Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Bolivia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Bolivia

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Bolivia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Bolivia is receiving an assessment of moderate advancement because the country’s Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal declared unconstitutional provisions in the 2014 Child and Adolescent Code that previously allowed children as young as 10 years old to work. In contrast to previous years, the law no longer contains exceptions to the minimum age that allow children as young as 10 to work. In addition, the government created the Special Advocacy Delegation on Childhood and Adolescence Matters to promote the protection of children. The government also trained personnel in the Offices of the Child Advocate, social workers, and attorneys in the collection of child labor data and protection of children’s rights. However, children in Bolivia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. In addition, gaps remain in the Child and Adolescent Code as it continues to permit children ages 12-13 years old to work but does not meet the requirements of a light work exception by determining the activities in which light work may be permitted and specifying the conditions in which light work may be undertaken. Further, the ILO has urged the government to update the Code to comply with ILO Convention 138.

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Children in Bolivia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1; 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Bolivia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

7 to 14

13.9 (242,522)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

74.5

Industry

 

7.0

Services

 

18.4

Attending School (%)

7 to 14

96.2

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

13.0

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

91.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016. (3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Encuesta Continua de Hogares Survey, 2015. (4)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting and harvesting corn, cotton, and peanuts (5; 6)

Production and harvesting of Brazil nuts/chestnuts† and sugarcane† (2; 5; 7; 8; 9)

Ranching and raising cattle† and plucking chickens (2; 10; 8; 11)

Industry

Mining† of gold, silver, tin, and zinc (1; 7; 10; 8; 12; 9)

Construction,† including heavy lifting and shoveling (2; 13; 10; 14; 8)

Production of bricks† (10; 15; 16; 8)

Services

Street vending, juggling, shoe shining, and assisting transportation operators (13; 10; 17; 18; 8; 19; 20)

Cleaning cemeteries (graves) and hospitals† (19; 20; 21)

Domestic work (10; 22; 8; 23)

Restaurant work, activities unknown (12)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in ranching, and in the production and harvesting of Brazil nuts and sugarcane (7; 24; 25; 8; 23)

Forced begging, and forced labor in mining and domestic service (2; 26; 8; 23)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2; 8; 23)

Forced illicit activities, including robbery and producing or transporting drugs (2; 8; 23)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children produce and harvest sugarcane and Brazil nuts in the departments of Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz, and Tarija. (1; 5; 7; 13) Indigenous children are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. (27; 28; 29) Some indigenous Guaraní families live in debt bondage and work on ranches, including in raising cattle, in the Chaco region of Bolivia. (30; 5; 13) In Tarija, the sugar cane and Brazil nut harvest seasons attract over 3,000 internal migrants, increasing the vulnerability of these workers—many of them children—to forced labor and human trafficking. In 2017, 25 members of the Guarani community, including eight children, were rescued from forced labor in Tarija. (8)

The cultural practice known as padrinazgo, which involves rural families sending their children to urban areas to live with individuals to better access education, social services, and food, often leads to forced labor, including in domestic service and third party businesses. Girls, age 14 on average, were found to be engaged in commercial sexual exploitation in El Alto. (8) Bolivian children are also smuggled to other countries, where they are vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation. The government does not have a system in place to track data on forced child labor, commercial sexual exploitation of children, or engagement of children in illicit activities. (8)

Bolivian law requires children to attend school up to age 17. However, attendance rates for secondary education are low in rural areas. (26; 29; 31)

Bolivia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Bolivia's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including  the prohibition of military recruitment.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Articles 8 and 58 of the General Labor Law; Article 129 of the Child and Adolescent Code; Sentence 0025/2017 of the Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal (32; 33; 34)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 58 and 59 of the General Labor Law; Articles 5 and 136 of the Child and Adolescent Code (32; 33)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 136 of the Child and Adolescent Code (33)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 15, 46, and 61 of the Constitution; Article 291 of the Penal Code; Article 34 of the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (35; 36; 37)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Constitution; Article 34 of the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (35; 37)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 34–35 of the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (37)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 56 of the Law on Coca and Controlled Substances (38)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

No

17

Articles 108 and 249 of the Constitution; Article 1 of Supreme Decree No. 1875; Article 1 of Supreme Decree No. 21479 (35; 39; 40)

State Voluntary

Yes

16*

Articles 1–2 of the General Directive of Pre-Military Recruitment; Articles 2 and 7 of the Law of National Military Service (41; 42)

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17‡

Article 81 of the Constitution; Articles 1, 8–9, and 11–14 of the Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez Education Law (35; 43)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 17 and 81 of the Constitution; Article 1 of the Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez Education Law; Article 115 of the Child and Adolescent Code (33; 35; 43)

* The minimum age for combat is 18 per Article 36 of the Law of National Military Service (41)
‡ Age calculated based on available information

 

The 2014 Child and Adolescent Code specifies the conditions under which children may work, in addition to providing a number of other protections. (33) In a 2017 decision, the Bolivian Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal declared unconstitutional provisions of the Code that previously allowed children as young as 10 to be self- employed and 12-year-olds to be employed by third parties under certain conditions. (34) Article 129(1) of the Code establishes the minimum age for work at 14 years, which is consistent with Article 58 of the General Labor Law and with international standards. (32; 33)

The Code continues to permit children ages 12 and 13 to work with authorization from the Offices of the Child Advocate and on the conditions that the work is not precarious to the child’s well-being and is not conducted for more than 6 hours a day and 30 hours a week. However, these requirements are not sufficient to comply with the light work exception because they do not determine the activities in which light work may be permitted or specify the conditions in which light work may be undertaken. (33) Additionally, the ILO has urged the government to update the Code to bring it into compliance with ILO Convention 138. Moreover, even though Bolivian law requires that apprentices attend school, it does not set a minimum age for participation in apprenticeships. (32; 44)

Articles 108 and 249 of the Constitution require Bolivian males to perform compulsory military service in accordance with national law. (35) Article 1 of Supreme Decree No. 1875, passed in 2014, lowered the minimum age at which compulsory military service may begin from 18 years, as previously established, to 17 years, which does not comply with international standards. (39; 40)

The government has established relevant institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor that may hinder adequate child labor enforcement.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)

Enforce child labor laws, in part through its Fundamental Rights Unit, which also addresses forced labor of indigenous peoples. (45; 46) Refer cases to the Labor Courts for adjudication of penalties and unpaid wages. (2) Engage municipal Offices of the Child Advocate to ensure the protection of children's rights. (10; 47) Assist in the implementation of the Child and Adolescent Code. (10; 33)

Municipal Offices of the Child Advocate

Authorize children from the age of 14, and some between 12 and 14 years old, to engage in work and register them in the government's Child and Adolescent Information System (SINNA), pursuant to the Child and Adolescent Code. Protect the rights and welfare of children, including by accompanying child labor inspectors, and refer criminal child labor cases to prosecutors and for social services. (10; 33)

Attorney General's Office

Oversee all human trafficking investigations and prosecutions. (48) Oversee through its National Coordinator's Office regional prosecutors who, in conjunction with the Bolivian National Police, pursue cases of human trafficking. Maintain a database of human trafficking cases. (48)

Ministry of Justice and Transparency

Create and administer SINNA, in which municipal Offices of the Child Advocate register 12 and 13-year old workers authorized to engage in self-employment or work for third parties, as required by the Child and Adolescent Code. (33)

Bolivian National Police

Maintain the Special Force in the Fight Against Crime (FELCC), which runs 15 investigative human trafficking units, and the Police Unit for Migratory Control and Assistance, which patrols national borders. (10; 49; 50) Refer trafficking victims to departmental social services or Offices of the Child Advocate. (51)

 

The Child and Adolescent Code requires that children ages 12 and 13 receive authorization from their parent or guardian and the municipal Offices of the Child Advocate to engage in work under certain conditions to ensure children’s protection. (33) However, the Code transferred this registration responsibility to municipal governments without additional resources. Additionally, reports indicate that up to 15 percent of municipalities in Bolivia lack an Office of the Child Advocate; many more are reported to lack sufficient resources and the capacity to perform their mandate and raise awareness of children’s rights and their parents’ obligations under the Code. (8) In 2017, the government reduced budgets for these offices by 30 percent with respect to the previous year, further restricting their capacity to adequately carry out their duties. (52) This lack of institutional coverage may leave certain children particularly vulnerable to child labor. (2; 10; 53) In La Paz and Santa Cruz, Child Advocate Offices reported additional barriers to implementation of the registration section of the Code. These barriers include lack of cooperation from parents to register their working children and prohibitive financial obstacles to obtain proper paperwork required for registration. (8)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Bolivia took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including the lack of proper financial resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

85 (54)

87 (8; 55)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (2)

No (8)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (2)

Yes (8)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Yes (8)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (2)

Unknown (8)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown* (2)

850 (8; 55)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (8)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (8)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (8)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (8)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (2)

Unknown* (8)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (2)

Yes (8)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (2)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (2)

Unknown (8)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (2)

Yes (8)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (8)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Bolivia's workforce, which includes over 5.7 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Bolivia should employ roughly 380 labor inspectors. (56) While the Ministry of Labor (MOL) continued to use mobile inspection units to help ensure that labor inspections occurred in all sectors of the country, the number of mobile inspections conducted in 2017 is unavailable and their adequateness is unknown. (8; 9) In 2017, the labor inspectorate conducted 850 inspections and 250 child labor inspections. However, the government does not disaggregate between inspections involving child labor and criminal investigations involving the worst forms of child labor. Labor inspectors lack necessary resources to enforce labor laws, especially in the Chaco region. (9) Additionally, the government does not publish information regarding labor inspectorate funding. (8)

The MOL and National Office of the Child Advocate still have not developed the SINNA, as mandated by the Child and Adolescent Code. The government reported that children removed from child labor are referred to the municipal Offices of the Child Advocate for services. Information on the number of children removed from child labor and whether they received services, particularly in cases where an Office of the Child Advocate did not exist, was not publicly available. (8) Rural offices of the Child Advocate in municipalities throughout the country lack proper funding, personnel, and materials. While municipalities are required to allot a certain percentage of their budget to the Child Advocate’s office, this percentage has decreased over the last few years. (8)

In 2017, the Ombudsman created the Special Advocacy Delegation on Childhood and Adolescence Matters to strengthen defense of human rights and promote the protection of children, including protection from child labor. (57) The MOL and UNICEF collaborated to provide training on children’s rights and compiling child labor data to offices of the Child Advocates, social workers, and attorneys in all nine departments. (8; 58) In coordination with UNICEF, the government also trained 80 public servants through a child labor prevention certificate program. (8) Additionally, in collaboration with UNODC and the Department of State, the government developed a series of workshops to train relevant government employees regarding investigation and prosecution of trafficking cases in Bolivia. (59)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Bolivia took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal law enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including resources to conduct criminal investigations.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (8)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Yes (8)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (2; 60)

Unknown (8)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (55)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (8)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (8)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (8)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (8)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

In 2017, children were involved in at least 10 cases of drug smuggling detected between Bolivia and Chile. The government did not make publicly available the number of prosecutions or convictions it achieved related to child labor. (8) For trafficking crimes, the government gathers prosecution and conviction numbers, but does not disaggregate by case type. (61) Children rescued from the worst forms of child labor are often not referred to social service providers because some cities lack shelters and other social service providers for children. (61; 8; 62) The government did not report the number of children referred to receive social services. While children can report workforce abuse to the Child Advocate’s Office, they rarely do. (8)

Many criminal law enforcement agencies reported that funding levels were inadequate to carry out their mandates, and that they sometimes lacked fuel to conduct investigations. (60) Additionally, low rates of dedicated training on human trafficking hampered law enforcement efforts. The high rate of rotation among police, prosecutors, and judges—a standard practice to help combat corruption—leads to a lack of sufficient knowledge and experience on human trafficking and a judicial backlog for these types of cases. (61)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including efficacy in accomplishing mandates.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Commission for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor (CNEPTI)

Coordinate national efforts to address child labor issues. Led by the Ministry of Labor (MOL), and includes the Ministries of Justice, Education, and Planning, as well as several NGOs. (10)

Plurinational System for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents (SIPPROINA)

Coordinate national efforts to manage and implement the Plurinational Plan for Children and Adolescents, the Coordinating Council for Children and Adolescents, and the Congress on Children’s rights. Evaluate and advise on national plans, public policies, reports, and budget allocation relating to children and adolescents’ right. Monitor and update, in coordination with INE, the Information System of Children and Adolescents (SINNA). (33) Led by the Ministry of Justice. (33) Research was unable to determine whether this coordinating body took actions in 2017.

Plurinational Council to Combat the Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons

Coordinate anti-trafficking efforts and implement national laws and policies on human trafficking and smuggling. (37; 49; 63) Chaired by the Minister of Justice and comprised of eight ministries, the Public Advocate, and NGOs. (49) Met several times in 2017. (8) Provided free legal assistance to victims of trafficking in persons and training assistance on trafficking in persons to the departments. (61)

Department-Level Councils against Human Trafficking and Smuggling

Coordinate efforts of the Plurinational Council in Bolivia's nine departments. Comprised of officials from the Special Force in the Fight Against Crime, the MOL, the Ministries of Migration and Education, the Human Rights Ombudsman, and NGO representatives. (10; 37; 63) Research was unable to determine whether this coordinating body took actions in 2017.

 

The National Commission for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor has been increasingly inactive, and many government agencies and NGOs agree that its central coordinating role has lapsed. (8) Reports also indicate that some of the Ministry of Labor’s departmental sub-commissions on child labor have not been active, due in part to a lack of resources. (10; 26)

The Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling mandates that the Plurinational Council to Combat the Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons include NGOs. However, reports indicate that NGOs have not participated fully in this Council despite NGOs' efforts for inclusion. (49) Reports also indicate that some Department-Level Councils against Human Trafficking and Smuggling have yet to develop department-level plans to combat human trafficking, as mandated by law. (2; 37; 60; 63)

In 2017, the government collaborated with UNICEF to finalize a standardized registration form to determine the scope of child labor in Bolivia. (8) The Tarija Department Coordinating Council began producing public awareness campaigns and programs to teach Bolivian domestic workers about their rights. (61)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementing a new national action plan.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Bolivian General Plan for Economic and Social Development (2016-2020)

Sets goals for economic and social development including eliminating child labor. (64) In 2017, created a program to help parents of children vulnerable to child labor obtain employment. (62)

Plurinational Policy to Combat Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons (2013–2017)

Sets national priorities on combating human trafficking and smuggling through five core areas: the prevention of trafficking, remediation and the reintegration of survivors, the prosecution of crimes, the strengthening of national coordination mechanisms, and international cooperation. (63; 65; 66) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this policy during the reporting period.

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons (2015–2019)

Establishes eight lines of action drawn from the five core areas of the Plurinational Policy to Combat Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons, including building capacity and coordination among criminal law enforcement agencies. (67) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this policy during the reporting period.

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (68)

 

Bolivia's national policy for addressing child labor, the National Plan for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor (2000–2010), expired in 2010. (69) A new plan was not established during the reporting period. (70)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including funding and adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem in all sectors and regions.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Juancito Pinto Subsidy Program†

Government program that provides a conditional cash transfer to all primary and some secondary school students to increase school attendance and reduce the dropout rate. (51) In 2017, provided $68.1 million USD to the more than 2 million participating students. (8)

Human Rights of Children Working in Sugarcane, Brazil Nuts, and Mining†

Human Rights Ombudsman's Office program that promotes the elimination of the worst forms of child labor, along with labor and social protections for working adolescents ages 14 to 17. Launched in 2013 in the Tarija, Potosí, and Beni Departments. (71) Expanded in 2014 to monitor the use of child labor in sugarcane harvesting in Santa Cruz. (72) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this program during the reporting period.

Bolivian Foreign Trade Institute's Triple Seal Initiative

Ministry of Labor collaboration with the Bolivian Institute of Standardization and Quality, UNICEF, and the ILO to develop a voluntary certification program to recognize companies that comply with Bolivian law and ILO conventions on child labor, forced labor, and worker discrimination in the production of their goods. (10; 51; 73) In 2017, two companies in the city of Santa Cruz went through this certification process. (74)

Child Trafficking Awareness-Raising Campaigns

Government program implemented with the Bolivian Network for the Fight Against Human Trafficking and Smuggling that conducts awareness campaigns to educate the public about the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling. Has reached more than 3,000 government officials and NGO representatives. (75; 47) In 2017, the government conducted several awareness-raising campaigns at national and local levels, including through social media. (74)

Program to Protect the Rights of Children and Adolescents

Government collaboration with UNICEF in 17 Bolivian Brazil nut and sugarcane-producing municipalities to provide education assistance, with funding from the Government of Italy and the Swiss Cooperation Agency. Seeks to improve living conditions of 2,300 families and reintegrate 3,400 children in school. (76) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this program during the reporting period.

Social Risk Program

Established by the Mayor of La Paz, provides financial support to allow children to choose school over work, or to finish their school day before attending work. Approximately 50 children participated in this program in 2017. (8)

Critical Route (Ruta Critica)*

Program created by the La Paz Child Advocate’s Office to better identify working children, facilitate registration of working children with the Office, and help working children understand their legal rights. (8)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.

† Program is funded by the Government of Bolivia.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (26; 76; 77; 78; 79; 80)

 

In 2017, the Tarija Mayor’s Office developed a school outreach program deploying 40 specialists to 115 schools in the municipality to educate 10,000 students, 1,200 teachers, and 5,000 parents on trafficking in persons. (61) The government also conducted five surveys related to child labor in the sugarcane and Brazil nut harvests, domestic work, and work in the Amazon region. (8) However, results of these surveys are not currently available.

Although Bolivia has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to address the extent of the problem, particularly in the production of Brazil nuts and sugarcane, ranching and cattle raising, mining, domestic work, street work, and commercial sexual exploitation. Although the Juancito Pinto subsidy program continues to expand and has been effective in rural areas, reports indicate that the $29 per-year subsidy is insufficient to meaningfully cover costs associated with attending school in larger cities, such as transportation. For example, reports indicate that costs associated with attending school in La Paz's sister city, El Alto, may reach $410 per year. (26)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Bolivia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the light work framework specifies the activities in which light work may be permitted, and the conditions in which light work may be undertaken.

2017

Ensure that the law prohibits children under the age of 14 from participating in apprenticeships.

2010—2017

Ensure that the law establishes 18 as the minimum age for compulsory recruitment by the state military, and criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 into non-state armed groups.

2015 – 2017

Update the Child and Adolescent Code to reflect the decision of the Bolivian Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal regarding minimum age for work.

2017

Enforcement

Establish and maintain an Office of the Child Advocate in every municipality with sufficient resources to ensure that legal protections are extended to all children who are permitted to work and to coordinate the provision of services to children who are removed from child labor, including its worst forms.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that Offices of the Child Advocate publicly report on the number of children authorized to work and the number of children rescued from child labor and referred for social services.

2015 – 2017

Provide sufficient funding to increase the capacity of the Ministry of Labor (MOL) to ensure the adequate enforcement of child labor laws.

2013 – 2017

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws on child labor to meet the ILO’s technical advice and ensure that the number of labor inspections is sufficient.

2013 – 2017

Authorize the Labor Inspectorate to assess penalties.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that labor inspectors conduct inspections in all sectors and geographical areas.

2011 – 2017

Publish information on child labor law enforcement, including the number of children found in child labor as a result of inspections, the number of violations found, and the number of penalties imposed and collected

2009 – 2017

Publish information on the number of criminal child labor investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and penalties.

2011 – 2017

Disaggregate data between inspections involving child labor and criminal investigations involving the worst forms of child labor.

2017

Provide sufficient funding and training, including training on human trafficking, to criminal law enforcement agencies to ensure adequate enforcement of laws related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure that the National Commission for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor fulfills its central coordinating role and develops concrete mechanisms to improve coordination among participating agencies and organizations.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that all the MOL departmental sub-commissions designed to combat child labor convene and receive sufficient resources to carry out their functions.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that NGOs participate in the Plurinational Council to Combat the Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons, as required by the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that all Department-Level Councils against Human Trafficking are fully operational as required by the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling.

2014 – 2017

Government Policies

Establish and implement a new National Plan for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor.

2010 – 2017

Social Programs

Expand national programs, especially those targeting children in rural areas to increase secondary school attendance.

2010 – 2017

Increase the Juancito Pinto subsidy to ensure that school children are able to cover the costs associated with attending school.

2014 – 2017

Expand social programs to address the worst forms of child labor where hazardous child labor exists, particularly in the production of Brazil nuts and sugarcane, ranching and cattle raising, mining, domestic work and street work, and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2017

1. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bolivia (ratification: 2003) Published: 2015. Accessed January 18, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186215:NO.

2. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. Reporting, January 13, 2017.

3. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

4. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Continua de Hogares, 2015. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5. Verite. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chains of Brazil-Nuts, Cattle, Corn, and Peanuts in Bolivia. 2013. http://www.verite.org/sites/default/files/images/Research%20on%20Indicators%20of%20Forced%20Labor%20in%20the%20Bolivia%20Brazil-nut%2C%20Cattle%2C%20Corn%2C%20and%20Peanut%20Sectors__9.19.pdf.

6. La Razón. El trabajo infantil se redujo 78,6% en la zafra cañera de Santa Cruz. May 19, 2013. http://www.la-razon.com/index.php?_url=/suplementos/financiero/trabajo-infantil-redujo-Santa-Cruz_0_1834616652.html.

7. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bolivia (ratification: 2003) Published: 2012. Accessed January 18, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:2700546:NO.

8. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. Reporting, January 19, 2018.

9. International Labor Organization. Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations. Application of International Labor Standards. Geneva : s.n., 2018. Vol. 107th Session. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_617065.pdf .

10. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. Reporting, February 12, 2015.

11. Correo del Sur. Tres niños trabajaban toda la noche en granja avícola. April 15, 2018. http://correodelsur.com/local/20180415_tres-ninos-trabajaban-toda-la-noche-en-granja-avicola.html.

12. Bocking, David. Bolivia: The Proud Child Laborers. Spiegel Online. Accessed November 3, 2017. http://www.spiegel.de/international/tomorrow/child-labor-in-bolivia-is-legally-permissable-a-1130131.html.

13. Desarrollo y Autogestion. Interview with USDOL official. February 3, 2012.

14. CIES International. Estudio sobre la situación laboral de adolescentes trabajadores. January 2012.

15. Meier, M. In Bolivia, Legitimizing Child Labor [video]. New York Times. December 19, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/americas/100000003982850/in-bolivia-legitimizing-child-labor.html?partner=rss&emc=rss.

16. Quispe Condori, Jorge Hernán. Niños de Ladrillo: Explotación laboral en Alpacoma. La Razón. April 7, 2014. http://www.la-razon.com/index.php?_url=/suplementos/informe/Ninos-Ladrillo-Explotacion-laboral-Alpacoma-informe_0_2027797323.html.

17. Ertl, M. Union Kids. Latterly Magazine. February 17, 2015. http://latterlymagazine.com/union-kids/.

18. Gilbert, A. Bolivia debate un proyecto contra el trabajo infantil. Diario de León. June 25, 2014. http://www.diariodeleon.es/noticias/internacional/bolivia-debate-proyecto-trabajo-infantil_900045.html.

19. Peredo, Nelson. La realidad supera a la ley en la lucha contra el trabajo infantil. Los Tiempos. December 6, 2017. http://www.lostiempos.com/especial-multimedia/20170612/realidad-supera-ley-lucha-contra-trabajo-infantil.

20. Carpio, Edwin. El estado Boliviano esta en deuda con todos los ninos. Los Tiempos. April 11, 2017. http://www.ninezbolivia.org.bo/estacion/index.php/noticias/noticias-y-novedades/603-el-estado-boliviano-esta-en-deuda-con-todos-los-ninos.

21. Valecillos, Lucas. Pequeños sepultureros. El Periodico. September 27, 2017. http://www.elperiodico.com/es/mas-periodico/20160612/pequenos-sepultureros-bolivia-5191024.

22. Instituto de Investigación e Interacción Educativa - Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. Estudio sobre trabajo doméstico de niñas, niños, y adolescentes en hogares de terceros en Bolivia. 2014. http://www.unicef.org/bolivia/Trabajo_NNA_en_hogares_de_terceros_en_Bolivia.pdf.

23. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Bolivia. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/271339.pdf.

24. Government of Bolivia, Ministerio de Empleo Trabajo y Previsión Social. Sin Tiempo para soñar: Situación de los niños, niñas, adolescentes y sus familias en la zafra y el beneficiado de la castaña. 2009.

25. ILO-IPEC. "Niñez Indígena en América Latina: Situación y Perspectivas (Compilación de documentos de trabajo)," in Trabajo Infantil-Encuentro Latinoamericano Pueblos Indígenas y Gobiernos-De la Declaración a la Acción. 2010. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/publi_encuentro_final.pdf.

26. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

27. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014: Bolivia. Washington, DC. June 20, 2014. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226845.pdf.

28. —. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015: Bolivia. Washington, DC. July 27, 2015. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243558.pdf.

29. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bolivia (ratification: 2003) Published 2015. Accessed March 4, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186211:NO.

30. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013: Bolivia. Washington, DC. February 27, 2014. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt.

31. La Razón. Acceso a la educación. La-razon.com. December 18, 2014. http://www.la-razon.com/opinion/editorial/Acceso-educacion_0_2181981919.html.

32. Government of Bolivia. Ley General del Trabajo. Enacted: December 8, 1942. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/46218/65057/S92BOL01.htm#t4c6.

33. —. Código Niño, Niña y Adolescente, Ley 548. Enacted: July 17, 2014. http://www.gacetaoficialdebolivia.gob.bo/.

34. Tribunal Constitucional Plurinacional. Sentencia Constitucional Plurinacional 0025/2017. July 27, 2017. [Source on file].

35. Government of Bolivia. Nueva Constitución Política del Estado. Enacted: February 9, 2009. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Bolivia/constitucion2009.pdf.

36. —. Código Penal y Código de Procedimiento Penal. Enacted: 2010. https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/bol/codigo-penal_html/Bolivia_Codigo_Penal.pdf.

37. —. Ley Integral Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas, Ley 263. Enacted: July 31, 2012. http://bolivia.infoleyes.com/shownorm.php?id=3946.

38. —. Ley del Régimen de la Coca y Sustancias Controladas, 1008. Enacted: July 19, 1988. http://www.iadb.org/Research/legislacionindigena/leyn/docs/Bol-Ley1008-88-Coca.doc.

39. —. Decreto Supremo Nº 1875. Enacted: January 23, 2014. http://www.cepb.org.bo/calypso/juridica/adjuntos/ds_1875.pdf.

40. —. Decreto Supremo Nº 21479. Enacted: December 17, 1986. http://www.derechoteca.com/gacetabolivia/decreto-supremo-21479-del-17-diciembre-1986/.

41. —. Ley del Servicio Nacional de Defensa. Enacted: August 1, 1966. http://www.resdal.org/Archivo/bolivia-ley-servicio-nacional-defensa.htm.

42. —. Directiva General de Reclutamiento para el Servicio Premilitar No. 12/13 Categoria 2013-2014. http://www.mindef.gob.bo/mindef/sites/default/files/Servicio_Premilitar.htm.

43. —. Ley de Educación Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez, No. 070. Enacted: November 8, 2010. http://www.oei.es/quipu/bolivia/Leydla%20.pdf.

44. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Bolivia (ratification: 1997) Published 2015. Accessed March 4, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186134:NO.

45. Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Previsión Social - Unidad de Derechos Fundamentales. Contribución a la Erradicación Progresiva del Trabajo Infantil. Mintrabojo.gob.bo. Accessed January 18, 2015. http://www.mintrabajo.gob.bo/Descargas/UDF/CONTRIBUCION_A_LA_ERRADICACION_PROGRESIVA_DEL_TRABAJO_INFANTIL.pdf.

46. Government of Bolivia. Ministro de Trabajo Participa en la 103 Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo en Ginebra - Suiza. Accessed February 26, 2018. http://www.mintrabajo.gob.bo/PrincipalPublicaciones.asp?target=674.

47. U.S. Embassy- La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 21, 2016.

48. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. Reporting, March 6, 2014.

49. —. Reporting, March 6, 2015.

50. Government of Bolivia. Unidad Policial de Apoyo al Control Migratorio UPACOM. Migracion.gob.bo. Accessed March 7, 2015. http://www.migracion.gob.bo/web/upacom.html.

51. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. Reporting, January 31, 2013.

52. Liebel, Manfred. El Código “Niña, Niño y Adolescente” de Bolivia y la Organización Internacional del Trabajo: controversias sobre una nueva política pública sobre infancia trabajadora en el Sur Global. Panorámicas Enclave,. May 2017. http://www.enclavedeevaluacion.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Panora%CC%81micas%20Enclave%2003%20Liebel%20%26%20Strack.pdf.

53. Lind, P, and L Paz. How Bolivia’s Children Are Being Exploited by a Failing Labor Law. Time.com. May 12, 2016. http://time.com/4322522/bolivia-child-labor-law-la-paz-unatsbo/.

54. U.S. Embassy- La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 3, 2017.

55. U.S. Embassy - La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 28, 2018.

56. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed February 26, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131.

57. Plurinational State of Bolivia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Federal Register No. 165, Vol. 82 (October 27, 2017). January 12, 2018. [Source on file].

58. Valenzuela, Alejandro. Bolivia: Evo Morales Defiende el Trabajo Infantil. El Porteno. October 29, 2017. http://elporteno.cl/2017/10/29/bolivia-evo-morales-defiende-el-trabajo-infantil/.

59. UNODC. El Ministerio de Gobierno y la UNODC desarrollan talleres de investigación y judicialización de la trata de personas en Bolivia. October 25, 2017. http://www.unodc.org/...dc/es/frontpage/2017/October/el-ministerio-de-gobierno-y-la-unodc-desarrollan-talleres-de-investigacin-y-judicializacin-de-la-trata-de-personas-en-bolivia.html.

60. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. Reporting, February 14, 2017.

61. —. Reporting, February 1, 2018.

62. U.S. Embassy - La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 3, 2018.

63. Government of Bolivia - Consejo Plurinacional Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas. Política Plurinacional de Lucha Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas 2013 - 2017. 2014. http://saludpublica.bvsp.org.bo/cc/bo40.1/documentos/588.pdf.

64. Government of Bolivia. Economic and Social Development Plan (2016-2020) . December 2015. http://www.fndr.gob.bo/bundles/fndrdemo/downloads/pdes/pdes2016-2020.pdf.

65. Ministerio de Justicia. Presentan Política Plurinacional de Lucha Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas ante el cuerpo diplomático. Justicia.gob.bo. June 4, 2014. http://www.justicia.gob.bo/index.php/noticias/notas-de-prensa/1328-presentan-politica-plurinacional-de-lucha-contra-la-trata-y-trafico-de-personas-ante-el-cuerpo-diplomatico.

66. Government of Bolivia. Resolución de Consejo / CPCTTP No. 001/2014. Enacted: January 6, 2014.

67. Government of Bolivia - Consejo Plurinacional Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas. Plan Nacional de Lucha Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas (2015-2019). 2015. http://vjdf.justicia.gob.bo/images/cargados/files/plan-trata.pdf.

68. Government of Bolivia. Programa de Gobierno - Juntos Vamos Bien Para Vivir Bien (2015-2020). http://www.boliviarural.org/images/documentos/programa_gobierno_2015-2020.pdf.

69. Inter-Institutional Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor. Plan de erradicación progresiva del trabajo infantil: 2000-2010. November 2001. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/planbo.pdf.

70. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Bolivia (ratification: 1997) Published: 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3248860,102567,Bolivia,%20Plurinational%20State%20of,2015.

71. Government of Bolivia - Defensoría del Pueblo. Informe de avance del proyecto 'Derechos humanos de NNA en la actividad de zafra, beneficadora de castaña y minería. 2013. http://www.defensoria.gob.bo/archivos/Verificaciones%20defensoriales%202013%20zafra%20casta%C3%B1a%20y%20miner%C3%ADa%20NyA.pdf.

72. U.S. Embassy- La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 9, 2014.

73. IBCE. Triple Sello - Asesoramiento. IBCE. Accessed April 17, 2014. http://www.rsebolivia.org/asesorias.asp.

74. U.S. Embassy - La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 15, 2018.

75. U.S. Embassy- La Paz. Reporting, February 14, 2014.

76. UNICEF. Plan de Acción de Programa País 2013 - 2017. April 2013. http://www.unicef.org/bolivia/PlanAccionProg_2013_2017.pdf.

77. —. Bolivia Country Programme Document, 2013-2017. Unicef.org. 2015. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Bolivia-2013-2017-final_approved-English-14Sept2012.pdf.

78. Desarrollo y Autogestión. Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Bolivia (Phase II). October 2013: Technical Progress Report.

79. Inter-American Development Bank. Bolivia - Programa de Apoyo al Empleo II - Perfil de Proyecto. 2016. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=40369655.

80. Campaña Boliviana por el Derecho a la Educación. OIT confiere reconocimiento a CEMSE por el aporte a la formación técnica. September 29, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=873994582678255&id=109452819132439.

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