Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Burundi

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Burundi

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2017, Burundi made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government enacted a revised criminal code that formally integrated the existing penalties of the 2014 Trafficking in Persons law into the criminal code, which included stronger penalties for human trafficking and the criminalization of begging. However, children in Burundi engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Burundi lacks a compulsory education age that is equal to or higher than the minimum age for work. The government’s ability to address the worst forms of child labor was constrained by a lack of necessary resources to conduct labor inspections and criminal investigations, adequate and sustained funding for the education sector, and sufficient social programs to address child labor in the country.

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Children in Burundi engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Burundi.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

27.2 (633,126)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

60.9

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

26.0

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

69.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2010–2011. (10)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cotton, palm oil, peat, potatoes, and rice (1; 5; 7; 8; 11; 12)

Fishing, including preparing materials and equipment, managing heavy fishing nets, preparing meals for fishermen, loading and unloading materials from vessels, and cleaning the vessels (1; 5; 7; 8; 11; 13; 12)

Herding and feeding livestock (5; 11; 12)

Industry

Extracting,† washing, and transporting minerals in mines and quarries, including artisanal gold mines (1; 5; 6; 7; 8; 11; 14; 15; 12)

Making and transporting bricks (1; 7; 8; 12)

Construction, including transporting materials, welding, and installing electrical cables† (5)

Services

Domestic work (1; 5; 6; 7; 11; 12)

Street vending, including selling food, newspapers, cigarettes, and used clothes and shoes (5; 6; 11)

Begging (6; 16; 12)

Handling and transporting heavy loads† (5; 6)

Work as help in hotels and restaurants (5; 12)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 17; 15; 12)

Domestic work as a result of human trafficking (2; 15; 18; 12)

Forced labor in agriculture, mining, charcoal production, construction, street vending, and begging, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (17; 12)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Burundian children are trafficked within the country, often from rural areas, for domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation. (2; 3; 4; 17) Women who offer room and board to children sometimes force the children into commercial sexual exploitation to pay expenses; these brothels are found in the more impoverished parts of Bujumbura, near Lake Tanganyika, along trucking corridors, and in other cities such as Gitega, Ngozi, and Rumonge. (2; 3; 19) Burundian girls are also trafficked internationally for commercial sexual exploitation in Kenya, the Middle East, Rwanda, and Uganda. (20; 21; 22; 12; 19) Evidence also suggests that children are trafficked to Tanzania for work in agriculture and forced labor. (17; 23; 12)

Burundi is one of the poorest countries in the world, with over 90 percent of its citizens engaged in subsistence agriculture. (24) In Burundi, research indicates that children perform dangerous tasks in agriculture in the production of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cotton, palm oil, peat, potatoes, and rice. (1; 5; 7; 8; 11; 12) In 2017, there were no reports of new recruitment of child soldiers in Burundi. (12; 25)

Although the government abolished school fees in 2012, the cost of books and uniforms has prevented many children from accessing free public schooling. A dearth of well-trained educators and poor infrastructure has also limited educational opportunity; moreover, as birth certificates are required to attend school, many unregistered children, in particular members of the Batwa ethnic group, remain out of school and vulnerable to child labor. (11; 26; 24)

Burundi has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Burundi’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including a lack of a compulsory education age through the minimum age for work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 3 of the Labor Code; Article 3 of the Ministerial Ordinance to Regulate Child Labor (27; 28)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 13 of the Ministerial Ordinance to Regulate Child Labor (28)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 9–15 of the Ministerial Ordinance to Regulate Child Labor (28)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 4 and 10 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (29)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 244–246 and 537 of the Penal Code; Articles 4–6 and 10 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (29; 30)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 542–544 of the Penal Code (30)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 6(c) of the National Defense Troops Law (31)

Non-state

No

15

Article 200.2.27 and 200.5.7 of the Penal Code (30)

Compulsory Education Age

No

12

Legislation title unknown (11)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Law on Basic and Secondary Education (32)

* No conscription (31)

 

In 2017, Burundi enacted a revised criminal code that included the criminalization of begging and also formally integrated the existing penalties for human trafficking from the 2014 Trafficking in Persons law. (12; 33; 30; 34; 35)

The Labor Code prohibits work by children under age 16 in public and private enterprises; however, the law’s minimum age protections do not apply to children outside of formal employment relationships. (27; 36; 37) The Penal Code does not prohibit the use of children in the production and trafficking of narcotics. (30) Although the Constitution prohibits the use of children in armed conflict, the Penal Code criminalizes only the use of children under age 15 in armed conflict, leaving children between the ages of 15 and 18 vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. (30; 38) However, Burundian law does prohibit the recruitment of children under 18 by the state armed forces, and available evidence indicates the government complied with this provision. (24) In addition, the prohibitions against hazardous work are not comprehensive, including in agriculture, an area of work in which there is evidence of work with dangerous machinery, equipment, and tools. (28; 12) Education in Burundi is not compulsory through the minimum age for work, and research did not uncover a public version of the law establishing compulsory education. (11; 39)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Security that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Security

Administer and enforce all labor laws, including those on child labor, through the General Directorate of Labor and Professional Development. (40)

National Police

Conduct criminal investigations on the worst forms of child labor, including forced child labor, child trafficking, and the use of children in illicit activities. (1; 7) Through its Brigade for Minors and Morals, protect children from commercial sexual exploitation, illicit activity, and military recruitment. (1; 12)

Ministry of Justice

Prosecute cases of the worst forms of child labor through its General Prosecutor’s Office. (15; 12)

Ministry of National Solidarity, Human Rights, and Gender

Coordinate, monitor, and oversee children’s advocacy and family service programs conducted by public and private organizations. Develop policies and national laws on the promotion and protection of children and families. (41) Refer cases to police officers and judicial officials for enforcement through its Child Protection Committees at local levels; victims are referred to local NGOs for social services. (23)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Burundi took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Security that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including an insufficient number of labor inspectors.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$2,424 (11)

$4,000 (12)

Number of Labor Inspectors

12 (11)

11 (12)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (11)

Yes (12)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (11)

No (12)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (11)

N/A (12)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (11)

No (12)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

152 (11)

390 (12)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown (11)

130 (12)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (11)

0 (12)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

N/A (11)

N/A (12)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

N/A (11)

N/A (12)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (11)

Yes (35)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (11)

No (12)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (11)

Yes (12)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (11)

No (12)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (11)

Yes (12)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (11)

Yes (12)

 

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Burundi’s workforce, which includes approximately 5 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Burundi should employ roughly 125 inspectors. (42; 43; 44) Research found that financial constraints hamper the General Directorate of Labor and Professional Development’s enforcement of child labor laws, as annual funding does not cover fuel costs, per diem, or office supplies and, furthermore, the Inspectorate does not own any vehicles. (11; 42; 12)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Burundi took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including the lack of consistent training for criminal investigators of child labor law.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (11)

No (12)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (11)

N/A (12)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (11; 45)

Yes (12)

Number of Investigations

0 (11)

Unknown (35)

Number of Violations Found

0 (11)

Unknown (35)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (11)

0 (12)

Number of Convictions

0 (11)

0 (12)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

No (11)

No (12)

 

During the reporting period, no formal training was provided for criminal investigators; however, the IOM trained 100 immigration police officers in June on trafficking in persons enforcement activities. (12; 24) In addition, the Ministry of National Solidarity, Human Rights, and Gender organized a sensitization workshop on Burundi’s Trafficking in Persons law that included participants from various government ministries, the National Independent Commission for Human Rights, civil society organizations, and the National Police Brigade for Minors and Morals. (24)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including non-operational coordination mechanisms.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Multi-Sector Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinate efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor, including implementation of community development programs that address the education and socioeconomic reintegration of children engaged in or removed from the worst forms of child labor. (40; 46) Includes nine ministries, including the Ministry of Labor, organizations and representatives from UNICEF, youth associations, and civil society organizations. (7)

Commission for Consultation and Monitoring on the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons

Oversee national anti-trafficking in persons efforts, including implementation of the National Action Plan for Combating Trafficking in Persons. (18; 47; 35) Includes officials from the Ministry of National Solidarity, Human Rights, and Gender, and the Ministries of Justice, Public Security, Foreign Affairs, and Interior. (7)

 

In 2017, the Commission for Consultation and Monitoring on the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons continued as non-operational, and research was unable to determine the status of the National Multi-Sector Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor. (11; 19; 12; 35)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including inactive and expired policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Action Plan for Combatting Trafficking in Persons (2014–2017)

Aimed to significantly reduce human trafficking in Burundi by 2017 through the adoption of political, social, economic, and institutional measures. (47) Identified women and children as being the most vulnerable to human trafficking, noting sectors of high prevalence and human trafficker profiles. (15; 47) In 2017, the government assessed plans to draft a new National Action Plan, which remains in discussion among government ministries, the IOM, and NGOs. (35; 24)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (48; 49)

 

Despite the completion of the UNDAF (2012–2016), in 2017 the government was in discussion with the UN to finalize an extension covering from 2018 to 2023. (50; 35) Research was unable to determine whether any extension to the expired National Revised Action Plan for the Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor was made. (35; 46)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Centers for Family Development†

Ministry of National Solidarity, Human Rights, and Gender operates centers that address human rights issues, including child exploitation, and reintegrate victims to their home communities. (23) Coordinate with Child Protection Committees to refer victims to local NGOs for care, when necessary. (23) In 2017, no activities were held due to continued lack of public funding. (35)

“Back to School” Campaign†

UNICEF and the Ministry of Education “Back to School” campaign to promote equitable access and retention in school of 2.6 million basic education students, half of them girls. (51) In 2017, activities continued under this annual program with more than 1 million children targeted in seven provinces for the year. (35; 24)

† Program is funded by the Government of Burundi.

 

Research found no evidence that the government has carried out programs to assist children working in agriculture or victims of commercial sexual exploitation. Further, the scope of existing programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the child labor problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Burundi (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Criminally prohibit the use of children in illicit activities, particularly in the production and trafficking of drugs.

2015 – 2017

Establish by law a compulsory education age equal to or higher than the minimum age for work.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that all children are protected by law, including children working outside of formal employment relationships.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2012 – 2017

Ensure that all children are protected from hazardous work, including in agriculture that have hazardous conditions and in which child labor is known to occur.

2016 – 2017

Publish the law establishing compulsory education for review.

2017

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet ILO’s technical advice on the number of inspectors, and provide sufficient training and resources to all inspectors to ensure that labor inspections, including unannounced and routine targeted inspections, are conducted nationwide.

2009 – 2017

Establish a referral mechanism between criminal authorities and social services providers.

2009 – 2017

Provide sufficient training and resources to ensure that criminal investigations and prosecutions take place.

2009 – 2017

Publish information on the number of investigations and violations found related to the criminal enforcement of child labor laws.

2017

Coordination

Ensure that the National Multi-Sector Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and the Trafficking in Persons Permanent Commission are operational and make efforts to combat and prevent child labor.

2015 – 2017

Government Policies

Take steps to implement the National Action Plan for Combatting Trafficking in Persons and the revised National Revised Action Plan for the Fight Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor.

2015 – 2017

Social Programs

Increase access to education by eliminating school-related costs for books and uniforms, increasing the number of well-trained educators, expanding the infrastructure, and increasing birth registration rates.

2015 – 2017

Institute and expand existing programs to address child labor, including in agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2017

Increase public funding for the Centers for Family Development to undertake activities.

2016 – 2017

1. U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. Reporting, January 16, 2014.

2. Arseneault, Michel. Hundreds of Burundi girls lured into child prostitution. September 25, 2013. http://www.english.rfi.fr/africa/20130925-human-trafficking-and-child-prostitution-burundi.

3. Xinhua. Le trafic humain et surtout celui des jeunes filles est une réalité au Burundi (police). September 24, 2013. http://french.china.org.cn/foreign/txt/2013-09/24/content_30109980.htm.

4. The Guardian. Burundi's child sex slaves: "I feel like I have been used and tossed away". October 9, 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/feb/20/burundi-child-sex-slaves-prostitution.

5. ILO. Rapport de l'étude de cartographie sur les zones d'occurrence des pires formes de travail au Burundi. June 2013. [Source on file].

6. Commission Nationale Indépendante des Droits de l’Homme (CNIDH). Etude sur l'exploitation et le trafic des enfants au Burundi. 2014. [Source on file].

7. U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. Reporting, January 15, 2015.

8. —. Reporting, November 12, 2015.

9. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2010-2011. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

11. U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. Reporting, February 3, 2017.

12. —. Reporting, January 18, 2018.

13. Nininahazwe, Bella Lucia. Children Under 15 Recruited to Cook for Fishermen in Rumonge. November 2, 2017. http://www.iwacu-burundi.org/englishnews/children-under-15-recruited-to-cook-for-fishermen-in-rumonge/.

14. IMF. Burundi: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper II. August 2012. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2012/cr12224.pdf.

15. U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. Reporting, February 23, 2015.

16. Batha, Emma. Former Burundi street child helps heal civil war divisions. Thomson Reuters Foundation. March 20, 2017. https://www.zilient.org/article/former-burundi-street-child-helps-heal-civil-war-divisions.

17. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016: Burundi. Washington, DC. June 30, 2016. http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

18. —. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014: Burundi. Washington, DC. June 20, 2014. http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2014/226692.htm.

19. —. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Burundi. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271157.htm.

20. U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. Reporting, February 17, 2016.

21. Manishatse, Lorraine Josiane. Women and girls trafficking to Gulf resume. August 29, 2017. http://www.iwacu-burundi.org/englishnews/women-and-girls-trafficking-to-gulf-resume/.

22. Uwimana, Diane. Police intercept 13 people “victims of human trafficking”. November 8, 2017. http://www.iwacu-burundi.org/englishnews/police-intercept-13-people-victims-of-human-trafficking/.

23. U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 25, 2016.

24. —. E-mail communication with USDOL official. April 30, 2018.

25. U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. Reporting, February 21, 2018.

26. Hatcher, Jessica. Burundi instability adds to risks for children surviving on the streets. November 24, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/nov/24/burundi-instability-children-surviving-streets-violence-bujumbura-unicef-crisis.

27. Government of Burundi. Décret loi n° 1/037 du 7 juillet 1993 portant révision du Code du travail. Enacted: 1993. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_126614.pdf.

28. —. Ordonnance ministerial n° 630/1 du 5 janvier 1981 portant réglemenatation du travail des enfants. Enacted: 1981. [Source on file].

29. —. Portant prévention et répression de la traite des personnes et protection des victimes de la traite, Law No. 1/28. Enacted: 2014. . [Source on file].

30. —. Loi n° 1/27 du 29 decembre 2017 portant Révision du Code Pénal. Enacted: 2017. [Source on file].

31. —. Portant statut des hommes de troupe de la force de défense nationale, Law No. 1/17. Enacted: 2006. [Source on file].

32. —. Portant organisation de l'enseignement de base et secondaire, Law No. 1/19. Enacted: 2013. . [Source on file].

33. U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. Reporting, November 13, 2017.

34. Government of Burundi. Project de Loi N1/27 portant revision de la loi n1/5 du 22 avril 2009 portant revision du code penal: expose des motifs. 2017. [Source on file].

35. U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura official. Email communication to USDOL official. February 14, 2018.

36. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Burundi (ratification: 2000) Published: 2015. Accessed November 20, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185684:NO.

37. —. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Burundi (ratification: 2002) Published: 2015. Accessed November 20, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185768:NO.

38. Government of Burundi. Constitution interimaire post-transition de la République du Burundi. Enacted: 2005. [Source on file].

39. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Burundi. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265442.pdf.

40. U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. Reporting, February 7, 2013.

41. U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 21, 2015.

42. U.S. Embassy- Bujumbura. Reporting, January 25, 2016.

43. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed February 28, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

44. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

45. IOM. IOM, Partners Train Burundi Officials in Combating Human Trafficking. August 23, 2016. http://www.iom.int/news/iom-partners-train-burundi-officials-combating-human-trafficking.

46. Government of Burundi. Plan D'Action National Revise De Lutte Contre Les Pires Formes De Travail De L'Enfant Au Burundi, 2014-2016. January 2014. [Source on file].

47. —. Plan d'action national de la lutte contre la traite des personnes au Burundi 2014-2017. 2014. [Source on file].

48. U.S. Embassy- Bjumbura official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 24, 2017.

49. Government of Burundi, and Ministry of National Solidarity, Human Rights, and Gender. Stratégie Nationale de Prévention et de Lutte Contre le Phénomène des Enfants en Situation de Rue au Burundi. October 2013. [Source on file].

50. UN. Plan Cadre des Nations Unies pour l'Aide au Développement du Burundi 2012-2016. December 2012. https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/portal-document/Burundi_UNDAF%202012-2016_FR.pdf.pdf.

51. UNICEF. Burundi Humanitarian Situation Report. November 30, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/UNICEF%20Burundi%20Humanitarian%20SitRep%20-%2030%20November%202016.pdf.

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