Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Burkina Faso

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Burkina Faso

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2015, Burkina Faso made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted a revised mining code that includes new provisions prohibiting child labor in mines. The Government also renewed its annual National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking and the National Program for the Fight against Child Labor on Artisanal Gold Mining Sites and Quarries. In an effort to improve data collection efforts related to child labor, the Ministry of Social Action and National Solidarity established a basic integrated data system on child protection that is linked to all 45 Committees for Vigilance and Surveillance throughout the country. However, children in Burkina Faso are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in gold mining and cotton harvesting. A lack of labor inspectors and limited resources for the systematic enforcement of child labor laws impede government efforts to protect children from engaging in the worst forms of child labor.

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Children in Burkina Faso are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including gold mining and cotton harvesting.(1-8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Burkina Faso.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

42.1 (2,116,752)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

41.9

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

21.7

Primary completion rate (%):

60.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples, 2010.(10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting,* weeding,* and exposure to pesticides*† while harvesting crops, including cotton and mangos* (1, 3-8, 11)

Raising and herding livestock, including cattle* and goats* (5, 11-13)

Industry

Mining of gold,† including digging and crushing rock, installing dynamite,† working underground,† carrying water and other heavy loads,† and using cyanide and mercury† (1-3, 8, 12, 14-33)

Quarrying† and transporting heavy loads† while working to extract granite (17, 23, 34-38)

Work in carpentry* and construction* (12, 13)

Services

Domestic work† (4, 6, 11-13, 30, 39-41)

Street work, including vending* and begging* (6, 11-13)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities,* including drug trafficking* (23)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (11, 18, 21, 30, 42, 43)

Agricultural work, including cotton production and livestock raising,* domestic work, begging, gold mining, and work in quarries,* each as a result of human trafficking (3, 5, 6, 41-49)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Burkina Faso is a destination, transit point, and source for child trafficking to and from other West African countries.(42, 43, 50, 51) The Government has collaborated with Koranic schools and educators to expose individuals posing as Koranic teachers to force their students to beg in the streets and then take the money the boys collect.(6, 42-44, 48, 52, 53) The practice of confiage, which involves sending a child to live with a relative or friend to attend school in a larger town or city, may place children at risk of being victims of internal human trafficking for the purpose of exploitation.(48)

The Government has acknowledged the need for a national study on the commercial sexual exploitation of children to better understand the issue and to incorporate it into the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(46) A boom in gold mining has contributed to the increase of child labor in this sector, and more children are leaving school to work in gold mines.(5, 8, 16, 54-58)

Although the Law Orienting the Education System mandates free education until age 16, students are required to pay for uniforms and school-related fees.(2, 30, 59, 60) The shortage of teachers and the lack of school infrastructure in rural areas hinder children’s access to education.(3, 30, 59) Birth registration is also required for enrollment, which could prevent some children from entering school because about a quarter of the children in Burkina Faso do not have a birth certificate.(61, 62)

In September 2015, the presidential guard seized power from the transitional government, which had been instated when President Blaise Compaoré was forced to step down from power in 2014. The interim government, however, was reinstated the following week, and a new president was peacefully elected and inaugurated in December 2015.(63-74) The disruptions caused by Burkina Faso’s political turbulence may have slowed gains and impacted the Government’s ability to address child labor during the reporting period.(73)

Burkina Faso has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 152 of the Labor Code (75)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 149 and 150 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of the Hazardous Work List (75, 76)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations and/or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 2, 4 and 5 of the Hazardous Work List; Article 77 of the Mining Code (75-77)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 3–5 of the Law Suppressing the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography; Article 1 of the Law on Combating Trafficking of Persons and Similar Practices (75, 78, 79)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 1–5 of the Law on Combating Trafficking of Persons and Similar Practices (75, 79)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 3, 4, 7–10, and 20 of the Law Suppressing the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (75, 78)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code (75)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

20

Article 2 of the Decree Organizing Operations Related to Convoking the Contingent (80)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 4 of the Law Orienting the Education System (81)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 6 of the Law Orienting the Education System (81)

* No conscription (82)

On June 26, 2015, the National Transition Council adopted a revised mining code that includes new provisions prohibiting child labor in mines. The amendment establishes a penalty of 2 to 5 years of imprisonment and a fine of approximately $8,200 to $41,000 for offenders.(2, 3, 77) The Government also conducted a study to review the existing legislation on hazardous activities prohibited to children, aiming to update the list, but no changes were made during the reporting period.(2)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Civil Service, Labor, and Social Security (MFPTSS)

Enforce labor laws, including child labor laws.(11, 83) Responsible for establishing government policy to combat child labor, including its worst forms.(57) In the case of provincial committees, responsible for raising awareness, conducting workshops for community members, and enforcement at the local level.(50, 84)

Ministry of Social Action and National Solidarity (MASSN)

Protect children’s rights, enforce laws against child trafficking and other worst forms of child labor, remove children from exploitative child labor, and provide reintegration services.(11, 83, 85, 86) Operate a free hotline to report child abuse, including child labor, and conduct awareness-raising activities in all 13 regions of Burkina Faso.(2, 23, 87-89) Operate civil registry offices in maternity wards to register newborn babies.(90) In 2015, established a basic integrated data system on child protection to improve data quality and collection efforts on child labor, including its worst forms.(43) In the case of the National Council for Childhood, oversee all policies for the survival, protection, development, and participation of children.(91)

Ministry of Territorial Administration, Decentralization and Interior Security (MATDSI)

Enforce criminal laws related to child trafficking.(46) In the case of the Morals Brigade in the MATDSI National Police Force, oversee criminal cases involving children and women.(92)

Ministry of Justice (MOJ)

Enforce and prosecute criminal laws, including laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(93) Appoint one or more judges who specialize in child protection issues to each high court to oversee juvenile court cases. May also call upon the MASSN social workers in charge of child protection to conduct investigations on behalf of vulnerable children, including victims of child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, exploitative child labor, and begging.(94)

Parliamentary Network for the Promotion of Child Rights

Train government officials on children’s rights, including child labor laws and other issues affecting children.(3, 95, 96)

 

After the presidential elections in December 2015, a new cabinet of ministers was announced; the Government consolidated the Ministry of Gender with the Ministry of Social Action and National Solidarity (MASSN) to form the Ministry of Women, National Solidarity and Family in January 2016.(43)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Burkina Faso took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (11)

$226,000 (2)

Number of Labor Inspectors

149 (83)

232 (2, 97)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (75)

Yes (75)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (11, 83, 98)

Yes (2)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (83)

Unknown* (92)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (2)

Yes (2, 97)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown* (11)

Unknown* (2)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown* (11)

Unknown* (2)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown* (11)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (11)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (11, 99)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

0 (11, 99, 100)

Unknown* (2)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (11, 83)

No (2)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (11, 83)

N/A (2)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (75)

Yes (75)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (11, 83)

Yes (97)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (11)

Yes (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Yes (97)

 

The Government employs 124 labor inspectors and 108 labor controllers who are in charge of conducting labor inspections; however, the Government indicates it lacks adequate resources to enforce labor laws throughout the country, including the human and financial resources needed to carry out a sufficient number of labor inspections.(2, 43, 83) Both the inspectors and the controllers received initial training at the national school for civil servants. During the reporting period, three inspectors received ongoing training through the ILO training center in Turin on issues such as child labor, human trafficking, and forced child labor.(97)* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

The Ministry of Civil Service, Labor, and Social Security (MFPTSS) publishes an annual report listing 12 types of labor infractions, none of which are related to child labor.(11) No penalties have been applied to employers to date because most children are self-employed. The MFPTSS notes that it is difficult for inspectors to follow up on inspections to ensure the recommendations have been implemented.(99) Law enforcement collaborates on an ad hoc basis with the MASSN to provide social services to child labor victims.(97) It is not known how many cases of child labor were identified as a result of complaints made to the MASSN hotline.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Burkina Faso took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (11)

Yes (2)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (46)

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (46)

Yes (53)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (11)

Unknown*

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (11)

Unknown*

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (11)

16 (43, 53)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (11)

9 (43, 53)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (11, 83)

Yes (2, 43)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

In 2015, 232 labor inspectors and labor controllers worked with police officers to enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor; however, this number is insufficient considering the scope of the problem in Burkina Faso.(2, 83) Many provincial committees that assist with criminal law enforcement and raising awareness at the local level were unable to carry out all their planned activities due to a lack of resources.(84)

During the reporting period, 203 provincial directors, social workers, police officers, civil society members, and gendarmes received training on child protection. Judges and law enforcement officials also received training on issues related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children; these training sessions were supported by ECPAT.(43) Members of security forces, judicial employees, and social workers in areas bordering Côte d’Ivoire received training on how to better combat transnational trafficking and track down offenders.(43) As part of its collaboration with Koranic schools and educators, the Government intercepted 7 child traffickers posing as Koranic teachers and rescued 43 children who were destined for agricultural work in Mali and Côte d’Ivoire.(43) The Government relies on coordinating bodies and an official procedural guide to refer victims to social service providers.(43, 97)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Coordination Committee for the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (CNC-PAN/PFTE)

Supervise, evaluate, and oversee implementation of the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Chaired by the MFPTSS Directorate to Combat Child Labor and its Worst Forms.(11, 12, 83) Includes representatives from 24 government ministries, among which are the MOJ; the MASSN; the MATDSI; the Ministries of Basic Education, Mines, Human Rights, and Health; NGOs; religious communities; the Children’s Parliament; civil society organizations; and 6 observers representing donor countries and international NGOs.(11) Hold meetings once a year to review efforts to combat child labor and identify needs.(57, 83)

MFPTSS Directorate to Combat Child Labor and its Worst Forms (DLTE)

Coordinate and lead interagency efforts to combat child labor, including its worst forms; collect information on child labor; and conduct awareness raising activities.(100) Serve as the Secretariat for the CNC‑PAN/PFTE.(93, 100) In 2015, initiated a study to implement an integrated data system on child protection and provided training for field agents in charge of data collection, including follow-up and monitoring efforts.(43, 53)

National Committee for Vigilance and Surveillance Against the Trafficking in Persons and Assimilated Practices (CNVS)

Coordinate actions to combat the worst forms of child labor, including human trafficking, at the national level. Oversee Committees for Vigilance and Surveillance in each of the regions.(43, 50) The MASSN serves as president, and the MATDSI is the vice president.(43, 88) Include representatives from MFPTSS, the MOJ, the Ministry of Women and Gender, and NGOs.(43) In 2015, met to adopt the implementation report of the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor covering 2001 to 2013 and supported all 45 regional committees through a monitoring and supervision mechanism.(43, 53, 97)

Child Protection Networks (RPEs)

Assist the CNVS with coordinating and facilitating the collection of statistical data on human trafficking, in particular women and children. Established by the MASSN and comprising social workers, magistrates, judges, police officers, health workers, and NGOs in 23 of the country’s 45 provinces.(53) In 2015, all RPEs met to share experiences and good practices.(43)

 

In 2015, although the Government made efforts to improve its data collection system and monitoring capabilities, a lack of resources, such as computers and electricity, and poor coordination among the ministries continued to hamper the Government’s ability to fully address child trafficking.(2, 43)

The Government of Burkina Faso has established policies on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

 

National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (PAN/PFTE) (2011–2015)

Part of the Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development (SCADD); aims to prevent and protect children from the worst forms of child labor through awareness raising, data collection, rehabilitation services, increased access to education, and better law enforcement.(48, 57, 100) Calls for the involvement of 11 ministries, particularly the MASSN and the MFPTSS, to reduce exploitative child labor significantly by 2015.(57, 101) Promotes education, particularly for girls, through school feeding programs, school material distribution, and scholarships.(93)

 

2015 National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking†

MASSN plan to combat human trafficking implemented by the CNVS.(43)

 

ECOWAS Regional Action Plan on Child Labor (2012–2015)

With 14 other ECOWAS countries, implements a regional action plan on child labor, especially its worst forms. Aims to eliminate worst forms of child labor in West Africa by 2015.(40, 102, 103)

Decent Work Country Program (2012–2015)

Promotes decent work with a focus on creating job opportunities for youth and promoting social protection. Incorporates child labor concerns into the strategy for work.(104)

Bilateral Agreements to Combat Child Trafficking

Agreements between Burkina Faso, Mali, and Côte d’Ivoire; call for increased cooperation against cross-border trafficking in persons.(23, 43, 105, 106) Overseen by the Government, which has established monitoring committees to review aspects of the agreement with Mali and Côte d’Ivoire.(107) Burkina Faso’s National Training Institute of Social Workers partners with its counterpart in Chad to share experiences and best practices in combating human trafficking.(43)

 

Communal Action Plan Against Trafficking (2013–2018)

Pilot program in Diebougou; aims to prevent child trafficking, raise awareness in local communities, and rehabilitate and reintegrate victims of child trafficking. Entails government plans to replicate this program elsewhere in the country.(43, 53)

 

Treaty of Amity and Cooperation

Framework for economic cooperation between Côte d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso.(106) Includes agreements to prevent the exploitation of children in artisanal gold mines and renewed commitments to combat child trafficking between the two countries. Encompasses annual meetings to reaffirm the commitment and address issues requiring cooperation.(106)

 

Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development (SCADD) (2011–2015)*

Encompasses all development activities with a focus on the promotion of social protections, poverty reduction through economic growth, maternal and child health, and primary education for all.(23, 57, 108) Also implements price controls on food and provides microfinance opportunities to youth.(57)

 

Program for the Strategic Development of Basic Education (PDSEB) (2012–2021)*

Aims to increase the number of students continuing their studies after elementary school and achieve universal primary school attendance by 2021.(51, 109)

 

National Parenting Program†

Aims to support families in their efforts to provide education and care to their children to reduce their vulnerability to child trafficking.(43)

 

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government of Burkina Faso did not receive any invitations to participate in activities under the ECOWAS Regional Action Plan on Child Labor.(97) The monitoring committee established to review the bilateral agreements to combat child trafficking with Mali and Côte d’Ivoire and the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation agreement between Burkina Faso and Côte d’Ivoire did not meet during the reporting period because of a lack of financial resources and the political situation in Burkina Faso.(97)

In 2015, the Government of Burkina Faso funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

National Program for the Fight against Child Labor on Artisanal Gold Mining Sites and Quarries (2015–2019)*†

MASSN program that aims to prevent and withdraw children from working in artisanal gold mines as part of the Government’s efforts to eliminate child labor in mining by 2025.(2, 43, 97, 110, 111) Seeks to strengthen child protection systems, improve coordination among stakeholders, and implement existing legislation. Builds on the previous project to eliminate child labor in mines and quarries from 2009 to 2013.(97) Approximately $42.9 million, 40 percent of the program costs, to be provided by the Government.(2)

Reducing Child Labor Through Education and Services (2012–2016)

$5 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by Counterpart International that targets 10,000 children engaged in or at risk of entering child labor in the cotton and gold mining sectors. Targets 1,000 households with child beneficiaries with livelihood services and aims to increase access to education, social protection, and training programs.(112, 113)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor.(114)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor II (CLEAR II)

USDOL-funded capacity-building project implemented by Winrock International and partners Verité and Lawyers Without Borders in at least eight countries to build local and national Government capacity to address child labor. Aims to improve legislation addressing child labor issues, including by bringing local or national laws into compliance with international standards; to improve monitoring and enforcement of laws and policies related to child labor; to develop, validate, adopt, and implement a national action plan on the elimination of child labor; and to enhance the implementation of national and local policies and programs aiming to reduce and prevent child labor.(115, 116) Delayed implementation due to political transitions in 2014 and 2015.(117)

Transit Centers†

MASSN-funded program that operates 23 transit centers serving vulnerable children, some of whom may have been victims of human trafficking.(43, 51, 89) Provides food, medical assistance, and psychosocial care. Aims to reintegrate victims into their communities. Facilitates repatriation of foreign victims when possible.(23, 43, 51, 85) In 2015, received approximately $36,000 to operate transit centers and supporting programs.(43)

Assistance to Vulnerable Groups†

MASSN-funded program that provides services to vulnerable groups, especially women and children, in the prevention of human trafficking and recidivism.(46) In 2015, received approximately $181,000 to provide vocational training and social reintegration assistance to children living in the street who are vulnerable to child trafficking, and $49,000 to support income-generating activities for families of vulnerable children.(43) Provided protection for 400 potential child trafficking victims who were returned to their families; supported the vocational training and education of 301 vulnerable children who were reintegrated.(43)

Awareness Raising Campaigns†

MASSN-funded program that conducts nationwide campaigns to combat human trafficking by providing advocacy, raising awareness, and building capacity for key actors involved in child protection issues, including child trafficking.(43, 53)

National Parenting Program*†

Assists parents in managing and educating their children to combat child trafficking.(53)

Resilience in the Sahel-Enhanced (2014–2019)

USAID-funded 5-year project to increase food security and improve livelihoods in Niger and Burkina Faso. Received $130 million from UNICEF for the first two years of implementation.(118, 119)

UN World Food Country Program (2011–2016)

$56.2 million UN-funded program that supports school feeding programs, promotes primary education, and aims to improve food security. Aims to provide daily meals to 629,000 primary school students and monthly take-home rations of dry cereals to 55,525 young female students.(120, 121)

National Council for the Prevention of Violence at Schools†

Oversees government efforts to combat violence and abuse in schools.(11, 122) Collects and analyzes data on violence in schools; produces an annual report for the Ministry of Education.(122)

Child Friendly Schools (EQAME)

UNICEF-funded project that constructs or converts existing schools into student-centered institutions. Provides quality education, school kits, water and sanitation facilities, and mobilizes communities in support of schools.(3, 71, 123-125) Provides teacher training on children’s rights, child-friendly pedagogy, and development of extracurricular activities.(123)

National Strategy on Civil Registration (2012–2016)†

$41.3 million Government-funded program aiming to achieve universal birth registration by creating information and registration centers.(11, 30, 126) Receives 30 percent of its funding from the Government and the remaining 70 percent from technical and financial partners.(126)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Burkina Faso.

In 2015, the Government continued to support and monitor 21,570 children who had been removed from mines and quarries and provided with schooling, vocational training, and income-generating activities.(43) Although Burkina Faso has social programs to address the worst forms of child labor in the production of cotton and in gold mining, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem or to address other forms of child labor, such as in domestic work.(2, 3)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Burkina Faso (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in accordance with the ILO recommendation.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that labor law enforcement receives sufficient resources to fulfill their mandate, including by conducting an adequate number of inspections and following up after inspections to ensure recommendations have been implemented.

2009 – 2015

Make publically available statistics on the enforcement of child labor laws, including the number and type of inspections conducted, violations found, and penalties assessed.

2009 – 2015

Include the number of child labor infractions in the MFPTSS annual report.

2015

Establish a mechanism to log all calls to the child protection hotline and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social service providers.

2015

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by conducting routine and targeted inspections.

2015

Coordination

Ensure coordinating bodies receive adequate resources, such as computers and electricity, and can work together to fully address child trafficking issues.

2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2013 – 2015

Ensure monitoring committees can meet regularly to review bilateral agreements to combat child trafficking and the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation agreement.

2015

Social Programs

Improve access to education by eliminating school-related fees and increasing the number of schools and teachers in rural areas.

2010 – 2015

Ensure all children can obtain identity documents, such as birth certificates, for school registration.

2010 – 2015

Expand existing programs to address child labor in the production of cotton and gold mining; develop programs to address other forms of child labor, such as in domestic work.

2009 – 2015

1.         Interpol. Nearly 400 Victims of Child Trafficking Rescued Across Burkina Faso in INTERPOL-Led Operation; November 22, 2012. http://www.interpol.int/layout/set/print/News-and-media/News-media-releases/2012/PR096.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. reporting, January 28, 2016.

3.         UNICEF. Report of the field visit to Burkina Faso by Members of the Bureau of the UNICEF Executive Board, 26 April to 2 May 2014. New York; July 7, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2014-CRP25-Field_visit_to_Burkina_Faso-7July2014.pdf.

4.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Burkina Faso (ratification: 1999) Published: 2013; accessed November 6, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

5.         Sollinger, M. Children Mining for Gold in Burkina Faso; February 2, 2015. http://newshour-tc.pbs.org/newshour/extra/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2013/11/Burkina-Faso-Article.pdf.

6.         Feneyrol, O. Capitalisation des expériences en matière de protection des enfants migrants et/ou travailleurs au Burkina Faso. Geneva, Terre des Hommes; 2012.

7.         Apollinaire, K. Burkina Faso: Travail des enfants - Le mal caché des vergers du Kénédougou, Pilabre, [online] August 22, 2013 [cited February 2, 2014]; [source on file].

8.         Government of Burkina Faso. Etude de base pour la relecture du décret n 2009-365/PRES/PM/MTSS/MS/MASSN du 28 mai 2009 portant détermination de la liste des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants au Burkina Faso; May 28, 2009.

9.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

10.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples, 2010. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. reporting, January 26, 2015.

12.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Burkina Faso (ratification: 1999) Published: 2015; accessed November 19, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

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