Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Burkina Faso

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Burkina Faso

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Burkina Faso made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government revised its Hazardous Work List to make the list more comprehensive and began drafting a new National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor. In addition, the Government funded and participated in multiple programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. However, children in Burkina Faso perform dangerous tasks in cotton harvesting. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and in artisanal gold mining. Limited resources for the systematic enforcement of child labor laws impede government efforts to protect children from engaging in the worst forms of child labor.

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Children in Burkina Faso engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and in artisanal gold mining. Children in Burkina Faso perform dangerous tasks in cotton harvesting.(1-8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Burkina Faso.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

42.1 (2,116,752)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

41.9

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

21.7

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

61.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples, 2010.(10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting,† weeding, and harvesting crops, including cotton and mangos (1, 3-8, 11)

Raising and herding† livestock, including cattle and goats (5, 11-14)

Industry

Artisanal mining† of gold, including digging† and crushing† rock, installing dynamite,† working underground,† carrying water and other heavy loads,† and using cyanide† and mercury† (1-3, 8, 12, 15-31)

Quarrying† and transporting heavy loads† while working to extract granite (14, 16, 19, 25, 31-36)

Work in carpentry† and construction (12, 13)

Services

Domestic work† (4, 6, 11-13, 26, 37, 38)

Street work, including vending† (6, 11-13, 36)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking (19)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (11, 26, 39, 40)

Farming, including production of cotton and livestock raising, domestic work, begging, gold mining, and quarrying, each as a result of human trafficking (3, 5, 6, 39-45)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Burkina Faso is a destination, transit point, and source for child trafficking to and from other West African countries.(39, 40, 46-48) The Government works with Koranic schools and educators to expose individuals who pose as Koranic teachers to force their students to beg in the streets and then take the profits.(6, 39-41, 44, 49, 50) The practice of confiage, which involves sending a child to live with a relative or friend to attend school in a larger town or city, may place children at risk of internal human trafficking.(44) Child labor in gold mining, especially artisanal gold mining, known locally as orpaillage, continues to increase and leads children to leave school.(5, 8, 50-55)

Although the Law Orienting the Education System mandates free education until age 16, uniform costs, school-related fees, teacher shortages, and school infrastructure shortfalls in rural areas hinder children’s access to education.(2, 3, 26, 31, 56) About a quarter of children under age five in Burkina Faso lack a birth certificate. As birth certificates are required to attend school, many of these children remain out of school and vulnerable to child labor.(57, 58)

Burkina Faso has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Burkina Faso’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 152 of the Labor Code; Order Deviating the Age of Admission to Employment (59, 60)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 149–150 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of the Hazardous Work List (59, 61)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 3–6 of the Hazardous Work List; Article 77 of the Mining Code (59, 61, 62)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 3–5 of the Law Suppressing the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography; Article 1 of the Law on Combating Trafficking of Persons and Similar Practices (59, 63, 64)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code; Articles 1–5 and 14–15 of the Law on Combating Trafficking of Persons and Similar Practices (59, 64)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code;

Articles 3–4, 7–10, and 20 of the Law Suppressing the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (59, 63)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 153 of the Labor Code (59)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

20

Article 2 of the Decree Organizing Operations Related to Convoking the Contingent (65)

Non-State Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 153 and 424 of the Labor Code (59)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 4 of the Law Orienting the Education System (66)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 6 of the Law Orienting the Education System (66)

* No conscription (67)

In 2016, the Government revised its Hazardous Work List; nevertheless, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not fully cover all tasks in sectors in which child labor is known to occur, including in agriculture and construction. Children are consequently left exposed to conditions that harm their health, safety, and morals.(61) In addition, the light work provisions in the Labor Code are not specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor.(59, 60)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Civil Service, Labor, and Social Security (MFPTSS)

Enforce labor laws, including child labor laws and laws on the worst forms of child labor, and establish a government policy to combat child labor.(11, 54, 68, 69) Use provincial committees to raise awareness, conduct workshops for community members, and enforce laws at the local level.(46, 70)

Ministry of Women, National Solidarity, and Family (MFSNF)

Protect children’s rights, enforce laws against child trafficking and other worst forms of child labor, remove children from exploitative child labor, and provide reintegration services.(11, 68, 71, 72) Operate a free hotline to report child abuse. Maintain civil registry offices in maternity wards to register newborn babies.(2, 19, 73-75) Use its National Council for Childhood to oversee all policies for the survival, protection, development, and participation of children.(76)

Ministry of Territorial Administration, Decentralization and Interior Security (MATDSI)

Enforce criminal laws related to child trafficking.(43) Use its Morals Brigade in the MATDSI National Police Force to oversee criminal cases involving children and women.(77)

Ministry of Justice

Enforce and prosecute criminal laws, including laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(78) Appoint one or more judges who specialize in child protection issues to each high court to oversee juvenile court cases. May also call on MFSNF social workers in charge of child protection to conduct investigations on behalf of vulnerable children, including victims of child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, exploitative child labor, and begging.(79)

Parliamentary Network for the Promotion of Child Rights

Train government officials on children’s rights, including child labor laws and other issues affecting children.(3, 80, 81)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Burkina Faso took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$226,000 (2)

$225,000 (31)

Number of Labor Inspectors

124 (2, 82)

154 (31)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (59)

Yes (31)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (2)

Yes (31)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown* (77)

N/A (31)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (2)

Yes (31)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown* (2, 82)

Unknown* (31)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (31)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (31)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (31)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (31)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (31)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (2)

No (31)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A (2)

N/A (31)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (59)

Yes (31)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (82)

Yes (82)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (2)

Yes (31)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (82)

Yes (31)

* The Government does not publish this information.

The Government employs 140 labor controllers to assist the 154 labor inspectors, who are in charge of conducting labor inspections; however, the Government indicates it lacks adequate resources to enforce labor laws throughout the country, including the human and financial resources needed to carry out a sufficient number of labor inspections.(2, 39, 68) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Burkina Faso’s workforce, which includes over 7 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Burkina Faso should employ roughly 192 inspectors.(83, 84) The Government noted that it is difficult for inspectors to follow up on inspections to ensure their recommendations have been implemented.(85)

The Ministry of Civil Service, Labor, and Social Security publishes an annual report listing 12 types of labor infractions, none of which are related to child labor.(11) Law enforcement collaborates ad hoc with the Ministry of Women, National Solidarity, and Family (MFSNF) to provide social services to child labor victims and the Government is in the process of implementing a Child Labor Monitoring System, which would improve connections between the various actors.(31, 82) It is unknown how many cases of child labor were identified as a result of complaints made to the MFSNF hotline.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Burkina Faso took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (2)

Yes (31)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

N/A (31)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (49)

Yes (31)

Number of Investigations

Unknown*(2)

Unknown* (31)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown*(2)

Unknown* (31)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

16 (39, 49)

Unknown (31)

Number of Convictions

9 (39, 49)

Unknown (31)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2, 39)

Yes (31, 48)

* The Government does not publish this information.

Although the government has standard victim identification and referral procedures, authorities and front-line responders do not apply them uniformly.(48)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Coordination Committee for the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (CNC-PAN/PFTE)

Supervise, evaluate, and oversee implementation of the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Chaired by the MFPTSS Directorate to Combat Child Labor and its Worst Forms, includes representatives from various civil society organizations, 24 government ministries, and 6 observers from donor countries and international NGOs.(11, 12, 68) Hold meetings twice a year to review efforts to combat child labor and identify needs.(68) In 2016, met twice to develop a new National Strategy to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor and to examine reports from 2014 and 2015, and the report on the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(31)

MFPTSS Directorate to Combat Child Labor and its Worst Forms (DLTE)

Coordinate and lead interagency efforts to combat child labor, including its worst forms; collect information on child labor; and conduct awareness raising activities.(86) Serve as the Secretariat for the CNC‑PAN/PFTE.(78, 86)

National Committee for Vigilance and Surveillance Against the Trafficking in Persons and Assimilated Practices (CNVS)

Coordinate actions at the national level to combat the worst forms of child labor, including human trafficking. Oversee Committees for Vigilance and Surveillance in each of the regions.(39, 46) MFSNF serves as president, and MATDSI is the vice president.(39, 73) Includes representatives from MFPTSS, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Women and Gender, and NGOs.(39)

Child Protection Networks (RPEs)

Assist CNVS with coordinating and facilitating the collection of statistical data on human trafficking, in particular women and children. Established by MFSNF, comprises social workers, magistrates, judges, police officers, health workers, and NGOs in 23 of the country’s 45 provinces.(49)

 

In 2016, the Government trained members of the National Committee for Vigilance and Surveillance Against the Trafficking in Persons and Assimilated Practices on the proactive identification of trafficking victims.(48) Although the Government made efforts to improve its data collection system and monitoring capabilities, poor coordination among ministries and a lack of resources, such as computers and electricity, continued to hamper the Government’s ability to fully address child trafficking.(2, 39)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

2015 National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking

Developed by MFSNF and implemented by CNVS, aims to combat human trafficking.(39) Research was unable to determine any updates in 2016.(50)

Communal Action Plan Against Trafficking (2013–2018)

Seeks to prevent child trafficking, raise awareness in local communities, and rehabilitate and reintegrate victims of child trafficking. Piloted in Diebougou. Includes government plans to replicate elsewhere in the country.(39, 49) Research was unable to determine any updates in 2016.(50)

National Parenting Program

Aims to support families in their efforts to provide education and care to their children to reduce their vulnerability to child trafficking.(39, 49) Research was unable to determine any updates in 2016.(50)

‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(19, 31, 39, 87-89)

The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the National Plan for Economic and Social Development and the Program for the Strategic Development of Basic Education.(31, 47, 90, 91). Although the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor ended in 2015, a second iteration, covering 2017–2021, is currently in development to expand on the initial National Action Plan.(31, 92)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

National Program for the Fight Against Child Labor on Artisanal Gold Mining Sites and Quarries (2015–2019)†

MFSNF program that aims to prevent and withdraw children from working in artisanal gold mines as part of the Government’s efforts to eliminate child labor in mining by 2025.(2, 39, 82, 93, 94) Seeks to strengthen child protection systems, improve coordination among stakeholders, and implement existing legislation. Builds on the previous project from 2009–2013 to eliminate child labor in mines and quarries.(82) Approximately $42.9 million, 40 percent of the program costs, to be provided by the Government.(2) In 2016, research was unable to determine whether any actions were undertaken.(50)

USDOL-Funded Projects to Address Child Labor

USDOL projects aim to build the capacity of the national government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor; increase access to education, social protection, and training programs; and improve legislation and national government capacity to address child labor. These projects include Reducing Child Labor Through Education and Services, $5 million project implemented by Counterpart International; Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues, implemented in approximately 40 countries by the ILO; and Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor II (CLEAR II), implemented in at least eight countries by Winrock International and partners Verité and Lawyers Without Borders.(95-99) For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our website.

MFSNF Projects to Combat Human Trafficking†

MFSNF-funded programs aim to combat human trafficking through the operation of 23 transit centers that provide food, medical assistance, and counseling to child trafficking victims and children vulnerable to trafficking.(39, 47, 48, 74) The transit centers aim to reintegrate victims into their communities and to facilitate repatriation of foreign victims when possible.(43) The National Parenting Program assists parents in managing and educating their children to combat child trafficking.(49) Government funds nationwide media campaigns to combat human trafficking by providing advocacy, raising awareness, and building capacity for key actors involved in child protection issues, including child trafficking.(39, 49) In 2016, research was unable to determine whether any actions were undertaken.(50)

World Bank-Funded Projects

Includes the Education Access and Quality Improvement Project (EAQIP), $51 million project to support the Government to increase access to preschool education in the two poorest regions and secondary education in the five poorest regions, and to improve teaching and education. Social Safety Net Project, $50 million project to provide income support to poor households and to lay the foundations for a basic safety net system in Burkina Faso.(100, 101) In 2016, research was unable to determine whether any actions were undertaken.(50)

Resilience and Economic Growth in the Sahel–Enhanced Resilience (REGIS – ER) (November 2013–November 2018)

Over $70 million USAID-funded, 5-year project to increase food security and improve livelihoods in Niger and Burkina Faso. Works to increase the resilience of chronically vulnerable populations in marginal agricultural and agro-pastoral zones in Niger and Burkina Faso, particularly in 25 communes in the marginal agriculture and agro-pastoral belt.(50, 102, 103)

National Strategy on Civil Registration (2012–2016)†

$41.3 million program that aims to achieve universal birth registration by creating information and registration centers funded 30 percent by the Government and the remaining 70 percent by technical and financial partners.(11, 26, 104) In 2016, research was unable to determine whether any actions were undertaken.(50)

† Program is funded by the Government of Burkina Faso.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (3, 11, 31, 105-110)

Although Burkina Faso has social programs to address the worst forms of child labor in the production of cotton and in gold mining, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(2, 3)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Burkina Faso (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2016

Ensure that light work provisions are specific enough to prohibit children’s involvement in child labor.

2016

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO recommendation.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that labor law enforcement receives sufficient resources to fulfill their mandate, including by conducting an adequate number of inspections and following up after inspections to ensure recommendations have been implemented.

2009 – 2016

Publish statistics on the enforcement of child labor laws, including the number and type of labor inspections conducted, labor violations found, and penalties imposed and collected.

2009 – 2016

Include the number of child labor infractions in the Ministry of Civil Service (MFPTSS) annual report.

2015 – 2016

Establish a mechanism to log all calls to the child protection hotline and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social service providers.

2015 – 2016

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by conducting routine and targeted inspections.

2015 – 2016

Ensure front-line responders apply standard victim identification and referral procedures uniformly.

2016

Publish statistics on the criminal enforcement of child labor laws, including the number of investigations, violations found, prosecutions, and convictions.

2016

Coordination

Ensure coordinating bodies receive adequate resources, such as computers and electricity to address mandates.

2015 – 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Plan for Economic and Social Development and the Program for the Strategic Development of Basic Education policies.

2013 – 2016

Take steps to implement the 2015 National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking, the Communal Action Plan Against Trafficking, and the National Parenting Program.

2016

Social Programs

Improve access to education by eliminating school-related fees and increasing the number of schools and teachers in rural areas.

2010 – 2016

Take efforts to register children at birth to ensure access to social services, including education.

2010 – 2016

Expand existing programs to fully address child labor in the production of cotton and in gold mining.

2009 – 2016

Undertake activities to support MFSNF projects to combat human trafficking, World Bank-funded projects, and the National Strategy on Civil Registration.

2016

1.         Interpol. "Nearly 400 victims of child trafficking rescued across Burkina Faso in INTERPOL-led operation." November 22, 2012 [cited June 16, 2017]; https://www.interpol.int/News-and-media/News/2012/PR096.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. reporting, January 28, 2016.

3.         UNICEF. Report of the Field Visit to Burkina Faso by Members of the Bureau of the UNICEF Executive Board, 26 April to 2 May 2014. New York; July 7, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2014-CRP25-Field_visit_to_Burkina_Faso-7July2014.pdf.

4.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Burkina Faso (ratification: 1999) Published: 2013; accessed November 6, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3076204.

5.         Sollinger, M. "Children Mining for Gold in Burkina Faso." PBS.org [online] February 2, 2015 [cited June 16, 2016]; http://newshour-tc.pbs.org/newshour/extra/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2013/11/Burkina-Faso-Article.pdf.

6.         Feneyrol, O. Capitalisation des Expériences en Matière de Protection des Enfants Migrants et/ou Travailleurs au Burkina Faso. Geneva, Terre des Hommes; 2012. https://www.tdh.ch/sites/default/files/capitalisation-des-experiences-en-matiere-de-protection-des-enfants-migrants-et-ou-travailleurs-au-burkina-faso_fr.pdf.

7.         Apollinaire, K. Burkina Faso: Travail des Enfants - Le mal Caché des Vergers du Kénédougou, Pilabre, [online] August 22, 2013 [cited February 2, 2014]; [Source on file].

8.         Government of Burkina Faso. Etude de base pour la Relecture du Décret No. 2009-365/PRES/PM/MTSS/MS/MASSN du 28 mai 2009 Portant Détermination de la Liste des Travaux Dangereux Interdits aux Enfants au Burkina Faso; May 28, 2009. [Source on file].

9.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples, 2010. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Ouagadougou. reporting, January 26, 2015.

12.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Burkina Faso (ratification: 1999) Published: 2015; accessed November 19, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186006.

13.       Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie. Analyse Complémentaire sur le Travail des Enfants Agés de 5 à 14 Ans au Burkina Faso. Ouagadougou; May 2011. http://www.insd.bf/n/contenu/enquetes_recensements/enquete_travail_des_enfants/Etude_compltaire_travail_enfants.pdf.

14.       Ministry of Labor Director General of Social Protection. Interview with USDOL official. April 12, 2013.

15.       Kyle, L. Burkina Faso Children Toil in Gold Mines [Video]: Al Jazeera; July 7, 2012, 2 min., 35 sec., [accessed January 29, 2014]; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sEtTtVzYDKs.

16.       Darissac, M. Burkina Faso: Ganzourgou, mine d'or et d'Exploitation des Enfants. Geneva, Terre des Hommes; January 26, 2012. [Source on file].

17.       Kambou, G. Du trou d'or à l'Atelier de Menuiserie [Video]: Droit Libre; March 27, 2012, 10 min., 12 sec., [accessed January 29, 2014]; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hq7w7-QmKEE.

18.       Bosch, R. "Le Burkina Faso vu d’Espagne (2/3): "Je Persisterai dans les Mines jusqu’à ce que je sois Riche…"." lefaso.net [online] August 2, 2012 [cited January 24, 2013]; http://lefaso.net/spip.php?article49451.

19.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Burkina Faso (ratification: 2001) Published: 2013; accessed November 6, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3076211.

20.       Thorson, D. Children Working in Mining and Quarries: Evidence from West and Central Africa. New York, UNICEF; April 2012. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/documents_publications_6925.html.

21.       Hubbard, G. In Burkina Faso, Getting Children out of the Gold Mines, UNICEF, [online] June 12, 2014 [cited November 7, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/burkinafaso_73787.html.

22.       Hinshaw, D. "Photos: Inside the Dangerous Lives of Underage Gold Miners." The Wall Street Journal, March 10, 2015. http://www.wsj.com/article_email/photos-inside-the-dangerous-lives-of-underage-gold-miners-1426000749-lMyQjAxMTE1NTEyNDcxNzQyWj.

23.       N’Diaye, F.C. Genre et Travail des Enfants dans les Mines et Carrières au Burkina Faso, au Mali et au Togo. Dakar, ILO; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-addis_ababa/---sro-dakar/documents/publication/wcms_228135.pdf.

24.       Agence France-Presse. "Les Enfants Mineurs, Victimes de la Ruée vers l'or au Burkina Faso." slateafrique.com [online] March 25, 2013 [cited May 6, 2015]; http://www.slateafrique.com/452245/les-enfants-mineurs-victimes-de-la-ruee-vers-lor-au-burkina-faso.

25.       Yacouba Yaro, Idrissa Kaboré, and Hamadou Kobanka. Etude sur le Travail des Enfants sur les Sites d’Orpaillage et les Carrières Artisanales dans cinq Régions du Burkina Faso. Ouagadougou, Ministère de l’Action Sociale et de la Solidarité Nationale; January 2011. [Source on file].

26.       Government of Burkina Faso. Politique Nationale des Droits Humains et de la Promotion Civique. Ouagadougou; March 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_229298.pdf.

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28.       Berne Declaration. A Golden Racket: The True Source of Switzerland’s “Togolese” Gold. Lausanne; September 2015. [Source on file].

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67.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than words: An agenda for action to end state us of child soldiers. London; 2012. https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=da92581e-7130-40e6-bf3a-a86b944f17dd.

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108.     Dah, S.N. "Lutte Contre la Traite et les Pires Formes du Travail des Enfants: l’Heure de la Répression dans la Bougouriba." Sidwaya, Ouagadougou, February 5, 2014. http://news.aouaga.com/h/21029.html.

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