) As a result, the Government relies heavily on NGOs to bring child trafficking cases to its attention and provide services to victims.(3, 37) The Government acknowledges that a lack of awareness of child trafficking issues also prevents Cameroonian citizens from reporting offenses to enforcement agencies and that children may be afraid to speak against perpetrators in court.(29, 37) There are also some reports that the Government holds boys in detention for prolonged periods due to suspicion of being affiliated with Boko Haram elements.(28, 49, 50, 81, 82)

There are no comprehensive statistics on criminal child labor law violations, although two regional task forces and local NGOs reported at least five cases of child trafficking in 2016, some of which were settled outside the judicial system.(13) The Government prosecuted 11 cases related to human trafficking, nine of which involved children. These prosecutions resulted in seven convictions, but the Government did not disaggregate the convictions by cases involving minors.(74) Convictions in two cases of child trafficking initiated in the previous reporting period ultimately were prosecuted as other crimes. In one instance, a 14-year-old victim was punished for stealing a cow as compensation for forced labor, and in the other, a local mayor and five others were sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment and a fine of $48,800 for kidnapping a 14-year-old girl.(29) Research indicates some government officials in the Northwest region were also investigated for complicity in a child trafficking ring during the reporting period.(29)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee to Combat Child Labor (CNLCTE)

Coordinate government efforts to eradicate child labor by 2017, propose measures to harmonize Cameroon’s legal framework to international standards, and implement the National Plan of Action to Combat Child Labor and Trafficking in Children (PANETEC).(67, 83, 84) Led by MINTSS.(67, 83)

Inter-Ministerial Committee (IMC)

Coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking; chaired by the Secretary General of the Office of the Prime Minister and includes members of eight ministries, law enforcement personnel, civil society organizations, and NGOs.(29, 37) Oversee two Regional Taskforces on Trafficking in Persons.(14, 29, 85)

 

The CNLCTE and IMC failed to meet in 2016 due to a lack of funding, and the Regional Taskforces on Trafficking in Persons were ineffective during the reporting period.(29, 74) This severely hindered government efforts to coordinate and share relevant information between government offices and stakeholders in the NGO community.(36, 37)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

PANETEC (2014–2016)

Aimed to eradicate the worst forms of child labor by 2016, including forced domestic work. Reinforced the Government’s institutional framework, including by harmonizing national laws with international standards, providing quality universal primary education, and allocating additional resources to the labor inspectorate.(11, 13, 86, 87)

Trafficking in Persons Action Plan (2014–2019)

Outlines efforts to combat human trafficking.(3)

MOJ’s National Action Plan for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in Cameroon (2015–2019)

Aims to combat exploitative child labor by disseminating standard operating procedures for the National Referral System, raising awareness about how to identify and report cases of child trafficking, increasing punishments for offenders, and building the capacity of labor inspectors.(13, 66, 88) Also aims to improve access to education for vulnerable groups by increasing the number of teachers and classrooms, establishing a legal framework to regulate parent–teacher associations, and increasing the rate of educational attainment for girls.(88)

Decent Work Country Program (2014–2017)

Incorporates child labor concerns into the strategy for work.(9)

 

The National Plan of Action to Combat Child Labor and Trafficking in Children (PANETEC) was endorsed by stakeholders in 2014, but the Government’s failure to formally endorse it limited its implementation.(13, 29, 89) Although routine activities carried out by various ministries may support policies related to child labor, no activities were undertaken to implement specific policies during the reporting period due to a lack of resources.(36) Furthermore, the Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the PRSP (2010–2020), the UNICEF Country Program Action Plan (2013–2017), or the IMC’s National Gender Policy Document (2011–2020).(90-92)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Project to Fight the Phenomenon of Street Children (Project 559)†

MINAS-funded program that gathers information on street children and offers health care, education, and psychosocial care.(3, 39) In 2016, provided shelter to 92 children removed from Boko Haram elements, identified and provided reintegration or reinsertion services to 265 street children, and facilitated primary education for 5,250 indigenous Baka children.(13)

Country Program Action Plan (2013–2017)†

UNICEF- and MINAS-implemented program that aims to improve social protection and preventive health care, and to ensure access to primary education.(1, 71, 92) In 2016, provided psychosocial support, identification, and reintegration or reinsertion services to children displaced by Boko Haram elements in the Far North region.(13)

School Feeding Programs

Programs that provide meals to improve educational access for girls.(8, 38) The $12 million U.S. Department of Agriculture-funded McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program* improves literacy and nutrition in 92 primary schools, benefitting 40,000 children in the Northwest region.(13) In 2016, the WFP provided meals to 3,200 children in northern Cameroon but discontinued its program after May due to lack of funding.(93)

Social Safety Nets (2014–2018)

$50 million World Bank-funded program implemented by the Ministry of Economy, Planning, and Regional Development that provides direct cash transfers to vulnerable families in exchange for commitments by parents to send their children to school.(38) By the end of 2016, provided cash transfer or cash for work to 208,203 individuals in the regions of Adamaoua, the Far North, North, and the cities of Douala and Yaoundé.(94, 95)

† Program is funded by the Government of Cameroon.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(3, 13, 20, 29, 66, 73)

Although the Government has implemented programs to assist victims of child trafficking and children engaged in street work and domestic work, the scope of these programs is insufficient and does not fully address the extent of the problem; in addition, funding was reduced during the reporting period.(1, 29) Government-run centers can temporarily house victims, but space is insufficient, and these centers are often staffed by law enforcement officials or employees without appropriate training.(37) In addition, research did not find evidence of programs to specifically address child labor in agriculture, mining, and quarrying.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Cameroon (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s)

Legal Framework

Ratify the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2013 – 2016

Criminally prohibit the use of children for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Establish a minimum age for compulsory education that is consistent with the minimum age for admission to work.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive and include work under water or work at dangerous heights.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that laws prohibiting child trafficking do not require threats, the use of force, or coercion to be considered child trafficking and that all children under age 18 are protected.

2015 – 2016

Enforcement

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors according to the ILO recommendation.

2009 – 2016

Collect and publish comprehensive statistics on enforcement efforts, including the total number and type of inspections conducted, violations found, penalties imposed, and convictions obtained.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that labor inspectorates and criminal law enforcement agencies receive an adequate amount of funding with which to conduct inspections and investigations, and that labor inspectors are able to carry out their primary duties of inspection and monitoring.

2009 – 2016

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by initiating targeted inspections based on analysis of data related to at-risk sectors and patterns of serious incidents, including in the informal sector.

2013 – 2016

Ensure all hotlines for reporting the worst forms of child labor are operational and establish a mechanism to log all calls and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social services providers.

2015 – 2016

Raise awareness of child trafficking issues to encourage citizens to report offenses to enforcement agencies.

2016

Ensure that boys and girls are not held in detention without reasonable evidence of wrongdoing and that victims are not punished for the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Ensure government officials are not complicit in perpetuating the worst forms of child labor.

2016

Coordination

Ensure that existing coordinating mechanisms have clear mandates and are allocated sufficient resources to carry them out.

2014 – 2016

Government Policies

Ensure existing policies, such as PANETEC, receive adequate resources and are implemented.

2016

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the PRSP and the IMC’s National Gender Policy Document.

2010 – 2016

Social Programs

Ensure that all children, regardless of refugee status, have access to education by eliminating school-related fees and teacher strikes. Make additional efforts to provide all children with birth registration.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the number of schools and teachers is adequate throughout the country.

2009 – 2016

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem in Cameroon and institute programs to address child labor in agriculture, mining, and quarrying.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that all government-run shelters have sufficient space to accommodate victims and are staffed by employees with the appropriate training to support victims.

2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- Yaounde. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

2.         Republic of Cameroon. Etude Pilote sur l'Exploitation Sexuelle Commerciale des Enfants au Cameroun en 2010. Yaoundé; 2010. http://www.statistics-cameroon.org/downloads/CSEC/Note_synthese_Rapport_CSEC.pdf.

3.         U.S Department of State. "Cameroon," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

4.         UCW. Cameroun: Comprendre le travail des enfants et l’emploi des jeunes. Rome; June 2012.

5.         Thorsen, D. Children Working in Commercial Agriculture: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Briefing Paper N.2. New York; April 2012. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Briefing_paper_No_2_-_children_working_in_commercial_agriculture.pdf.

6.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples, 2011. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Yaounde official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 21, 2014.

9.         ILO. Equipe d’Appui Technique au Travail Décent pour l’Afrique Centrale et Bureau Pays pour l'Angola, le Cameroun et Sao Tome & Principe. Programme Pays pour le Travail Décent (PPTD) 2014 - 2017. Geneva; 2014. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/cameroun.pdf.

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11.       Government of Cameroon. Plan d'Action National pour l'Elimination des Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants au Cameroun (PANETEC) (2014-2016). Yaoundé, Ministere du Travail et de la Securite Sociale (MINTSS); 2014. [Source on file].

12.       ILO Committee of Experts. Provisional Record: Report of the Committee on the Application of Standards. Geneva; June 2015. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_375764.pdf.

13.       U.S. Embassy- Yaounde. Reporting, December 15, 2016.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Yaounde official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 23, 2016.

15.       National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms. Report on the State of Human Rights in Cameroon in 2013. Yaoundé; 2015. http://www.cndhl.cm/index.php/repository/func-startdown/28/.

16.       "Cameroun: La lutte s’intensifie contre Travail des enfants." cameroon-info.net [online] April 30, 2015 [cited November 13, 2015]; http://cameroon-info.net/stories/0,66247,@,cameroun-la-lutte-s-intensifie-contre-travail-des-enfants.html.

17.       Kouagheu, J. "Au Cameroun, avec les enfants chercheurs d’or de Bétaré-Oya." lemonde.fr [online] January 11, 2016 [cited October 20, 2016]; http://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2016/01/11/au-cameroun-avec-les-enfants-chercheurs-d-or-de-betare-oya_4845234_3212.html.

18.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Cameroon (Ratification: 2002) Published: 2016; accessed October 20, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

19.       Government of Cameroon. Troisieme Edition du Tableau de Bord Social sur la Situation des Enfants et des Femmes au Cameroun (TBS 3). Yaounde; December 2009. http://www.statistics-cameroon.org/downloads/Rapport_TBS3.pdf.

20.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Cameroon (Ratification: 2002) Published: 2015; accessed November 13, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3184659.

21.       Kindzeka Moki, E. "Cameroon Teachers Celebrate Teachers Day Amid Growing Challenges." VOAnews.com [online], Yaoundé, October 5, 2015. http://www.voanews.com/content/teachers-celebrate-teachers-day-amid-growing-challenges/2991709.html.

22.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Cameroon (Ratification: 2002) Published: 2016; accessed October 20, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

23.       Institut National de la Statistique du Cameroun. Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants: Enquete Pilote sur l'Exploitation Sexuelle Commerciale des Enfants au Cameroun en 2010. Rapport d’étude. Yaoundé; December 2011. http://www.minas.gov.cm/images/Documents/Rapports/Rapport_CSEC_Cameroun_les_pires_formes_de_travail_des_enfants.pdf.

24.       Ondoua Owona, JJ. Cameroun: Exploitation sexuelle des enfants, Camer.be [online], [online] August 27, 2015 [cited November 13, 2015]; http://www.camer.be/44877/11:1/cameroun-exploitation-sexuelle-des-enfants-cameroon.html.

25.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Cameroon (Ratification: 2002) Published: 2015; accessed November 13, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3184662.

26.       International Crisis Group. Cameroon: Confronting Boko Haram. Brussels; 2016. https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/central-africa/cameroon/cameroon-confronting-boko-haram.

27.       Ntaryike, D, P Bax. "Cameroon Sees Surge in Bombings as Nigeria Chases Boko Haram." Bloomberg.com [online] February 3, 2016 [cited February 8, 2016]; http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-02-03/cameroon-sees-surge-in-bombings-as-nigeria-pursues-boko-haram.

28.       Amnesty International. Cameroon: Right Cause, Wrong Means: Human Rights Violated and Justice Denied in Cameroon’s Fight Against Boko Haram. London; July 14, 2016. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr17/4260/2016/en/.

29.       U.S. Embassy- Yaounde. Reporting, February 16, 2017.

30.       Kouaghe, J. "Two girl suicide bombers attack north Cameroon town." Reuters.com [online] November 24, 2016 [cited December 5, 2016]; http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFKBN13J1AL.

31.       Searcey, D. "Boko Haram Turns Female Captives Into Terrorists." NYTimes.com [online] April 7, 2016 [cited April 11, 2016]; http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/08/world/africa/boko-haram-suicide-bombers.html.

32.       UN General Assembly Security Council. Children and armed conflict Report of the Secretary-General. Geneva; April 20, 2016. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2016_360.pdf.

33.       UNICEF. Beyond Chibok Over 1.3 million children uprooted by Boko Haram violence. New York; April 2016. http://files.unicef.org/media/files/Beyond_Chibok.pdf.

34.       UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Central Africa and the activities of the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa. New York; May 25, 2016. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2016/482.

35.       Bouba, B. "Les talibés de Maroua (Cameroun): évaluation des besoins en éducation et des stratégies de prise en charge." Revue Petite Enfance, N° 00,(April 2013):38-61 http://fastef.ucad.sn/PEnfance/bachir_bouba.pdf.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Yaounde official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 13, 2017.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Yaounde official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. December 19, 2016.

38.       World Bank. Cameroon Social Safety Nets. Washington, DC; June 28, 2012. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2012/08/22/000386194_20120822005143/Rendered/PDF/705300ESW0CM0P0C0disclosed080200120.pdf.

39.       U.S Department of State. "Cameroon," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265446.pdf.

40.       Government of Cameroon, and World Bank. Audit social en faveur des indigents et des populations autochtones; February 25, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/193251468019812343/pdf/SFG1882-V1-IPP-FRENCH-P156679-PUBLIC-Disclosed-2-25-2016.pdf.

41.       Guilbert, K. "Child marriage threatens future of young Central African Republic refugees in Cameroon." Reuters.com [online], November 8, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-cameroon-centralafrica-refugees-idUSKBN1330G0.

42.       Government of Cameroon. Décret N° 2001/041 portant organisation des établissements scolaires publics et attributions des responsables de l'administration scolaire, enacted 2001. http://www.spm.gov.cm/fr/documentation/textes-legislatifs-et-reglementaires/article/decret-n-2001041-portant-organisation-des-etablissements-scolaires-publics-et-attributions-des-res.html.

43.       UNESCO. Global Education Monitoring Report 2016. Paris; 2016. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002457/245752e.pdf.

44.       UNICEF. "Nigeria conflict forces more than 1 million children from school." Dakar, December 22, 2015. http://www.unicef.org/media/media_86621.html.

45.       UNICEF. The Impact of Boko Haram and Armed Conflict on Schooling in Cameroon’s Far North; February 2015. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/CMRFarNorthEduction-Rapid_Assessment2015Final%281%29.pdf.

46.       Kindzeka Moki, E. "CAR Refugees Face Difficult Living Conditions in Cameroon." VOAnews.com [online] August 17, 2015 [cited March 23, 2016]; http://www.voanews.com/content/difficult-living-conditions-for-car-refugees-in-cameroon/2921047.html.

47.       U.S. Embassy- Yaounde official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. December 8, 2016.

48.       UNHCR. Cameroon: Far North - IDPs Overview. March 29, 2015. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/DashBoard_IDP_Maroua_20150329%20final.pdf.

49.       Amnesty International. Cameroon: Human Rights Under Fire: Attacks And Violations In Cameroon's Struggle With Boko Haram. London; September 15, 2015. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr17/1991/2015/en/.

50.       Amnesty International. Amnesty International Report 2015/16: The State Of The World's Human Rights. London; February 23, 2016. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/pol10/2552/2016/en/.

51.       Kindzeka Moki, E. "Tens of Thousands of Cameroon Students Without Teachers." VOAnews.com [online] October 5, 2016 [cited October 12, 2016]; http://www.voanews.com/a/tens-of-thousands-of-carmeroon-students-without-teachers/3538243.html.

52.       Atabong, AB. "Mass protests in Cameroon are exposing the fragility of its dual French-English system." qz.com [online], November 24, 2016. http://qz.com/845783/cameroon-protests-are-growing-over-the-anglophone-francophone-split/.

53.       "Cameroon teachers, lawyers strike in battle for English." aljazeera.com [online], December 5, 2016. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/12/cameroon-teachers-lawyers-strike-english-161205095929616.html.

54.       Sixtus, M. "Non, merci: English-Speaking Cameroon rises up, wants Republic of Ambazonia." IrinNews.org [online] December 15, 2016 [cited December 19, 2016]; http://www.irinnews.org/feature/2016/12/15/non-merci-english-speaking-cameroon-rises-wants-republic-ambazonia.

55.       Government of Cameroon. Labour Code Law N° 92/007 of 14 August 1992, enacted August 14, 1992. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/31629/64867/E92CMR01.htm.

56.       Government of Cameroon. Arrêté N° 17 du 27 mai 1969 relatif au travail des enfants, enacted May 27, 1969. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/17964/15795/F1498839332/CMR-17964.pdf.

57.       Government of Cameroon. Loi N° 2016/007 du 12 Juil 2016 Portant Code Penal, enacted July 12, 2016. http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/cm/cm014en.pdf.

58.       Government of Cameroon. Law N°2011 / 024 of 14 December 2011 Relating to the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Slavery, enacted December 14, 2011. http://www.justiceandpeacebamenda.org/attachments/article/24/THE+LAW+AGAINST+TRAFFICKING+IN+PERSONS+AND+SLAVERY.pdf.

59.       Republique du Cameroun. Loi N°2010/012 Relative A La Cybersecurite Et La Cybercriminalite Au Cameroun, enacted December 21, 2010. https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/cmr/2010/loi_sur_la_cybersecurite_et_la_cybercriminalite_html/Loi_2010-012_cybersecurite_cybercriminalite.pdf.

60.       Government of Cameroon. Décret N° 2001/190 du 25 Juillet 2001 portant Statut particulier des personnels militaires non Officiers des Forces de Défense, enacted July 25, 2001. http://www.spm.gov.cm/documentation/textes-legislatifs-et-reglementaires/article/decret-n-2001190-du-25-juillet-2001-portant-statut-particulier-des-personnels-militaires-non-offic.html.

61.       Government of Cameroon. Décret N° 2001/187 du 25 Juillet 2001 fixant les conditions de recrutement et d'admission dans les Ecoles Militaires de Formation des Officiers, enacted July 25, 2001. http://www.spm.gov.cm/documentation/textes-legislatifs-et-reglementaires/article/decret-n-2001187-du-25-juillet-2001-fixant-les-conditions-de-recrutement-et-dadmission-dans-les-e.html.

62.       Government of Cameroon. Law N° 96-06 of 18 January 1996 to amend the Constitution of 2 June 1972, enacted January 18, 1996. http://www.icla.up.ac.za/images/constitutions/cameroon_constitution.pdf.

63.       Government of Cameroon. Loi N° 98/004 du 4 Avril 1998 d'orientation de l'education au Cameroun, enacted April 14, 1998. http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/files/12704/10434093270Cameroun1.doc/Cameroun1.doc.

64.       Government of Cameroon. Système Educatif, Ministère de l'Education de Base (MINEDUB) [online], [cited January 6, 2016]; http://www.minedub.cm/index.php?id=5.

65.       Government of Cameroon. Ratification with Declaration on the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict on March 4, 2013, enacted 2013. https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/No%20Volume/27531/A-27531-Cameroon-0800000280351c59.pdf.

66.       U.S. Embassy- Yaounde. Reporting, January 29, 2016.

67.       Government of Cameroon. Arrêté N° 082/PM du 27 août 2014 portant création, organisation et fonctionnement du Comité national de lutte contre le travail des enfants, enacted August 27, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=96921.

68.       U.S. Embassy- Yaounde official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 17, 2015.

69.       Ministry of Social Affairs. Inventory of Fixtures, Actions and Challenges, Government of Cameroon, [online] [cited February 5, 2014]; [source on file].

70.       Ministry of Social Affairs. Protection spéciale de l'enfance, Government of Cameroon, [previously online] [cited February 5, 2014]; [source on file].

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75.       U.S. Embassy- Yaounde official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 16, 2016.

76.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a "sufficient number" of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

77.       UN. "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex." (2012); http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

78.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

79.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Cameroon (ratification: 2001) Published: 2015; accessed November 13, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3184639.

80.       U.S. Embassy- Yaounde official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 22, 2017.

81.       UN. Global Horizontal Notes; July - September 2015. [Source on file].

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83.       Mevengue, A. Lutte contre le Travail des enfants - La réponse nationale, Ministère du Travail et de la Sécurité Sociale, [cited June 1 2015]; http://mintss.gov.cm/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=61&Itemid=243&lang=fr.

84.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; April 2015.

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86.       Belinga, J-C. "Cameroun : évolution dans la lutte contre le travail des enfants." Afrik, March 20, 2014. http://www.afrik.com/cameroun-evolution-dans-la-lutte-contre-le-travail-des-enfants.

87.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2016.

88.       Ministère de la Justice. National Plan of Action for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in Cameroon (2015-2019). Yaoundé; December 2015. http://minjustice.gov.cm/pdf_download/droit_homme/plan_action/minjustice_national_plan_of_action_english_version.pdf.

89.       Wark, S, Martz, P. External Independent Final Evaluation Global Action Program (GAP 11) [DRAFT] December 22, 2015. [source on file].

90.       Government of Cameroon. National Gender Policy of CameroonMinistry of Women's Empowerment and Family [online]; 2015. http://mudecgroup.org/?p=786.

91.       IMF. Cameroon: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Project document. Washington, DC; August 2010. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2010/cr10257.pdf.

92.       UNICEF. Republic of Cameroon: Country Programme Document 2013-2017. Geneva; 2012. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2012-PL35_Cameroon_CPD-final_approved-English.pdf.

93.       World Food Programme. WFP Cameroon Country Brief. Rome; May 2016. http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/ep/wfp274659.pdf?_ga=1.231568799.1656045296.1484696372.

94.       World Bank. Cameroon Social Safety Nets: Integrated Safeguards Data Sheet Restructuring Stage. Washington, DC; April 20, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/275561468197376695/pdf/104974-ISDS-P128534-Initial-Restructuring-Box396247B-PUBLIC-Disclosed-4-20-2016.pdf.

95.       World Bank. Cameroon Social Safety Nets: Implementation Status & Results Report. Washington, DC; December 27, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/910471482879747893/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P128534-12-27-2016-1482879727673.pdf.

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