Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Bolivia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Bolivia

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Continued Law that Delayed Advancement

In 2015, Bolivia made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Despite new initiatives to address child labor, Bolivia is receiving this assessment because it continued to implement a law that delayed advancement in eliminating the worst forms of child labor. Bolivia’s Child and Adolescent Code, passed in 2014, allows children as young as 10 years old to be self-employed under certain conditions. Otherwise, the Government made efforts by adopting the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons, increasing the number of labor inspectors from 95 to 97, and dedicating 10 of these inspectors to investigating child labor in high-risk areas. Children in Bolivia are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and in the harvesting of sugarcane. The Offices of the Child Advocate, required by the Child and Adolescent Code to authorize child work and assist victims of child labor, are absent or underfunded in many municipalities, leaving some children unprotected and vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. The Government also lacks a comprehensive child labor policy.

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Children in Bolivia are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and in the harvesting of sugarcane.(1, 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Bolivia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 7 to 14 (% and population):

20.2 (355,206)

Working children by sector, ages 7 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

79.0

Industry

7.4

Services

13.6

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

93.7

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

18.7

Primary completion rate (%):

96.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta Continua de Hogares Survey, 2013.(4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting and harvesting corn, cotton,* and peanuts* (5-10)

Production and harvesting of Brazil nuts/chestnuts† and sugarcane† (8, 9, 11-16)

Ranching and raising cattle*† (7, 9)

Plucking chickens* (16)

Industry

Mining† of gold, silver, tin, and zinc (1, 6, 14-16)

Construction,† including heavy lifting and shoveling (12, 16, 17)

Production of bricks† (6, 7, 16, 18-20)

Services

Street work, including vending, shoe shining, and working as transportation assistants (6-8, 12, 16, 21, 22)

Recycling garbage* (7)

Domestic work† (7, 16, 21, 23)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in ranching* and in the production and harvesting of Brazil nuts and sugarcane (15, 24-26)

Forced labor in mining and domestic service (8, 21, 25)

Forced begging (2, 25, 27)

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (25, 27, 28)

Forced to commit illicit activities, including robbery* and producing drugs* (25, 27)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) – (c) of ILO C. 182.

Children produce and harvest sugarcane and Brazil nuts principally in the departments of Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz, and Tarija, although recent efforts to combat this practice and other factors have reportedly reduced the prevalence of child labor in these sectors.(1, 9, 12, 15) Indigenous children are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(27, 29) Some indigenous Guaraní families live in debt bondage and work on ranches, including in raising cattle, in the Chaco region.(5, 8, 12, 26) Based on reports, this practice may have been reduced in recent years due in part to increased attention to the region and land tenure reform.(12) Indigenous children are also particularly vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation.(25) Bolivian children have been trafficked to Argentina, where they are vulnerable to forced labor in the production of textiles and in agriculture.(26, 28, 30)

The Child and Adolescent Code, promulgated on July 17, 2014, mandates that a national child labor survey be conducted by the Bolivian National Institute of Statistics as part of the creation of the new Program for the Prevention and Social Protection of Children and Adolescents. The law mandates that this Program be designed by July 2016 and implemented by July 2019.(31) In 2015, the Ministry of Labor (MOL), with funding from UNICEF and the ILO, conducted child labor research in the following sectors: domestic work, Brazil nuts, mining, sugarcane, and self-employment. The Government reports that the results of these studies will be published in 2016.(2)

Bolivian law requires children to attend school up to age 17. However, attendance rates for secondary education are low, particularly in rural areas and often because children work.(2, 29, 32)

Bolivia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

                                                                                                                                                                                     

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Articles 8 and 58 of the General Labor Law; Article 129 of the Child and Adolescent Code (31, 33)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 58 and 59 of the General Labor Law; Articles 5 and 136 of the Child and Adolescent Code (31, 33)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 136 of the Child and Adolescent Code (31)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 15, 46, and 61 of the Constitution; Article 291 of the Penal Code; Article 34 of the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (34-36)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Constitution; Article 34 of the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (34, 36)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 34 and 35 of the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (36)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 56 of the Law on Coca and Controlled Substances (37)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

17

Articles 108 and 249 of the Constitution; Article 1 of Supreme Decree No. 1875; Article 1 of Supreme Decree No. 21479 (34, 38, 39)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

16*

Articles 1 and 2 of the General Directive of Pre-Military Recruitment; Articles 2 and 7 of the Law of National Military Service (40, 41)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17‡

Article 81 of the Constitution; Articles 1, 8, 9 and 11–14 of the Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez Education Law (34, 42)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 17 and 81 of the Constitution; Article 1 of the Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez Education Law; Article 115 of the Child and Adolescent Code (31, 34, 42)

* The minimum age for combat is 18 per Article 36 of the Law of National Military Service.(40)
‡ Age calculated based on available information.

The 2014 Child and Adolescent Code specifies the conditions under which children may work in addition to providing a number of other protections.(31) While the regulations for this law have not yet been published, its provisions that define the minimum age for work do not conform to international standards.(43) Article 129(1) of the Child and Adolescent Code establishes the minimum age for work at 14 years, which is in harmony with Article 58 of the General Labor Law.(31, 33) However, Article 129(2) of the Child and Adolescent Code allows children as young as 10 years old to work in self-employment upon authorization by the municipal Offices of the Child Advocate, provided that this work does not adversely affect the child’s health or education, and only upon consent of a parent or guardian and after successful medical and psychological evaluations.(31) Allowing children as young as 10 years old to work may affect their schooling, which in Bolivia is compulsory to age 17.(42, 43) The ILO Committee of Experts has called upon the Government to amend Article 129 of the Child and Adolescent Code to set the minimum age for work, including in self-employment, at 14 years.(43)

Article 129(2) of the Child and Adolescent Code also permits children as young as 12 to work for third parties following the same process of authorization.(31) While ILO C. 138 allows children as young as 12 to engage in light work under certain circumstances, Bolivian law does not specify a list of activities that are permissible for light work, or the number of hours children are permitted to work in these activities pursuant to ILO C. 138.(31)

Apprenticeships in Bolivia are regulated by Articles 28–30 and Article 58 of the General Labor Law, which requires that apprentices attend school. However, the General Labor Law does not set a minimum age for participation in apprenticeships.(33, 44)

Articles 108 and 249 of the Constitution require Bolivian males to perform compulsory military service in accordance with national law.(34) Article 1 of Supreme Decree No. 1875, passed in 2014, lowered the minimum age at which compulsory military service may begin from 18 years, as previously established by Supreme Decree No. 21479, to 17 years.(38, 39) Under Article 2 of the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict, to which Bolivia acceded in 2004, state parties must ensure that children under 18 may not be compulsorily recruited into their armed forces.(45-47)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)

Enforce child labor laws, in part through its Fundamental Rights Unit, which also addresses forced labor involving indigenous peoples.(48) Conduct labor inspections, including child labor-specific investigations, in areas of national priority that include the sugarcane-producing areas of Santa Cruz and Tarija, the Brazil nut-producing areas of Riberalta and Beni, and the mining areas of Potosí.(16) Assess fines for labor law infractions and refer cases to the Labor Courts for adjudication and remuneration of unpaid wages. Engage municipal Offices of the Child Advocate to ensure the protection of children’s rights and welfare.(16, 49) Maintain a national registry to track employment agencies engaged in the illegal recruitment and trafficking of children.(50) Assist in the implementation of the Child and Adolescent Code, including in the authorization of children’s work for third parties from the age of 14.(16, 31)

Municipal Offices of the Child Advocate

Authorize children from the age of 10 to work in exceptional cases and register them in the Government’s Child and Adolescent Information System (SINNA), pursuant to the Child and Adolescent Code. Protect the rights and welfare of children, often in consultation with NGOs, as well as refer criminal child labor cases to prosecutors.(16, 31) Accompany child labor inspectors in their investigations and refer children rescued from child labor for services.(16, 31)

Attorney General’s Office

Oversee all human trafficking investigations and prosecutions.(28) Oversee through its National Coordinator’s Office regional prosecutors who, in conjunction with the Bolivian National Police, pursue cases of human trafficking for sexual and labor exploitation. Maintain a database of human trafficking cases through its Coordinator of Specialized Units for the Prosecution of Human Trafficking and Smuggling, Sexual Crimes, and Gender-Based Violence.(28)

Ministry of Justice

Oversee the implementation of the Child and Adolescent Code. Create and administer SINNA, in which municipal Offices of the Child Advocate register young workers who are authorized to engage in self-employment or work for third parties, as required by the Child and Adolescent Code.(31)

Bolivian National Police

Maintain the Special Force in the Fight against Crime (FELCC) which, through its Division of Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons, runs 15 specialized human trafficking units to investigate trafficking crimes and coordinate anti-trafficking efforts.(16, 51) Maintain the Police Unit for Migratory Control and Assistance to address trafficking issues through migratory control efforts, in part through the patrol of national borders.(51, 52) Victims of human trafficking are referred by these units to departmental Social Service Agencies (SEDEGES) or municipal Offices of the Child Advocate.(53)

Bolivian Armed Forces

Support anti-trafficking efforts by collaborating with the Bolivian National Police to detect human trafficking and child labor issues in border-crossing areas, pursuant to article 38 of the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling.(36, 50)

 

The Child and Adolescent Code requires the municipal Offices of the Child Advocate to authorize children ages 10 to 18 to engage in self-employment, and children ages 12 to 14 to work for third parties, both under certain conditions to ensure children’s protection. The Code further requires the municipal Offices of the Child Advocate to register young workers in the Government’s Child and Adolescent Information System (SINNA).(31) However, reports indicate that as many as 20 percent of municipalities in Bolivia lack an Office of the Child Advocate; many more are reported to lack adequate resources and the capacity to perform their mandate. This lack of institutional coverage may leave certain children particularly vulnerable to child labor, including its worst forms.(16) In 2015, the Government reported that the MOL worked on drafting a standardized form for use by the Offices of the Child Advocate to authorize children to work.(49)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Bolivia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

86 (16)

97 (2)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

9 (16)

10 (2)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown

Yes (49)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown* (16)

Unknown* (2)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown* (16)

Unknown* (2)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown* (16)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (16)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (16)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown* (16)

Unknown* (2)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (16)

Yes (2)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

In 2015, the level of funding for the MOL’s labor inspectorate was not publicly available. However, the MOL reported that its operating budget for child labor activities, excluding salaries, was approximately $10,000, and that its budget for the salaries of its 10 child labor dedicated inspectors was $112,000.(2) Reports indicate that the MOL’s overall level of funding to inspect for child labor violations was inadequate.(2) Although the Government increased its number of labor inspectors from 95 to 97, including the 10 child labor dedicated inspectors, the number of labor inspectors is insufficient to inspect for child labor nationwide. According to the ILO’s standard of one inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Bolivia should employ roughly 330 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(54-56)

During the reporting period, UNICEF and the MOL provided funding to send the MOL’s labor inspectors to the Ministry of Education’s Plurinational Public School, where they received routine training on hazardous child labor.(2)

In 2015, the number of general labor inspections, as well as information on the sectors and geographical regions in which they were conducted, was not publicly available. The MOL reported that it conducted 300 targeted child labor inspections with partial funding from UNICEF.(2) Child labor inspections were conducted primarily in the mining sector of the Potosí Department, the Brazil nut sector of the Beni Department, and the sugarcane sector of the Santa Cruz and Tarija Departments.(2) The MOL also reported that child labor inspections were conducted in restaurants in several urban areas.(2) Although this number of child labor inspections was higher than the 250 inspections conducted in 2014, reports indicate that the number of child labor inspections conducted in 2015 was inadequate to address the scope of the problem, particularly in rural and hard to reach areas.(49)

Research did not find any data on the number of children authorized to work by the Offices of the Child Advocate during the reporting period.(49) The Government reports that children who are removed from child labor are referred to the municipal Offices of the Child Advocate for services. However, information on the number of children removed and whether they received services, particularly in cases where an Office of the Public Advocate did not exist, was not publicly available.(16)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Bolivia took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (16)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No (16)

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

No (16)

Yes (2)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (16)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (16)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (16)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (16)

Unknown* (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

No (16)

No (2)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

In 2015, the Bolivian National Police’s Special Force in the Fight against Crime (FELCC) reported that officers received some training on trafficking in persons issues. However, research could not determine the extent to which trainings included other worst forms of child labor.(2)

In 2015, there were approximately 247 cases of human trafficking reported to the Bolivian National Police and 5 sentences issued for crimes of human trafficking. However, these statistics were not disaggregated to distinguish between adult and child victims, and reports could not confirm if all sentences were carried out.(57)

Children identified in the worst forms of child labor, including through criminal investigations, are registered by the Prosecutor’s Office when the case is classified as a crime; if the case is not classified as a crime, children are registered by the Offices of the Child Advocate. Reports indicate that coordination between the Attorney General’s Office and the Offices of the Child Advocate is often limited.(49) Children rescued from the worst forms of child labor are often not referred for social services because there are few government-run shelters. Although there are some private shelters and religious organizations that receive victims of the worst forms of child labor, referrals from, and coordination with, government agencies is limited.(2)

Some Government agencies reported that funding levels were inadequate and that they sometimes lacked fuel to conduct investigations.(2)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor

Coordinate national efforts to address child labor issues. Includes the MOL, and the Ministries of Justice, Education, and Planning, as well as several NGOs.(16)

Steering Committee for Zero Child Labor in Sugarcane Production

Coordinate efforts to eliminate child labor in sugarcane production. Formed with support from the MOL and the participation of the regional government of Santa Cruz, Bolivian municipal governments, the Bolivian Foreign Trade Institute, and various NGOs.(13)

Plurinational Council against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (Plurinational Council)

Serve as the highest national body to lead and coordinate anti-trafficking efforts. Implement the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling, in part through its Plurinational Policy to Combat Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons (2013–2017).(36, 51, 58) Chaired by the Minister of Justice and comprising representatives from eight other ministries, including the MOL, as well as the Public Advocate and representatives from NGOs.(51)

Department-Level Councils against Human Trafficking and Smuggling

Coordinate efforts of the Plurinational Council in each of Bolivia’s nine departments. Comprised of department-level officials from the FELCC, the Ministries of Labor, Migration, and Education, the Human Rights Ombudsman, and representatives from NGOs.(16, 36, 58)

Directorate General for the Fight against Trafficking and Smuggling

Assist in the coordination of national policy on human trafficking issues. Established under the Ministry of Government’s Vice Ministry for Citizen Security, pursuant to the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling.(36, 51)

Inter-Ministerial Team

Assist in the development of a National Labor Plan for 2014–2018. Created by MOL in 2013 with representation from the Ministries of Justice, Health, Education, and Government.(50)

 

The National Commission for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor, led by the MOL, has been increasingly inactive, and many Government agencies and NGOs agree that its central coordinating role has lapsed.(2, 16) Reports also indicate that some of the MOL’s departmental sub-commissions on child labor have not been active, due in part to a lack of resources.(2, 16) In addition, some reports indicate that child labor coordination efforts between departmental sub-commissions and municipal agencies have been strained due to differences among political parties.(16)

In 2015, the Plurinational Council against Human Trafficking and Smuggling (Plurinational Council) met several times to implement national policies and laws on human trafficking.(2) The Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling mandates that the Plurinational Council include the participation of NGOs. However, reports indicate that NGOs have not been able to participate fully in the Plurinational Council despite their efforts for inclusion.(51)

The Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling requires each of Bolivia’s nine departments to create Department-Level Councils against Human Trafficking and Smuggling to advance anti-trafficking efforts on the department level.(36) Reports indicate that some Department-Level Councils had yet to develop department-level plans to combat human trafficking, as mandated by the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling.(2, 16, 36, 58)

The Government of Bolivia has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Plurinational Policy to Combat Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons (2013–2017)

Sets national priorities on combating human trafficking and smuggling, including that of children, pursuant to the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling. Contains five core areas that set agendas for government efforts and programs, including the prevention of trafficking, the remediation and reintegration of survivors, the prosecution of criminal violations, the strengthening of national coordination mechanisms, and international cooperation.(58, 59) Published by the Plurinational Council.(58, 60)

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons (2015–2019)†

Establishes eight lines of action drawn from the five core areas of the Plurinational Policy to Combat Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons, including: raising awareness of trafficking and smuggling of persons, developing interagency mechanisms for victim reintegration, monitoring employment agencies to prevent trafficking in persons, strengthening capacities of law enforcement and administrative agencies to investigate and prosecute trafficking, strengthening inter-governmental relations to combat trafficking, conducting research to inform policies on combating trafficking, and fostering the implementation of the Plurinational Policy to Combat Trafficking and Smuggling of Persons.(61) Formulated and approved by the Plurinational Council in 2015.(61)

Patriotic Agenda 2025*†

Sets national development priorities and objectives for 2025, including the eradication of extreme poverty, universal access to education, and multicultural integration.(2, 62, 63)

XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor†

Promotes decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas. Held in Cancún, Mexico, participating countries adopted the Declaration of Cancún 2015 which aims in part to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and to promote education and vocational training for youth.(64, 65) Participating countries also adopted a Plan of Action that prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and the development of social protection policies for children and families.(64, 66)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories’ efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013), and signed by Bolivia at the ILO’s 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru (October 2014).(67-69)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

Bolivia’s national policy for addressing child labor, the National Plan for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor (2000–2010), expired in 2010. The Plan identified mining, sugarcane harvesting, commercial sexual exploitation, and domestic service as priority areas in combating exploitative child labor.(70) A new plan was not established during the reporting period.(2, 44)

In 2015, the Government of Bolivia funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Juancito Pinto Subsidy Program†

Government program that provides a conditional cash transfer to all primary school students to increase school attendance and reduce the dropout rate.(53) Limited evidence suggests the program contributed to increased school attendance and reduced dropout rates.(16, 53) Provides students with a yearly subsidy of approximately $28 if the student maintains an attendance rate of at least 75 percent.(16, 53) In 2015, program assisted 2,228,907 students with a budget of $65 million.(49)

Ñaupajman Puriy Kereimba (ÑPK): Combating Exploitive Child Labor in Bolivia: Phase II (2010–2014)

$6-million USDOL-funded, 4-year project, implemented by Desarollo y Autogestión (DyA) that worked to reduce the worst forms of child labor by improving educational and livelihood opportunities for families in the departments of Chuquisaca, La Paz, and Santa Cruz.(7, 71) Assisted 3,100 children and 1,300 households in both urban and rural areas. Collaborated with the Ministry of Education to expand the Leveling Program. Closed in early 2015.(7, 71)

Human Rights of Children and Adolescents in Sugarcane Harvesting, Brazil Nut Processing, and Mining†

Human Rights Ombudsman’s Office program that promotes effective, sustainable policies and actions for the gradual elimination of the worst forms of child labor, along with labor and social protection for working adolescents between ages 14 and 17. Launched in April 2013 in Bermejo (Tarija), Cerro Rico (Potosí), and Riberalta (Beni).(72) Expanded in 2014 to monitor the use of child labor in sugarcane harvesting in the Department of Santa Cruz, where inspections found that more than 80 percent of the audited plantations no longer use child labor.(73)

Leveling Program

Ministry of Education directive that requires all public schools to offer an accelerated education “leveling” program so that children who are falling behind in school because they work can catch up.(74, 75) With DyA assistance, municipalities and district education departments of Camiri, El Alto, Mojocoya, Pailon, and San Julian have plans of action, timetables and the resources to operate the leveling, multi-grade, after-school, and technical high school programs.(76)

Combating Hazardous Work through Educational Competency (2012-2015)

ILO-funded 5-year project implemented by the Center for Multifaceted Educational Services that aims to reduce children’s engagement in hazardous child labor through educational programs focused on personal and professional development. Since 2012, program has assisted 1,260 youth ages 14 to 18 in El Alto, La Paz, and in rural communities in the Department of Sucre, and trained 84 teachers.(2, 77)

Ministry of Education/ Plurinational Public Management School (Escuela de Gestión Publica Plurinacional, EGPP)

EGPP training program required for public officials, including from the MOL and the Ministry of Education, that prepares them for public service. Contains a child labor module developed in collaboration with the ÑPK project, which is a permanent part of the program.(76, 78) In 2015, the EGPP, with funding from the MOL and UNICEF, trained MOL inspectors.(2) In addition, the MOL collaborated with the EGPP and UNICEF to develop an online Masters degree program that enables any public servant to study child labor issues. The Masters program has yet to be fully implemented.(2)

Bolivian Foreign Trade Institute’s Triple Seal Initiative (El Instituto Boliviano de Comercio Exterior Triple Sello)

MOL collaboration with the Bolivian Institute of Standardization and Quality, UNICEF, and the ILO to develop a voluntary certification program to recognize companies that comply with Bolivian law and ILO conventions on child labor, forced labor, and worker discrimination in the production of their goods.(13, 16, 53, 79) In Santa Cruz, Triple Seal Alliance works to diminish child labor under the joint UNICEF and Departmental Government of Santa Cruz Let’s Team Up (Hagamos Equipo) Campaign.(80) In 2015, an additional sugar producer, UNAGRO, obtained the Triple Seal Certification.(2)

Child Trafficking Awareness-Raising Campaigns

Government program implemented with the Bolivian Network for the Fight Against Human Trafficking and Smuggling that conducts public awareness and education campaigns to educate the public, including youth and children, about the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling. Targeted more than 3,000 professionals including judicial administrators, members of the Public Ministry, public defenders, departmental SEDEGES officials, and civil society organizations.(30, 49) Under the program, the Plurinational Council partnered with UNICEF to publish a guide for children, youth, and adults explaining the new anti-TIP law. The partnership also created a children’s cell phone game to teach children about the dangers of trafficking.(30, 49)

Student Documentation Program

Government’s General Service of Personal Identification’s Civil Registration Service program designed to provide documentation to 1.7 million undocumented students.(28)

UNICEF Bolivia Country Program (2013–2017)

Seeks to ensure the equitable provision of social services to children and protect children’s rights, including increased access to and completion of education. Aims to provide special attention to indigenous children, including through the development of strategic policies and educational and professional programs.(81, 82)

Program to Protect the Rights of Children and Adolescents

 

Government collaboration with UNICEF in 17 Bolivian Brazil nut and sugarcane-producing municipalities to provide education assistance, with funding from the Government of Italy and the Swiss Cooperation Agency. Program seeks to improve living conditions of 2,300 families and reintegrate 3,400 children in school.(81) Established through the UNICEF Bolivia Country Program (2013-2017).(81)

Regional Action Group for the Americas (Grupo de Acción Regional para las Américas)

Conducts prevention and awareness-raising campaigns to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Latin America. Members include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.(83-85)

Combating Child Labor through Skills Training for Older Children (2014 – 2015)

$2.6 million Government of the Netherlands-funded, 1-year, global project to combat child labor by enhancing access to decent work for children who have reached the minimum age of employment.(86)

Elimination of Child Labor in Latin America (Phase 4) (2011 – 2015)

$4.5 million Government of Spain-funded, 4-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to combat child labor in 19 countries, including Bolivia.(86)

Education and Monitoring Program for the Eradication of Child Labor (2012 – 2015)

$1.3 million Government of Spain-funded, 3-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC that aims to strengthen public policies and government capacity to combat child labor in 19 countries in Latin America, including Bolivia. Includes the objective of developing information systems on the worst forms of child labor.(86)

Partnership Program to Prevent and Eliminate Child Labor (2009 – 2017)

$3.7 million Government of Brazil-funded, 9-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC that aims to combat child labor in four countries, including Bolivia.(86)

† Program is funded by the Government of Bolivia.

Although Bolivia has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to address the extent of the problem, particularly in the production of Brazil nuts and sugarcane, ranching and cattle raising, mining, domestic work and street work, and commercial sexual exploitation. While the Juancito Pinto subsidy program continues to expand, reports indicate that the $28 subsidy is insufficient to meaningfully cover costs associated with attending school, such as transportation and school supplies. For example, reports indicate that costs associated with attending school in rural Sucre may reach $141 per year, while costs in La Paz’s sister city, El Alto, may reach as high as $410 per year.(2)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Bolivia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that minimum age protections are extended to all children under 14 years, including in self-employment.

2014 – 2015

Establish a list of occupations constituting light work, as well as the number of hours permitted in light work, for children ages 12 to 14.

2014 – 2015

Ensure the law prohibits children under the age of 14 from participating in apprenticeships.

2010 – 2015

Ensure the law establishes 18 as the minimum age for compulsory military recruitment.

2015

Enforcement

Establish and maintain an Office of the Child Advocate in every municipality with sufficient resources to ensure that legal protections are extended to all children who are permitted to work and to coordinate the provision of services to children who are removed from child labor, including its worst forms.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that Offices of the Child Advocate publicly report on the number of children authorized to work and the number of children rescued from child labor and referred for social services.

2015

Provide sufficient funding and training to increase the capacity of the MOL to ensure the effective enforcement of child labor laws.

2013 – 2015

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce, and ensure the number of labor inspections is adequate.

2013 – 2015

Publicly report on whether the labor inspectorate is authorized to assess penalties.

2015

Ensure that labor inspectors conduct inspections in all sectors and geographical areas.

2011 – 2015

Collect and publicize statistics on child labor, including the overall number of labor inspections, the number of children found in child labor as a result of inspections, the number of violations found, and the number of penalties imposed and collected.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that all criminal investigators, including new employees, receive training on the worst forms of child labor, and make information about trainings publicly available.

2015

Collect and publicize information about the number of criminal child labor investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and the penalties applied.

2013 – 2015

Collect and publicize statistics on trafficking cases disaggregated by adults and children.

2011 – 2015

Ensure there is a referral mechanism between criminal law enforcement agencies and social service providers.

2015

Provide sufficient funding to criminal law enforcement agencies to ensure effective enforcement of laws related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015

Coordination

Ensure that the National Commission for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor fulfills its central coordinating role and develops concrete mechanisms to improve coordination among participating agencies and organizations.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that all the MOL’s departmental sub-commissions designed to combat child labor convene and receive sufficient resources to carry out their functions.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that NGOs participate in the Plurinational Council against Human Trafficking and Smuggling, as required by the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that all Department-Level Councils against Human Trafficking are fully operational as required by the Comprehensive Law against Human Trafficking and Smuggling.

2014 – 2015

Government Policies

Establish and implement a new National Plan for the Progressive Eradication of Child Labor.

2010 – 2015

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Government’s national development plan.

2013 – 2015

Social Programs

Expand national programs to increase secondary school attendance.

2010 – 2015

Ensure that there are adequate social services to assist victims of the worst forms of child labor.

2015

Increase the amount of the Juancito Pinto subsidy provided to school children to ensure they are able to cover the costs associated with attending school.

2014 – 2015

Expand social programs to address the worst forms of child labor in areas where hazardous child labor exists, particularly in the production of Brazil nuts and sugarcane, ranching and cattle raising, mining, domestic work and street work, and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2015

1.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bolivia (ratification: 2003) Published: 2015; accessed January 18, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186215:NO.

2.         U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, January 15, 2016.

3.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/ Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

4.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Continua de Hogares, 2013. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

5.         Ministry of Labor official. Interview with USDOL official. February 14, 2011.

6.         Ministry of Education official. Interview with USDOL official. February 15, 2011.

7.         Desarrollo y Autogestión. Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Bolivia (Phase II): Project Document. Santa Cruz; January 2011.

8.         U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

9.         Verite. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chains of Brazil-Nuts, Cattle, Corn, and Peanuts in Bolivia; 2013. http://www.verite.org/sites/default/files/images/Research%20on%20Indicators%20of%20Forced%20Labor%20in%20the%20Bolivia%20Brazil-nut%2C%20Cattle%2C%20Corn%2C%20and%20Peanut%20Sectors__9.19.pdf.

10.       La Razón. "El trabajo infantil se redujo 78,6% en la zafra cañera de Santa Cruz." [online] May 19, 2013 [cited April 5, 2016]; http://www.la-razon.com/index.php?_url=/suplementos/financiero/trabajo-infantil-redujo-Santa-Cruz_0_1834616652.html.

11.       UNICEF. Trabajo Infantil en Bolivia, UNICEF, [online] 2011 [cited April 17, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/bolivia/proteccion_17111.htm.

12.       Desarrollo y Autogestion. Interview with USDOL official. February 3, 2012.

13.       ILO-IPEC. Project to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor through Horizontal Cooperation in South America. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2011.

14.       Friedman Rudovsky, N. "German's story: Swapping Sugar Cane Fields for School in Bolivia." unicef.org [online] June 10, 2011 [cited April 17, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/bolivia_58846.html.

15.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bolivia (ratification: 2003) Submitted: 2012; accessed January 18, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:2700546:NO.

16.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, February 12, 2015.

17.       CIES International. Estudio sobre la situación laboral de adolescentes trabajadores; January 2012.

18.       Filomeno, M. "Trabajo Niños ladrilleros trabajan en la noche y la madrugada en La Paz." Pagina Siete, La Paz, October 11, 2012; Sociedad.

19.       Mathias Meier. "In Bolivia, Legitimizing Child Labor." New York Times, December 19, 2015; International - Americas. http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/americas/100000003982850/in-bolivia-legitimizing-child-labor.html?partner=rss&emc=rss.

20.       Jorge Hernán Quispe Condori. "Niños de Ladrillo: Explotación laboral en Alpacoma." La Razón, April 7, 2014. http://www.la-razon.com/index.php?_url=/suplementos/informe/Ninos-Ladrillo-Explotacion-laboral-Alpacoma-informe_0_2027797323.html.

21.       U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204430.

22.       Ertl, M. "Union Kids." Latterly Magazine [online] February 17, 2015 [cited November 8, 2015]; http://latterlymagazine.com/union-kids/.

23.       Instituto de Investigación e Interacción Educativa - Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. Estudio sobre trabajo doméstico de niñas, niños, y adolescentes en hogares de terceros en Bolivia; 2014. http://www.unicef.org/bolivia/Trabajo_NNA_en_hogares_de_terceros_en_Bolivia.pdf.

24.       Government of Bolivia, Empleo Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social. Sin Tiempo para soñar: Situación de los niños, niñas, adolescentes y sus familias en la zafra y el beneficiado de la castaña. La Paz; 2009.

25.       U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226845.pdf.

26.       "Niñez Indígena en América Latina: Situación y Perspectivas (Compilación de documentos de trabajo)," in Trabajo Infantil-Encuentro Latinoamericano Pueblos Indígenas y Gobiernos-De la Declaración a la Acción 2010; Cartagena; http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/publi_encuentro_final.pdf.

27.       U.S. Department of State. "Bolivia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243558.pdf.

28.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, March 6, 2014.

29.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bolivia (ratification: 2003) Published 2015; accessed March 4, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186211:NO.

30.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, February 14, 2014.

31.       Government of Bolivia. Código Niño, Niña y Adolescente, Ley No. 548, enacted July 17, 2014. http://www.gacetaoficialdebolivia.gob.bo/.

32.       La Razón. "Acceso a la educación." la-razon.com [online] December 18, 2014 [cited March 9, 2015]; http://www.la-razon.com/opinion/editorial/Acceso-educacion_0_2181981919.html.

33.       Government of Bolivia. Ley General del Trabajo, enacted December 8, 1942. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/46218/65057/S92BOL01.htm#t4c6.

34.       Government of Bolivia. Nueva Constitución Política del Estado, enacted February 9, 2009. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Bolivia/constitucion2009.pdf.

35.       Government of Bolivia. Código Penal y Código de Procedimiento Penal, enacted 2010. https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/bol/codigo-penal_html/Bolivia_Codigo_Penal.pdf.

36.       Government of Bolivia. Ley Integral Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas, Ley No. 263, enacted July 31, 2012. http://bolivia.infoleyes.com/shownorm.php?id=3946.

37.       Government of Bolivia. Ley del Régimen de la Coca y Sustancias Controladas, 1008, enacted July 19, 1988. http://www.iadb.org/Research/legislacionindigena/leyn/docs/Bol-Ley1008-88-Coca.doc.

38.       Government of Bolivia. Decreto Supremo Nº 1875, enacted January 23, 2014. http://www.cepb.org.bo/calypso/juridica/adjuntos/ds_1875.pdf.

39.       Government of Bolivia. Decreto Supremo Nº 21479, enacted December 17, 1986. http://www.derechoteca.com/gacetabolivia/decreto-supremo-21479-del-17-diciembre-1986/.

40.       Government of Bolivia. Ley del Servicio Nacional de Defensa, enacted August 1, 1966. http://www.resdal.org/Archivo/bolivia-ley-servicio-nacional-defensa.htm.

41.       Government of Bolivia. Directiva General de Reclutamiento para el Servicio Premilitar No. 12/13 Categoria 2013-2014, enacted http://www.mindef.gob.bo/mindef/sites/default/files/Servicio_Premilitar.htm.

42.       Government of Bolivia. Ley de Educación Avelino Siñani-Elizardo Pérez, No. 070, enacted November 8, 2010. http://www.oei.es/quipu/bolivia/Leydla%20.pdf.

43.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Bolivia (ratification: 1997); Published 2015; accessed March 5, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186138.

44.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Bolivia (ratification: 1997) Published 2015; accessed March 4, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186134:NO.

45.       UN Human Rights Council. Annual report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights - Addendum - Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the activities of his office in the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Geneva; March 16, 2015. Report No. A/HRC/28/3/Add.2. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session28/Pages/ListReports.aspx.

46.       United Nations Treaty Collection. "Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict." [online] [cited January 19, 2016]; https://treaties.un.org/pages/viewdetails.aspx?src=ind&mtdsg_no=iv-11-b&chapter=4&lang=en.

47.       UN CRC. "Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict - 2000, Entry into force: 2002." [online] [cited January 19, 2016]; http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/crc-conflict.pdf.

48.       Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Previsión Social - Unidad de Derechos Fundamentales. "Contribución a la Erradicación Progresiva del Trabajo Infantil." mintrabojo.gob.bo [online] n.d. [cited January 18, 2015]; http://www.mintrabajo.gob.bo/Descargas/UDF/CONTRIBUCION_A_LA_ERRADICACION_PROGRESIVA_DEL_TRABAJO_INFANTIL.pdf.

49.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 20, 2016.

50.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, February 3, 2014.

51.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, March 6, 2015.

52.       Government of Bolivia. "Unidad Policial de Apoyo al Control Migratorio UPACOM." migracion.gob.bo [online] [cited March 7, 2015]; http://www.migracion.gob.bo/web/upacom.html.

53.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, January 31, 2013.

54.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

55.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

56.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

57.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz. reporting, February 1, 2016.

58.       Government of Bolivia - Consejo Plurinacional Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas. "Política Plurinacional de Lucha Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas 2013 - 2017." [online] 2014 [cited March 6, 2015]; http://saludpublica.bvsp.org.bo/cc/bo40.1/documentos/588.pdf.

59.       Ministerio de Justicia. "Presentan Política Plurinacional de Lucha Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas ante el cuerpo diplomático." justicia.gob.bo [online] June 4, 2014 [cited March 6, 2015]; http://www.justicia.gob.bo/index.php/noticias/notas-de-prensa/1328-presentan-politica-plurinacional-de-lucha-contra-la-trata-y-trafico-de-personas-ante-el-cuerpo-diplomatico.

60.       Government of Bolivia. Resolución de Consejo / CPCTTP No. 001/2014, enacted January 6, 2014.

61.       Government of Bolivia - Consejo Plurinacional Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas. "Plan Nacional de Lucha Contra la Trata y Tráfico de Personas (2015-2019)." [online] 2015 [cited February 2, 2016]; http://vjdf.justicia.gob.bo/images/cargados/files/plan-trata.pdf.

62.       Government of Bolivia. "13 Pilares de la Bolivia Digna y Soberana - Agenda Patriotica del Bicentenario 2025." comunicacion.presidencia.gov.bo [online] 2013 [cited March 9, 2015]; http://comunicacion.presidencia.gob.bo/docprensa/pdf/20130123-11-36-55.pdf.

63.       Government of Bolivia. Agenda Patriótica del Bicentenario 2025, Ley Nº 650, enacted January 19, 2015. http://www.lexivox.org/norms/BO-L-N650.xhtml.

64.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - List of Participants, [online] [cited December 15, 2015]; http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dhdee/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS0.

65.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Declaration of Cancún 2015: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1.

66.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Plan of Action of Cancún: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1.

67.       Declaración de Constitución de la Iniciativa Regional América Latina y el Caribe Libre de Trabajo Infántil, signed at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas, October 14, 2014. Lima, Peru. https://iniciativaregionalcontraeltrabajoinfantil.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/declaracic3b3n-ir_espac3b1ol.pdf.

68.       ILO. "18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean Sign a Declaration to Free the Region from Child Labour." October 17, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/caribbean/WCMS_314428/lang--en/index.htm.

69.       UN News Centre. "At UN-backed forum, Latin American, Caribbean nations pledge robust efforts against child labour." October 15, 2014. http://www.un.org/apps/news/printnews.asp?nid=49082.

70.       Inter-Institutional Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor. Plan de erradicación progresiva del trabajo infantil: 2000-2010. La Paz, Ministry of Labor; November 2001. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/planbo.pdf.

71.       U.S. Department of Labor. "Ñaupaqman Puriy Kereimba - Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Bolivia (2010-2015)." [online] [cited December 22, 2015]; http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/Bolivia_CECL_FY2010.pdf.

72.       Government of Bolivia - Defensoría del Pueblo. Informe de avance del proyecto 'Derechos humanos de NNA en la actividad de zafra, beneficadora de castaña y minería'; 2013. http://www.defensoria.gob.bo/archivos/Verificaciones%20defensoriales%202013%20zafra%20casta%C3%B1a%20y%20miner%C3%ADa%20NyA.pdf.

73.       U.S. Embassy- La Paz official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 9, 2014.

74.       Desarrollo y Autogestión. Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Bolivia (Phase II). Technical Progress Report. Santa Cruz; October 2011.

75.       Government of Bolivia, Ministry of Education. Instructivo VER/DGES 004/2011. La Paz; July 27, 2011.

76.       Desarrollo y Autogestión. Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Bolivia (Phase II). Technical Progress Report. Santa Cruz; October 2013.

77.       Campaña Boliviana por el Derecho a la Educación. "OIT confiere reconocimiento a CEMSE por el aporte a la formación técnica." [online] September 29, 2015 [cited January 21, 2016]; https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=873994582678255&id=109452819132439.

78.       USDOL official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 6, 2014.

79.       IBCE. Triple Sello - Asesoramiento, IBCE, [online] [cited April 17, 2014]; http://www.rsebolivia.org/asesorias.asp.

80.       IBCE - Instituto Boliviano de Comercio Exterior. Trabajo Infantil: Del Compromiso a la Acción. La Paz; 2013.

81.       UNICEF. Plan de Acción de Programa País 2013 - 2017. La Paz; April 2013. http://www.unicef.org/bolivia/PlanAccionProg_2013_2017.pdf.

82.       UNICEF. "Bolivia Country Programme Document, 2013-2017." unicef.org [online] 2015 [cited March 9,]; http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Bolivia-2013-2017-final_approved-English-14Sept2012.pdf.

83.       Grupo de Acción Regional. Grupo de Acción Regional de las Américas, Quienes Somos, [online] 2010 [cited January 24, 2013]; [source on file].

84.       Grupo de Acción Regional de las Américas. Países Participantes, Grupo de Acción Regional de las Américas. Buenos Aires; March 27, 2010. http://www.grupodeaccionregional.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=52%3Aquienes-somos&catid=38&Itemid=73&lang=es.

85.       Mercosur. Reunión de la Comisión Permanente para la Coordinación e Implementación de las Acciones Relativas a la Iniciativa Niñ@ Sur para la Protección y Promoción de los Derechos de los Niños y Niñas y Adolescentes. Buenos Aires; March 27, 2012. Report No. 443.

86.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

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