Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Côte d'Ivoire

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Côte d'Ivoire

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Côte d’Ivoire made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government enacted the Anti-Trafficking Law that carries more stringent penalties for offenders and adopted a Constitution that explicitly prohibits child labor and enshrines the right to education for both boys and girls. The National School of Administration integrated new modules on child labor into the curriculum for labor inspectors. With the assistance of UNICEF, the Government published a report on the expansion of its child labor monitoring system, SOSTECI, that included child labor prevalence data in three departments. In addition, the First Ladies of Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire signed a joint declaration and cooperative agreement against cross-border human trafficking. The Government also launched a Ten-Year Education Training Plan and entered a partnership agreement with the International Cocoa Initiative to expand SOSTECI and improve school infrastructure in support of the National Action Plan for the Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor. However, children in Côte d’Ivoire engage in the worst forms of child labor in the harvesting of cocoa and coffee, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Gaps remain in enforcement efforts, and the labor inspectorate is not authorized to assess penalties.

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Children in Côte d’Ivoire engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of cocoa and coffee, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-6) According to a report by Tulane University published in 2015 that assessed data collected during the 2013–2014 harvest season, the cocoa sector employed an estimated 1,203,473 child laborers ages 5 to 17, of which 95.9 percent were engaged in hazardous work in cocoa production.(7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Côte d’Ivoire.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

31.5 (1,682,754)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

63.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

21.5

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

63

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(8)
Source for all other data: Enquête Démographique et de Santé en Côte d'Ivoire (EDSCI-III) Survey, 2011–2012.(9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cocoa, including burning† and clearing fields; cutting down trees† to expand cocoa plantations; spraying pesticides;† harvesting, drying, and fermenting cocoa beans; using sharp tools to break pods; and transporting heavy loads of cocoa pods and water (3-7, 10-12)

Production of cereals, pineapple, bananas, and coffee, including applying chemical fertilizers,† spraying pesticides,† cutting down trees,† and burning† and clearing fields (3, 4, 13, 14)

Production of palm oil, honey,† and rubber (4, 6, 15)

Fishing, including deep sea diving;† repairing and hauling nets; cleaning, salting, drying, descaling, and selling fish (6, 14-16)

Livestock raising and slaughtering† (15, 16)

Production of charcoal† (3, 6, 15)

Industry

Mining, including crushing† and transporting stones,† blasting rocks,† working underground,† mining for diamonds, and extracting gold with chemicals† (6, 10, 13-15, 17-20)

Manufacturing, including repairing,† lubricating,† or cleaning machinery while in operation† (14, 15)

Construction, activities unknown (14)

Services

Domestic work† (10, 13, 14, 21, 22)

Working in transportation, carrying goods,† and washing cars (3, 6, 10, 13, 14)

Street vending and commerce (3, 10, 13, 14)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in mining, carpentry, construction, domestic work, street vending, restaurants, and agriculture, including in the production of cocoa, coffee, pineapple, cotton, and rubber, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2-4, 11, 16, 22-25)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 22, 26)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking (10)

Forced begging by Koranic teachers, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (18, 26, 27)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children are subjected to human trafficking within Côte d’Ivoire and are taken from Côte d’Ivoire for exploitation in other countries. Increasingly, girls from Côte d’Ivoire are subjected to human trafficking in the Middle East for forced labor in domestic work or brought from Nigeria to Côte d’Ivoire for commercial sexual exploitation.(2, 26, 28) Children from neighboring West African countries are brought to Côte d’Ivoire primarily for forced labor in agriculture, especially in cocoa production, and for forced begging and work in mining, construction, domestic work, street vending, and commercial sexual exploitation.(2, 3, 5, 12, 21, 26) A study by the ILO and the Government of Côte d’Ivoire in 2011 estimated that 55 percent of children subject to forced labor in rural areas work in agriculture.(3)

Although the Law on Education provides for free education, students are often required to pay for textbooks, school fees, or uniforms, which may be prohibitive to some families.(16, 29-34) An estimated 2 million children ages 6 to 15 are not enrolled in school in Côte d’Ivoire, with the highest rates of non-enrollment found in the North, Northwest, and West regions.(34) The Government constructed 19,249 new classrooms between 2011 and 2016, but a lack of teachers, transportation, sanitation facilities, and schools, particularly in rural areas, remains. Research also suggests that some students are physically and sexually abused at school, which may deter some students from attending school.(10, 16, 20, 30, 34-43)

Côte d’Ivoire has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

 

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

 

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

 

UN CRC

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Côte d’Ivoire’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 23.2 of the Labor Code; Article 16 of the Constitution (44, 45)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 2 of the Hazardous Work List (46)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 3–12 of the Hazardous Work List; Articles 6 and 19 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (9, 46)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Constitution; Articles 7, 11–14, 20–23, and 26 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law; Article 3 of the Labor Code (9, 44, 45)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Constitution; Articles 11, 12, 20–22, and 26 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law; Article 370 of the Penal Code; Articles 4.4 and 6 of the Anti-Trafficking Law (9, 45, 47, 48)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 8, 9, 15, and 24–29 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law; Articles 4.4 and 6 of the Anti-Trafficking Law (9, 48)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 4 and 30 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (9)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

Article 82 of the Armed Forces Code (49)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Articles 2, 8, and 116 of the Armed Forces Code; Articles 7, 8, and 18 of the Law Determining the Conditions for Entering the Military (49, 50)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 4 and 31 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (9)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 10 of the Constitution; Article 2.1 of the Law on Education (45, 51)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Law on Education (51, 52)

* No conscription (50, 53, 54)

In December 2016, the Government adopted the Anti-Trafficking Law that supplements the 2010 Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law. The new law includes tougher penalties and formalizes victim protection and assistance measures.(28, 48) The Government also adopted a Constitution by referendum, which explicitly prohibits child labor and enshrines the right to education for both boys and girls.(45, 55) A draft law providing greater protection to domestic workers is also under consideration. This law would allow labor inspectors to inspect private homes for labor violations.(56)

The existing hazardous work list is not comprehensive, as it does not prohibit children from using dangerous equipment or tools in the cocoa sector. However, an updated hazardous work list drafted in 2016 is currently under consideration and prohibits the use of machetes and other sharp tools. A new bylaw that determines the activities, number of hours and conditions under which light work may be permitted is also under consideration.(57-59)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment and Social Protection (MEPS)

Enforce labor laws.(10) Implement the child labor monitoring system, Système d’Observation et de Suivi du Travail des Enfants en Côte d’Ivoire (SOSTECI), which enables communities to collect and analyze statistical data on the worst forms of child labor.(1, 14, 60, 61) Through its Direction of the Fight Against Child Labor, develop, monitor, and enforce laws related to child labor and collaborate with the Anti-Trafficking Unit (ATU) on cases of child trafficking.(21, 26, 30) In 2016, changed its name from the Ministry of Employment, Social Affairs, and Professional Training (MESAPT).(10)

Ministry of Interior and Security

Through its ATU, leads efforts to enforce criminal laws against the worst forms of child labor.(2, 10, 62, 63) Through its Mondaine Brigades, combat commercial sexual exploitation, including exploitation of children.(28)

Ministry of Justice

Investigate and prosecute crimes related to child labor, including its worst forms.(10)

Ministry of Women, Child Protection, and Solidarity (MWCPS)

Lead the Government’s efforts to combat human trafficking and implement a National Policy on Child Protection.(26, 28, 53, 64, 65) Maintain a hotline for child labor issues, and respond to complaints.(26, 28, 31, 53, 64, 66)

National Commission of Human Rights (CNDHCI)

Maintain a hotline for reporting human rights abuses. From June to December 2016, received 264 calls, resulting in the identification of at least 1 case of child trafficking.(67)

 

Coordination among Government ministries on criminal law enforcement is inefficient, causing delays in delivering assistance to victims of human trafficking.(2, 26)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Côte d’Ivoire took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$273,385 (53)

$300,842 (10)

Number of Labor Inspectors

259 (64)

259 (10)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (44)

No (44)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (66)

N/A (63, 66)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (53)

No (10)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (64)

Yes (63)

Number of Labor Inspections

596 (64)

739‡ (10)

Number Conducted at Worksite

596 (64)

739‡ (10)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (64)

0‡ (10)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (64)

0‡ (10)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A (64)

N/A (10)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A (64)

N/A (10)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (53)

Unknown (10)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (53, 64)

Unknown (10)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (44)

Yes (10)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (64)

Yes (10)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (64, 68)

Yes (10)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (69)

Yes (10)

‡ Data are from January 1, 2016 to September 30, 2016.

New modules on child labor were integrated into the National School of Administration’s curriculum following the adoption of the 2015 Labor Code. These modules were used to train 46 candidates who are expected to graduate in 2017 and begin work as labor inspectors in 2018; 36 are expected to graduate at the end of the 2016–2017 school year.(43, 63, 67) However, the number of labor inspectors will still be insufficient for the size of the Côte d’Ivoire’s workforce, which includes over 8 million workers.(70) According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Côte d’Ivoire should employ about 541 inspectors.(70-72)

Although the labor inspectorate received a 10 percent increase from its 2015 budget, a lack of resources, including insufficient staff, office facilities, and transportation, hampers the labor inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws.(10, 13, 16, 30, 64, 73, 74) Research found that as a result of a lack of authority to assess penalties for labor violations, some labor inspectors fail to document identified child labor violations due to the perceived futility of doing so, given the limited capacity of law enforcement to investigate reported violations and the frequency of inspection findings not being reported to the courts.(16, 30, 69, 75) Although most inspections focus on formal sector establishments, in 2015 the government implemented a pilot project to conduct more labor inspections in the informal sector, where the majority of child labor is found.(10, 74) The Government is evaluating how this pilot project can be scaled up.(10)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Côte d’Ivoire took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (64, 68)

Yes (64)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (64)

Yes (10)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (76)

Yes (10)

Number of Investigations

27 (68, 77)

20 (28)

Number of Violations Found

59 (53, 64)

64 (78)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (68)

18 (28)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (64)

8 (28)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (64, 77)

Yes (10)

 

In 2016, the National Police’s Anti-Trafficking Unit (ATU) received a budget of $4,592, a decrease of approximately 30 percent from its 2015 budget.(10, 67) The ATU employed 13 Abidjan-based investigators to enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor. The ATU has acknowledged that it lacks adequate staff and relies on regional police forces to enforce criminal child labor laws throughout the country.(2, 28, 64, 77) In addition, research indicates that laws on the worst forms of child labor may not be well understood by criminal law enforcement officials, impeding their ability to carry out effective enforcement.(12, 13, 28, 79) To improve knowledge of children’s rights, including child labor, the Government provided training to 144 law enforcement officials during the reporting period.(10)

Insufficient monitoring of movement along the borders makes it difficult to detect cases of human trafficking. The Ministry of Interior and Security is reviewing a proposal by IOM to double the number of official border crossings and implement improved surveillance.(77) However, between May 2015 and November 2016, the Ministry of Interior and Security’s Mondaine Brigade conducted several operations to rescue 116 Nigerian women and girls trafficked to Côte d’Ivoire for commercial sexual exploitation. Law enforcement officials arrested 36 Nigerian traffickers as a result of these operations, and 5 were sentenced to 20 years of imprisonment.(26)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Monitoring Committee on Actions to Combat Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CNS)

Supervise, monitor, and evaluate all government activities related to child labor and child trafficking, including making policy recommendations and harmonizing laws with international conventions.(80, 81) Chaired by the First Lady of Côte d’Ivoire and comprises 14 international and domestic partners.(21, 62, 80, 82) In 2016, with the assistance of UNICEF, published a report on the expansion of SOSTECI that included prevalence data from three departments on child labor.(28)

Interministerial Committee on the Fight Against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CIM)

Design, coordinate, and implement all government actions to combat the worst forms of child labor, and monitor relevant programs implemented by partner organizations.(80, 82, 83) Chaired by MEPS, includes representatives from 13 other ministries.(21, 80, 82, 83) In 2016, in collaboration with CNS, hosted a meeting between the First Ladies of Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire that resulted in a joint declaration and cooperative agreement against cross-border trafficking.(84, 85)

National Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking and Child Exploitation (CNLTdP)

Dedicated to combatting child trafficking and chaired by MWCPS.(56, 63, 69) In 2016, received an operating budget of $10,210.(10) Research was unable to determine whether the committee was active in 2016.(43)

 

Although the National Monitoring Committee on Actions to Combat Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CNS) and Interministerial Committee on the Fight Against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CIM) coordinate strategic-level efforts, operational progress is hindered by a lack of coordination among the various ministries, which some NGOs and companies have also noted. The lack of coordination among ministries can also result in disjointed or duplicated efforts.(1, 13, 28, 56) The new Anti-Trafficking Law provides for the creation of a National Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons, expected to be created in 2017.(10, 28)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol (2010 Declaration) and Its Accompanying Framework of Action

Joint declaration by the Governments of Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and the United States, and the International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry.(60, 86, 87) Provides resources and coordinates with key stakeholders on efforts to reduce the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-producing areas.(86, 87) Ensures that all project efforts implemented under the Declaration and Framework align with Côte d’Ivoire’s national action plans to promote coherence and sustainability.(60, 86, 87) USDOL-funded projects and some industry-funded projects carried out activities in support of this policy during the reporting period.(88)

Partnership Agreement†

Forms an agreement between the International Cocoa Initiative and CNS in support of the National Action Plan for the Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Aims to reinforce and expand SOSTECI and improve school infrastructure.(85, 89)

Joint Declarations Against Cross-Border Trafficking†

In 2016, promulgated a bilateral declaration and cooperative agreement that Côte d’Ivoire signed with Ghana to combat the worst forms of child labor by targeting high-risk child labor sectors, providing protection to victims, improving coordination, and prosecuting offenders.(90-92) Also enacted a bilateral agreement to combat trafficking with Burkina Faso in 2016.(26)

National Development Plan (2016–2020)†

Aims to improve governance and accelerate human capital development, including by combatting child labor. Allocates almost $6.1 million over 5 years to conduct diagnostic studies on child labor and child trafficking; creates a unit to combat the worst forms of child labor in regional labor inspectorate offices; expands SOSTECI into 10 new departments; constructs 3 transit centers; and develops a national action plan to combat human trafficking, particularly of girls.(93)

Compulsory Education Policy

In support of the Law on Education, aims to achieve 100 percent enrollment in primary school by 2020 and 100 percent enrollment in junior high by 2025.(32, 94) Allocates $1.34 billion to modernize the education system, including by building new classrooms, providing free textbooks to low-income families, and providing additional pedagogical training to teachers.(32) In 2016, reopened applications for Pedagogical Training Centers to provide training for 5,000 teachers for the 2017–2018 academic year.(95, 96)

National Policy on Child Protection (PNPE) (2012–2022)

Led by the MSFWC, seeks to reduce the incidence of violence, abuse, and exploitation of children.(97) Regional coordination mechanisms, led by prefects, oversee implementation and bring together relevant actors to identify specific problems in the region.(53, 68)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(33, 34, 67, 69)

The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the World Bank’s Country Partnership Framework.(98) A draft of the Decent Work Country Program (2016–2020) is awaiting validation and will include child labor concerns.(67, 99)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

National Action Plan for the Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor (NAP) (2015–2017)†

Coordinated by the CNS and the CIM, $25.8 million project aims to significantly reduce the number of children engaged in the worst forms of child labor by improving the legal framework, sensitizing high-risk communities to the dangers of exploitative child labor, improving victim services, building the capacity of law enforcement, and improving educational infrastructure.(14, 82) The Government provided $15 million in funding.(78) In 2016, began construction on three shelters.(28)

National Action Plan and Strategy Against Human Trafficking (2016–2020)†

With the support of UNODC and coordinated by CNLTdP, $14.8 million project drafted to prevent human trafficking, expand social services for victims by improving physical infrastructure, provide training for law enforcement personnel and other stakeholders, promote coordination, and collect data on human trafficking.(64, 77) The Government committed to provide $3.2 million over 5 years to implement the plan.(2) In 2016, MWCPS, with support from UNODC and the Embassy of Japan, began a mapping project to identify all existing shelters and transit centers for victims of child trafficking.(28)

National Awareness Campaign Against Child Labor (2015–2017)†

CNS-led national awareness campaign against child labor; disseminates information to increase public awareness through television and radio broadcasts, billboards, and newspapers in French and local languages. Calls on national actors to take a greater role in media campaigns to raise awareness about child labor.(69, 77)

USDOL-Funded Projects in Support of the 2010 Declaration

USDOL projects in cocoa-growing areas of Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire that aim to eliminate child labor, including its worst forms, through research, improved monitoring and enforcement, and implementation and expansion of SOSTECI. These project include: Survey Research on Child Labor in West African Cocoa Growing Areas (2012–2016), $1.5 million project implemented by the Payson Center for International Development at Tulane University; Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR) (2013–2017), $7.95 million project implemented in at least 10 countries by the ILO; Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa-Growing Areas of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana (2015–2019), $3 million project implemented by NORC at the University of Chicago; and Eliminating Child Labor in Cocoa (2015–2019), $4.5 million project implemented by the International Cocoa Initiative.(100-103) Additional information is available on the USDOL Web site.

Industry-Funded Projects

Industry-funded projects to increase sustainability in the cocoa sector, improve farmer livelihoods and access to education, and combat the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-growing areas. Some projects may be in support of World Cocoa Foundation (WCF)’s CocoaAction (2014–2020) strategy and the 2010 Declaration.(88, 104)

Centers for Vulnerable Children†

Operates approximately 110 MWCPS- and MEPS-funded social centers and mobile schools throughout the country that receive women and children who are victims of crime or violence, including children who are victims of the worst forms of child labor. International NGOs also operate additional centers that provide meals and basic education.(77, 105) In 2016, First Lady Dominique Ouattara and CNS initiated construction on three reception centers in Bouaké, Ferkessédougou, and Soubré in support of the NAP and the National Development Plan to house victims of child trafficking.(85, 93, 106)

School Feeding Programs†

These programs aim to raise school attendance rates in rural areas, particularly among girls, by providing school meals. Includes the Integrated Program for Sustainable School Feeding, a $42.5 million WFP-funded program; the Ministry of National Education School Feeding Program; and the McGovern-Dole School Feeding Program, a $31 million joint initiative between WFP and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, in coordination with the Ministry of National Education.(64, 107, 108)

Emergency Support Project for Basic Education (2012–2017)

$41.4 million World Bank-funded project to improve access to basic education by constructing and rehabilitating classrooms and school latrines.(109) By the end of 2016, built 1,000 new primary school classrooms, rehabilitated 267 classrooms, rehabilitated 8 teacher training centers, and trained 15,253 teachers.(110)

Community Animation Program for Child Protection (2015–2020)†

$228,168 MWCPS program as part of the National Policy on Child Protection, implemented with technical assistance from UNICEF, provides a service package for behavior change and improving communication at the community level that can be tailored to meet local needs.(10, 67, 111) Between 2015 and 2016, piloted the approach in 351 communities with plans to expand to 1,500 communities by 2020.(67)

National Solidarity Fund*†

$2.5 million fund that provides assistance to poor households. In 2016, revised to include victims of human trafficking as project participants.(28, 112)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Côte d’Ivoire.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(10, 61, 68, 113, 114)

Although the Government maintains programs and coordinates with stakeholders to help children working on cocoa farms, the scope of existing programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(7, 64) SOSTECI has been implemented in several cocoa-growing communities, but it has not been expanded throughout the country because it requires a significant amount of resources for full implementation.(64, 77, 115) In addition, the Government primarily relies on NGOs to provide social services to victims of child trafficking. Research indicates that there is poor coordination among service providers, the distribution of services throughout the country is uneven, and existing programs do not adequately address all sectors where child labor is present.(2, 26, 28, 77)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Côte d’Ivoire (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2016

Enforcement

Improve coordination among ministries related to exploitative child labor and ensure that victims receive appropriate services.

2016

Ensure that labor inspectorates and criminal law enforcement agencies receive an adequate amount of funding to conduct inspections and investigations throughout the country, and that penalties are enforced according to the law.

2014 – 2016

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by authorizing the inspectorate to assess penalties.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that inspectors and investigators receive training on new laws related to child labor.

2016

Publish information about whether routine inspections are conducted and whether they target high-risk sectors.

2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in accordance with the ILO recommendation.

2009 – 2016

Improve monitoring of activity along the borders to enable the Government to identify and prevent transnational human trafficking activity.

2015 – 2016

Coordination

Improve coordination among ministries included in CNS and CIM.

2012 – 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2013 – 2016

Social Programs

Improve access to education by eliminating all school-related fees, providing all children with birth certificates, improving the accessibility of schools, ensuring that schools are free of physical and sexual abuse, and increasing the number of teachers, sanitation facilities, and schools, particularly in rural areas.

2011 – 2016

Replicate and expand models such as SOSTECI that address exploitative child labor to effectively implement government policies to combat the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that victims of the worst forms of child labor are able to access social services throughout the country.

2015 – 2016

1.         ILO-IPEC. Towards Child Labor Free Cocoa Growing Communities Through an Integrated Area Based Approach Project. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 31, 2014. [Source on file].

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Côte d'Ivoire," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

3.         Ministere d'Etat de la Republique de Côte d'Ivoire, Ministere de l'Emploi des Affairs Sociales et de la Formation Professionelle, ILO, and Côte d'Ivoire National Institute of Statistics. Etude des phénomènes de la traite et du travail des enfants dans les secteurs de l’agriculture, des mines, du transport, du commerce et du domestique. Abidjan; 2013. [Source on file].

4.         Global March Against Child Labour. Child Labour in Cocoa Farming in Côte d'Ivoire: Report of the Scoping Mission Conducted by Global March Against Child Labour. New Delhi; January-February 2013. http://globalmarch.org/images/CHILD-LABOUR-IN-COCOA-FARMING-IN-COTE-D'IVOIRE.pdf.

5.         Thorson, D. Children Working in Commercial Agriculture: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Briefing Paper No. 2. New York City, UNICEF; April 2012. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Briefing_paper_No_2_-_children_working_in_commercial_agriculture.pdf.

6.         Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Rapport de la Phase de Perennisation et d’Extension. Abidjan; September 2016. [Source on File].

7.         Tulane University. Final Report: 2013/14 Survey Research on Child Labor in West African Cocoa-Growing Areas. New Orleans, Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer; July 30, 2015. http://www.childlaborcocoa.org/index.php/2013-14-final-report.

8.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Living Standard Survey Round 6, 2012-2013. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. reporting, January 23, 2017.

11.       Fair Labor Association. Independent External Monitoring Of Nestlé’s Cocoa Supply Chain In Ivory Coast: 2014 - 2015. Washington, D.C.,  September 2, 2015. http://www.fairlabor.org/sites/default/files/documents/reports/september_2015_nestle_executive_summary.pdf.

12.       O'Keefe, B. "Bitter sweets: Inside big chocolate’s child labor problem." Fortune.com [online] March 1, 2016 [cited March 2, 2016]; http://fortune.com/big-chocolate-child-labor/.

13.       International Trade Union Confederation. Internationally Recognized Core Labour Standards in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau and Togo. Geneva; July 2 and 4, 2012. http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/final-en-cote_d_ivoire_guinea_bissau_togo_tpr_.pdf.

14.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Plan d'action national 2015-2017 de lutte contre les pires formes de travail des enfants. Abidjan; January 22, 2015. [Source on file].

15.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Plan d'action national 2012-2014 de lutte contre la traite, l'exploitation et le travail des enfants. Abidjan; March 23, 2012. [Source on file].

16.       ILO. Renforcement des capacités des Inspecteurs du Travail en matière d’intervention dans le secteur agricole : travail des enfants, santé et sécurité au travail et Système d’Observation et de Suivi du Travail des Enfants dans le secteur du cacao. Geneva; November 2013. [Source on file].

17.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Côte d'Ivoire (Ratification: 2003) Published: 2015; accessed March 30, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185211:NO.

18.       Koné, S. "Enquête/ Côte d’Ivoire : Région du Hambol/ Comment des enfants de migrants sont exploités." Le Point Sur, Abidjan, October 17, 2014. http://www.lepointsur.com/enquete-cote-divoire-region-du-hambol-comment-enfants-migrants-exploites/.

19.       Kent Elbow, and Sebastien Pennes. Artisanal Diamond Mining Sector Assessment in Côte d’Ivoire Consultancy Report. Washington, DC, USAID; October 2012. http://www.usaidltpr.com/sites/default/files/USAID_Land_Tenure_Artisanal_Mining_Assessment-Report_Cote_%20d'Ivoire.pdf.

20.       Joseph Arthur Kouame, Jiang Feng, Fuxing Jiang, and Sitao Zhu. "Evasion of Children in Ivory Coast Artisanal Mining Activities " Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(9)(2015); http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jsd/article/viewFile/49546/28907.

21.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire: Ministre d'Etat, Ministre du Plan et du Developpement, ILO-BIT. Enquete Nationale sur le Situation de l'Emploi et du Travail des Enfants. Abidjan; November 2014. [Source on file].

22.       Amanien. "ENQUÊTE/Traite des enfants en Côte d`Ivoire:Les "petites bonnes" ou l`esclavage des temps modernes." Amanien: L'Actualite Ivoirienne et Internationale, (2014); [source on file].

23.       Traore, K. "Interpol libère des enfants employés." Afrik.com [online] June 24, 2015 [cited March 18, 2016]; http://www.afrik.com/cote-d-ivoire-liberation-d-enfants-employes-dans-des-plantations-de-cacao-par-interpol.

24.       International Labor Rights Forum. The Fairness Gap: Farmer Incomes and Root Cause Solutions to Ending Child Labor in the Cocoa Industry. Washington, DC; December 2014. http://www.laborrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/Fairness%20gap_low_res.pdf.

25.       "Ivory Coast Frees 48 Child Slaves, Arrests Traffickers." [online] June 22, 2015 [cited June 23, 2015]; http://www.voanews.com/content/ivory-coast-child-slaves-traffickers-arrest/2833469.html.

26.       U.S. Embassy- Abidjan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. December 8, 2016.

27.       UN General Assembly. Human Rights Council, Thirty-first session, Report of the Independent Expert on capacity-building and technical cooperation with Côte d’Ivoire in the field of human rights; January 22, 2016. Report No. A/HRC/31/78. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/a_hrc_31_78.pdf.

28.       U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting, February 13, 2017.

29.       Groupe de la Banque Africaine de Developpement. "Document de Stratégie Pays 2013-2017." (2013); http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/C%C3%B4te%20d%27Ivoire%20-%20Document%20combin%C3%A9%20de%20strat%C3%A9gie%20pays%202013-2017%20et%20de%20revue%20du%20portefeuille%202013%20%28Version%20brouillon%29.pdf.

30.       U.S. Department of State. "Côte d'Ivoire," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/252885.pdf.

31.       UN Human Rights Committee. Initial Reports of States Parties Due in June 1993: Côte d’Ivoire. Prepared by the Government of Côte d’Ivoire, Article 40 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. May 21, 2013. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR%2fC%2fCIV%2f1&Lang=en.

32.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Reconstruisons notre systeme educatif, [Web site] [cited January 11, 2016]; http://www.presidence.ci/presentation/10/education.

33.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Plan Decennal Education Formation 2016 – 2025. Abidjan; February 29, 2016. [Source on file].

34.       UNICEF. Draft country programme document - Côte d'Ivoire. New York; June 6, 2016. Report No. E/ICEF/2016/P/L.34. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2016-PL34-Cote_dIvoire_draft_CPD-EN-21Jun2016.pdf.

35.       France 24. Vidéo de tabassage au lycée Voltaire : le proviseur suspendu [video]: YouTube; 2012, January 17, 2013; http://observers.france24.com/fr/20111227-lyceens-tabasses-cote-ivoire.

36.       UNICEF. Cote d'Ivoire: Education; n.d. http://www.unicef.org/cotedivoire/education.html.

37.       ILO-IPEC. Consultance en Vue de l'Evaluation des Besoins en Education dans les Communautes Cibles du Projet. Geneva; May 2013. [Source on file].

38.       ILO. Etude de base sur le travail des enfants dans la culture du cacao dans les Départements de Bouaflé, Mbatto Daoukro, Issia et Soubré. Geneva; 2013.

39.       Ministere de l'Education, and Conference des Ministeres de l'Education des Pays Ayant le Francais en Partage. Raport PASEC 2012 Côte d'Ivoire: Évaluation Diagnostique de l’École Primaire : Pistes d’Actions pour une Amelioration de la Qualite. Abidjan; 2012. [Source on file].

40.       UNESCO China Funds in Trust. Synthesis Report: Findings from the Needs Assessment Phase Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Namibia; June 2013. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002298/229863E.pdf.

41.       International Monetary Fund. Côte d’Ivoire: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper—Progress Report; July 2012. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=26076.0.

42.       United Nations General Assembly. Human Rights Council, Twenty-fifth session, Report of the independent expert on the situation of human rights in Côte d'Ivoire, Doudou Deine; January 13, 2014. Report No. A/HRC/25/73. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session25/Documents/A-HRC-25-73_en.doc.

43.       U.S. Embassy- Abidjan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 23, 2017.

44.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Code du Travail, Loi N°2015-532, enacted July 20, 2015. http://www.ccilci.org/communiques/autres/3028-code-du-travail-loi-n-2015-532.

45.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Projet de loi Portant Constitution de la République de Côte d’Ivoire, enacted October 12, 2016. http://www.gouv.ci/doc/accords/1476446768projet_de_loi_portant_constitution_rci.pdf.

46.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Révisant arrêté portant détermination de la liste des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants de moins de 18 ans, No. 009, enacted Janaury 30, 2012. [Source on file].

47.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Code Penal, N° 1981-640; amended by Law N° 1995-522, enacted July 31, 1981. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b5860.html.

48.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Loi Relative a la Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes, Loi N° 2016-1111, enacted December 8, 2016. [Source on file].

49.       "Department of Social Welfare changes name." GhanaNewsAgency.org [online] October 26, 2015 [cited January 24, 2016]; http://www.ghananewsagency.org/social/department-of-social-welfare-changes-name--96242.

50.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Déterminant les Conditions d'Entrée dans la Carrière Militaire, Loi N° 96-572, enacted July 31, 1996. [Source on file].

51.       U.S. Embassy- Accra official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. October 3, 2016.

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53.       U.S. Embassy- Abidjan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 31, 2016.

54.       Bamba-Lamine, A. "Conseil des ministres du mercredi 07 décembre 2016." Abidjan.net [online] December 8, 2016 [cited June 5, 2017]; http://news.abidjan.net/h/605633.html.

55.       Le Monde. "La Côte d’Ivoire adopte une nouvelle Constitution par référendum." [online] November 1, 2016 [cited January 16, 2017]; http://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2016/11/01/la-cote-d-ivoire-adopte-une-nouvelle-constitution-par-referendum_5023831_3212.html.

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57.       ILO. "Côte d’Ivoire and the ILO to step up cooperation in the fight against child labour." ILO.org [online] April 25, 2016 [cited May 2, 2016]; http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_474922/lang--en/index.htm.

58.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Projet de loi arrêté révisant l’arrêté N°009 du 19 janvier 2012 portant détermination de la liste des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants. Abidjan; 2016. [Source on file].

59.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Projet de loi arrêté portant détermination de la liste des travaux légers autorisés aux enfants âgés de 13 à 16 ans. Abidjan; 2016. [Source on file].

60.       Child Labor Cocoa Coordinating Group. 2014 Annual Report. Washington, DC; June 2015. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/pdf/2014-CLCCG-Report.pdf.

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62.       ILO-IPEC. Analyse des actions de communication sur le travail des enfants en Côte d’Ivoire. Geneva; August 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=25096.

63.       U.S. Embassy- Abidjan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 1, 2017.

64.       U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. reporting, February 22, 2016.

65.       Ministère de la Promotion de la Femme, de la Famille, et de la Protection de l'Enfant. La Direction de la Protection de l'Enfant, [previously online] [cited February 1, 2016]; http://www.msffe.info/index.php/dpe [source on file].

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68.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Submission for CLCCG Annual Report 2015. Abidjan; March 4, 2016. [Source on file].

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70.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

71.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

72.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

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75.       U.S. Embassy- Abidjan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 24, 2015.

76.       International Organization for Migration. "IOM Joins Forces with Interpol to Combat Child Trafficking in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana." IOM.int [online] June 26, 2015 [cited November 8, 2015]; http://www.iom.int/news/iom-joins-forces-interpol-combat-child-trafficking-cote-divoire-ghana.

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80.       Comité National de Surveillance des Actions de Lutte contre la Traite, l’Exploitation, et le travail des Enfants. Le Nouveau Cadre Institutionnel, Government of Côte d'Ivoire, [Web page] [cited January 23, 2017]; http://www.travaildesenfants.org/fr/content/le-nouveau-cadre-institutionnel#.

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86.       Senator Harkin, Congressman Engel, USDOL, Government of Côte d'Ivoire, Government of Ghana, and International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry. Declaration of Joint Action to Support Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol. Abidjan; September 13, 2010. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GhanaSignedDeclaration.pdf.

87.       Senator Harkin, Congressman Engel, USDOL, Government of Côte d'Ivoire, Government of Ghana, and International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry. Framework of Action to Support Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol. Abidjan; September 13, 2010. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/CocoaFrameworkAction.pdf.

88.       Eliot Engel, U.S. Department of Labor, Government of Côte d’Ivoire, Government of Ghana, and the International Chocolate and Cocoa Industry. Child Labor Cocoa Coordinating Group (CLCCG) 2016 Annual Report. Washington DC; 2017. https://www.dol.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ilab/CLCCG%202016%20Annual%20Report.pdf.

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95.       Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Communique du Conseil des Ministres du Mercredi 21 Decembre 2016. Abidjan; December 2016. https://www.gouv.ci/doc/1482484668CCM%20du%2021%2012%2016-V4vf.pdf.

96.       Ministere de l’Education Nationale et de l’Enseignement Technique. Initiative Présidentielle pour la Scolarisation Obligatoire des enfants de 6 à 16 ans. Abidjan; 2016. [Source on file].

97.       Koffi, M. Politique Nationale de Protection Judiciaire de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse. Abidjan, UNICEF and Ministere de la Justice, des Droits de l’Homme et des Libertes Publiques; November 2015. [Source on file].

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99.       Elisée, B. "La Formulation du Programme par Pays de Promotion du Travail Décent (PPTD) 2016‐2020 au centre d’un Atelier national à Bassam." Abidjan.net [online] October 10, 2016 [cited February 17, 2017]; http://news.abidjan.net/h/601893.html.

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101.     USDOL. Survey Research on Child Labor in West African Cocoa Growing Areas. Washington, D.C.; 2012. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/WestAfr_SurveyofCocoaGrowingAreas.pdf.

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103.     ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor. Washington, DC; 2013. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GlobalCLEAR_FY13.pdf.

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