Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Burundi

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Burundi

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2016, Burundi made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Despite significant budget cuts to the education sector in the wake of a worsening economic crisis, the Government completed a “Back to School” campaign to provide teaching and learning materials to 32,000 teachers and promote equitable access to and retention in school for 2.6 million students in basic education and continued funding social programs that may contribute to the prevention or elimination of child labor. However, children in Burundi engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Burundi lacks a compulsory education age that is equal to or higher than the minimum age for work. The Government’s ability to address the worst forms of child labor was constrained by a lack of necessary resources to conduct labor inspections and criminal investigations, adequate and sustained funding for the education sector, sufficient social programs to address child labor in the country, and political stability.

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Children in Burundi engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture.(1-10) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Burundi.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

27.2 (633,126)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

60.9

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

26.0

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

61.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(11)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2010–2011.(12)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cotton, palm oil, potatoes, and rice (1, 5, 7, 8, 13)

Fishing, including preparing materials and equipment, preparing meals for fishermen, loading and unloading materials from vessels, and cleaning the vessels† (1, 5, 7, 8, 13)

Herding and feeding livestock (5, 9, 13)

Industry

Extracting,† washing, and transporting minerals in mines and quarries, including artisanal gold mines (1, 5-8, 13-15)

  Making and transporting bricks (1, 7-9, 16)

Construction, including transporting materials, welding, and installing electrical cables† (5)

Services

Domestic work (1, 5-7, 9, 13)

Street vending, including selling food, newspapers, cigarettes, and used clothes and shoes (5, 6, 9, 13)

Begging (6)

Handling and transporting heavy loads† (5, 6)

Cleaning, cooking, ironing, and laundering clothes in hotels and restaurants (5)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-7, 9, 10, 15)

Domestic work as a result of human trafficking (2, 15, 17)

Forced labor in agriculture, mining, construction, street vending, and begging, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (9, 10)

Use in armed conflict as a result of human trafficking (18, 19)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Burundian children are trafficked within the country, often from rural areas, for domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.(2-4, 10, 20) Women who offer room and board to children sometimes force the children into commercial sexual exploitation in order to pay expenses; brothels are found in the more impoverished parts of Bujumbura, near Lake Tanganyika, along trucking corridors, and in other cities such as Gitega, Ngozi, and Rumonge.(2, 3, 9, 10) Burundian girls are also trafficked internationally for commercial sexual exploitation in Kenya, the Middle East, Rwanda, and Uganda.(10, 18, 21) Evidence also suggests children are trafficked to Tanzania for work in agriculture and forced labor.(10, 22) The armed group Red-Tabara, associated with the Mouvement pour la solidarité et la démocratie (MSD) opposition party, reportedly recruited two children who thought they were being recruited for a job, but were forced to join the group instead.(13, 23) During the reporting period, political instability and conflict may have impacted the Government’s ability to address the worst forms of child labor.(24, 25)

Although the Government abolished school fees in 2012, the cost of books and uniforms has prevented children from accessing free public schooling. A dearth of well-trained educators and poor infrastructure has also limited educational opportunity; moreover, as birth certificates are required to attend school, many unregistered children remain out of school and vulnerable to child labor.(9, 13, 26)

Burundi has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Burundi’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 3 of the Labor Code; Article 3 of the Ministerial Ordinance to Regulate Child Labor (27, 28)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 13 of the Ministerial Ordinance to Regulate Child Labor (28)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 9–15 of the Ministerial Ordinance to Regulate Child Labor (28)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 4 and 10 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (29)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 242–243 and 514 of the Penal Code; Articles 4–6 and 10 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (29, 30)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 519–521 of the Penal Code (30)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 6(c) of the National Defense Troops Law (31)

Non-State Compulsory

No

15

Article 198.2.aa of the Penal Code (30)

Compulsory Education Age

No

12

Legislation title unknown (13)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Law on Basic and Secondary Education (32)

* No conscription (33)

The Labor Code prohibits work by children under age 16 in public and private enterprises; however, the law’s minimum age protections do not apply to children outside of formal employment relationships.(27, 34, 35) The Penal Code does not prohibit the use of children in the production and trafficking of narcotics.(30) Although the Constitution prohibits the use of children in armed conflict, the Penal Code criminalizes only the use of children under age 15 in armed conflict, leaving children between the ages of 15 and 18 vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(30, 36) In addition, the prohibitions against hazardous work are not comprehensive.(28) Education in Burundi is not compulsory through the minimum age for work and research did not uncover a public version of the law establishing compulsory education for review.(13, 37)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Security

Administer and enforce all labor laws, including those on child labor, through the General Directorate of Labor and Professional Development.(38)

National Police

Conduct criminal investigations on the worst forms of child labor, including forced child labor, child trafficking, and the use of children in illicit activities.(1, 7)

Through its Children and Ethics Brigade, protect children from commercial sexual exploitation.(1)

Ministry of Justice

Prosecute cases of the worst forms of child labor.(15)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Burundi took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (39)

$2,424 (13)

Number of Labor Inspectors

12 (39)

12 (13)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (39)

Yes (13)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

No (39)

No (13)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (39)

N/A (13)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (39)

No (13)

Number of Labor Inspections

108 (39)

152 (13)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown (13)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown (13)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (39)

0 (13)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (39)

N/A (13)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A (39)

N/A (13)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (13)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

No (13)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (39)

Yes (13)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (39)

No (13)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

No (39)

Yes (13)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (39)

Yes (13)

 

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Burundi’s workforce, which includes over 5 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed countries, Burundi should employ roughly 131 inspectors.(39-41) Research found that financial constraints hamper the labor inspectorate’s enforcement of child labor laws.(39) The annual funding to the Labor Inspectorate does not cover fuel costs, per diem, or office supplies; the Inspectorate does not own any vehicles.(13)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Burundi did not take actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

No (39)

No (13)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No (39)

N/A (13)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (18)

Yes (13, 42)

Number of Investigations

0 (39)

0 (13)

Number of Violations Found

N/A

0 (13)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (39)

0 (13)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

0 (13)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (22)

No (13)

 

During the reporting period, no training was provided for criminal investigators. Further, 11 people were arrested for child trafficking and forced labor crimes; however, none of the cases were investigated and all of the suspects were released.(13)

In 2016, government officials received a two-and-a-half day counter-trafficking training to clarify the distinctions between trafficking and smuggling, review legislation on human trafficking, enhance victim identification skills, and illuminate best practices on the treatment of victims.(42)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Multi-Sector Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinate efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor, including implementation of community development programs that address the education and socioeconomic reintegration of children engaged in or removed from the worst forms of child labor.(38, 43, 44) Comprises nine ministries, including the Ministry of Labor, organizations and representatives from UNICEF, youth associations, and civil-society organizations.(7)

Trafficking in Persons Permanent Commission

Oversee national anti-trafficking in persons efforts, including implementation of the National Action Plan for Combating Trafficking in Persons.(17, 45) Comprises officials from the Ministry of National Solidarity, Human Rights, and Gender (MSNDPHG) and the Ministries of Justice, Public Security, Foreign Affairs, and Interior.(7)

Ministry of National Solidarity, Human Rights, and Gender (MSNDPHG)

Coordinate, monitor, and oversee children’s advocacy and family service programs conducted by public and private organizations. Develop policies and national laws on the promotion and protection of children and families.(46) Refer cases to police officers and judicial officials for enforcement through its Child Protection Committees at local levels; victims are referred to local NGOs for social services.(22) In 2016, the Labor Inspectorate reported that the entity continued to operate and did not require financial resources as it is based within the communities.(47)

 

In 2016, the National Multi-Sector Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and the Trafficking in Persons Permanent Commission were not operational.(13, 48)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Revised Action Plan for the Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2014–2016)

Aimed to eliminate all of the worst forms of child labor by 2015 and contribute to the elimination of all forms of child labor by 2025.(44) Research was unable to determine any updates in 2016.(47)

National Action Plan for Combatting Trafficking in Persons (2014–2017)

Aims to significantly reduce human trafficking in Burundi by 2017 through the adoption of political, social, economic, and institutional measures.(45) Identifies women and children as being the most vulnerable to human trafficking, noting sectors of high prevalence and human trafficker profiles.(15, 45) Research was unable to determine any updates in 2016.(47)

UNDAF (2012–2016)

Plans to develop a database for information on the worst forms of child labor, and legislation and regulations for the education and training of children and adolescents.(49) Research was unable to determine any updates in 2016.(47)

‡ The Government had other policies that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(47, 50)

The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper.(14, 20, 38)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Centers for Family Development†

MSNDPHG-operated centers that address human rights issues, including child exploitation, and reintegrate victims to their home communities.(22) Coordinate with Child Protection Committees to refer victims to local NGOs for care, when necessary.(22) In 2016, no activities were held due to a decrease in public funding.(47)

“Back to School” Campaign†

UNICEF and the Ministry of Education launched and completed the 2016 "Back to School" campaign, to promote the equitable access and retention in school of 2.6 million basic education students, half girls. In 2016, 32,000 teachers received teaching and learning materials.(25)

† Program is funded by the Government of Burundi.

Research found no evidence that the Government has carried out programs to assist children in agriculture or victims of commercial sexual exploitation. Further, the scope of existing programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the child labor problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Burundi (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Criminally prohibit the use of children in illicit activities, particularly in the production and trafficking of drugs.

2015 – 2016

Establish by law a compulsory education age equal to or higher than the minimum age for work.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that all children are protected by law, including children working outside of formal employment relationships.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2012 – 2016

Ensure that the prohibitions against hazardous work for children under age 18 are comprehensive.

2016

Enforcement

Publish information regarding the type of labor inspections conducted.

2013 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet ILO recommended number of inspectors, and provide sufficient training and resources to all inspectors to ensure that labor inspections, including unannounced and routine targeted inspections, are conducted nationwide.

2009 – 2016

Establish a referral mechanism between criminal authorities and social service providers.

2009 – 2016

Provide sufficient training and resources to ensure that criminal investigations and prosecutions take place.

2009 – 2016

Coordination

Ensure that the National Multi-Sector Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and the Trafficking in Persons Permanent Commission make efforts to combat and prevent child labor, including its worst forms.

2015 – 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper.

2012 – 2016

Take steps to implement the National Action Plan for Combatting Trafficking in Persons, the National Revised Action Plan for the Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor, and UNDAF.

2015 – 2016

Social Programs

Increase access to education by eliminating school-related costs for books and uniforms, increasing the number of well-trained educators, expanding the infrastructure, and increasing birth registration rates to ensure that children have access to education services.

2015 – 2016

Institute and expand existing programs to address child labor, including in agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2016

Increase public funding for the Centers for Family Development to undertake activities.

2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. reporting, January 16, 2014.

2.         Arseneault, M. "Hundreds of Burundi girls lured into child prostitution." rfi.fr [online] September 25, 2013 [cited November 27, 2013]; http://www.english.rfi.fr/africa/20130925-human-trafficking-and-child-prostitution-burundi.

3.         Xinhua. "Le trafic humain et surtout celui des jeunes filles est une réalité au Burundi (police)." french.china.org.cn [online] September 24, 2013 [cited November 27, 2013]; http://french.china.org.cn/foreign/txt/2013-09/24/content_30109980.htm.

4.         "Burundi's child sex slaves: 'I feel like I have been used and tossed away'." The Guardian, London, October 9, 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/feb/20/burundi-child-sex-slaves-prostitution.

5.         ILO. Rapport de l'étude de cartographie sur les zones d'occurrence des pires formes de travail au Burundi. Geneva; June 2013. [Source on file].

6.         Commission Nationale Indépendante des Droits de l’Homme (CNIDH). Etude sur l'exploitation et le trafic des enfants au Burundi. Bujumbura; 2014. [Source on file].

7.         U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. reporting, January 15, 2015.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. reporting, November 12, 2015.

9.         U.S. Department of State. "Burundi," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236546.pdf.

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Burundi," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

11.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

12.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2010-2011. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

13.       U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. reporting, February 3, 2017.

14.       IMF. Burundi: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper II. Washington, DC; August 2012. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2012/cr12224.pdf.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. reporting, February 23, 2015.

16.       Leclercq, A. In Burundi, Guaranteeing Children's Rights to Protection and Play, UNICEF, [online] February 28, 2012 [cited October 29, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/burundi_61851.html.

17.       U.S. Department of State. "Burundi," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2014/226692.htm.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. reporting, February 17, 2016.

19.       Foley, R. "Reintegrating child soldiers in Burundi." aljazeera.com [online] August 11, 2016 [cited November 4, 2016]; http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2016/06/reintegrating-child-soldiers-burundi-160615070649166.html.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 24, 2012.

21.       Nimubona. "Rights Group Says More Than 100 Burundi Girls Sold in the Gulf." 2016 [cited http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-06-10/rights-group-says-more-than-100-burundi-girls-sold-in-the-gulf.

22.       U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 25, 2016.

23.       U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. reporting, February 14, 2017.

24.       UNHCR. "Land needed urgently for camps for Burundian refugee arrivals." [online] February 7, 2017 [cited February 8, 2017]; http://www.unhcr.org/news/briefing/2017/2/58998f854/land-needed-urgently-camps-burundian-refugee-arrivals.html.

25.       UNICEF. Burundi Humanitarian Situation Report. Geneva; November 30, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/UNICEF%20Burundi%20Humanitarian%20SitRep%20-%2030%20November%202016.pdf.

26.       Hatcher, J. "Burundi instability adds to risks for children surviving on the streets." The Guardian, London, November 24, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/nov/24/burundi-instability-children-surviving-streets-violence-bujumbura-unicef-crisis.

27.       Government of Burundi. Décret loi n° 1/037 du 7 juillet 1993 portant révision du Code du travail, enacted 1993. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_126614.pdf.

28.       Government of Burundi. Ordonnance ministerial n° 630/1 du 5 janvier 1981 portant réglemenatation du travail des enfants, enacted 1981. [Source on file].

29.       Government of Burundi. Portant prévention et répression de la traite des personnes et protection des victimes de la traite, Law No. 1/28, enacted 2014. [Source on file].

30.       Government of Burundi. Loi n° 1/05 du 22 avril 2009 portant Révision du Code Pénal, enacted 2009. http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c31b05d2.html.

31.       Government of Burundi. Portant statut des hommes de troupe de la force de défense nationale, Law No. 1/17, enacted 2006. [Source on file].

32.       Government of Burundi. Portant organisation de l'enseignement de base et secondaire, Law No. 1/19, enacted 2013. [Source on file].

33.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers. London; September 2012. https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=da92581e-7130-40e6-bf3a-a86b944f17dd.

34.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Burundi (ratification: 2000) Published: 2015; accessed November 20, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185684:NO.

35.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Burundi (ratification: 2002) Published: 2015; accessed November 20, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185768:NO.

36.       Government of Burundi. Constitution interimaire post-transition de la République du Burundi, enacted 2005. {Source on file].

37.       U.S. Department of State. "Burundi," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2016. Washington, DC; March 13, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265442.pdf.

38.       U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. reporting, February 7, 2013.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. reporting, January 25, 2016.

40.       CIA. The World Factbook, CIA, [online] [cited January 19, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country's total labor force. This number is used to calculate a "sufficient number" of labor inspectors based on the country's level of development as determined by the UN.

41.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies,” “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies,” and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

42.       IOM. "IOM, Partners Train Burundi Officials in Combating Human Trafficking." [online] August 23, 2016 [cited http://www.iom.int/news/iom-partners-train-burundi-officials-combating-human-trafficking.

43.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Burundi (ratification: 2002) Published: 2012; accessed March 13, 2017; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:2700698.

44.       Government of Burundi. Plan D'Action National Revise De Lutte Contre Les Pires Formes De Travail De L'Enfant Au Burundi, 2014-2016. Bujumbura; January 2014. [Source on file].

45.       Government of Burundi. Plan d'action national de la lutte contre la traite des personnes au Burundi 2014-2017; 2014. [Source on file].

46.       U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 21, 2015.

47.       U.S. Embassy- Bjumbura official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 24, 2017.

48.       U.S. Department of State. "Burundi," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017. Washington, DC; June 27, 2017; https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271157.htm.

49.       UN. Plan Cadre des Nations Unies pour l'Aide au Développement du Burundi 2012-2016; December 2012. https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/portal-document/Burundi_UNDAF%202012-2016_FR.pdf.pdf.

50.       Government of Burundi, and Ministry of National Solidarity, Human Rights, and Gender. Stratégie Nationale de Prévention et de Lutte Contre le Phénomène des Enfants en Situation de Rue au Burundi; October 2013. [Source on file].

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