Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Côte d'Ivoire

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Côte d'Ivoire

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2017, Côte d’Ivoire made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government adopted a revised Hazardous Work List that includes prohibitions against children using sharp tools and work in mining, as well as new regulations on Light Work. The child labor monitoring system SOSTECI was expanded into 19 new communities and the government launched SOSTECI (2018 – 2020), which aims to expand the system into 33 new departments. The First Lady of Côte d’Ivoire hosted a Conference of First Ladies in October 2017 which brought together First Ladies from 14 African countries to pledge support to their governments’ efforts to prevent child labor, support victims, enhance regional cooperation, and mobilize resources. The Ministry of Justice worked with UNICEF to provide birth certificates to 1,165,325 primary school students. In addition, three World Bank projects trained 24,000 teachers, built or rehabilitated 1,272 classrooms, and provided cash transfers to 5,000 households. However, children in Côte d’Ivoire engage in the worst forms of child labor in the harvesting of cocoa and coffee, sometimes as result of human trafficking. Gaps remain in resources, personnel, and training for law enforcement, which resulted in victims being arrested for crimes they were forced to commit. Furthermore, the labor inspectorate is not authorized to assess penalties.

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Children in Côte d’Ivoire engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of cocoa and coffee, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1; 2; 3; 4) According to a multiple indicator cluster survey conducted in 2016, 21.5 percent of children ages 5–17 are engaged in hazardous work. (5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Côte d’Ivoire.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

31.5 (1,682,754)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

63.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

21.5

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

65.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (6)
Source for all other data: Enquête Démographique et de Santé en Côte d'Ivoire (EDSCI-III) Survey, 2011–2012. (7)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cocoa, including burning† and clearing fields;† cutting down trees† to expand cocoa plantations; spraying pesticides;† harvesting, drying, and fermenting cocoa beans; using sharp tools to break pods;† and transporting heavy loads† of cocoa pods and water (1; 3; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13)

Production of cereals, pineapple, bananas, and coffee, including applying chemical fertilizers,† spraying pesticides,† cutting down trees,† and burning† and clearing fields† (1; 2; 14; 15)

Production of palm oil, cashews, honey, and rubber (2; 3; 16)

Fishing, including deep sea diving;† repairing and hauling nets; cleaning,† salting, drying, descaling, and selling fish (3; 14; 17)

Livestock raising and slaughtering† (17)

Production of charcoal† (1; 3; 13)

Industry

Mining,† including crushing and transporting stones, blasting rocks, digging, working underground, sieving, and extracting gold with mercury or cyanide (3; 14; 18; 19; 20; 12; 16)

Manufacturing, including repairing automobiles (14; 16)

Construction,† activities unknown (14)

Services

Domestic work (14; 21; 22; 12; 15; 5)

Working in transportation and carrying goods† (1; 3; 14; 12; 16)

Street vending and commerce (1; 14; 12; 16)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in mining, carpentry, construction, domestic work, street vending, restaurants, and agriculture, including in the production of cocoa, coffee, pineapple, cotton, and rubber, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 2; 9; 17; 22; 23; 24; 16; 4)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (22; 16; 4)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking (15)

Forced begging by Koranic teachers, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (19; 25; 15)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children from Côte d’Ivoire are subjected to human trafficking for forced labor in domestic work within the country and North Africa. Children are also brought from neighboring West African countries to Côte d’Ivoire for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor, including in begging, cocoa production, and artisanal mining. (1; 10; 21; 16; 4; 15) IOM indicates that some parents send their boys to Tunisia so they can play soccer, but upon arrival, the boys’ identity documents are confiscated and they are subject to forced labor until they can repay the cost of their plane ticket. (26)

Although the Law on Education provides for free education, students are often required to pay for textbooks, school fees, or uniforms, which may be prohibitive to some families. (17; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 15) Approximately 23 percent of primary school-aged children and 41 percent of secondary-school aged children in Côte d’Ivoire are not enrolled in school, with the highest rates of non-enrollment found in the North, Northwest, and West regions. (31; 5) Although the government recruited 5,000 teacher assistants in 2017, distributed school kits, and constructed 4,510 new classrooms between 2015 and 2017, a lack of teachers, transportation, sanitation facilities, and schools, particularly in rural areas, remains. (12; 32; 15; 33; 17; 20; 34) Research also suggests that some students are physically and sexually abused at school, which may deter some students from attending school. (31; 32)

Côte d’Ivoire has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

In 2017, the government also ratified the UN Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, and the Ministry of Justice is drafting a related law. (35; 26)

The government’s laws and regulations are in line with relevant international standards (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 23.2 of the Labor Code; Article 16 of the Constitution (36; 37)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 4 of the Prohibitions of Hazardous Work List (38)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 5-11 of the Prohibitions of Hazardous Work List; Articles 6 and 19 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (38; 39)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Constitution; Articles 7, 11-14, 20-23, and 26 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law; Article 3 of the Labor Code (36; 37; 39)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Constitution; Articles 11-12, 20-22, and 26 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law; Article 370 of the Penal Code; Articles 4.4 and 6 of the Anti-Trafficking Law (36; 40; 41; 39)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 8-9, 15, and 24-29 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law; Articles 4.4 and 6 of the Anti-Trafficking Law (41; 39; 38)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 4 and 30 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (39)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

Article 56.4 of the Armed Forces Code (42)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Articles 56.4 of the Armed Forces Code; Articles 7-8 and 18 of the Law Determining the Conditions for Entering the Military (43; 42)

Non-state

Yes

18

Articles 4 and 31 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (39)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 10 of the Constitution; Article 2.1 of the Law on Education (36; 44; 45)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Law on Education (45)

* No conscription (43; 46; 26)

 

In 2017, the government adopted new Regulations on Light Work and a revised Hazardous Work List which includes prohibitions against children using sharp tools and work in mining. (47; 38) A draft law providing greater protection to domestic workers is no longer being actively considered, although government officials have noted the need for such a law. (48) The government also adopted a decree on the function and composition of a new anti-trafficking committee in April 2017 in support of the 2016 Anti-Trafficking Law. (49; 50)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Employment and Social Protection (MEPS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment and Social Protection (MEPS)

Develop, propose, and enforce all labor laws, including those related to child labor. (48) Collaborate with the Anti-Trafficking Unit (ATU) and Ministry of Women, Child Protection, and Social Affairs (MWCPSA) to provide support to victims of child trafficking and other forms of child labor. (21; 32; 15) Implement the child labor monitoring system, Système d’Observation et de Suivi du Travail des Enfants en Côte d’Ivoire (SOSTECI), which enables communities to collect and analyze statistical data on the worst forms of child labor. (14; 12) In 2017, SOSTECI received a budget of approximately $307,000, which permitted its expansion to 19 new communities and the Direction of the Fight Against Child Labor received a 7 percent increase in its budget from the previous year. (12; 16)

Ministry of Interior and Security

Through its ATU, lead efforts to enforce criminal laws against child trafficking. (51; 4; 26) Through its Mondaine Brigades, combat commercial sexual exploitation, including exploitation of children. (4; 26) In 2017, investigated and prosecuted nine cases of commercial sexual exploitation believed to involve victims of child trafficking. (26) Through its Unit for Combatting Transnational Organized Crime (UCT),* supports the UNODC’s West Africa Coast Initiative, which aims to improve cross-border cooperation to combat crimes, including human trafficking. (52; 26) In 2017, the UCT received a budget of almost $130,000, and participated in 8 operations against human trafficking, some of which resulted in arrests. Three investigations were ongoing as of 2018, and five were referred to the MOJ for prosecution. (26)

Ministry of Defense

Through its National Gendarmes Force, investigate child labor violations in rural areas without a police presence. (15)

Ministry of Justice (MOJ)

Investigate and prosecute crimes related to child labor, including its worst forms. Through its Directorate of Judicial Protection of Childhood and Youth (DPJEJ), assist with investigations and implement the ministry’s child protection policy. (15)

Ministry of Women, Child Protection, and Social Affairs (MWCPSA)

Lead the government’s efforts to combat human trafficking and implement a National Policy on Child Protection. (53; 4) Maintain the 116 Allo hotline for child labor issues, and respond to complaints. (15; 34) Respond and provide support to child labor victims in coordination with the MEPS. (54; 15)

National Commission of Human Rights (CNDHCI)

Maintain a hotline for reporting human rights abuses. (55)

* Agency responsible for child labor enforcement was created during the reporting period.

 

In 2017, the Ministry of Employment and Social Protection (MEPS) created 4 new Regional Labor Directorates and 1 new Departmental Labor Directorate, making 38 total offices throughout the country. The General Labor Directorate in Abidjan coordinates the regional offices and their efforts to combat child labor. (15; 56)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Côte d’Ivoire took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MEPS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resource allocation and authority to assess penalties for violations.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$300,842 (57)

$329,600 (15)

Number of Labor Inspectors

259 (57)

259 (15)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (37)

No (37)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

N/A (58; 59)

Yes (15)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (57)

Yes (15; 56)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (58)

Yes (15)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

739† (57)

969 (56)

Number Conducted at Worksites

739† (57)

Unknown* (15)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0† (57)

0 (15)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

N/A (57)

N/A (15)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

N/A (57)

N/A (15)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown (57)

Yes (15)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (57)

Unknown* (15)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (37)

Yes (37)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (57)

Yes (15)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (57)

Yes (15)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (57)

Yes (15)

* The government does not publish this information.
† Data are from January 1, 2016 to September 30, 2016.

 

The government provided training to 30 labor and medical inspectors on the new hazardous and light work laws in August 2017. (56) No inspections were conducted in the informal sector during the reporting period, which is where the majority of child labor occurs. (15) In addition, the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Côte d’Ivoire’s workforce, which includes over 8.5 million workers. (60) According to the ILO technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Côte d’Ivoire should employ about 569 inspectors. (60; 61; 62) Labor inspectors are also tasked with dispute conciliation, which may detract from their primary duties of inspection. (63; 37)

The labor inspectorate suffers from a lack of resources, including insufficient staff, office facilities, and transportation. (17; 64; 63; 32; 15) As a result, inspectors primarily receive and resolve complaints, focusing on the formal sector. (63)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Côte d’Ivoire took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators and financial resource allocation.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (65)

Yes (15)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (57)

Yes (66)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (57)

No (15)

Number of Investigations

20 (55)

42 (56)

Number of Violations Found

64 (67)

42 (56)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

18 (55)

17 (56)

Number of Convictions

8 (55)

4 (26)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (57)

Yes (15; 54)

 

During the reporting period, the Ministry of Interior and Security worked with IOM to strengthen border control capacities along the frontier with Burkina Faso and the Anti-Trafficking Unit (ATU)’s 13 Abidjan-based investigators identified 25 victims of child trafficking and 16 cases of child economic exploitation. (15; 4)

However, the ATU lacks the resources and personnel to adequately enforce criminal child labor laws throughout the country and research indicates that criminal law enforcement officials may benefit from additional training on existing laws related to the worst forms of child labor. (10; 55; 68; 4) As a result, nine children were arrested for illicit activities involving drug distribution rather than being treated as victims. (15)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination among agencies.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Monitoring Committee on Actions to Combat Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CNS)

Supervise, monitor, and evaluate all government activities related to child labor and child trafficking, including making policy recommendations and harmonizing laws with international conventions. (69; 70) Chaired by the First Lady of Côte d’Ivoire and comprises 14 international and domestic partners. (21; 51; 69; 71) In 2017, launched an awareness raising campaign for the new Regulations on Light Work, published booklets and pictures explaining light work, and held a two-day work shop for labor inspectors. (15) Under the leadership of First Lady Dominique Ouattara, hosted a Conference of First Ladies in October 2017 which brought together First Ladies from 14 countries to demonstrate what they are doing to combat child labor and pledged to support their governments’ efforts to prevent child labor, support victims, enhance regional cooperation, and mobilize resources (72; 73)

Interministerial Committee on the Fight Against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CIM)

Design, coordinate, and implement all government actions to combat the worst forms of child labor, and monitor relevant programs implemented by partner organizations. (69; 71; 74; 34) Chaired by MEPS, includes representatives from 13 other ministries. (21; 69; 71; 74)

National Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking (CNLTP)*

In support of the 2016 Anti-Trafficking Law, chaired by the Prime Minister and aims to fight human trafficking throughout Côte d’Ivoire. Oversees the implementation of the National Action Plan and Strategy Against Human Trafficking, validates programs, coordinates government efforts, and monitors implementation of all projects related to human trafficking . (50) Includes representation at the local level through dedicated units charged with implementing the National Action Plan and Strategy Against Human Trafficking. (49; 50) The MWCPSA serves as the executive secretariat and the committee comprises 13 ministries. This committee replaces a previous committee by the same name, which was defunct. (15) As of February 2018, this committee had not convened since its establishment in April 2017, although it has worked together informally to resolve some cases of human trafficking. (26)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

 

Government ministries coordinated effectively during the reporting period, and platforms bring together government offices and civil society members at the departmental and regional level to address issues of child labor. However, coordination on data collection among ministries and between different regions remains a challenge. (15)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including funding and mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol (2010 Declaration) and Its Accompanying Framework of Action

Joint declaration by the Governments of Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and the United States, and the International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry. (75; 76; 34) Provides resources and coordinates with key stakeholders on efforts to reduce the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-producing areas. (75; 76) Ensures that all project efforts implemented under the Declaration and Framework align with Côte d’Ivoire’s national action plans to promote coherence and sustainability. (75; 76; 34) USDOL-funded projects and some industry-funded projects carried out activities that support the spirit of this policy during the reporting period. (34)

Partnership Agreement

Forms an agreement between the International Cocoa Initiative (ICI) and CNS in support of the National Action Plan for the Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Aims to reinforce and expand SOSTECI and improve school infrastructure. (77; 78) In November 2017, ICI and CNS signed another agreement to revise the training and awareness-raising tool by ICI and coordinate child labor monitoring and remediation efforts in cocoa growing areas. (15; 56)

Joint Declarations Against Cross-Border Trafficking

Bilateral declarations or cooperative agreements between Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Burkina Faso to combat child trafficking and the worst forms of child labor. (79; 80; 81; 82) In 2017, Côte d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso agreed to implement a previously signed agreement to create and operationalize a permanent commission to combat the cross-border trafficking of children. (83)

Child Protection Policies

Includes the National Policy on Child Protection (PNPE) (2014–2018), led by the MWCPSA, which seeks to reduce the incidence of violence, abuse, and exploitation of children; and the National Policy of Judicial Protection of Childhood and Youth (PNPJEJ) (2016–2020), led by the MOJ, aims to provide judicial protection to child victims of forced labor, which has yet to be officially adopted by the Council of Ministers. (84; 85) In 2017, the MWCPSA began drafting a decree to establish a monitoring and coordination committee for the policy’s implementation. (15)

National Development Plan (2016–2020)

Aims to improve governance and accelerate human capital development, including by combatting child labor. Allocates almost $6.1 million over 5 years to conduct diagnostic studies on child labor and child trafficking; creates a unit to combat the worst forms of child labor in regional labor inspectorate offices; expands SOSTECI into 10 new departments; constructs 3 transit centers; and develops a national action plan to combat human trafficking, particularly of girls. (86) In 2017, launched SOSTECI (2018 – 2020)† which aims to expand SOSTECI into 33 new departments with a proposed budget of $4.3 million. (12; 56)

Compulsory Education Policy

In support of the Law on Education, aims to achieve 100 percent enrollment in primary school by 2020 and 100 percent enrollment in junior high by 2025. (29; 87) Allocates $1.34 billion to modernize the education system, including by building new classrooms, providing free textbooks to low-income families, and providing additional pedagogical training to teachers. (29) In 2017, the Ministry of Education constructed 8,166 primary school classrooms, 36 school cantinas, 74 latrines, and distributed 4.4 million school kits. The Cocoa and Coffee Council distributed a further 60,000 school kits and the MEPS distributed 100 school kits. (56)

Decent Work Country Program (2017–2020)†

In collaboration with the ILO, this program aims to improve working conditions, strengthen SOSTECI, and combat the worst forms of child labor. (66; 88) It is pending adoption by the Council of Ministers. (26)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (30; 31)

 

In 2017, the government pledged to intensify its efforts to prevent the worst forms of child labor and protect its victims at the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor. (89) However, the government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the World Bank’s Country Partnership Framework. (90)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

National Action Plan for the Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor (NAP) (2015–2017)†

Coordinated by the CNS and the CIM, $24.4 million project aimed to significantly reduce the number of children engaged in the worst forms of child labor by improving the legal framework, sensitizing high-risk communities to the dangers of exploitative child labor, improving victim services, building the capacity of law enforcement, and improving educational infrastructure. (14; 71; 32) In 2017, received a budget of approximately $7.5 million. (56) At the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor, the government pledged to develop a new National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor. (89)

National Action Plan and Strategy Against Human Trafficking (2016–2020)†

With the support of UNODC and coordinated by CNLTP, $14.8 million project that aims to prevent human trafficking, expand social services for victims by improving physical infrastructure, provide training for law enforcement personnel and other stakeholders, promote coordination, and collect data on human trafficking. (65; 91) This plan will begin implementation after the CNLTP becomes functional. (26)

National Awareness Campaign Against Child Labor (2015–2017)†

CNS-led national awareness campaign against child labor which disseminated information to increase public awareness through television and radio broadcasts, billboards, and newspapers in French and local languages. Called on national actors to take a greater role in media campaigns to raise awareness about child labor. (91) In 2017, held two awareness campaigns and revised a 2013 agreement with the media to promote children’s rights and combat child labor, which was signed by 191 media partners. (66; 92; 56)

USDOL-Funded Projects in Support of the 2010 Declaration

USDOL projects in cocoa-growing areas of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana that aim to eliminate child labor through research, improved monitoring and enforcement, and implementation and expansion of SOSTECI. These projects include: Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR) (2013–2017), $7.95 million project implemented in at least 10 countries by the ILO; Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa-Growing Areas of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana (2015–2019), $3 million project implemented by NORC at the University of Chicago; and Eliminating Child Labor in Cocoa (2015–2019), $4.5 million project implemented by the International Cocoa Initiative. (93; 94; 95) For additional information, please see our website.

Industry-Funded Projects

Industry-funded projects to increase sustainability in the cocoa sector, improve farmer livelihoods and access to education, and combat the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-growing areas. Some projects support World Cocoa Foundation (WCF)’s CocoaAction (2014–2020) strategy and the spirit of the 2010 Declaration. (96; 34)

Centers for Vulnerable Children†

Operates approximately 90 MWCPSA- and MEPS-funded social centers and 36 special education centers throughout the country that receive women and children who are victims of crime or violence, including children who are victims of the worst forms of child labor. (26) International NGOs also operate additional centers that provide meals and basic education. (91) In 2017, provided assistance to 167 victims of child trafficking or labor exploitation. (26)

Programs to Promote Education†

These programs aim to raise school attendance rates in rural areas, particularly among girls, by providing school meals, birth registration, and constructing community schools (écoles de proximité). Programs include: the Integrated Program for Sustainable School Feeding, a $42.5 million WFP-funded program; the Ministry of National Education School Feeding Program; and the McGovern-Dole School Feeding Program, a $31 million joint initiative between WFP and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, in coordination with the Ministry of National Education; and the Birth Registration Program, a MOJ and UNICEF program that aims to provide birth registration to 1 million children who are currently enrolled in primary school. (65; 97; 98; 16) In 2017, provided birth certificates to 1,165,325 primary school students. (56)

World Bank-funded Projects

Programs aim to improve access to education and provide poverty relief. Includes: Emergency Support Project for Basic Education (2012–2017), $41.4 million project to construct and rehabilitate classrooms and school latrines; Second Fiscal Management, Education, Energy and Cocoa Reforms Development Policy Operation (2017–2020), $125 million project to increase the number of primary school teachers; Productive Social Safety Net (2015–2020), $50 million cash transfer project to poor households in the Central, Northern, and Western regions of Côte d’Ivoire. (99; 100; 101) By the end of 2017, recruited or trained 24,000 teachers, built or rehabilitated 1,272 classrooms, provided cash transfers to 5,000 households, (102; 103)

Community Animation Program for Child Protection (2015–2020)†

$228,168 MWCPSA program as part of the National Policy on Child Protection, implemented with technical assistance from UNICEF, provides a service package for behavior change and improving communication at the community level that can be tailored to meet local needs. (57; 104; 105) At the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor, the government pledged to intensify social protection programs and continue support for the Community Animation Program. (89)

National Solidarity Fund†

$2.5 million fund that provides assistance to poor households, including victims of human trafficking. (55; 106) In 2017, provided funding to assist in the repatriation of human trafficking victims. (26)

† Program is funded by the Government of Côte d’Ivoire.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (107; 108; 109)

 

The government dedicated funding to SOSTECI for its expansion and disbursed funds to the National Action Plan for the Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor (NAP), but the scope of existing programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, and not all relevant sectors are addressed. (15) In addition, the government primarily relies on NGOs to provide social services to victims of child labor and child trafficking and government services are under-resourced. (16; 110; 4)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Côte d’Ivoire (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by authorizing the Inspectorate to assess penalties and ensure that criminal investigators receive periodic training so they can adequately enforce criminal laws related to child labor.

2014 – 2017

Publish information about whether inspections are conducted at worksites, and if routine inspections target sectors where child labor is known to occur in Côte d’Ivoire.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that labor inspectorates and criminal law enforcement agencies receive an adequate amount of funding to conduct inspections and investigations throughout the country, including in the informal sector.

2014 – 2017

Increase the number of labor inspectors in accordance with the ILO’s technical advice.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that victims are not punished for the worst forms of child labor.

2017

Coordination

Ensure all coordinating bodies function as intended and are able to carry out their mandates.

2017

Improve coordination on data collection among ministries and between different regions.

2012 – 2017

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into all existing policies.

2013 – 2017

Social Programs

Improve access to education by eliminating all school-related fees, improving the accessibility of schools, ensuring that schools are free of physical and sexual abuse, and increasing the number of teachers, sanitation facilities, and schools, particularly in rural areas.

2011 – 2017

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem in Côte d'Ivoire and institute programs to address child labor in all relevant sectors.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that victims of the worst forms of child labor are able to access social services throughout the country.

2015 – 2017

1. Ministère d’Etat, Ministère de l’Emploi, des Affaires Sociales et de la Formation Professionnelle, et al. Etude des phénomènes de la traite et du travail des enfants dans les secteurs de l’agriculture, des mines, du transport, du commerce et du domestique. Abidjan. 2013. [Source on file].

2. Global March Against Child Labour. Child Labour in Cocoa Farming in Côte d'Ivoire: Report of the Scoping Mission Conducted by Global March Against Child Labour. New Delhi. January-February 2013. http://globalmarch.org/images/CHILD-LABOUR-IN-COCOA-FARMING-IN-COTE-D'IVOIRE.pdf.

3. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Rapport de la Phase de Perennisation et d’Extension. Abidjan. September 2016. [Source on File].

4. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Côte d'Ivoire. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271171.htm.

5. Ministère du Plan et du Développement. La Situation des Femmes et des Enfants en Côte d’Ivoire: Enquête à Indicateurs Multiples 2016 - MICS5. 2016. https://mics-surveys-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/MICS5/West%20and%20Central%20Africa/C%C3%B4te%20d%27Ivoire/2016/Final/Cote%20d%27Ivoire%202016%20MICS_French.pdf.

6. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Living Standard Survey Round 6, 2012-2013. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. Tulane University. Final Report: 2013/14 Survey Research on Child Labor in West African Cocoa-Growing Areas. New Orleans: Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer. July 30, 2015. http://www.childlaborcocoa.org/index.php/2013-14-final-report.

9. Fair Labor Association. Independent External Monitoring Of Nestlé’s Cocoa Supply Chain In Ivory Coast: 2014 - 2015. Washington, DC. September 2, 2015. http://www.fairlabor.org/sites/default/files/documents/reports/september_2015_nestle_executive_summary.pdf.

10. O'Keefe, B. Bitter sweets: Inside big chocolate’s child labor problem. Fortune.com. March 1, 2016. http://fortune.com/big-chocolate-child-labor/.

11. Afrique Connection. Trafic d'enfants en Côte d'Ivoire: dans l'enfer des plantations de cacao. January 9, 2016. https://www.afriqueconnection.com/article/09-01-2016/trafic-d%E2%80%99enfants-en-c%C3%B4te-d%E2%80%99ivoire-dans-l%E2%80%99enfer-des-plantations-de-cacao.

12. N’Guettia, Martin. Système d’Observation et de Suivi du Travail des Enfants en Côte d’Ivoire (SOSTECI). CLCCG Annual Meeting: Washington, D.C. August 28, 2017. [Source on file].

13. International Cocoa Initiative Foundation. Our Results. 2017. http://www.cocoainitiative.org/our-work/our-results/.

14. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Plan d'action national 2015-2017 de lutte contre les pires formes de travail des enfants. Abidjan. January 22, 2015. [Source on file].

15. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting, January 19, 2018.

16. —. Reporting, August 9, 2017.

17. ILO. Renforcement des capacités des Inspecteurs du Travail en matière d’intervention dans le secteur agricole: travail des enfants, santé et sécurité au travail et Système d’Observation et de Suivi du Travail des Enfants dans le secteur du cacao. Geneva. November 2013. [Source on file].

18. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Côte d'Ivoire (ratification: 2003) Published: 2015. Accessed March 30, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185211:NO.

19. Koné, S. Enquête/ Côte d’Ivoire : Région du Hambol/ Comment des enfants de migrants sont exploités. Abidjan: Le Point Sur. October 17, 2014. http://www.lepointsur.com/enquete-cote-divoire-region-du-hambol-comment-enfants-migrants-exploites/.

20. Kouame, Joseph Arthur, et al. Evasion of Children in Ivory Coast Artisanal Mining Activities. Journal of Sustainable Development 8, no.9 (2015). http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jsd/article/viewFile/49546/28907.

21. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire: Ministre d'Etat, Ministre du Plan et du Developpement, and ILO-BIT. Enquete Nationale sur le Situation de l'Emploi et du Travail des Enfants. Abidjan. November 2014. [Source on file].

22. Amanien. ENQUÊTE/Traite des enfants en Côte d`Ivoire:Les "petites bonnes" ou l`esclavage des temps modernes. Amanien: L'Actualite Ivoirienne et Internationale. 2014. [Source on file].

23. Traore, K. Interpol libère des enfants employés dans des plantations de cacao. Afrik.com. June 24, 2015. http://www.afrik.com/cote-d-ivoire-liberation-d-enfants-employes-dans-des-plantations-de-cacao-par-interpol.

24. International Labor Rights Forum. The Fairness Gap: Farmer Incomes and Root Cause Solutions to Ending Child Labor in the Cocoa Industry. Washington, DC. December 2014. http://www.laborrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/Fairness%20gap_low_res.pdf.

25. UN General Assembly. Human Rights Council, Thirty-first session, Report of the Independent Expert on capacity-building and technical cooperation with Côte d’Ivoire in the field of human rights. January 22, 2016: A/HRC/31/78. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/a_hrc_31_78.pdf.

26. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting, February 21, 2018.

27. Groupe de la Banque Africaine de Développement. Document de Stratégie Pays 2013-2017. 2013. http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/C%C3%B4te%20d%27Ivoire%20-%20Document%20combin%C3%A9%20de%20strat%C3%A9gie%20pays%202013-2017%20et%20de%20revue%20du%20portefeuille%202013%20%28Version%20brouillon%29.pdf.

28. UN Human Rights Committee. Initial Reports of States Parties Due in June 1993: Côte d’Ivoire. Prepared by the Government of Côte d’Ivoire, Article 40 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. May 21, 2013. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR%2fC%2fCIV%2f1&Lang=en.

29. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Reconstruisons notre systeme educatif. Cited January 11, 2016. [Source on file].

30. —. Plan Decennal Education Formation 2016 – 2025. Abidjan. February 29, 2016. [Source on file].

31. UNICEF. Draft country programme document - Côte d'Ivoire. New York. June 6, 2016: E/ICEF/2016/P/L.34. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2016-PL34-Cote_dIvoire_draft_CPD-EN-21Jun2016.pdf.

32. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Côte d'Ivoire. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265458.pdf.

33. ILO-IPEC. Consultance en Vue de l'Evaluation des Besoins en Education dans les Communautes Cibles du Projet. Geneva. May 2013. [Source on file].

34. Child Labor Cocoa Coordinating Group. 2016 Annual Report. Washington, DC. 2017. https://www.dol.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ilab/CLCCG%202016%20Annual%20Report.pdf.

35. UN Treaty Collections. 12. b Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Accessed March 6, 2018. 12. b Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.

36. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Loi N° 2016-886 du 08 Novembre 2016 Portant Constitution de la République de Côte d’Ivoire. Enacted: November 8, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/105198/128596/F-1769604843/CIV-105198.pdf.

37. —. Code du Travail, Loi N°2015-532. Enacted: July 20, 2015. http://www.ccilci.org/communiques/autres/3028-code-du-travail-loi-n-2015-532.

38. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Arrêté N° 2017-017 MEPS/CAB du 02 Juin 2017 déterminant la liste des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants. Enacted: June 2, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/104712/127840/F1597937352/CIV-104712.pdf.

39. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Loi N° 2010-272 du 30 Septembre 2010 Portant Interdiction de la Traite et des Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants. Enacted: September 30, 2010. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/85243/95376/F693526342/CIV-85243.pdf.

40. —. Code Penal, N° 1981-640, amended by Law N° 1995-522. Enacted: July 31, 1981. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b5860.html.

41. —. Loi Relative a la Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes, Loi N° 2016-1111. Enacted: December 8, 2016. [Source on file].

42. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Loi N° 2016-1109 Portant Code de la Fonction Militaire. 2016. http://www.loidici.com/codefoncmilitaire2016/fonctionmilitaire2016Recrutement.php.

43. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Loi N° 96-572 Déterminant les Conditions d'Entrée dans la Carrière Militaire. Enacted: July 31, 1996. [Source on file].

44. —. Loi N° 2015-635 du 17 Septembre 2015 Portant Modification de la Loi N° 95-696 du 7 Septembre 1995 Relative à l'Enseignement. Enacted: September 17, 2015. http://www.unesco.org/education/edurights/media/docs/dd772d376fde955a96fab3e19871f5f12b13f9d8.pdf.

45. —. Loi N° 95-696 du 7 Septembre 1995 Relative à l'Enseignement. Enacted: September 7, 1995. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail%3Fp_lang%3Dfr%26p_isn%3D104174%26p_count%3D1%26p_classification%3D09.

46. Bamba-Lamine, A. Conseil des ministres du mercredi 07 décembre 2016. Abidjan.net. December 8, 2016. http://news.abidjan.net/h/605633.html.

47. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Arrêté N° 2017-016 MEPS/CAB du 02 Juin 2017 déterminant la liste des travaux légers autorisés aux enfants dont l'âge est compris entre treize (13) et seize (16) ans. Enacted: June 2, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/104714/127841/F-620616296/CIV-104714.pdf.

48. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 5, 2018.

49. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Communique du Conseil des Ministres du Jeudi 13 Avril 2017. Abidjan. April 2017. http://news.abidjan.net/h/613248.html.

50. —. Decret Fixant les Missions, la Composition, l'Organisation et le Fonctionnement du Comite National de Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes. 2017. [Source on file].

51. ILO-IPEC. Analyse des actions de communication sur le travail des enfants en Côte d’Ivoire. Geneva. August 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=25096.

52. UN Office on Drugs and Crime. Côte d'Ivoire Country Page. Accessed March 6, 2018. https://www.unodc.org/westandcentralafrica/en/cote-d-ivoire.html.

53. Ministère de la Promotion de la Femme, de la Famille et de la Protection de l'Enfant. La Direction de la Protection de l'Enfant. Cited February 1, 2016. http://www.msffe.info/index.php/dpe.

54. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Referral Mechanism. No date. [Source on file].

55. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting, February 13, 2017.

56. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Submission for CLCCG Annual Report 2017. Abidjan. March 6, 2018. [Source on file].

57. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting, January 23, 2017.

58. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 1, 2017.

59. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 26, 2016.

60. CIA. The World Factbook. Cited January 19, 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

61. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

62. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva: Committee on Employment and Social Policy. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

63. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Côte d'Ivoire (ratification: 1987) and Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention, 1969 (No. 129) Côte d'Ivoire (ratification: 1987) Published: 2017. Accessed October 19, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3298245.

64. —. Individual Observation Concerning Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention, 1969 (No. 129) Côte d'Ivoire (ratification: 1987) Published: 2014. Accessed June 4, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3113984.

65. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting, February 22, 2016.

66. ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor. Geneva. October 2017: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

67. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Submission for CLCCG Annual Report 2016. Abidjan. February 28, 2017. [Source on file].

68. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Côte d’Ivoire (ratification: 2003) Published: 2015. Accessed October 28, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185208:NOf.

69. Comité National de Surveillance des Actions de Lutte contre la Traite l’Exploitation et le travail des Enfants (CNS). Le Nouveau Cadre Institutionnel. Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Cited January 23, 2017. http://www.travaildesenfants.org/fr/content/le-nouveau-cadre-institutionnel#.

70. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Création du Comité National de Surveillance des Actions de lutte contre la traite, l’exploitation et le travail des Enfants, Décret N° 2011-366. Enacted: November 3, 2011. [Source on file].

71. Yao, SP. Présentation du Plan d’Action National 2015-2017 de Lutte contre les Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants. Abidjan: Secrétaire Exécutif du Comité National de Surveillance (CNS). 2015. [Source on file].

72. Conference of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel on the Fight Against Child Trafficking Exploitation Child Labour and All Forms of Violence Against Children. Final Communique. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

73. —. Declaration of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

74. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Création du Comité Interministériel de lutte contre la traite, l’exploitation et le travail des Enfants, Décret N° 2011-365. Enacted: November 3, 2011. http://www.travaildesenfants.org/sites/default/files/pdf/Dominique-Ouattara-Decret-%20de-creation-du-%20Comite-%20interminist%C3%A9riel-de-%20lutte-contre-la-traite-l-exploitation-et-le-travail-des-%20enfants%20.pdf.

75. Senator Harkin, Congressman Engel, USDOL, Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, Government of the Republic of Ghana, and International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry. Declaration of Joint Action to Support Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol. Abidjan. September 13, 2010. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GhanaSignedDeclaration.pdf.

76. —. Framework of Action to Support Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol. Abidjan. September 13, 2010. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/CocoaFrameworkAction.pdf.

77. Ouattara, D. Mon Discours lors de la Signature du Protocole d’Accord Entre le CNS et ICI. dominiqueouattara.ci. May 2016. http://dominiqueouattara.ci/fr/messages/la-signature-du-protocole-daccord-entre-le-cns-et-ici.

78. Coffee and Cocoa. First Lady of Côte d’Ivoire and ICI Join Forces to Fight Child Labour. May 9, 2016. http://www.coffeeandcocoa.net/2016/05/09/first-lady-cote-divoire-ici-join-forces-fight-child-labour/.

79. Government of the Republic of Ghana, and Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Cooperation Agreement to Combat Cross-Border Child Trafficking and the Worst Forms Of Child Labour. Enacted: November 3, 2016. [Source on file].

80. —. Joint Declaration of the First Ladies of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire and the Republic of Ghana on the Fight Against Cross-Border Child Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labour. Enacted: September 13, 2016. [Source on file].

81. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Accord de Coopération en Matière de Lutte Contre la Traite Transfrontaliere des Enfants Entre la Republique de Côte d'Ivoire et le Burkina Faso. October 17, 2013. http://travaildesenfants.org/sites/default/files/pdf_documents_fondateurs/Accord%20de%20cooperation%20en%20mati%C3%A8re%20de%20lutte%20contre%20la%20traite%20transfrontali%C3%A8re.pdf.

82. —. Declaration Conjointe Des Premieres Dames du BURKINA FASO et de la Republique de Côte d'Ivoire Relative à la Mise en Oeuvre de l'Accord de Coopération en Matière de Lutte Contre la Traite Transfrontalière des Enfants. October 17, 2013. http://travaildesenfants.org/sites/default/files/pdf_documents_fondateurs/DECLARATION%20CONJOINTE%20DES%20PREMIERES%20DAMES%20DU%20BURKINA%20FASO%20ET%20LA%20COTE%20DIVOIRE.pdf.

83. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. Reporting, August 8, 2017.

84. Ministere de la Justice, des Droits de l’Homme et des Libertes Publiques. Politique Nationale de Protection Judiciaire de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse. Abidjan: UNICEF, and Ministry of Justice, Human Rights and Public Liberties. November 2015. [Source on file].

85. Ministère de la Solidarité de la Famille de la Femme et de l'Enfant. Politique Nationale de Protection de l’Enfant. 2012. Source on file.

86. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Plan national de développement (PND) 2016 - 2020. 2016. http://gcpnd.gouv.ci/fichier/doc/TOME3_compresse.pdf.

87. Jeune Afrique. Côte d'Ivoire: Ouattara décrète <l'école obligatoire> pour les 6 à 16 ans. July 13, 2015. http://www.jeuneafrique.com/depeches/246529/politique/cote-divoire-ouattara-decrete-lecole-obligatoire-pour-les-6-a-16-ans/.

88. ILO. Programme de promotion du travail décent en Côte d’Ivoire. July 2017. Source on file.

89. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labour: Pledges. November 16, 2017. http://www.childlabour2017.org/en/resources/updates/pledges.

90. World Bank. World Bank Group’s New Strategy Supports Côte d’Ivoire in Boosting the Economy and Eliminating Long-Standing Disparities. Washington, DC. September 29, 2015. http://allafrica.com/stories/201510011540.html.

91. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting, March 2, 2016.

92. Koffo, Jean-Hubert. 191 médias ivoiriens signent une charte pour la protection des enfants. September 21, 2017. http://www.afrikipresse.fr/societe/191-medias-ivoiriens-signent-une-charte-pour-la-protection-des-enfants.

93. International Cocoa Initiative. Eliminating Child Labor In Cocoa (ECLIC). Washington, DC. 2015: Project Document. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/Cote%20d'Ivoire_ECLIC.pdf.

94. U.S. Department of Labor. Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa Growing Areas of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. Washington, DC. 2015. http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/view-opportunity.html?oppId=277934.

95. ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor. Washington, DC. 2013. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GlobalCLEAR_FY13.pdf.

96. World Cocoa Foundation. Global Chocolate and Cocoa Companies Announce Unprecedented Sustainability Strategy in Ghana. Washington, DC: Press Release. 2014. http://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/FINAL-Press-Release-for-Ghana-CocoaAction-_05222014.pdf.

97. UN World Food Programme. Development Projects – Côte d'Ivoire 200465. May 10, 2013. http://one.wfp.org/operations/current_operations/project_docs/200465.pdf.

98. —. Project Budget Revision for Approval by the Regional Director. 2015. http://one.wfp.org/operations/current_operations/BR/200465_1601.pdf?_ga=1.160856765.1656045296.1484696372.

99. World Bank. Emergency Basic Education Support Project Project Information Document. 2011. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2011/12/05/000001843_20111206165754/Rendered/PDF/BESP0PID0Final1.pdf.

100. —. Cote d'Ivoire - Second Fiscal Management, Education, Energy and Cocoa Reforms Development Policy Operation. November 6, 2017. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/943511512702094794/pdf/Cote-dIvoire-DPO2-PD-Final-November-3-11102017.pdf.

101. —. Productive Social Safety Net (Project Appraisal Document). May 6, 2015. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/902201468000929877/pdf/PAD1189-PAD-P143332-IDA-R2015-0124-1-Box391445B-OUO-9.pdf.

102. —. Productive Social Safety Net Implementation Status & Results Report Seq No: 5. November 2, 2017. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/656911509673970758/pdf/Disclosable-Version-of-the-ISR-CI-Productive-Social-Safety-Net-P143332-Sequence-No-05.pdf.

103. —. Emergency Basic Education Support Project - GPEF Grant (P119328). August 30, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report Sequence 10. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/464071504118507505/pdf/Disclosable-Version-of-the-ISR-COTE-DIVOIRE-Emergency-Basic-Education-Support-Project-GPEF-Grant-P119328-Sequence-No-10.pdf.

104. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 5, 2017.

105. Ministère de la Solidarité, de la Famille, de la Femme et de l'Enfant. Guide de l’Animation Communautaire en Protection de l’Enfant. Abidjan: UNICEF. November 2015. [Source on file].

106. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Communique du Conseil des Ministres du Mercredi 27 Juillet 2016. Abidjan. December 2016. http://aip.ci/communique/communique-du-conseil-des-ministres-du-mercredi-27-juillet-2016/.

107. O'Keefe, B. First Lady of Ivory Coast: 'We Are on Track to Eliminate Child Labor'. Fortune.com. March 1, 2016. http://fortune.com/2016/03/01/first-lady-ouattara-ivory-coast-cocoa-child-labor/.

108. UNODC. UNODC commits to supporting the Government of Côte d'Ivoire against transnational organized crime and terrorism. Cited October 24, 2015. http://www.unodc.org/westandcentralafrica/en/cote-divoire-and-unodc-against-toc.html.

109. Fairtrade Africa. Child Labour Protection Project Receives a Stamp of Approval From the Ivorian Government. AllAfrica.com. March 18, 2015. http://allafrica.com/stories/201503230524.html.

110. Human Rights Watch. World Report 2017: Côte d'Ivoire. January 2017. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/cotedivoire_1.pdf.

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