Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Burkina Faso

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Burkina Faso

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Burkina Faso made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government trained law enforcement officials on child labor and began piloting a new child labor monitoring system. The government also validated a National Strategy to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor, which is still awaiting adoption by the Council of Ministers. However, children in Burkina Faso engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and artisanal gold mining. Children also perform dangerous tasks in cotton harvesting. Limited resources for the enforcement of child labor laws may hinder government efforts to protect children from engaging in the worst forms of child labor. In addition, the Labor Code does not identify the activities in which children may engage in light work.

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Children in Burkina Faso engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and artisanal gold mining. Children also perform dangerous tasks in cotton harvesting. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Burkina Faso.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

42.1 (2,116,752)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

41.9

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

21.7

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

61.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples, 2010. (8)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting, weeding, and harvesting crops, including cotton and mangos (2; 3; 4; 9; 5; 10; 11)

Raising and herding† livestock, including cattle and goats (4; 10; 12; 13; 14)

Industry

Artisanal mining† of gold, including digging† and crushing† rock, installing dynamite,† working underground,† carrying water and other heavy loads,† and using cyanide† and mercury† (2; 5; 12; 15; 16; 17; 11; 18; 19) (20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 6; 26; 27)

Quarrying† and transporting heavy loads† while working to extract granite (14; 28; 25; 29; 30; 31; 32; 33)

Working in carpentry† and construction (12; 13)

Services

Domestic work (3; 10; 12; 13; 6; 34; 35)

Street work, including vending† (10; 12; 13; 33)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking (20)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (10; 6; 36; 37)

Farming, including production of cotton and livestock raising, domestic work, begging, gold mining, and quarrying, each as a result of human trafficking (2; 4; 36; 38; 20; 39)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Burkina Faso is a destination, transit point, and source for child trafficking to and from other West African countries. (36; 40; 41; 42; 43) The practice of confiage, which involves sending a child to live with a relative or friend to attend school in a larger town or city, may place children at risk of internal human trafficking. (28) Child labor in artisanal gold mining is particularly acute and often exposes children to dangerous chemicals used in the gold extraction process, such as cyanide and mercury. (4; 5; 44; 45; 46; 47)

Although the Law Orienting the Education System mandates free education until age 16, uniform costs, school-related fees, teacher shortages, and school infrastructure shortfalls in rural areas hinder children’s access to education. (1; 2; 6; 29; 48) About a quarter of children under age 5 in Burkina Faso lack a birth certificate. As birth certificates are required to attend school, many of these children remain out of school and vulnerable to child labor. (49; 50)

Burkina Faso has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Burkina Faso’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including unspecific light work provisions.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 152 of the Labor Code; Order Deviating the Age of Admission to Employment (51; 52)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 149–150 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of the Hazardous Work List (51; 53)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 3–6 of the Hazardous Work List; Article 77 of the Mining Code (51; 53; 54)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 3–5 of the Law Suppressing the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography; Article 1 of the Law on Combating Trafficking of Persons and Similar Practices (51; 55; 56)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 1–5 and 14–15 of the Law on Combating Trafficking of Persons and Similar Practices (51; 56)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 3–4, 7–10, and 20 of the Law Suppressing the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (51; 55)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code (51)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

20

Article 2 of the Decree Organizing Operations Related to Convoking the Contingent (57)

Non-state

Yes

18

Articles 153 and 424 of the Labor Code (51)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 4 of the Law Orienting the Education System (48)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 6 of the Law Orienting the Education System (48)

* No conscription (58)

 

The light work provisions in the Labor Code are not specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor, as activities in which light work may be permitted are not identified in legislation. (51; 52)

The government has established relevant institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Security (MFPTSS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Security (MFPTSS)

Enforce labor laws, including child labor laws and laws on the worst forms of child labor, and establish a government policy to combat child labor. (10; 45; 59; 60) Use provincial committees to raise awareness, conduct workshops for community members, and enforce laws at the local level. (41; 61)

Ministry of Women, National Solidarity, and Family (MFSNF)

Remove children from exploitative child labor, provide reintegration services through its mobile unit for intervention, and work with local village surveillance committees on awareness-raising efforts through participation in joint routine inspections with MFPTSS, the lead agency on child labor law enforcement. (10; 59; 62) Operate a free hotline to report child abuse. Maintain civil registry offices in maternity wards to register newborn babies. (1; 63; 64; 65) Use its National Council for Childhood to oversee all policies for the survival, protection, development, and participation of children in broader policy initiatives. (66)

Ministry of Territorial Administration, Decentralization and Interior Security (MATDSI)

Through its Morals Brigade in the MATDSI National Police Force, oversee criminal cases involving children and women, which are referred to the Ministry of Justice for prosecution. (67; 68) Assist MFPTSS through joint routine inspections related to child labor in the course of actions against traffickers. (62)

Ministry of Justice

Investigate and prosecute crimes related to child labor, including its worst forms. (69) Appoint one or more judges who specialize in child protection issues to each high court to oversee juvenile court cases. May also collaborate with MFSNF social workers in charge of child protection to conduct investigations on behalf of vulnerable children, including victims of child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, exploitative child labor, and begging. (70)

Parliamentary Network for the Promotion of Child Rights

Train government officials on children’s rights, including child labor laws and other issues affecting children. (71; 72; 2)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Burkina Faso took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MFPTSS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including financial resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$225,000 (29)

Unknown (47)

Number of Labor Inspectors

154 (29)

169 (47)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (29)

Yes (47)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (29)

Yes (47)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (29)

N/A (47)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (29)

Yes (47)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown* (29)

Unknown* (58)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown* (29)

Unknown* (58)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (29)

Unknown* (58)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown* (29)

Unknown* (58)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown* (29)

Unknown* (58)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (29)

Yes (47)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A (29)

Yes (47)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (29)

Yes (47)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (73)

Yes (47)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (29)

Yes (47)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (29)

Yes (47)

* The government does not publish this information. (58)

 

In 2017, the government employed 149 labor controllers to assist the 169 labor inspectors, who are in charge of conducting labor inspections; however, the government indicated that it lacks adequate resources to enforce labor laws throughout the country, including the human and financial resources needed to carry out a sufficient number of preliminary labor inspections and follow-up inspections to ensure remediation of notices to comply with labor law obligations. (1; 36; 59; 47) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Burkina Faso’s workforce, which includes over 8.5 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Burkina Faso should employ about 213 inspectors. (74; 75)

The government conducted a training for 35 government and non-governmental individuals—from the media, mining unions, and others—on the application of legal texts on the rights of children, including in situations of economic and sexual exploitation of children at gold mining sites and quarries. (76)

The MFPTSS publishes an annual report listing 12 types of labor infractions; however, none relate to child labor. (10) Law enforcement collaborates ad hoc with the Ministry of Women, National Solidarity, and Family (MFSNF) to provide social services to child labor victims. (73; 29) In 2017, the government began implementation and assessment of the pilot phase in the Mouhan region of the Système de Surveillance du Travail des Enfants (Child Labor Monitoring System), aiming to reduce and eliminate the incidence of child labor through increased surveillance. (47; 77) It is unknown how many cases of child labor were identified as a result of complaints made to the MFSNF hotline. (58)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Burkina Faso took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including haphazard application of standard victim identification and referral procedures by authorities and front-line responders.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (29)

Yes (47)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (29)

Yes (47)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (29)

Unknown* (58)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (29)

Unknown* (58)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (29)

Unknown* (58)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (29)

Unknown* (58)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (29)

Yes (47)

* The government does not publish this information. (58)

 

Although the government has standard victim identification and referral procedures, authorities and front-line responders do not apply them uniformly. (43) As part of regional training, the UNODC provided a workshop for police and gendarme, and heads of justice schools on issues of illicit smuggling and trafficking of persons. (78)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including efficacy in accomplishing mandates.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Coordination Committee for the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (CNC-PAN/PFTE)

Supervise, evaluate, and oversee implementation of the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Chaired by the MFPTSS Directorate to Combat Child Labor and its Worst Forms, includes representatives from various civil society organizations, 24 government ministries, and 6 observers from donor countries and international NGOs. (10; 12; 59) Hold meetings twice a year to review efforts to combat child labor and identify needs. (59)

MFPTSS Directorate to Combat Child Labor and its Worst Forms

Coordinate and lead interagency efforts to combat child labor, including its worst forms; collect information on child labor; and conduct awareness-raising activities. Serve as the Secretariat for the CNC‑PAN/PFTE. (69; 47)

National Committee for Vigilance and Surveillance Against the Trafficking in Persons and Assimilated Practices (CNVS)

Coordinate actions at the national level to combat the worst forms of child labor, including human trafficking. Oversee Committees for Vigilance and Surveillance in each of the regions. (36; 41) The MFSNF serves as president and the MATDSI is vice president. (36; 63) Includes representatives from the MFPTSS, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Women and Gender, and NGOs. (36)

Child Protection Networks

Assist the CNVS with coordinating and facilitating the collection of statistical data on human trafficking, in particular the trafficking of women and children. Established by the MFSNF, comprises social workers, magistrates, judges, police officers, health workers, and NGOs in 23 of the country’s 45 provinces. (79)

 

Poor coordination among ministries, lack of research to determine whether the coordinating bodies were active, and a lack of resources, such as computers and electricity, continued to hamper the government’s ability to coordinate efforts to fully address child trafficking. (1; 36)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant policies and covering all worst forms of child labor.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

2015 National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking

Combats human trafficking; developed by the MFSNF and implemented by the CNVS. (36)

Communal Action Plan Against Trafficking (2013–2018)

Seeks to prevent child trafficking, raise awareness in local communities, and rehabilitate and reintegrate victims of child trafficking. Includes government plans to replicate elsewhere in the country, however currently piloted in Diébougou. (36; 79)

National Parenting Program

Aims to support families in their efforts to provide education and care for their children to reduce their vulnerability to child trafficking. (36; 79)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (20; 29; 36; 80; 81; 82)

 

The First Lady of Burkina Faso, along with other leading figures, made a declaration in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, on child protection, including child trafficking, exploitation, child labor, and all other forms of violence against children. (83; 84)

Although the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor ended in 2015, a National Strategy to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (SN-PFTE) was validated in 2017. The SN-PFTE is currently awaiting adoption by the Council of Ministers. (47; 85; 86; 87; 58) The government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the National Plan for Economic and Social Development. (29; 42; 88) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the 2015 National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking, Communal Action Plan Against Trafficking, and the National Parenting Program. (44; 47)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

National Program for the Fight Against Child Labor on Artisanal Gold Mining Sites and Quarries (2015–2019)†

The MFSNF program that aims to prevent and withdraw children from working in artisanal gold mines as part of the government’s efforts to eliminate child labor in mining by 2025. (1; 36; 73; 89; 90) Seeks to strengthen child protection systems, improve coordination among stakeholders, and implement existing legislation. Builds on the previous project (2009–2013) that aimed to eliminate child labor in mines and quarries. (73) Approximately $42.9 million, 40 percent of the program costs, to be provided by the government. (1) In 2017, research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken.

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor II

(CLEAR II)

USDOL-funded capacity-building project implemented by Winrock International and partners Verité and Lawyers Without Borders in seven countries to build local and national capacity of the governments to address child labor. (91; 92; 93) Additional information is available on the DOL website.

MFSNF Projects to Combat Human Trafficking†

MFSNF-funded programs aim to combat human trafficking through the operation of 23 transit centers that provide food, medical assistance, and counseling to child trafficking victims and children vulnerable to trafficking. (36; 42; 64; 43) The transit centers aim to reintegrate victims into their communities and facilitate repatriation of foreign victims when possible. (68) The National Parenting Program assists parents in managing and educating their children to combat child trafficking. (79) The government funds nationwide media campaigns to combat human trafficking by providing advocacy, raising awareness, and building capacity for key actors involved in child protection issues, including child trafficking. (79; 36) The government operates watchdog and monitoring committees to ensure that all cases of alleged trafficking of children are reported to the justice system by social workers. (94) In 2017, research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken.

World Bank-Funded Projects

Includes $51 million Education Access and Quality Improvement Project to support the government in increasing access to preschool education in the two poorest regions and secondary education in the five poorest regions, and improve teaching and education. $50 million Social Safety Net Project to provide income support to poor households and lay the foundations for a basic safety net system in Burkina Faso. (95; 96) In 2017, research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken.

Resilience and Economic Growth in the Sahel–Enhanced Resilience (REGIS–ER) (November 2013–November 2018)

Over $70 million USAID-funded, 5-year project to increase food security and improve livelihoods in Niger and Burkina Faso. Works to increase the resilience of chronically vulnerable populations in marginal agricultural and agro-pastoral zones in Niger and Burkina Faso, particularly in 23 communes in the marginal agriculture and agro-pastoral belt. (44; 97; 98) In 2017, resulted in increased access to formal financial services for project participants—to savings by 646 percent and to credit by 1,300 percent. (62)

† Program is funded by the Government of Burkina Faso.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (2; 10; 29; 99; 100; 101; 102; 103; 104)

 

Although Burkina Faso has social programs to address the worst forms of child labor in the production of cotton and in gold mining, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. (1; 2)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Burkina Faso (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that light work provisions are specific enough to prohibit children’s involvement in child labor.

2016 – 2017

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice ratio.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that labor law enforcement receives sufficient resources to fulfill their mandates, including by conducting an adequate number of inspections and following up after preliminary inspections to ensure remediation of notices to comply with certain labor law obligations.

2009 – 2017

Publish statistics on the enforcement of child labor laws, including funding, the number and type of labor inspections conducted, labor violations found, and penalties imposed and collected.

2009 – 2017

Include the number of child labor infractions in the MFPTSS annual report.

2015 – 2017

Establish a mechanism to log all calls to the MFSNF child protection hotline and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social services providers.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that authorities and front-line responders apply standard victim identification and referral procedures uniformly.

2016 – 2017

Publish statistics on the criminal enforcement of child labor laws, including the number of investigations, violations found, prosecutions, and convictions.

2016 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure that coordinating bodies receive adequate resources, such as computers and electricity, to accomplish their mandates.

2015 – 2017

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Plan for Economic and Social Development policy.

2013 – 2017

Take steps to implement the 2015 National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking, the Communal Action Plan Against Trafficking, and the National Parenting Program.

2016 – 2017

Social Programs

Improve access to education by eliminating school-related fees and increasing the number of schools and teachers in rural areas.

2010 – 2017

Make efforts to register children at birth to ensure access to social services, including education.

2010 – 2017

Expand existing programs to fully address child labor in the production of cotton and in gold mining.

2009 – 2017

Undertake activities to support the National Program for the Fight Against Child Labor on Artisanal Gold Mining Sites and Quarries projects and the MFSNF projects to combat human trafficking.

2016 – 2017

1. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. Reporting, January 28, 2016.

2. UNICEF. Report of the Field Visit to Burkina Faso by Members of the Bureau of the UNICEF Executive Board, 26 April to 2 May 2014. July 7, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2014-CRP25-Field_visit_to_Burkina_Faso-7July2014.pdf.

3. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Burkina Faso (ratification: 1999) Published: 2013. Accessed November 6, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3076204.

4. Sollinger, Marc. Children Mining for Gold in Burkina Faso. PBS.org. February 2, 2015. [Source on file].

5. Government of Burkina Faso. Etude de base pour la Relecture du Décret No. 2009-365/PRES/PM/MTSS/MS/MASSN du 28 mai 2009 Portant Détermination de la Liste des Travaux Dangereux Interdits aux Enfants au Burkina Faso. May 28, 2009. [Source on file].

6. —. Politique Nationale des Droits Humains et de la Promotion Civique. March 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_229298.pdf.

7. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions’ in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9. Kam, Apollinaire. Burkina Faso: Travail des Enfants - Le mal Caché des Vergers du Kénédougou. August 22, 2013. [Source on file].

10. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. Reporting, January 26, 2015.

11. International Bureau for Children's Rights. État des lieux du système de protection de l’enfant au Burkina Faso portant sur les rôles et responsabilités des policiers, des gendarmes, des travailleurs sociaux et du personnel de justice. July 5, 2017. http://www.ibcr.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Etat-des-lieux-Burkina-Faso_COURTE_web.pdf.

12. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Burkina Faso (ratification: 1999) Published: 2015. Accessed November 19, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186006.

13. Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie. Analyse Complémentaire sur le Travail des Enfants Agés de 5 à 14 Ans au Burkina Faso. May 2011. http://www.insd.bf/n/contenu/enquetes_recensements/enquete_travail_des_enfants/Etude_compltaire_travail_enfants.pdf.

14. Ministry of Labor Director General of Social Protection. Interview with USDOL official. April 12, 2013.

15. Balima, Jacques Théodore. Orpaillage: « Eau Vive » veut promouvoir les droits humains sur les sites. lefaso.net. April 12, 2017. http://lefaso.net/spip.php?article76637.

16. Terre des hommes. Child Labour Report 2017 - The Neglected Link - Effects of Climate Change and Environmental Degradation on Child Labour. June 10, 2017. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/CL-Report-2017-engl_0.pdf.

17. UNICEF Burkina Faso. Video; Getting children out of mines in Burkina Faso, YouTube. February 16, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ER_pL_ZylGY.

18. Jacob, Sarah. 17 Images that show the real price of gold. Business Insider. September 30, 2015. http://www.businessinsider.com/gold-miners-in-bani-burkina-faso-2015-9.

19. Counterpart International. Lifting Elephants in Burkina Faso. July 20, 2016. http://www.counterpart.org/lifting-elephants-burkina-faso.

20. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Burkina Faso (ratification: 2001) Published: 2013. Accessed November 6, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3076211.

21. Hubbard, Guy. In Burkina Faso, Getting Children out of the Gold Mines, UNICEF. June 12, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/burkinafaso_73787.html.

22. Hinshaw, Drew. Photos: Inside the Dangerous Lives of Underage Gold Miners. The Wall Street Journal. March 10, 2015. http://www.wsj.com/article_email/photos-inside-the-dangerous-lives-of-underage-gold-miners-1426000749-lMyQjAxMTE1NTEyNDcxNzQyWj.

23. N'Diaye, F.C. Genre et Travail des Enfants dans les Mines et Carrières au Burkina Faso, au Mali et au Togo. ILO. 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-addis_ababa/---sro-dakar/documents/publication/wcms_228135.pdf.

24. Agence France-Presse. Les Enfants Mineurs, Victimes de la Ruée vers l'or au Burkina Faso. slateafrique.com. March 25, 2013. http://www.slateafrique.com/452245/les-enfants-mineurs-victimes-de-la-ruee-vers-lor-au-burkina-faso.

25. Yaro, Y, et al. Etude sur le Travail des Enfants sur les Sites d’Orpaillage et les Carrières Artisanales dans cinq Régions du Burkina Faso. Ministère de l’Action Sociale et de la Solidarité Nationale. January 2011. [Source on file].

26. Dörrie, Peter. Fool's Gold. Africa In Fact. July 31, 2015. [Source on file].

27. Berne Declaration. A Golden Racket: The True Source of Switzerland’s “Togolese” Gold. September 2015. [Source on file].

28. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Burkina Faso (ratification: 2001) Published: 2015. Accessed November 6, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186023:YES.

29. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. Reporting, January 23, 2017.

30. Counterpart International official. Interview with USDOL official. January 12, 2016.

31. McGlasson, Claire. Out of the Mine and into the Nursery: How Charities from the East are Bringing Hope to Burkina Faso. ITV News. June 4, 2014. http://www.itv.com/news/anglia/2014-06-04/out-of-the-mine-and-into-the-nursery-how-charities-from-the-east-are-bringing-hope-to-burkina-faso/.

32. Rioux Soucy, Louise-Maude. Buriner le Granit à Mains nues. Le Devoir. November 8, 2014. http://www.ledevoir.com/culture/television/423053/jeudi-13-novembre-buriner-le-granite-a-mains-nues.

33. Agence France-Presse. Burkina: Une Enfance. slateafrique.com. July 8, 2016. http://www.slateafrique.com/677911/burkina-une-enfance-%3F-casser-des-cailloux-dans-les-mines-de-granit.

34. KidsRights. Minors not Miners: Hazardous Child Labour, with a focus on gold mining in Burkina Faso. June 12, 2014. https://kidsrights.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/Minors%20not%20Miners%20-%20Hazardous%20Child%20Labour%2C%20with%20a%20focus%20on%20gold%20mining%20in%20Burkina%20Faso_0.pdf.

35. UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Concluding Observations on the Initial Report of Burkina Faso. July 12, 2016: E/C.12/BFA/CO/1. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/150/67/PDF/G1615067.pdf?OpenElement.

36. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. Reporting, February 19, 2016.

37. Africa News. Nigeria; Sex Slaves - Syndicate Allegedly Kidnaps 40 Nigerian Girls. July 18, 2017. [Source on file].

38. ILO-IPEC. Ending Child Labour in Domestic Work and Protecting Young Workers from Abusive Working Conditions. June 12, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=21515.

39. Sabine, Léa and So Some Sien. La Marchandisation des Enfants au Burkina Faso: Trafic, Traite et Exploitation. Institut des Mondes Africains. November 25, 2015. http://imaf.cnrs.fr/spip.php?article893&lang=fr.

40. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015: Burkina Faso. Washington, DC. April 13, 2016. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/252867.pdf.

41. Wara, Habibata. Lutte Contre la Traite des Enfants: Une Seule Structure Nationale en vue. Sidwaya. December 19, 2013. http://fr.allafrica.com/stories/201312190953.html.

42. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Burkina Faso (ratification: 2001) Published: 2015. Accessed November 19, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186027.

43. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Burkina Faso. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271155.htm.

44. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 6, 2017.

45. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. Reporting, January 21, 2014.

46. Agence France-Presse. Burkina Faso’s Child Miners Dig for Gold and a Better life. bdlive.co.za. March 27, 2014. [Source on file].

47. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. Reporting, February 5, 2018.

48. Government of Burkina Faso. Government of Burkina Faso. Loi N° 013-2007/AN Portant loi d'orientation de l'education. Enacted: July 30, 2007. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/77498/82167/F578256246/BFA-77498.pdf.

49. UNICEF Data. Burkina Faso. Accessed November 2, 2016. https://data.unicef.org/country/bfa/.

50. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Burkina Faso. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265440.pdf.

51. Government of Burkina Faso. Loi N° 028-2008/AN du 13 mai 2008 Portant Code du Travail au Burkina Faso. Enacted: May 13, 2008. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_126287.pdf.

52. —. Arrêté N° 2008-027/MTSS/SG/DGSST du 26 décembre 2008 portant dérogation de l'âge d'admission à l'emploi. Enacted: December 26, 2008. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/96329/113810/F692170910/BFA-96329.pdf.

53. —. Décret N° 2016-504/PRES/PM/MFPTPS/MS/MFSNF Portant Détermination de la Liste des Travaux Dangereux Interdits aux Enfants. Enacted: June 9, 2016. [Source on file].

54. —. Loi N° 036-2015/CNT Portant Code Minier du Burkina Faso. Enacted: June 26, 2015. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/101264/121922/F-259063524/BFA-101264.pdf.

55. —. Loi Portant Repression de la Vente d’Enfants, de la Prostitution des Enfants et de la Pornographie Mettant en Scene des Enfants, Law N° 011-2014/AN. Enacted: April 17, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/98001/116475/F-1511397845/BFA-98001.pdf.

56. —. Loi N° 029-2008/AN Portant Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes et Les Pratiques Assimilees,. Enacted: May 15, 2008. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/79122/84952/F1942473436/BFA-79122.pdf.

57. —. Décret N° 2013-358/PRES/PM/MDNAC Portant Organisation des Opérations Relatives à l'Appel du Contingent JO N° 34 du 22 Aout 2013. Enacted: April 29, 2013. http://www.legiburkina.bf/m/Sommaires_JO/Decret_2013_00358.htm.

58. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou official. E-mail communication with USDOL official. February 23, 2018.

59. Government of Burkina Faso official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. November 10, 2014.

60. Government of Burkina Faso. Décret N° 2016-006/PRES/PM/SGG-CM 06 Février 2016 Portant Attributions des Membres du Gouvernement. Enacted: February 8, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/101515/122335/F1465580504/BFA-101515.pdf.

61. Ouedraogo, Amidou. Lutte Contre la Traite des Enfants dans le Noumbiel. December 24, 2014. http://www.aib.bf/m-2059-lutte-contre-la-traite-des-enfants-dans-le-noumbiel.html.

62. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou official. E-mail communication with USDOL official. April 30, 2018.

63. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 20, 2014.

64. UN Human Rights Council. National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 5 of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 16/21: Burkina Faso. United Nationals General Assembly. February 6, 2013. [Source on file].

65. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. Reporting, February 20, 2014.

66. Government of Burkina Faso. Décret N° 2014-092/PRES/PM/MASSN/MEF/MATS Portant Création, Attributions, Composition et Fonctionnement d’un Conseil National pour l’Enfance. Enacted: February 20, 2014. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/98000/116474/F-1201415008/BFA-98000.pdf.

67. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 25, 2016.

68. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. Reporting, February 17, 2015.

69. —. Reporting, February 1, 2013.

70. Government of Burkina Faso. Décret Promulguant la loi n° 015-2014/AN du 13 mai 2014 Portant Protection de l’Enfant en Conflit avec la loi ou en Danger, Decree Nº 2014-519/PRES. Enacted: June 20, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=98010.

71. —. Droits de l’Enfant: Les Députés Membres du REPRODEN se Forment en Matière d’Interpellation du Gouvernement. National Assembly Burkina Faso. Accessed January 11, 2014. [Source on file].

72. Kindo, N. REPRODEN: Au Burkina Faso, un Enfant sur Trois a un Risque Élevé de Mourir de la Malnutrition. burkina24.com. June 3, 2014. http://burkina24.com/2014/06/03/reproden-au-burkina-faso-un-enfant-sur-trois-a-un-risque-eleve-de-mourir-de-la-malnutrition/.

73. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 9, 2016.

74. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed March 16, 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

75. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf.

76. Ouedraogo, Frédéric. Exploitation économique et sexuelle des enfants :le nouveau dispositif juridique de répression présenté à Banfora. Agence d'Informations du Burkina. August 29, 2017. [Source on file].

77. Sawadogo, Tiga Cheick. Travail des enfants au Burkina: Un système de surveillance validé à Dédougou. lefaso.net. July 15, 2017. http://lefaso.net/spip.php?article78297.

78. UN Office on Drugs and Crime. Terrorisme, traite, migrations irrégulières et corruption: les Etats sahéliens agissent. August 4, 2017. http://www.unodc.org/westandcentralafrica/fr/2017-08-04-bamako-regional-workshop-tipsom-terro-anticorruption.html.

79. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. November 27, 2015.

80. Ouattara, Dominique. Fight Against Cross-Border Child Trafficking. October 31, 2013. http://www.dominiqueouattara.ci/en/news/fight-against-cross-border-child-trafficking.

81. Government of Burkina Faso and Government of Côte d'Ivoire. Traité d'Amitié et de Cooperation République de Côte d'Ivoire-Burkina Faso. July 30, 2014. http://www.diplomatie.gouv.ci/userfiles/file/Cooperation%20bilaterale/TAC%20OUAGA%202014%20RAPPORT%20CONSEIL%20CONJOINT%20DE%20GVT.pdf.

82. U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 20, 2015.

83. First Ladies of the Countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Sahel. Declaration of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

84. Conference of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel on the Fight Against Child Trafficking, Exploitation, Child Labor, and All Forms of Violence Against Children. Final Communique. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

85. Nebie, Beyon Romain. Pires formes de travail des enfants: Une nouvelle stratégie pour accentuer la lutte. Sidwaya. June 27, 2017. http://www.sidwaya.bf/m-17188-pires-formes-de-travail-des-enfants-une-nouvelle-strategie-pour-accentuer-la-lutte.html.

86. Government of Burkina Faso. Plan D'Action Opérationnel 2018-2020 de la Stratégie Nationale de Lutte Contre Les Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants (SN-PFTE). December 2017. [Source on file].

87. —. Stratégie Nationale 2018-2025 de lutte contre les pires formes de travail des enfants (SN-PFTE). December 2017. [Source on file].

88. —. Plan National de Développement Economique et Social (PNDES). 2016. http://www.cci.bf/sites/default/files/pndes.pdf.

89. Sanou, Judith N. Lutte Contre le Travail des Enfants au Burkina: 700,000 Enfants Enregistrés sur les Sites d’Orpaillage. Le Quotidien. March 6, 2015. http://news.aouaga.com/h/46811.html.

90. Nikiema, Frédéric A.K. Compte Rendu du Conseil des Ministres du 2 Septembre 2015. Burkina24.com. September 2, 2015. http://www.burkina24.com/2015/09/02/compte-rendu-du-conseil-des-ministres-du-2-septembre-2015/.

91. ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor II. October 2017: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

92. —. Global Action Program on Child Labour Issues. October 2017: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

93. LeFaso.net. Pires formes de travail des enfants: Le projet CLEAR II fédère les énergies pour des actions plus efficaces. February 13, 2018. http://lefaso.net/spip.php?article81934.

94. UN Human Rights Committee. Concluding observations on the initial report of Burkina Faso - Addendum - Information received from Burkina Faso on follow-up to the concluding observations. September 12, 2017: CCPR/C/BFA/CO/1/Add.1. http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsvOZ9yy4HyCRjzP2m4A%2f0WEZYp3T7yn7phznP46xXdN7qO0%2byK9Tzgla08dEHqGlqtCWyj%2bscwdrLN3i9BSB%2bJMwfqec8qPuLdHVXeHpCerHMCWtLerSzFXiJUQX%2fnkdvA%3d%3d.

95. World Bank. Education Access and Quality Improvement Project (EAQIP) (P148062). June 20, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report - Sequence 05. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/916151497974673139/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P148062-06-20-2017-1497974662729.pdf.

96. —. Social Safety Net Project (P124015). June 14, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report - Sequence 09. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/240971497457676248/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P124015-06-14-2017-1497457666509.pdf.

97. USAID Press Office. USAID Announces RISE: A New Initiative to Build Resilience in West Africa's Sahel. USAID. April 14, 2015. https://2012-2017.usaid.gov/news-information/press-releases/feb-3-2014-usaid-announces-rise-new-initiative-build-resilience-west-africa-sahel.

98. USAID. RISE: Resilience in the Sahel Enhanced. February 3, 2014. http://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1866/RISE_resilience_in_the_sahel_enhanced_.pdf.

99. Government of Burkina Faso. Décret N°2014-328/PRES/PM/MESS/MENA/MATS Portant Création, Attributions, Composition, Organisation et Fonctionnement d’un Conseil National pour la Prévention de la Violence à l’École (CNPVE). Enacted: May 2, 2014. [Source on file].

100. UNICEF. Burkina Faso Humanitarian Situation Report, August-October 2015. 2015. http://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/UNICEF_Burkina_Faso_Sitrep_AugSeptOct_2015.pdf.

101. Le Représentant de l'UNICEF en Visite au Centre-Nord. UNICEF Burkina Faso, 2013. http://www.unicef.org/bfa/french/media_7407.html.

102. Dah, Sansan Natal. Lutte Contre la Traite et les Pires Formes du Travail des Enfants: l’Heure de la Répression dans la Bougouriba. Sidwaya. February 5, 2014. http://news.aouaga.com/h/21029.html.

103. World Food Program. Burkina Faso: Country Program 200163 (2011-2015). http://www.wfp.org/countries/Burkina-Faso/Operations.

104. —. Project Budget Revision for Approval by the Regional Director (2011-2015). http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/internal/documents/projects/wfp274608.pdf.

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