Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Bolivia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Bolivia

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Continued Law that Delayed Advancement

In 2016, Bolivia made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Despite new initiatives to address child labor, Bolivia is receiving this assessment because it continued to implement a law that delayed advancement in eliminating the worst forms of child labor. Bolivia's Child and Adolescent Code, passed in 2014, allows children as young as age 10 to be self-employed under certain conditions. Otherwise, the Government made efforts by incorporating into law the Agreement between the Plurinational State of Bolivia and the Republic of Argentina to Prevent and Investigate Trafficking in Persons and Protect and Assist Victims. The Government also signed agreements with Brazil and Peru to combat human trafficking. However, children in Bolivia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and the harvesting of sugarcane. The Offices of the Child Advocate, required by the Child and Adolescent Code to authorize child work and assist victims of child labor, are also absent or underfunded in many municipalities, leaving some children unprotected and vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. In addition, the Government lacks a comprehensive child labor policy.

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Children in Bolivia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and the harvesting of sugarcane.(1, 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Bolivia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

7 to 14

20.2 (355,206)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

79.0

Industry

 

7.4

Services

 

13.6

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

93.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

18.7

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

90.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Encuesta Continua de Hogares Survey, 2013.(4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting and harvesting corn, cotton, and peanuts (5-7)

Production and harvesting of Brazil nuts/chestnuts† and sugarcane† (2, 5, 6, 8, 9)

Ranching and raising cattle† and plucking chickens (2, 6, 10)

Industry

Mining† of gold, silver, tin, and zinc (1, 9-11)

Construction,† including heavy lifting and shoveling (2, 8, 10, 12)

Production of bricks† (10, 13-15)

Services

Street vending, shoe shining, and assisting transportation operators (8, 10, 11, 16, 17)

Domestic work† (10, 11, 18)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in ranching and in the production and harvesting of Brazil nuts and sugarcane (9, 19-21)

Forced begging and forced labor in mining and domestic service (2, 11, 22-24)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 22, 24)

Forced to commit illicit activities, including robbery and producing or transporting drugs (2, 22, 24)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children produce and harvest sugarcane and Brazil nuts in the departments of Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz, and Tarija, although recent efforts to combat this practice and other factors have reportedly reduced the prevalence of child labor in these sectors.(1, 6, 8, 9) Indigenous children are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(20, 22, 25) Some indigenous Guaraní families live in debt bondage and work on ranches, including in raising cattle, in the Chaco region of Bolivia.(5, 6, 8) Based on reports, this practice may have been reduced in recent years due, in part, to increased attention to the region and land tenure reform.(8) Bolivian children are trafficked to Argentina, where they are vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor in agriculture and the production of textiles.(26-29)

Bolivian law requires children to attend school up to age 17. However, attendance rates for secondary education are low, particularly in rural areas and often because children work.(23, 25, 30)

Bolivia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Bolivia's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

14

Articles 8 and 58 of the General Labor Law; Article 129 of the Child and Adolescent Code (31, 32)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 58 and 59 of the General Labor Law; Articles 5 and 136 of the Child and Adolescent Code (31, 32)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 136 of the Child and Adolescent Code (32)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 15, 46, and 61 of the Constitution; Article 291 of the Penal Code; Article 34 of the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (33-35)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Constitution; Article 34 of the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (33, 35)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 34–35 of the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 56 of the Law on Coca and Controlled Substances (36)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

No

17

Articles 108 and 249 of the Constitution; Article 1 of Supreme Decree No. 1875; Article 1 of Supreme Decree No. 21479 (33, 37, 38)

State Voluntary

Yes

16*

Articles 1–2 of the General Directive of Pre-Military Recruitment; Articles 2 and 7 of the Law of National Military Service (39, 40)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17‡

Article 81 of the Constitution; Articles 1, 8–9, and 11–14 of the Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez Education Law (33, 41)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 17 and 81 of the Constitution; Article 1 of the Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez Education Law; Article 115 of the Child and Adolescent Code (32, 33, 41)

* The minimum age for combat is 18 per Article 36 of the Law of National Military Service (39)
‡ Age calculated based on available information

In 2016, the Government passed Law 791, which incorporated into Bolivian law the Framework Agreement between the Plurinational State of Bolivia and the Republic of Argentina to Prevent and Investigate Trafficking in Persons and Protect and Assist Victims.(42)

The 2014 Child and Adolescent Code specifies the conditions under which children may work, in addition to providing a number of other protections.(32) However, its provisions establishing exceptions to the minimum age for work do not conform to international standards.(43, 44) Article 129(1) of the Child and Adolescent Code establishes the minimum age for work at 14 years, which is consistent with Article 58 of the General Labor Law.(31, 32) However, Article 129(2) of the Child and Adolescent Code allows children as young as 10 years old to work in self-employment upon authorization by the municipal Offices of the Child Advocate, provided that this work does not adversely affect the child's health or education, and only upon consent of a parent or guardian and after successful medical and psychological evaluations.(32) Allowing children as young as 10 years old to work may affect their schooling, which in Bolivia is compulsory to age 17.(41, 43, 44) The ILO Committee of Experts has called upon the Government to amend Article 129 of the Child and Adolescent Code to set the minimum age for work, including in self-employment, at 14 years.(43, 44) Article 129(2) of the Child and Adolescent Code also permits children as young as 12 to work for third parties following the same authorization process.(32) Although ILO C. 138 allows children as young as 12 to engage in light work under certain circumstances, Bolivian law does not specify a list of activities that are permissible for light work, or the number of hours children are permitted to work in these activities.(32)

Apprenticeships in Bolivia are regulated by Articles 28–30 and Article 58 of the General Labor Law, which requires that apprentices attend school. However, the General Labor Law does not set a minimum age for participation in apprenticeships.(31, 45) Articles 108 and 249 of the Constitution require Bolivian males to perform compulsory military service in accordance with national law.(33) Article 1 of Supreme Decree No. 1875, passed in 2014, lowered the minimum age at which compulsory military service may begin from 18 years, as previously established, to 17 years.(37, 38) Under Article 2 of the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict, to which Bolivia acceded in 2004, state parties must ensure that children under age 18 may not be compulsorily recruited into their armed forces.(46-48)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)

Enforce child labor laws, in part through its Fundamental Rights Unit, which also addresses forced labor of indigenous peoples.(49) Refer cases to the Labor Courts for adjudication of penalties and unpaid wages.(2) Engage municipal Offices of the Child Advocate to ensure the protection of children's rights.(10, 50) Assist in the implementation of the Child and Adolescent Code, including in the authorization of children's work for third parties from the age of 14.(10, 32)

Municipal Offices of the Child Advocate

Authorize children from the age of 10 to work in exceptional cases and register them in the Government's Child and Adolescent Information System (SINNA), pursuant to the Child and Adolescent Code. Protect the rights and welfare of children, including by accompanying child labor inspectors, and refer criminal child labor cases to prosecutors and for social services.(10, 32)

Attorney General's Office

Oversee all human trafficking investigations and prosecutions.(27) Oversee through its National Coordinator's Office regional prosecutors who, in conjunction with the Bolivian National Police, pursue cases of human trafficking. Maintain a database of human trafficking cases.(27)

Ministry of Justice and Transparency

Create and administer SINNA, in which municipal Offices of the Child Advocate register young workers who are authorized to engage in self-employment or work for third parties, as required by the Child and Adolescent Code.(32)

Bolivian National Police

Maintain the Special Force in the Fight Against Crime (FELCC), which runs 15 investigative human trafficking units, and the Police Unit for Migratory Control and Assistance, which patrols national borders.(10, 51, 52) Refer trafficking victims to departmental social services or Offices of the Child Advocate.(53)

 

The Child and Adolescent Code requires the municipal Offices of the Child Advocate to authorize children ages 10 to 18 to engage in self-employment, and children ages 12 to 14 to work for third parties, both under certain conditions to ensure children's protection.(32) However, reports indicate that up to 20 percent of municipalities in Bolivia lack an Office of the Child Advocate; many more are reported to lack sufficient resources and the capacity to perform their mandate. This lack of institutional coverage may leave certain children particularly vulnerable to child labor, including its worst forms.(2, 10, 54)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Bolivia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

97 (23)

85 (55)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

10 (23)

12 (2)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (2)

No (2)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (2)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (23)

Yes (2)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown* (23)

Unknown* (2)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown* (23)

Unknown* (2)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown* (23)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (23)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (23)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown* (23)

Unknown* (2)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (23)

Yes (2)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (23)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (23)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (23)

Yes (2)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (23)

Yes (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (23)

Yes (2)

* The Government does not publish this information.

Although the amount of funding allocated to the labor inspectorate was not publicly available, reports indicate that it was insufficient to inspect for child labor nationwide.(55) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Bolivia's workforce, which includes over 4.9 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Bolivia should employ roughly 333 labor inspectors.(56-58)

In 2016, the number of general labor inspections, as well as information on the sectors and geographical regions in which they were conducted, was not publicly available. The Ministry of Labor (MOL) reported that it conducted 250 targeted child labor inspections.(2) Reports indicate that this number was inadequate to address the scope of the problem, particularly in rural and hard to reach areas.(55)

The MOL and the national Office of the Child Advocate continue to develop a registry of children authorized to work by the municipal Offices of the Child Advocate. Research could not find data on the number of children authorized to work in 2016.(50) The Government reports that children who are removed from child labor are referred to the municipal Offices of the Child Advocate for services. However, information on the number of children removed and whether they received services, particularly in cases where an Office of the Public Advocate did not exist, was not publicly available.(2)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Bolivia took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (23)

Yes (2, 59)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (23)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (23)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (23)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (23)

Unknown* (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

No (23)

Yes (2)

* The Government does not publish this information.

In 2016, some criminal law enforcement officials received some training on trafficking in persons issues. However, research could not determine the extent to which trainings included other worst forms of child labor. Children rescued from the worst forms of child labor are often not referred for social services because there are few government-run shelters. Many criminal law enforcement agencies reported that funding levels were inadequate to carry out their mandates and that they sometimes lacked fuel to conduct investigations.(59)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor

Coordinate national efforts to address child labor issues. Led by the MOL and includes the Ministries of Justice, Education, and Planning, as well as several NGOs.(10)

Plurinational Council against Human Trafficking and Smuggling

Coordinate anti-trafficking efforts and implement national laws and policies on human trafficking and smuggling.(35, 51, 60) Chaired by the Minister of Justice and comprises eight ministries, the Public Advocate, and NGOs.(51)

Department-Level Councils against Human Trafficking and Smuggling

Coordinate efforts of the Plurinational Council in Bolivia's nine departments. Comprises officials from the FELCC, the MOL, the Ministries of Migration and Education, the Human Rights Ombudsman, and NGO representatives.(10, 35, 60)

 

The National Commission for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor has been increasingly inactive, and many government agencies and NGOs agree that its central coordinating role has lapsed.(2) Reports also indicate that some of the MOL’s departmental sub-commissions on child labor have not been active, due in part to a lack of resources.(10, 23)

The Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling mandates that the Plurinational Council against Human Trafficking and Smuggling include NGOs. However, reports indicate that NGOs have not participated fully in the Plurinational Council despite NGOs' efforts for inclusion.(51) Reports also indicate that some Department-Level Councils against Human Trafficking and Smuggling have yet to develop department-level plans to combat human trafficking, as mandated by law.(2, 35, 59, 60)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Plurinational Policy to Combat Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons (2013–2017)

Sets national priorities on combating human trafficking and smuggling through five core areas: the prevention of trafficking, remediation and the reintegration of survivors, the prosecution of crimes, the strengthening of national coordination mechanisms, and international cooperation.(60-62)

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons (2015–2019)

Establishes eight lines of action drawn from the five core areas of the Plurinational Policy to Combat Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons, including building capacity and coordination among criminal law enforcement agencies.(63) In 2016, the Plurinational Council refined the plan, whose updated version awaits approval.(59)

‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(64)

Bolivia's national policy for addressing child labor, the National Plan for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor (2000–2010), expired in 2010.(65) A new plan was not established during the reporting period.(66) The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the national Patriotic Agenda 2025.(23, 67, 68)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Juancito Pinto Subsidy Program†

Government program that provides a conditional cash transfer to all primary school students to increase school attendance and reduce the dropout rate.(53) In 2016, assisted 2,191,526 students with a budget of $68 million.(55)

Human Rights of Children Working in Sugarcane, Brazil Nuts, and Mining†

Human Rights Ombudsman's Office program that promotes the elimination of the worst forms of child labor, along with labor and social protections for working adolescents ages 14 to 17. Launched in 2013 in the Tarija, Potosí, and Beni Departments.(69) Expanded in 2014 to monitor the use of child labor in sugarcane harvesting in Santa Cruz.(70) In 2016, continued to monitor child labor in these high-risk sectors.(55)

Bolivian Foreign Trade Institute's Triple Seal Initiative

MOL collaboration with the Bolivian Institute of Standardization and Quality, UNICEF, and the ILO to develop a voluntary certification program to recognize companies that comply with Bolivian law and ILO conventions on child labor, forced labor, and worker discrimination in the production of their goods.(10, 53, 71) In 2016, engaged with companies in the sugarcane and Brazil nut sectors and launched campaigns to raise public awareness about goods made with child labor.(55)

Child Trafficking Awareness-Raising Campaigns

Government program implemented with the Bolivian Network for the Fight Against Human Trafficking and Smuggling that conducts awareness campaigns to educate the public about the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling. Has reached more than 3,000 government officials and NGO representatives.(26, 50)

Program to Protect the Rights of Children and Adolescents

Government collaboration with UNICEF in 17 Bolivian Brazil nut- and sugarcane-producing municipalities to provide education assistance, with funding from the Government of Italy and the Swiss Cooperation Agency. Seeks to improve living conditions of 2,300 families and reintegrate 3,400 children in school.(72)

† Program is funded by the Government of Bolivia.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(23, 72-76)

Although Bolivia has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to address the extent of the problem, particularly in the production of Brazil nuts and sugarcane, ranching and cattle raising, mining, domestic work, street work, and commercial sexual exploitation. Although the Juancito Pinto subsidy program continues to expand, reports indicate that the $29 subsidy is insufficient to meaningfully cover costs associated with attending school, such as transportation and school supplies. For example, reports indicate that costs associated with attending school in La Paz's sister city, El Alto, may reach $410 per year.(23)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Bolivia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that minimum age protections are extended to all children under 14 years, including in self-employment.

2014 – 2016

Establish a list of occupations constituting light work, as well as the number of hours permitted in light work, for children ages 12 to 14.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that the law prohibits children under age 14 from participating in apprenticeships.

2010 – 2016

Ensure that the law establishes 18 as the minimum age for compulsory recruitment by the state military, and criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 into non-state armed groups.

2015 – 2016

Enforcement

Establish and maintain an Office of the Child Advocate in every municipality with sufficient resources to ensure that legal protections are extended to all children who are permitted to work and to coordinate the provision of services to children who are removed from child labor, including its worst forms.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that Offices of the Child Advocate publicly report on the number of children authorized to work and the number of children rescued from child labor and referred for social services.

2015 – 2016

Provide sufficient funding to increase the capacity of the MOL to ensure the effective enforcement of child labor laws.

2013 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws on child labor to meet the ILO recommendation, and ensure that the number of labor inspections is sufficient.

2013 – 2016

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that labor inspectors conduct inspections in all sectors and geographical areas.

2011 – 2016

Publish information on child labor law enforcement, including the overall number of labor inspections, the number of children found in child labor as a result of inspections, the number of violations found, and the number of penalties imposed and collected.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that all criminal investigators, including new employees, receive training on the worst forms of child labor, and make information about trainings publicly available.

2015 – 2016

Publish information on the number of criminal child labor investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and penalties.

2011 – 2016

Provide sufficient funding to criminal law enforcement agencies to ensure effective enforcement of laws related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Coordination

Ensure that the National Commission for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor fulfills its central coordinating role and develops concrete mechanisms to improve coordination among participating agencies and organizations.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that all the MOL departmental sub-commissions designed to combat child labor convene and receive sufficient resources to carry out their functions.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that NGOs participate in the Plurinational Council against Human Trafficking and Smuggling, as required by the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that all Department-Level Councils against Human Trafficking are fully operational as required by the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling.

2014 – 2016

Government Policies

Establish and implement a new National Plan for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor.

2010 – 2016

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Government's national development plan.

2013 – 2016

Social Programs

Expand national programs to increase secondary school attendance.

2010 – 2016

Ensure that there are adequate social services to assist victims of the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Increase the Juancito Pinto subsidy to ensure that school children are able to cover the costs associated with attending school.

2014 – 2016

Expand social programs to address the worst forms of child labor where hazardous child labor exists, particularly in the production of Brazil nuts and sugarcane, ranching and cattle raising, mining, domestic work and street work, and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2016

1.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bolivia (ratification: 2003) Published: 2015; accessed January 18, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186215:NO.

2.         U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, January 13, 2017.

3.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

4.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Continua de Hogares, 2013. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children an dother indicators used in this report,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5.         U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt.

6.         Verite. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chains of Brazil-Nuts, Cattle, Corn, and Peanuts in Bolivia; 2013. http://www.verite.org/sites/default/files/images/Research%20on%20Indicators%20of%20Forced%20Labor%20in%20the%20Bolivia%20Brazil-nut%2C%20Cattle%2C%20Corn%2C%20and%20Peanut%20Sectors__9.19.pdf.

7.         La Razón. "El trabajo infantil se redujo 78,6% en la zafra cañera de Santa Cruz." [online] May 19, 2013 [cited April 5, 2016]; http://www.la-razon.com/index.php?_url=/suplementos/financiero/trabajo-infantil-redujo-Santa-Cruz_0_1834616652.html.

8.         Desarrollo y Autogestion. Interview with USDOL official. February 3, 2012.

9.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bolivia (ratification: 2003) Submitted: 2012; accessed January 18, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:2700546:NO.

10.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, February 12, 2015.

11.       U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt.

12.       CIES International. Estudio sobre la situación laboral de adolescentes trabajadores; January 2012.

13.       Filomeno, M. "Trabajo Niños ladrilleros trabajan en la noche y la madrugada en La Paz." Pagina Siete, La Paz, October 11, 2012; Sociedad.

14.       Meier, M. "In Bolivia, Legitimizing Child Labor [video]." New York Times, December 19, 2015; International - Americas. http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/americas/100000003982850/in-bolivia-legitimizing-child-labor.html?partner=rss&emc=rss.

15.       Jorge Hernán Quispe Condori. "Niños de Ladrillo: Explotación laboral en Alpacoma." La Razón, April 7, 2014. http://www.la-razon.com/index.php?_url=/suplementos/informe/Ninos-Ladrillo-Explotacion-laboral-Alpacoma-informe_0_2027797323.html.

16.       Ertl, M. "Union Kids." Latterly Magazine [online] February 17, 2015 [cited November 8, 2015]; http://latterlymagazine.com/union-kids/.

17.       Gilbert, A. "Bolivia debate un proyecto contra el trabajo infantil." Diario de León, June 25, 2014. http://www.diariodeleon.es/noticias/internacional/bolivia-debate-proyecto-trabajo-infantil_900045.html.

18.       Instituto de Investigación e Interacción Educativa - Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. Estudio sobre trabajo doméstico de niñas, niños, y adolescentes en hogares de terceros en Bolivia; 2014. http://www.unicef.org/bolivia/Trabajo_NNA_en_hogares_de_terceros_en_Bolivia.pdf.

19.       Government of Bolivia, Ministerio de Empleo Trabajo y Previsión Social. Sin Tiempo para soñar: Situación de los niños, niñas, adolescentes y sus familias en la zafra y el beneficiado de la castaña. La Paz; 2009.

20.       U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226845.pdf.

21.       "Niñez Indígena en América Latina: Situación y Perspectivas (Compilación de documentos de trabajo)," in Trabajo Infantil-Encuentro Latinoamericano Pueblos Indígenas y Gobiernos-De la Declaración a la Acción 2010; Cartagena; http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/publi_encuentro_final.pdf.

22.       U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243558.pdf.

23.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, January 15, 2016.

24.       U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

25.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bolivia (ratification: 2003) Published 2015; accessed March 4, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186211:NO.

26.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, February 14, 2014.

27.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, March 6, 2014.

28.       La Voz, FOPEA - Foro de Periodismo Argentino. Los invisibles de La Quiaca: trata y tráfco de personas en la frontera. online; 2016. http://www.lavoz.com.ar/ciudadanos/los-invisibles-de-la-quiaca-trata-y-trafico-de-personas-en-la-frontera

http://www.investigacionesfopea.com/trata-personas-jujuy/#1.

29.       María Inés Pacecca. La explotación sexual y laboral de la niñez y adolescencia en Argentina. UNICEF - IOM; 2013. http://www.migrantropologia.com.ar/images/stories/PDF/unicef_33historias_explotacion_sexual_y_laboral_de_la_ninez_y_adolescencia_en_argentina.pdf.

30.       La Razón. "Acceso a la educación." la-razon.com [online] December 18, 2014 [cited March 9, 2015]; http://www.la-razon.com/opinion/editorial/Acceso-educacion_0_2181981919.html.

31.       Government of Bolivia. Ley General del Trabajo, enacted December 8, 1942. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/46218/65057/S92BOL01.htm#t4c6.

32.       Government of Bolivia. Código Niño, Niña y Adolescente, Ley 548, enacted July 17, 2014. http://www.gacetaoficialdebolivia.gob.bo/.

33.       Government of Bolivia. Nueva Constitución Política del Estado, enacted February 9, 2009. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Bolivia/constitucion2009.pdf.

34.       Government of Bolivia. Código Penal y Código de Procedimiento Penal, enacted 2010. https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/bol/codigo-penal_html/Bolivia_Codigo_Penal.pdf.

35.       Government of Bolivia. Ley Integral Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas, Ley 263, enacted July 31, 2012. http://bolivia.infoleyes.com/shownorm.php?id=3946.

36.       Government of Bolivia. Ley del Régimen de la Coca y Sustancias Controladas, 1008, enacted July 19, 1988. http://www.iadb.org/Research/legislacionindigena/leyn/docs/Bol-Ley1008-88-Coca.doc.

37.       Government of Bolivia. Decreto Supremo Nº 1875, enacted January 23, 2014. http://www.cepb.org.bo/calypso/juridica/adjuntos/ds_1875.pdf.

38.       Government of Bolivia. Decreto Supremo Nº 21479, enacted December 17, 1986. http://www.derechoteca.com/gacetabolivia/decreto-supremo-21479-del-17-diciembre-1986/.

39.       Government of Bolivia. Ley del Servicio Nacional de Defensa, enacted August 1, 1966. http://www.resdal.org/Archivo/bolivia-ley-servicio-nacional-defensa.htm.

40.       Government of Bolivia. Directiva General de Reclutamiento para el Servicio Premilitar No. 12/13 Categoria 2013-2014, enacted http://www.mindef.gob.bo/mindef/sites/default/files/Servicio_Premilitar.htm.

41.       Government of Bolivia. Ley de Educación Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez, No. 070, enacted November 8, 2010. http://www.oei.es/quipu/bolivia/Leydla%20.pdf.

42.       Government of Bolivia. Ley núm. 791, que ratifica el "Acuerdo Marco entre el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia y la República Argentina para la Prevención e Investigación del Delito de la Trata de Personas y la Asistencia y Protección de sus Víctimas", suscrito el 15 de julio de 2015, enacted March 28, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=102547&p_country=BOL.

43.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Bolivia (ratification: 1997); Published 2015; accessed March 5, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186138.

44.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Bolivia (ratification: 1997) Published: 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3248856,102567,Bolivia,%20Plurinational%20State%20of,2015.

45.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Bolivia (ratification: 1997) Published 2015; accessed March 4, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186134:NO.

46.       UN Human Rights Council. Annual report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights - Addendum - Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the activities of his office in the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Geneva; March 16, 2015. Report No. A/HRC/28/3/Add.2. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session28/Pages/ListReports.aspx.

47.       United Nations Treaty Collection. "Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict." [online] [cited January 19, 2016]; https://treaties.un.org/pages/viewdetails.aspx?src=ind&mtdsg_no=iv-11-b&chapter=4&lang=en.

48.       UN CRC. "Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict - 2000, Entry into force: 2002." [online] [cited January 19, 2016]; http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/crc-conflict.pdf.

49.       Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Previsión Social - Unidad de Derechos Fundamentales. "Contribución a la Erradicación Progresiva del Trabajo Infantil." mintrabojo.gob.bo [online] n.d. [cited January 18, 2015]; http://www.mintrabajo.gob.bo/Descargas/UDF/CONTRIBUCION_A_LA_ERRADICACION_PROGRESIVA_DEL_TRABAJO_INFANTIL.pdf.

50.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 21, 2016.

51.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, March 6, 2015.

52.       Government of Bolivia. "Unidad Policial de Apoyo al Control Migratorio UPACOM." migracion.gob.bo [online] [cited March 7, 2015]; http://www.migracion.gob.bo/web/upacom.html.

53.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, January 31, 2013.

54.       Lind, P, L Paz. "How Bolivia’s Children Are Being Exploited by a Failing Labor Law." time.com [online] May 12, 2016 [cited October 28, 2016 ]; http://time.com/4322522/bolivia-child-labor-law-la-paz-unatsbo/.

55.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 3, 2017.

56.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

57.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

58.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

59.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, February 14, 2017.

60.       Government of Bolivia - Consejo Plurinacional Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas. "Política Plurinacional de Lucha Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas 2013 - 2017." [online] 2014 [cited March 6, 2015]; http://saludpublica.bvsp.org.bo/cc/bo40.1/documentos/588.pdf.

61.       Ministerio de Justicia. "Presentan Política Plurinacional de Lucha Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas ante el cuerpo diplomático." justicia.gob.bo [online] June 4, 2014 [cited March 6, 2015]; http://www.justicia.gob.bo/index.php/noticias/notas-de-prensa/1328-presentan-politica-plurinacional-de-lucha-contra-la-trata-y-trafico-de-personas-ante-el-cuerpo-diplomatico.

62.       Government of Bolivia. Resolución de Consejo / CPCTTP No. 001/2014, enacted January 6, 2014.

63.       Government of Bolivia - Consejo Plurinacional Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas. "Plan Nacional de Lucha Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas (2015-2019)." [online] 2015 [cited February 2, 2016]; http://vjdf.justicia.gob.bo/images/cargados/files/plan-trata.pdf.

64.       Government of Bolivia. Programa de Gobierno - Juntos Vamos Bien Para Vivir Bien (2015-2020). http://www.boliviarural.org/images/documentos/programa_gobierno_2015-2020.pdf.

65.       Inter-Institutional Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor. Plan de erradicación progresiva del trabajo infantil: 2000-2010. La Paz, Ministry of Labor; November 2001. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/planbo.pdf.

66.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Bolivia (ratification: 1997) Published: 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3248860,102567,Bolivia,%20Plurinational%20State%20of,2015.

67.       Government of Bolivia. "13 Pilares de la Bolivia Digna y Soberana - Agenda Patriotica del Bicentenario 2025." [online] 2013 [cited March 9, 2015]; http://comunicacion.presidencia.gob.bo/docprensa/pdf/20130123-11-36-55.pdf.

68.       Government of Bolivia. Agenda Patriótica del Bicentenario 2025, Ley Nº 650, enacted January 19, 2015. http://www.lexivox.org/norms/BO-L-N650.xhtml.

69.       Government of Bolivia - Defensoría del Pueblo. Informe de avance del proyecto 'Derechos humanos de NNA en la actividad de zafra, beneficadora de castaña y minería'; 2013. http://www.defensoria.gob.bo/archivos/Verificaciones%20defensoriales%202013%20zafra%20casta%C3%B1a%20y%20miner%C3%ADa%20NyA.pdf.

70.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 9, 2014.

71.       IBCE. Triple Sello - Asesoramiento, IBCE, [online] [cited April 17, 2014]; http://www.rsebolivia.org/asesorias.asp.

72.       UNICEF. Plan de Acción de Programa País 2013 - 2017. La Paz; April 2013. http://www.unicef.org/bolivia/PlanAccionProg_2013_2017.pdf.

73.       UNICEF. "Bolivia Country Programme Document, 2013-2017." unicef.org [online] 2015 [cited March 9,]; http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Bolivia-2013-2017-final_approved-English-14Sept2012.pdf.

74.       Desarrollo y Autogestión. Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Bolivia (Phase II). Technical Progress Report. Santa Cruz; October 2013.

75.       Interamerican Development Bank. "Bolivia - Programa de Apoyo al Empleo II - Perfil de Proyecto." [online] 2016 [cited January 27, 2017]; http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=40369655.

76.       Campaña Boliviana por el Derecho a la Educación. "OIT confiere reconocimiento a CEMSE por el aporte a la formación técnica." [online] September 29, 2015 [cited January 21, 2016]; https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=873994582678255&id=109452819132439.

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