Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Côte d'Ivoire

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Côte d'Ivoire
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2018, Côte d’Ivoire made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government developed a new 2018–2020 National Action Plan of the Fight Against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor, and drafted a National Labor Inspection Strategy. The First Lady of Côte d’Ivoire signed a memorandum of understanding for carrying out applied research on child labor in cocoa-growing areas, and opened a child protection center that houses and provides education, medical care, counseling, and vocational training to victims of child labor. The government also took enforcement actions against violations of the worst forms of child labor, including sentencing a child trafficker to 3 years in prison. However, children in Côte d’Ivoire engage in the worst forms of child labor in the harvesting of cocoa and coffee, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Gaps remain in resources, personnel, and training for law enforcement, which hindered child labor law enforcement efforts. Furthermore, the labor inspectorate is not authorized to assess penalties.

Children in Côte d'Ivoire engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of cocoa and coffee, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1-3) According to a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey conducted in 2016, 21.5 percent of children ages 5–17 are engaged in hazardous work. (4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Côte d'Ivoire. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

31.5 (1,682,754)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

63.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

21.5

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

73.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (5)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Enquête Démographique et de Santé (EDSCI-III) Survey, 2011–2012. (6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cocoa, including burning† and clearing fields;† cutting down trees† to expand cocoa plantations; spraying pesticides;† harvesting, drying, and fermenting cocoa beans; using sharp tools to break pods;† and transporting heavy loads† of cocoa pods and water (1,2,7-13)

Production of cereals, pineapple, bananas, and coffee, including applying chemical fertilizers,† spraying pesticides,† cutting down trees,† and burning† and clearing fields† (1,14,15)

Production of palm oil, cashews, honey, and rubber (2,7,16)

Fishing, including deep sea diving;† repairing and hauling nets; cleaning,† salting, drying, descaling, and selling fish (2,14)

Production of charcoal† (1,2,13)

Forestry (7) 

Industry

Mining,† including crushing and transporting stones, blasting rocks, digging, working underground, sieving, and extracting gold with mercury or cyanide (2,12,14,16,18-20)

Manufacturing, including repairing automobiles (14,16,21)

Construction,† activities unknown (14)

Services

Domestic work (4,12,14,15,22,23)

Working in transportation and carrying goods† (1,2,12,14,16)

Street vending and commerce (1,7,12,14,16)

Work in restaurants (21) 

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in mining, carpentry, construction, domestic work, street vending, restaurants, and agriculture, including in the production of cocoa, coffee, pineapple, cotton, and rubber, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1,3,9,16,23-25)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3,16,23)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking (15)

Forced begging as talibés by Koranic teachers, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (15,19,21,26)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children from Côte d'Ivoire are subjected to human trafficking for forced labor in domestic work within the country and North Africa. Children are also brought from neighboring West African countries to Côte d'Ivoire for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor, including in begging, cocoa production, and artisanal mining. (1,3,10,15,16,22) In 2018, there were reports of child trafficking from Nigeria to mining regions, especially in northern Côte d'Ivoire, for commercial sexual exploitation. (21) IOM indicates that some Ivorian parents send their boys to Tunisia so they can play soccer, but upon arrival, the boys' identity documents are confiscated and they are subject to forced labor until they can repay the cost of their plane ticket. (27)

School is mandatory for children ages 6 to 16 in Côte d'Ivoire. Although the Law on Education provides for free education, students are often required to pay for textbooks, school fees, or uniforms, which may be prohibitive to some families. (7,15,27-29) In addition, identity documents are required for students to take exams to enter secondary school, and the lack of these documents hindered some students' ability to access secondary education. (7) Approximately 23 percent of primary school-aged children and 41 percent of secondary-school aged children in Côte d'Ivoire are not enrolled in school, with the highest rates of non-enrollment found in the North, Northwest, and West regions. (4,29) A shortage of teachers, poor school infrastructure, lack of transportation systems in rural areas, and inadequate sanitation facilities have negatively impacted children's ability to attend school. (7) Research also suggests that some students are physically and sexually abused at school, which may deter some students from attending school. (29,30)

Côte d'Ivoire has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

In 2017, the government ratified the UN Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, and in June 2018, the Ministry of Interior and Security passed a law on the illegal trafficking of migrants. (31,32-34)  

The government's laws and regulations are in line with relevant international standards (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 23.2 of the Labor Code; Article 16 of the Constitution (35,36)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 4 of the Prohibitions of Hazardous Work List (37)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 5–11 of the Prohibitions of Hazardous Work List; Articles 6 and 19 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (37,38)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Constitution; Articles 7, 11–14, 20–23, and 26 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law; Article 3 of the Labor Code (35,36,38)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Constitution; Articles 11–12, 20–22, and 26 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law; Article 370 of the Penal Code; Articles 4.4 and 6 of the Anti-Trafficking Law (35,38-40)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 8–9, 15, and 24–29 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law; Articles 4.4 and 6 of the Anti-Trafficking Law (37,38,40)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 4 and 30 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (38)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 56.4 of the Armed Forces Code; Articles 7–8 and 18 of the Law Determining the Conditions for Entering the Military (41,42)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes*

 

Article 56.4 of the Armed Forces Code (41)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Articles 4 and 31 of the Prohibition of Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Law (38)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 10 of the Constitution; Article 2.1 of the Law on Education (35,43,44)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Law on Education (44)

* No conscription (32,42,45)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Employment and Social Protection (MEPS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment and Social Protection (MEPS)

Develops, proposes, and enforces all labor laws, including those related to child labor. (30,46) Collaborates with the Anti-Trafficking Unit (ATU) and Ministry of Women, Family, and Children to provide support to victims of child trafficking and other forms of child labor. (15,22) Implements the child labor monitoring system, Système d'Observation et de Suivi du Travail des Enfants en Côte d'Ivoire (SOSTECI), which enables communities to collect and analyze statistical data on the worst forms of child labor. (12,14)

Ministry of Interior and Security

Through its ATU, leads efforts to enforce criminal laws against child trafficking. Through its Mondaine Brigades, combats commercial sexual exploitation, including exploitation of children. (3,32) Through its Unit for Combating Transnational Organized Crime, supports UNODC's West Africa Coast Initiative, which aims to improve cross-border cooperation to combat crimes, including human trafficking. (32,47)

Ministry of Defense

Through its National Gendarmes Force, investigates child labor violations in rural areas where there is no police presence. (15)

Ministry of Justice (MOJ)

Investigates and prosecutes crimes related to child labor, including its worst forms. Through its Directorate of Judicial Protection of Childhood and Youth, assists with investigations and implements the ministry's child protection policy. (15)

Ministry of Women, Family, and Children (MFFE)

Leads the government's efforts to combat human trafficking and implements a National Policy on Child Protection. (7,48) Maintains the 116 Allo hotline for child labor issues, and responds to complaints. (15,49) Provides support to child labor victims in coordination with MEPS. (15,50)

National Commission of Human Rights

Maintains a hotline for reporting human rights abuses. (51)

In 2018, the Directorate of Child Protection of the Ministry of Women, Family, and Children identified 16 girls from Niger between ages of 15 and 17 who were being used as prostitutes. The girls were rescued and repatriated to Niger. (7) The General Labor Directorate in Abidjan coordinates the regional offices and their efforts to combat child labor. (15,52)

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Côte d'Ivoire took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MEPS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resource allocation and authority to assess penalties for violations.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$329,600 (15)

$416,171 (7) 

Number of Labor Inspectors

259 (15)

292 (7) 

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (36)

No (7) 

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (15)

Yes (7)  

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (15,52)

Yes (7) 

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (15)

Yes (7) 

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

969 (52)

2,352 (53) 

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (15)

Unknown (7) 

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (15)

0 (7) 

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A (15)

N/A (7) 

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

N/A (15)

N/A (7) 

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (15)

Yes (7) 

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (15)

Yes (7) 

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (36)

Yes (7) 

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (15)

Yes (7) 

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (15)

Yes (7) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (15)

Yes (7) 

During the reporting period, the government hired and provided training to 33 new labor inspectors. (7) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Côte d'Ivoire's workforce, which includes more than 8.5 million workers. (54) According to the ILO's technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Côte d'Ivoire would employ about 567 labor inspectors. (54,55)

Labor inspectors are also tasked with dispute conciliation, which may detract from their primary duties of inspection. (36,56) The government did not provide information on the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites for inclusion in this report.

The labor inspectorate suffers from a lack of resources, including insufficient staff, office facilities, and transportation. (15,17,30,56,57) As a result, inspectors primarily receive and resolve complaints, focusing on the formal sector. (56) In 2018, inspections took place in the informal sector, although no cases of child labor were identified. (53)

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Côte d'Ivoire took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators and financial resource allocation.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (15)

Yes (7) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (58)

Yes (7) 

Refresher Courses Provided

No (15)

Yes (7) 

Number of Investigations

42 (52)

191 (7) 

Number of Violations Found

42 (52)

7 (7) 

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

17 (52)

87 (7) 

Number of Convictions

4 (32)

79 (7) 

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (7) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (15,50)

Yes (7) 

During the reporting period, police identified 7 infractions of child labor laws relating to trafficking and rescued 79 children. The MOJ is examining three individuals associated with these infractions, which are being heard as cases of economic and sexual exploitation of children. (7,21) All 79 children were received by or referred to the child and youth judiciary protection unit of the court. (7);

In June 2018, the First Lady of Côte d'Ivoire, on behalf of the National Monitoring Committee on Actions to Combat Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CNS), opened a child protection center in Soubré, which houses and provides education, medical care, counseling, and vocational training to victims of child labor. (7,59) In December 2018, nine Burkinabe boys ages 14 to 18 who had been subjected to child trafficking as part of a gold mining operation were rescued and referred to the Soubré shelter before being repatriated to Burkina Faso. The trafficker was sentenced to 3 years in prison. (21)

In 2018, 3 new police officers received training on identifying victims of child trafficking. (21) However, the Anti-Trafficking Unit lacks the resources and personnel to adequately enforce criminal child labor laws throughout the country, and research indicates that criminal law enforcement officials may benefit from additional training on existing laws related to the worst forms of child labor. (3,10,51,60)

In October 2018, a 14-year old female trafficking victim was allegedly abducted at gunpoint by five gendarmes and two military firefighters, including the victim's trafficker, from an NGO-run shelter where she was receiving care. The UNODC and the First Lady's Office intervened and located the girl, who was determined to be safe. (21,61) Investigations and judicial proceedings against the alleged abductors were ongoing at the end of the reporting period. (61)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination among agencies.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Monitoring Committee on Actions to Combat Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CNS)

Supervises, monitors, and evaluates all government activities related to child labor and child trafficking, including making policy recommendations and harmonizing laws with international conventions. (62,63) Chaired by the First Lady of Côte d'Ivoire and comprises 16 international and domestic partners. (22,62,64) In July 2018, CNS hosted the eighth annual Child Labor Cocoa Coordinating Group (CLCCG) Principals Meeting which was held for the first time in Abidjan. (65) 

Interministerial Committee on the Fight Against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (CIM)

Designs, coordinates, and implements all government actions to combat the worst forms of child labor, and monitors relevant programs implemented by partner organizations. (49,62,64,66)  Chaired by MEPS, includes representatives from 12 other ministries. (22,62,64,66) In March 2018, representatives of CIM participated in a workshop on the implementation of SOSTECI. (67)

National Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking (CNLTP)

Formed in support of the 2016 Anti-Trafficking Law and chaired by the Prime Minister, aims to fight human trafficking throughout Côte d'Ivoire. Oversees the implementation of the National Action Plan and Strategy Against Human Trafficking, validates programs, coordinates government efforts, and monitors implementation of all projects related to human trafficking. (68) Includes representation at the local level through dedicated units charged with implementing the National Action Plan and Strategy Against Human Trafficking. (68,69) MFFE serves as the executive secretariat and the committee comprises 13 ministries. This committee replaces a previous committee by the same name, which was defunct. (15) As of February 2018, this committee had not convened since its establishment in April 2017, although it has worked together informally to resolve some cases of human trafficking. (32)

In May 2018, as part of a bilateral agreement between Côte d'Ivoire and Mali to combat cross-border child trafficking, the Office of the First Lady coordinated meetings with Malian counterparts to discuss best practices and assess the implementation of anti-trafficking efforts. (70) In 2018, the CLCCG organized awareness campaigns in Abidjan on the worst forms of child labor that reached more than 800 people and trained 126 members of Child Protection Committees in San Pedro and M'batto on the implementation of the Système d'Observation et de Suivi du Travail des Enfants en Côte d'Ivoire (SOSTECI). (70) Government ministries coordinated effectively during the reporting period, and platforms bring together government offices and civil society members at the departmental and regional level to address issues of child labor. However, coordination on data collection among ministries and between different regions remains a challenge. (15)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including funding and mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan for the Fight Against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor (2019–2021)†

Coordinated by CNS and CIM, approximately $243 million project aimed to significantly reduce the number of children engaged in the worst forms of child labor by building on best practices and improving upon lessons learn from earlier National Action Plan implementation. Priorities include increasing efforts to mobilize resources at the national level, reinforcing regional cooperation and public-private partnerships, incorporating worst forms of child labor considerations into national and sector-specific programming, and reinforcing the monitoring and evaluation of the national strategy for the fight against trafficking and the worst forms of child labor. (53,71)

National Action Plan and Strategy Against Human Trafficking (2016–2020)

With the support of UNODC and coordinated by CNLTP, $14.8 million project that aims to prevent human trafficking, expand social services for victims by improving physical infrastructure, provide training for law enforcement personnel and other stakeholders, promote coordination, and collect data on human trafficking. (72,73) This plan will begin implementation after the CNLTP becomes functional. (32)

2010 Declaration of Joint Action to Support the Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol (2010 Declaration) and Its Accompanying Framework of Action

Joint declaration by the Governments of Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, and the United States, and the International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry. (49,74,75) Provides resources and coordinates with key stakeholders on efforts to reduce the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-producing areas.Ensures that all project efforts implemented under the Declaration and Framework align with Côte d'Ivoire's national action plans to promote coherence and sustainability. (49,74,75) USDOL-funded projects and some industry-funded projects carried out activities that support the spirit of this policy during the reporting period. (49)

Partnership Agreement

Forms an agreement between the International Cocoa Initiative (ICI) and CNS in support of the National Action Plan for the Fight Against Trafficking, Exploitation, and Child Labor. Aims to reinforce and expand SOSTECI and improve school infrastructure. (76,77)  In 2018, ICI conducted a mapping of schools built in cocoa-growing areas, and presented the research at the CLCCG meeting held in July 2018. Also during the reporting period, ICI supported the harmonization of SOSTECI data tools. (31) 

Joint Declarations Against Cross-Border Trafficking

Bilateral declarations or cooperative agreements with Ghana and Burkina Faso to combat child trafficking and the worst forms of child labor. (78-81) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Joint Declarations Against Cross-Border Trafficking during the reporting period.

Child Protection Policies

Includes the National Policy on Child Protection (2014–2018), led by MFFE, which seeks to reduce the incidence of violence, abuse, and exploitation of children; and the National Policy of Judicial Protection of Childhood and Youth (2016–2020), led by MOJ, which aims to provide judicial protection to child victims of forced labor and has yet to be officially adopted by the Council of Ministers. (82,83) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Child Protection Policies during the reporting period.

National Development Plan (2016–2020)

Aims to improve governance and accelerate human capital development, including by combatting child labor. Allocates almost $6.1 million over 5 years to conduct diagnostic studies on child labor and child trafficking; creates a unit in regional labor inspectorate offices to combat the worst forms of child labor; expands SOSTECI into 10 new departments; constructs 3 child protection centers; and develops a national action plan to combat human trafficking, particularly of girls. (84) During the reporting period, construction began on the Bouake and Ferkessédougou children's protection centers. Also during the reporting period, the government evaluated the efficacy of the SOSTECI model to determine best practices for 2019 expansion efforts. (31)

Compulsory Education Policy

In support of the Law on Education, aims to achieve 100 percent enrollment in primary school by 2020 and 100 percent enrollment in junior high by 2025. (27,85) Allocates $1.34 billion to modernize the education system, including by building new classrooms, providing free textbooks to low-income families, and providing additional pedagogical training to teachers. (27) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Compulsory Education Policy during the reporting period.

Decent Work Country Program (2017–2020)

In collaboration with ILO, aims to improve working conditions, strengthen SOSTECI, and combat the worst forms of child labor. (58,86) Pending adoption by the Council of Ministers. (32) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Decent Work Country Program during the reporting period.

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (28,29)

In February 2018, the First Lady of Cote d'Ivoire, on behalf of the CNS, signed a memorandum of understanding with the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago (NORC) establishing a formal framework for carrying out applied research on child labor in cocoa-growing areas of Cote d'Ivoire. In February and September 2018, the government participated in workshops on the methodology of the 2018–2019 survey being conducted by NORC on the prevalence of child labor in cocoa-growing areas of Cote d'Ivoire. (7,59) In March 2018, MEPS organized an implementation workshop on SOSTECI that was attended by 70 participants. (67) An international conference on the implementation of SOSTECI was held in December 2018. (7) Also during the reporting period, the government developed a draft Labor Inspection Strategy through MEPS, with assistance from the ILO, which is expected to be enacted in 2019. The strategy aims to enable the government to ensure the application of legal provisions for the improvement of working conditions and the removal of children from work through the inspection of worksites, counseling, and monitoring. (7,31,53) 

The government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the World Bank's Country Partnership Framework. (87)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects in cocoa-growing areas of Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana that aim to eliminate child labor through research, improved monitoring and enforcement, and implementation and expansion of SOSTECI. These projects include: Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR) (2013–2019), $7.95 million project implemented in at least 10 countries by ILO; Building a Generation of Safe and Healthy Workers: SafeYouth@Work (2014–2019), $11,443,156 global project implemented by ILO with Côte d'Ivoire as one of 8 countries; Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa-Growing Areas of Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana (2015–2019), $3 million project implemented by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago; and Eliminating Child Labor in Cocoa (2015–2019), $4.5 million project implemented by ICI. (88-90) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Industry-Funded Projects

Industry-funded projects to increase sustainability in the cocoa sector, improve farmer livelihoods and access to education, and combat the worst forms of child labor in cocoa-growing areas. Some projects support World Cocoa Foundation's CocoaAction (2014–2020) strategy and the spirit of the 2010 Declaration. (49,91) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement industry-funded projects during the reporting period.

Centers for Vulnerable Children†

The government operates approximately 90 MFFE- and MEPS-funded social centers and 36 special education centers throughout the country that receive women and children who are victims of crime or violence, including children who are victims of the worst forms of child labor. (32) International NGOs also operate additional centers that provide meals and basic education. (73)  In June 2018, the government  began constructing centers in Bouake and Ferkessédougou. Between August and November 2018, the Soubré center spent $32,838 to provide care to 42 children ages 6 to 16 who were victims of trafficking and exploitation. (70)   

Programs to Promote Education†

These programs aim to raise school attendance rates in rural areas, particularly among girls, by providing school meals, facilitating birth registration, and constructing community schools (écoles de proximité). Programs include: the Integrated Program for Sustainable School Feeding, $42.5 million WFP-funded program; the Ministry of National Education School Feeding Program; and the McGovern-Dole School Feeding Program, $35.6 million joint initiative between WFP and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, in coordination with the Ministry of National Education that benefits 129,000 school children. (16,72,92-94) In 2018, these program facilitated the construction of 23 schools with 69 classrooms, 84 teacher housing units, 13 canteens, and 112 latrines in primary schools. (7,70)

World Bank-Funded Projects

Programs aim to improve access to education and provide poverty relief. Include: Second Fiscal Management, Education, Energy and Cocoa Reforms Development Policy Operation (2017–2020), $125 million project to increase the number of primary school teachers; and Productive Social Safety Net (2015–2020), $50 million cash transfer project to poor households in the Central, Northern, and Western regions of Côte d'Ivoire. (95,96) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement World Bank-funded projects during the reporting period.

Community Animation Program for Child Protection (2015–2020)†

$228,168 MFFE program as part of the National Policy on Child Protection, implemented with technical assistance from UNICEF, provides a service package for behavior change and improving communication at the community level that can be tailored to meet local needs. (97-99) During the reporting period, conducted sensitizations in Abidjan and Yopougon on topics related to combating the worst forms of child labor. (70)  

National Solidarity Fund†

$2.5 million fund that provides assistance to poor households, including victims of human trafficking. (51,100) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Solidarity Fund during the reporting period.

† Program is funded by the Government of Côte d'Ivoire.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (101-103) 

In March 2018, the government held an evaluation workshop on the implementation of the 2015-2017 National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking, Exploitation and Child Labor (NAP). This workshop was used to inform the development of the new 2018–2020 National Action Plan. (70) The government dedicated funding to SOSTECI for its expansion and disbursed funds to the NAP, but the scope of existing programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, and not all relevant sectors are addressed. (15) In addition, the government primarily relies on NGOs to provide social services to victims of child labor and child trafficking, and government services are under-resourced. (3,16,104) In 2018, due to a lack of financial transparency, UNICEF suspended a program implemented in 2017 in conjunction with MOJ that aimed to provide birth registration to 600,000 children who are currently enrolled in primary school. (7)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Côte d'Ivoire (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by authorizing the inspectorate to assess penalties.

2014 – 2018

Publish information about whether inspections are conducted at worksites.

2016 – 2018

Ensure that labor inspectorates and criminal law enforcement agencies receive a sufficient amount of funding to conduct inspections and investigations throughout the country, including in the informal sector.

2014 – 2018

Ensure that criminal law enforcement agencies receive the resources, personnel, and training needed to adequately enforce child labor laws.

2018

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO's technical advice.

2009 – 2018

Coordination

Ensure that all coordinating bodies function as intended and are able to carry out their mandates.

2017 – 2018

Improve coordination on data collection among ministries and between different regions

2012-2018

Government Policies

Ensure that existing policies are implemented as intended.

2018

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into all relevant policies.

2013 – 2018

Social Programs

Improve access to education by eliminating all school-related fees; improving the accessibility of schools; ensuring that schools are free of physical and sexual abuse; and increasing the number of teachers, sanitation facilities, and schools, particularly in rural areas.

2011 – 2018

Ensure that social programs to address child labor are implemented in accordance with their mandates.

2018

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem in Côte d'Ivoire and institute programs to address child labor in all relevant sectors.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that victims of the worst forms of child labor are able to access social services throughout the country.

2015 – 2018

  1. Ministère d’Etat, Ministère de l’Emploi, des Affaires Sociales et de la Formation Professionnelle, et al. Etude des phénomènes de la traite et du travail des enfants dans les secteurs de l’agriculture, des mines, du transport, du commerce et du domestique. Abidjan. 2013. Source on file.

  2. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Rapport de la Phase de Perennisation et d’Extension. Abidjan. September 2016. Source on file.

  3. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Côte d'Ivoire. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2017-trafficking-in-persons-report/cote-divoire/.

  4. Ministère du Plan et du Développement. La Situation des Femmes et des Enfants en Côte d’Ivoire: Enquête à Indicateurs Multiples 2016 - MICS5. 2016.
    https://mics-surveys-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/MICS5/West and Central Africa/Côte d'Ivoire/2016/Final/Cote d'Ivoire 2016 MICS_French.pdf.

  5. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  6. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Living Standard Survey Round 6, 2012-2013. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  7. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting. February 22, 2019.

  8. Tulane University. Final Report: 2013/14 Survey Research on Child Labor in West African Cocoa-Growing Areas. New Orleans: Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer. July 30, 2015.
    http://www.childlaborcocoa.org/index.php/2013-14-final-report.

  9. Fair Labor Association. Independent External Monitoring Of Nestlé’s Cocoa Supply Chain In Ivory Coast: 2014 - 2015. Washington, DC. September 2, 2015.
    http://www.fairlabor.org/sites/default/files/documents/reports/september_2015_nestle_executive_summary.pdf.

  10. O'Keefe, B. Bitter sweets: Inside big chocolate’s child labor problem. March 1, 2016.
    http://fortune.com/big-chocolate-child-labor/.

  11. Afrique Connection. Trafic d'enfants en Côte d'Ivoire: dans l'enfer des plantations de cacao. January 9, 2016.
    https://www.afriqueconnection.com/article/09-01-2016/trafic-d’enfants-en-côte-d’ivoire-dans-l’enfer-des-plantations-de-cacao.

  12. N’Guettia, Martin. Système d’Observation et de Suivi du Travail des Enfants en Côte d’Ivoire (SOSTECI). CLCCG Annual Meeting: Washington, D.C. August 28, 2017. Source on file.

  13. International Cocoa Initiative Foundation. Our Results. 2017.
    http://www.cocoainitiative.org/our-work/our-results/.

  14. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Plan d'action national 2015-2017 de lutte contre les pires formes de travail des enfants. Abidjan. January 22, 2015. Source on file.

  15. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting. January 19, 2018.

  16. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting. August 9, 2017.

  17. ILO. Renforcement des capacités des Inspecteurs du Travail en matière d’intervention dans le secteur agricole: travail des enfants, santé et sécurité au travail et Système d’Observation et de Suivi du Travail des Enfants dans le secteur du cacao. Geneva. November 2013. Source on file.

  18. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Côte d'Ivoire (ratification: 2003) Published: 2015. Accessed March 30, 2016.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185211:NO.

  19. Koné, S. Enquête/ Côte d’Ivoire : Région du Hambol/ Comment des enfants de migrants sont exploités. Abidjan: Le Point Sur. October 17, 2014.
    http://www.lepointsur.com/enquete-cote-divoire-region-du-hambol-comment-enfants-migrants-exploites/.

  20. Kouame, Joseph Arthur, et al. Evasion of Children in Ivory Coast Artisanal Mining Activities. Journal of Sustainable Development 8, no.9 (2015).
    http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jsd/article/viewFile/49546/28907.

  21. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting. March 11, 2019.

  22. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire: Ministre d'Etat, Ministre du Plan et du Developpement, and ILO-BIT. Enquete Nationale sur le Situation de l'Emploi et du Travail des Enfants. Abidjan. November 2014. Source on file.

  23. Amanien. ENQUÊTE/Traite des enfants en Côte d`Ivoire:Les "petites bonnes" ou l`esclavage des temps modernes. Amanien: L'Actualite Ivoirienne et Internationale. 2014. Source on file.

  24. Traore, K. Interpol libère des enfants employés dans des plantations de cacao. June 24, 2015.
    http://www.afrik.com/cote-d-ivoire-liberation-d-enfants-employes-dans-des-plantations-de-cacao-par-interpol.

  25. International Labor Rights Forum. The Fairness Gap: Farmer Incomes and Root Cause Solutions to Ending Child Labor in the Cocoa Industry. Washington, DC. December 2014.
    http://www.laborrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/Fairness gap_low_res.pdf.

  26. UN General Assembly. Human Rights Council, Thirty-first session, Report of the Independent Expert on capacity-building and technical cooperation with Côte d’Ivoire in the field of human rights. January 22, 2016: A/HRC/31/78.
    http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/{65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9}/a_hrc_31_78.pdf.

  27. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Reconstruisons notre systeme educatif. January 11, 2016. Source on file.

  28. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Plan Decennal Education Formation 2016 – 2025. Abidjan. February 29, 2016. Source on file.

  29. UNICEF. Draft country programme document - Côte d'Ivoire. New York. June 6, 2016: E/ICEF/2016/P/L.34.
    http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2016-PL34-Cote_dIvoire_draft_CPD-EN-21Jun2016.pdf.

  30. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2018: Côte d'Ivoire. Washington, DC. March 13, 2019.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/cote-divoire/

  31. U.S. Embassy Abidjan official. Email communication to USDOL official. July 16, 2019.

  32. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting. February 21, 2018.

  33. UN Treaty Collections. 12. b Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Accessed March 6, 2018. 12. b Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Source on file.

  34. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Loi N° 2018-571 du 13 juin 2018 relative à la lutte contre le trafic illicite de migrants. Enacted: June 13, 2018. Source on file.

  35. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Loi N° 2016-886 du 08 Novembre 2016 Portant Constitution de la République de Côte d’Ivoire. Enacted: November 8, 2016.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/105198/128596/F-1769604843/CIV-105198.pdf.

  36. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Code du Travail, Loi N°2015-532. Enacted: July 20, 2015.
    http://www.ccilci.org/communiques/autres/3028-code-du-travail-loi-n-2015-532.

  37. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Arrêté N° 2017-017 MEPS/CAB du 02 Juin 2017 déterminant la liste des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants. Enacted: June 2, 2017.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/104712/127840/F1597937352/CIV-104712.pdf.

  38. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Loi N° 2010-272 du 30 Septembre 2010 Portant Interdiction de la Traite et des Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants. Enacted: September 30, 2010.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/85243/95376/F693526342/CIV-85243.pdf.

  39. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Code Penal, N° 1981-640, amended by Law N° 1995-522. Enacted: July 31, 1981.
    http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b5860.html.

  40. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Loi Relative a la Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes, Loi N° 2016-1111. Enacted: December 8, 2016. Source on file.

  41. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Loi N° 2016-1109 Portant Code de la Fonction Militaire. 2016.
    http://www.loidici.com/codefoncmilitaire2016/fonctionmilitaire2016Recrutement.php.

  42. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Loi N° 96-572 Déterminant les Conditions d'Entrée dans la Carrière Militaire. Enacted: July 31, 1996. Source on file.

  43. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Loi N° 2015-635 du 17 Septembre 2015 Portant Modification de la Loi N° 95-696 du 7 Septembre 1995 Relative à l'Enseignement. Enacted: September 17, 2015.
    http://www.unesco.org/education/edurights/media/docs/dd772d376fde955a96fab3e19871f5f12b13f9d8.pdf.

  44. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Loi N° 95-696 du 7 Septembre 1995 Relative à l'Enseignement. Enacted: September 7, 1995.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=fr&p_isn=104174&p_count=1&p_classification=09.

  45. Bamba-Lamine, A. Conseil des ministres du mercredi 07 décembre 2016. December 8, 2016.
    http://news.abidjan.net/h/605633.html.

  46. U.S. Embassy Abidjan official. Email communication to USDOL official. March 5, 2018.

  47. UN Office on Drugs and Crime. Côte d'Ivoire Country Page. Accessed March 6, 2018.
    https://www.unodc.org/westandcentralafrica/en/cote-d-ivoire.html.

  48. Ministère de la Promotion de la Femme, de la Famille et de la Protection de l'Enfant. La Direction de la Protection de l'Enfant. February 1, 2016.
    http://www.msffe.info/index.php/dpe.

  49. Child Labor Cocoa Coordinating Group. 2016 Annual Report. Washington, DC. 2017.
    https://www.dol.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ilab/CLCCG 2016 Annual Report.pdf.

  50. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Referral Mechanism. Source on file.

  51. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting. February 13, 2017.

  52. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Submission for CLCCG Annual Report 2017. Abidjan. March 6, 2018. Source on file.

  53. U.S. Embassy Abidjan official. Email communication to USDOL official. March 25, 2019.

  54. CIA. The World Factbook. January 19, 2017. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131.

  55. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. 2017. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf.

  56. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Côte d'Ivoire (ratification: 1987) and Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention, 1969 (No. 129) Côte d'Ivoire (ratification: 1987) Published: 2017. Accessed October 19, 2017.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3298245.

  57. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention, 1969 (No. 129) Côte d'Ivoire (ratification: 1987) Published: 2014. Accessed June 4, 2015.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3113984.

  58. ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor. Geneva. October 2017: Technical Progress Report. Source on file.

  59. USDOL official. Communication to USDOL official. June 5, 2019.

  60. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Côte d’Ivoire (ratification: 2003) Published: 2015. Accessed October 28, 2015.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185208:NOf.

  61. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report - 2019: Côte d'Ivoire. Washington, DC. June 20, 2019.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-trafficking-in-persons-report/.

  62. Comité National de Surveillance des Actions de Lutte contre la Traite l’Exploitation et le travail des Enfants (CNS). Le Nouveau Cadre Institutionnel. Accessed January 23, 2017. Government of Côte d'Ivoire.
    http://www.travaildesenfants.org/fr/content/le-nouveau-cadre-institutionnel#.

  63. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Création du Comité National de Surveillance des Actions de lutte contre la traite, l’exploitation et le travail des Enfants, Décret N° 2011-366. Enacted: November 3, 2011. Source on file.

  64. Yao, SP. Présentation du Plan d’Action National 2015-2017 de Lutte contre les Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants. Abidjan: Secrétaire Exécutif du Comité National de Surveillance (CNS). 2015. Source on file.

  65. Kouhon, Philippe. 8th meeting of (CLCCG) in Abidjan-Dominique Ouattara: "Eliminating child labor in the cocoa production chain in our countries is neither a slogan nor a mere declaration of principle". Afrikipresse. July 17, 2018.
    http://www.afrikipresse.fr/societe/8e-reunion-du-clccg-a-abidjan-dominique-ouattara-eliminer-le-travail-des-enfants-de-la-chaine-de-production-du-cacao-dans-nos-pays-n-est-ni-un-slogan-ni-une-simple-declaration-de-principe.

  66. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Création du Comité Interministériel de lutte contre la traite, l’exploitation et le travail des Enfants, Décret N° 2011-365. Enacted: November 3, 2011.
    http://www.travaildesenfants.org/sites/default/files/pdf/Dominique-Ouattara-Decret- de-creation-du- Comite- interministériel-de- lutte-contre-la-traite-l-exploitation-et-le-travail-des- enfants .pdf.

  67. U.S. Embassy Abidjan official. Email communication to USDOL official. May 29, 2019.

  68. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Decret Fixant les Missions, la Composition, l'Organisation et le Fonctionnement du Comite National de Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes. 2017. Source on file.

  69. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Communique du Conseil des Ministres du Jeudi 13 Avril 2017. Abidjan. April 2017.
    http://news.abidjan.net/h/613248.html.

  70. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Submission for CLCCG Annual Report 2018. Abidjan June 2019. Source on file.

  71. Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Plan d'Action National de Lutte Contre La Traite, l'Exploitation et le Travail des Enfants. Abidjan. May 19, 2019. Source on file.

  72. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting. February 22, 2016.

  73. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting. March 2, 2016.

  74. Senator Harkin, Congressman Engel, USDOL, Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, Government of the Republic of Ghana, and International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry. Declaration of Joint Action to Support Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol. Abidjan. September 13, 2010.
    http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GhanaSignedDeclaration.pdf.

  75. Senator Harkin, Congressman Engel, USDOL, Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, Government of the Republic of Ghana, and International Cocoa and Chocolate Industry. Framework of Action to Support Implementation of the Harkin-Engel Protocol. Abidjan. September 13, 2010.
    http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/CocoaFrameworkAction.pdf.

  76. Ouattara, D. Mon Discours lors de la Signature du Protocole d’Accord Entre le CNS et ICI. May 2016.
    http://dominiqueouattara.ci/fr/messages/la-signature-du-protocole-daccord-entre-le-cns-et-ici.

  77. Coffee and Cocoa. First Lady of Côte d’Ivoire and ICI Join Forces to Fight Child Labour. May 9, 2016.
    http://www.coffeeandcocoa.net/2016/05/09/first-lady-cote-divoire-ici-join-forces-fight-child-labour/.

  78. Government of the Republic of Ghana, and Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Cooperation Agreement to Combat Cross-Border Child Trafficking and the Worst Forms Of Child Labour. Enacted: November 3, 2016. Source on file.

  79. Government of the Republic of Ghana, and Government of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire. Joint Declaration of the First Ladies of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire and the Republic of Ghana on the Fight Against Cross-Border Child Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labour. Enacted: September 13, 2016. Source on file.

  80. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Accord de Coopération en Matière de Lutte Contre la Traite Transfrontaliere des Enfants Entre la Republique de Côte d'Ivoire et le Burkina Faso. October 17, 2013.
    http://travaildesenfants.org/sites/default/files/pdf_documents_fondateurs/Accord de cooperation en matière de lutte contre la traite transfrontalière.pdf.

  81. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Declaration Conjointe Des Premieres Dames du BURKINA FASO et de la Republique de Côte d'Ivoire Relative à la Mise en Oeuvre de l'Accord de Coopération en Matière de Lutte Contre la Traite Transfrontalière des Enfants. October 17, 2013.
    http://travaildesenfants.org/sites/default/files/pdf_documents_fondateurs/DECLARATION CONJOINTE DES PREMIERES DAMES DU BURKINA FASO ET LA COTE DIVOIRE.pdf.

  82. Ministere de la Justice, des Droits de l’Homme et des Libertes Publiques. Politique Nationale de Protection Judiciaire de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse. Abidjan: UNICEF, and Ministry of Justice, Human Rights and Public Liberties. November 2015. Source on file.

  83. Ministère de la Solidarité de la Famille de la Femme et de l'Enfant. Politique Nationale de Protection de l’Enfant. 2012. Source on file.

  84. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Plan national de développement (PND) 2016 - 2020. 2016.
    http://gcpnd.gouv.ci/fichier/doc/TOME3_compresse.pdf.

  85. Jeune Afrique. Côte d'Ivoire: Ouattara décrète pour les 6 à 16 ans. July 13, 2015.
    http://www.jeuneafrique.com/depeches/246529/politique/cote-divoire-ouattara-decrete-lecole-obligatoire-pour-les-6-a-16-ans/.

  86. ILO. Programme de promotion du travail décent en Côte d’Ivoire. July 2017. Source on file.

  87. World Bank. World Bank Group’s New Strategy Supports Côte d’Ivoire in Boosting the Economy and Eliminating Long-Standing Disparities. Washington, DC. September 29, 2015.
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  88. International Cocoa Initiative. Eliminating Child Labor In Cocoa (ECLIC). Washington, DC. 2015: Project Document.
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  89. U.S. Department of Labor. Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa Growing Areas of Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. Washington, DC. 2015.
    http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/view-opportunity.html?oppId=277934.

  90. ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor. Washington, DC. 2013.
    https://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GlobalCLEAR_FY13.pdf.

  91. World Cocoa Foundation. Global Chocolate and Cocoa Companies Announce Unprecedented Sustainability Strategy in Ghana. Washington, DC: Press Release. 2014.
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  92. UN World Food Programme. Development Projects – Côte d'Ivoire 200465. May 10, 2013.
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  93. UN World Food Programme. Project Budget Revision for Approval by the Regional Director. 2015.
    http://one.wfp.org/operations/current_operations/BR/200465_1601.pdf?_ga=1.160856765.1656045296.1484696372.

  94. USDA official. Email communication to USDOL official. April 2, 2019.

  95. World Bank. Cote d'Ivoire - Second Fiscal Management, Education, Energy and Cocoa Reforms Development Policy Operation. November 6, 2017.
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/943511512702094794/pdf/Cote-dIvoire-DPO2-PD-Final-November-3-11102017.pdf.

  96. World Bank. Productive Social Safety Net (Project Appraisal Document). May 6, 2015.
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  97. U.S. Embassy- Abidjan. Reporting. January 23, 2017.

  98. U.S. Embassy Abidjan official. Email communication to USDOL official. June 5, 2017.

  99. Ministère de la Solidarité, de la Famille, de la Femme et de l'Enfant. Guide de l’Animation Communautaire en Protection de l’Enfant. Abidjan: UNICEF, November 2015. Source on file.

  100. Government of the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. Communique du Conseil des Ministres du Mercredi 27 Juillet 2016. Abidjan. December 2016.
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  101. O'Keefe, B. First Lady of Ivory Coast: 'We Are on Track to Eliminate Child Labor.' March 1, 2016.
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  102. UNODC. UNODC commits to supporting the Government of Côte d'Ivoire against transnational organized crime and terrorism. Accessed October 24, 2015.
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  103. Fairtrade Africa. Child Labour Protection Project Receives a Stamp of Approval From the Ivorian Government. March 18, 2015.
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  104. Human Rights Watch. World Report 2017: Côte d'Ivoire. January 2017.
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