Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Burkina Faso

Cotton
Cotton
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Forced Child Labor Icon
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Gold
Gold
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Forced Child Labor Icon
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Granite
Granite
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Burkina Faso
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Burkina Faso made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. During the course of the reporting period, the government has removed more than 2,000 children from artisanal mining sites and placed them in the care of social services. The government also employed 255 full-time labor inspectors, an increase of more than 50 percent with respect to the previous reporting period, and launched a new National Program of Economic and Social Development, which includes child labor elimination and prevention strategies. However, children in Burkina Faso engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in artisanal gold mining and quarrying. Children also perform dangerous tasks in cotton harvesting. Limited resources for the enforcement of child labor laws may hinder government efforts to protect children from engaging in the worst forms of child labor. In addition, the Labor Code does not identify the activities in which children may engage in light work.

Children in Burkina Faso engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in artisanal gold mining and quarrying. Children also perform dangerous tasks in cotton harvesting. (1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Burkina Faso.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

42.1 (2,116,752)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

41.9

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

21.7

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

63.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (7)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples, 2010. (8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting, weeding, and harvesting crops, including cotton and mangos (1,3,4,6,9,10)

Raising and herding† livestock, including cattle and goats (3,9,11,12) 

Industry

Artisanal mining† of gold, including digging† and crushing† rock, installing dynamite,† working underground,† carrying water and other heavy loads,† and using cyanide† and mercury† (1,4,10,12-22) 

Quarrying† and transporting heavy loads† while working to extract granite (20,23-27) 

Working in carpentry† and construction (11,12)

Services

Domestic work (5,9,11,12,28,29) 

Street work, including vending† (5,9,11,12,24) 

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5,9,30,31) 

Farming, including production of cotton and livestock raising, domestic work, begging, gold mining, and quarrying, each as a result of human trafficking (1,3,30,32) 

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Burkina Faso is a destination, transit point, and source for child trafficking to and from other West African countries. Child trafficking also occurs within Burkina Faso. (5,30,33,34) The practice of confiage, which involves sending a child to live with a relative or friend to attend school in a larger town or city, may place children at risk of internal human trafficking. (35) Child labor in artisanal gold mining is particularly acute and often exposes children to dangerous chemicals used in the gold extraction process, such as cyanide and mercury. (3-5,36-39) In 2018, Burkina Faso was the second-largest producer of cotton in Africa, with a reported 250,000 children involved extensively in the production of cotton, primarily on small family farms. Children involved in the production of cotton are exposed to many health risks, including exposure to pesticides, injury from the use of sharp tools, animal bites, and respiratory issues due to the inhalation of cotton dust. (6) Terrorist attacks and mass displacement of people in the north and east of the country resulted in a large number of internally displaced people, with the UN Office of Humanitarian Affairs estimating 102,000 at the end of 2018, with a large number of those being children left in more precarious and vulnerable situations. (39-41)

According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, in early 2019, more than 1,000 schools have closed due to security threats, mostly in the north and east, affecting more than 100,000 students. (38) Although the Law Orienting the Education System mandates free education until age 16, the costs of uniforms, school-related fees, teacher shortages, and school infrastructure shortfalls in rural areas hinder children's access to education. (1,2,23,42)

During the reporting period, the government worked with the UNHCR to deploy mobile courts to remote villages, issuing birth certificates and national identity documents to qualified citizens. (40) About a quarter of children under age 5 in Burkina Faso lack a birth certificate. Birth certificates are required to attend school, so many of these children remain out of school and vulnerable to child labor. (40,43)

Burkina Faso has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Burkina Faso's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including unspecified light work provisions.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 152 of the Labor Code; Order Deviating the Age of Admission to Employment (44,45)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 149–150 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of the Hazardous Work List (44,46) 

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 3–6 of the Hazardous Work List; Article 77 of the Mining Code (44-47)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 3–5 of the Law Suppressing the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography; Article 1 of the Law on Combating Trafficking of Persons and Similar Practices (44,48,49)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 1–5 and 14–15 of the Law on Combating Trafficking of Persons and Similar Practices (44,49)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 3–4, 7–10, and 20 of the Law Suppressing the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (44,48) 

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code (44)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

20

Article 2 of the Decree Organizing Operations Related to Convoking the Contingent (50)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

N/A*

   

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Articles 153 and 424 of the Labor Code (44)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 4 of the Law Orienting the Education System (42)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 6 of the Law Orienting the Education System (42)

* No conscription (51)

The light work provisions in the Labor Code are not sufficiently specific to prevent children from involvement in child labor, because activities in which light work may be permitted are not identified in legislation. (44,45)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Security (MFPTSS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Security (MFPTSS)

Enforces labor laws, including child labor laws and laws on the worst forms of child labor, and establishes a government policy to combat child labor. (9,52-54) Uses provincial committees to raise awareness, conducts workshops for community members, and enforces laws at the local level. (55) 

Ministry of Women, National Solidarity, and Family (MFSNF)

Removes children from exploitative child labor, provides reintegration services through its mobile unit for intervention, and works with local village surveillance committees on awareness-raising efforts through participation in joint routine inspections with MFPTSS, the lead agency on child labor law enforcement. (9,53,56) Operates a free hotline to report child abuse. Maintains civil registry offices in maternity wards to register newborn babies. (2,57,58) Uses its National Council for Childhood to oversee all policies for the survival, protection, development, and participation of children in broader policy initiatives. (59)

Ministry of Territorial Administration, Decentralization and Interior Security (MATDSI)

Oversees criminal cases involving children and women, which are referred to the Ministry of Justice for prosecution, through its Morals Brigade in the MATDSI National Police Force. (60,61) Assists MFPTSS through joint routine inspections related to child labor in the course of actions against traffickers. (56)

Ministry of Justice

Appoints one or more judges who specialize in child protection issues to each high court to oversee juvenile court cases. Collaborates with MFSNF social workers in charge of child protection to conduct investigations on behalf of vulnerable children, including victims of child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, exploitative child labor, and begging. (62)

Parliamentary Network for the Promotion of Child Rights

Trains government officials on children's rights, including child labor laws and other issues affecting children. (1,63,64) 

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Burkina Faso took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MFPTSS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including financial resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (65)

$126,000 (38) 

Number of Labor Inspectors

169 (65)

255 (38,66)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (65) 

Yes (38) 

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (65)

Yes (38) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (65) 

N/A (38) 

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (65)

Yes (38) 

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown (51)

Unknown (38) 

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (51)

Unknown (38) 

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (51)

Unknown (38) 

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (51)

Unknown (38) 

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (51) 

Unknown (38) 

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (65) 

Yes (38) 

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (65) 

Yes (38) 

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes(65)  

Yes (38) 

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (65) 

Yes (38) 

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (65)  

Yes (38) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (65) 

Yes (38) 

The Government of Burkina Faso employs 255 full-time labor inspectors, an increase of more than 50 percent with respect to the previous reporting period, surpassing the ILO's technical advice. (38,66) The government indicated that it lacks adequate resources to enforce labor laws throughout the country, including the human and financial resources needed to carry out a sufficient number of preliminary labor inspections and follow-up inspections to ensure remediation of notices as part of labor law compliance. (2,30,34,38,53,65) The government did not provide information on the number of labor inspections conducted, including those conducted at worksites, and the number of child labor violations found, including the number of child labor violations for which penalties were imposed and the number of child labor penalties imposed that were collected for inclusion in this report. (34,38)

Law enforcement collaborates ad hoc with the Ministry of Women, National Solidarity, and Family (MFSNF) to provide social services to child labor victims. (23,67) It is unknown how many cases of child labor are identified as a result of complaints made to the MFSNF hotline. (51,66) Furthermore, the MFPTSS publishes an annual report listing 12 types of labor infractions; however, none relate to child labor. (9)

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Burkina Faso took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including haphazard application of standard victim identification and inconsistent referral procedures by authorities and frontline responders.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (65) 

Yes (38) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A (38) 

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (65) 

Yes (38) 

Number of Investigations

Unknown (51)

Unknown (38) 

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (51) 

Unknown (38) 

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (51)

Unknown (38) 

Number of Convictions

Unknown (51)

Unknown (38) 

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (34) 

Unknown (34) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (65)

Yes (38) 

During the course of the reporting period, the government has removed more than 2,000 children from artisanal mining sites and placed them in the care of social services. (38) Although the government has standard victim identification and referral procedures, authorities and frontline responders do not apply them uniformly. (34,38,68) The government did not provide information on the number of investigations, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions for inclusion in this report. (34,38)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including efficacy in accomplishing mandates.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Coordination Committee for the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (CNC-PAN/PFTE)

Supervises, evaluates, and oversees implementation of the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Chaired by the MFPTSS Directorate to Combat Child Labor and its Worst Forms. Includes representatives from various civil society organizations, 24 government ministries, and 6 observers from donor countries and international NGOs. (9,12,53) Holds meetings twice a year to review efforts to combat child labor and identify needs. (53) Research indicated that this coordination body continued to operate during the reporting period. (38)  

MFPTSS Directorate to Combat Child Labor and its Worst Forms

Coordinates and leads interagency efforts to combat child labor, including its worst forms; collects information on child labor; and conducts awareness-raising activities. Serves as the Secretariat for CNC‑PAN/PFTE. (65) Research indicated that this coordination body continued to operate during the reporting period. (38) 

National Committee for Vigilance and Surveillance Against the Trafficking in Persons and Assimilated Practices (CNVS)

Coordinates actions at the national level to combat the worst forms of child labor, including human trafficking. Oversees Committees for Vigilance and Surveillance in each of the regions. (30) MFSNF serves as president and MATDSI is vice president. (30,57) Includes representatives from MFPTSS, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Women and Gender, and NGOs. (30) Research indicated that this coordination body continued to operate during the reporting period. (38)

Child Protection Networks

Assist CNVS with coordinating and facilitating the collection of statistical data on human trafficking, specifically the trafficking of women and children. Established by MFSNF, the Networks comprise social workers, magistrates, judges, police officers, health workers, and NGOs in 23 of the country's 45 provinces. (69) Research indicated that this coordination body continued to operate during the reporting period. (38)

Poor coordination among ministries and a lack of resources, such as computers and electricity, continued to hamper the government's ability to coordinate efforts to fully address child trafficking. (2,30,38,39)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant policies covering all worst forms of child labor.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

2015 National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking

Combats human trafficking; developed by MFSNF and implemented by CNVS. (30) In 2018, as part of implementation of the plan, CNVS conducted an awareness-raising campaign, reaching approximately 500,000 people in the country. (34)

Communal Action Plan Against Trafficking (2013–2018)

Seeks to prevent child trafficking, raise awareness in local communities, and rehabilitate and reintegrate victims of child trafficking. Includes government plans for replication elsewhere in the country with a pilot in Diébougou. (30,69) In 2018, research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this policy. (34)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (23,30,70,71)

Although the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor ended in 2015, the new National Strategy to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor is with the National Development Planning Commission for review. (38,51,65,66,72-74) In addition, the new National Program of Economic and Social Development includes aspects that address child labor elimination and prevention strategies, such as an objective to halve the number of street children by 2020 through the enforcement of existing law. (38,73)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

National Program for the Fight Against Child Labor on Artisanal Gold Mining Sites and Quarries (2015–2019)†

MFSNF program that aims to prevent and withdraw children from working in artisanal gold mines as part of the government's efforts to eliminate child labor in mining by 2025. (2,30,67,75,76) Seeks to strengthen child protection systems, improve coordination among stakeholders, and implement existing legislation. Builds on the previous project (2009–2013) that aimed to eliminate child labor in mines and quarries. (67) Approximately $42.9 million (40 percent of the program costs) is provided by the government. (2) In 2018, research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken. (1)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor II

USDOL-funded capacity-building project implemented by Winrock International and partners Verité and Lawyers Without Borders in six countries to build local and national capacity of the governments to address child labor. (77-79) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

MFSNF Projects to Combat Human Trafficking†

MFSNF-funded programs aim to combat human trafficking through the operation of transit centers that provide food, medical assistance, and counseling to child trafficking victims and children vulnerable to trafficking. (30,33,68) The transit centers aim to reintegrate victims into their communities and facilitate repatriation of foreign victims when possible. (60) The National Parenting Program assists parents in managing and educating their children to combat child trafficking. (30,69) The government funds nationwide media campaigns to combat human trafficking by providing advocacy, raising awareness, and building capacity for key actors involved in child protection issues, including child trafficking. (30,69) The government operates watchdog and monitoring committees to ensure that all cases of alleged trafficking of children are reported to the justice system by social workers. (80) In 2018, research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken. (34)

Campaign to Remove Street Children*†

Project funded by NGO MinWomen, with coordination by the Ministry of Women, Family, and Humanitarian Action, that began in August 2018 and includes outreach missions in the streets to identify and refer vulnerable children, including forced begging victims, to one of the four youth shelters established in the Somgande, Basjuy, Nongremassom, and Cissin districts of Ouagadougou. (34,38) 

World Bank-funded Projects

Includes a $51 million Education Access and Quality Improvement Project to support the government in increasing access to preschool education in the two poorest regions and secondary education in the five poorest regions, and improve teaching and education; and a $50 million Social Safety Net Project to provide income support to poor households and lay the foundation for a basic safety net system in Burkina Faso. (81,82) 

Resilience and Economic Growth in the Sahel–Enhanced Resilience (November 2013–November 2020)

More than $76 million USAID-funded project that builds food security and improved livelihoods in Niger and Burkina Faso. Works to increase the resilience of chronically vulnerable populations in Niger and Burkina Faso, particularly in 23 communes in the marginal agricultural and agro-pastoral belt. (36,83,84) In 2018, the program was extended for another 2 years in Burkina Faso, with an emphasis on the empowerment of local institutions in the 12 focus communes and 232 villages. It also worked to build animal assets through microfinance as an alternative to traditional practices, and to support conservation farming and remedy problems in water, sanitation, and hygiene sectors. (34) 

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Burkina Faso.

Although Burkina Faso has social programs to address the worst forms of child labor in the production of cotton and in gold mining, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. (1,2,5)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Burkina Faso (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that light work provisions are sufficiently specific to prohibit children's involvement in child labor.

2016 – 2018

Enforcement

Ensure that labor law enforcement receives sufficient resources to fulfill their mandates, including by conducting an adequate number of inspections and following up after preliminary inspections to ensure remediation of notices to comply with labor law obligations.

2009 – 2018

Publish statistics on the enforcement of child labor laws, including the number and type of labor inspections conducted and labor violations found, as well as penalties imposed and collected.

2009 – 2018

Include the number of child labor infractions in the Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Security annual report.

2015 – 2018

Establish and publish data on a mechanism to log all calls to the government child protection hotline and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social services providers.

2015 – 2018

Ensure that authorities and frontline responders apply standard victim identification and referral procedures uniformly.

2016 – 2018

Publish statistics on the criminal enforcement of child labor laws, including the number of investigations, violations found, prosecutions, convictions, and imposed penalties.

2016 – 2018

Coordination

Ensure that coordinating bodies receive adequate resources, such as computers and electricity, to accomplish their mandates.

2015 – 2018

Government Policies

Take steps to implement the Communal Action Plan Against Trafficking.

2016 – 2018

Social Programs

Improve access to education by eliminating school-related fees and costs, and increasing the number of schools and teachers in rural areas.

2010 – 2018

Make efforts to register children at birth to ensure access to social services, including education.

2010 – 2018

Expand existing programs to fully address child labor in the production of cotton and in gold mining.

2009 – 2018

Undertake activities to support the National Program for the Fight Against Child Labor on Artisanal Gold Mining Sites and Quarries projects and the Ministry of Women, National Solidarity, and Family projects to combat human trafficking.

2016 – 2018

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  2. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. Reporting, January 28, 2016.

  3. Sollinger, Marc. Children Mining for Gold in Burkina Faso. PBS.org, February 2, 2015. Source on file.

  4. Government of Burkina Faso. Etude de base pour la Relecture du Décret No. 2009-365/PRES/PM/MTSS/MS/MASSN du 28 mai 2009 Portant Détermination de la Liste des Travaux Dangereux Interdits aux Enfants au Burkina Faso. May 28, 2009. Source on file.

  5. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018: Burkina Faso. Washington, DC. 2019.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/burkina-faso/.

  6. Suisse Solidar. ENQUÊTE SUR LE COTON. January, 2019.
    https://www.solidar.ch/sites/default/files/baumwoll_report_2019_f_solidar_suisse_web.pdf.

  7. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 12, 2019. For more information, please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions’ in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  8. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  9. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. Reporting, January 26, 2015.

  10. International Bureau for Children's Rights. État des lieux du système de protection de l’enfant au Burkina Faso portant sur les rôles et responsabilités des policiers, des gendarmes, des travailleurs sociaux et du personnel de justice. July 5, 2017.
    http://www.ibcr.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Etat-des-lieux-Burkina-Faso_COURTE_web.pdf.

  11. Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie. Analyse Complémentaire sur le Travail des Enfants Agés de 5 à 14 Ans au Burkina Faso. May 2011.
    http://www.insd.bf/n/contenu/enquetes_recensements/enquete_travail_des_enfants/Etude_compltaire_travail_enfants.pdf.

  12. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Burkina Faso (ratification: 1999) Published: 2015. Accessed November 19, 2015.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186006.

  13. Hubbard, Guy. In Burkina Faso, Getting Children out of the Gold Mines, UNICEF. June 12, 2014.
    http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/burkinafaso_73787.html.

  14. Terre des hommes. Child Labour Report 2017 - The Neglected Link - Effects of Climate Change and Environmental Degradation on Child Labour. June 10, 2017.
    https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/CL-Report-2017-engl_0.pdf.

  15. Berne Declaration. A Golden Racket: The True Source of Switzerland’s “Togolese” Gold. September 2015. Source on file.

  16. UNICEF Burkina Faso. Getting children out of mines in Burkina Faso. February 16, 2017. YouTube.com, [video].
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ER_pL_ZylGY.

  17. Jacob, Sarah. 17 Images that show the real price of gold. September 30, 2015. Business Insider.
    http://www.businessinsider.com/gold-miners-in-bani-burkina-faso-2015-9.

  18. Counterpart International. Lifting Elephants in Burkina Faso. July 20, 2016.
    http://www.counterpart.org/lifting-elephants-burkina-faso.

  19. Hinshaw, Drew. Photos: Inside the Dangerous Lives of Underage Gold Miners. March 10, 2015. The Wall Street Journal.
    http://www.wsj.com/article_email/photos-inside-the-dangerous-lives-of-underage-gold-miners-1426000749-lMyQjAxMTE1NTEyNDcxNzQyWj.

  20. Yaro, Y, et al. Etude sur le Travail des Enfants sur les Sites d’Orpaillage et les Carrières Artisanales dans cinq Régions du Burkina Faso. Ministère de l’Action Sociale et de la Solidarité Nationale. January 2011. Source on file.

  21. Dorrie, Peter. Fool's Gold. Africa In Fact. slateafrique.com. July 31, 2015. Source on file.
    http://www.slateafrique.com/452245/les-enfants-mineurs-victimes-de-la-ruee-vers-lor-au-burkina-faso.

  22. Balima, Jacques Théodore. Orpaillage: « Eau Vive » veut promouvoir les droits humains sur les sites. April 12, 2017. lefaso.net.
    http://lefaso.net/spip.php?article76637.

  23. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. Reporting, January 23, 2017.

  24. Agence France-Presse. Burkina: Une Enfance. July 8, 2016. slateafrique.com.
    http://www.slateafrique.com/677911/burkina-une-enfance-?-casser-des-cailloux-dans-les-mines-de-granit.

  25. Counterpart International official. Interview with USDOL official. January 12, 2016.

  26. McGlasson, Claire. Out of the Mine and into the Nursery: How Charities from the East are Bringing Hope to Burkina Faso. June 4, 2014. ITV News.
    http://www.itv.com/news/anglia/2014-06-04/out-of-the-mine-and-into-the-nursery-how-charities-from-the-east-are-bringing-hope-to-burkina-faso/.

  27. Rioux Soucy, Louise-Maude. Buriner le Granit à Mains nues. November 8, 2014. Le Devoir.
    http://www.ledevoir.com/culture/television/423053/jeudi-13-novembre-buriner-le-granite-a-mains-nues.

  28. KidsRights. Minors not Miners: Hazardous Child Labour, with a focus on gold mining in Burkina Faso. June 12, 2014.
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