Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Benin

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Benin

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2016, Benin made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government established two counseling and rest centers in two markets in central Benin to provide counseling and training opportunities to children exposed to labor exploitation. However, children in Benin are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work and in the production of cotton. Limited resources for the systematic enforcement of child labor laws impede government efforts to protect children from the worst forms of child labor. The national action plan pertaining to the worst forms of child labor expired without the implementation of a new version, and social programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Benin engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work and in the production of cotton.(1-4). Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Benin.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

20.9 (680,004)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

71.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

16.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

78.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2011–2012.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cotton† and cashew nuts† (3, 4, 7, 8)

Capturing, cleaning, and descaling fish† (4, 9, 10)

Raising livestock† (9)

Industry

Collecting,† crushing,† washing,† and sieving stones† for gold mining† and gravel† and granite quarrying† (1, 11-13)

Construction, including brickmaking† (2, 4, 10, 13)

Services

Domestic work† (1, 2, 4, 13-16)

Working as mechanics† and in the transportation industry† (4, 11, 13)

Street vending,† including gasoline (4, 11, 13, 17)

Dressmaking† and carpentry† (4, 9)

Begging† (2, 4)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in domestic work, construction, mining, fishing, granite quarrying, and agriculture, including in the production of cotton, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 14, 16, 18)

Forced begging (16, 19, 20)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 16, 17, 21)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children are mostly trafficked within Benin but also to other countries, primarily Gabon, Nigeria, Lebanon, and the Republic of Congo, for domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation, as well as to work in vending, farming, stone quarrying, and the production of handicrafts.(1, 14, 16, 20, 22, 23) Children working in mines and quarries are subject to long working hours and to physical injuries and illnesses from dynamite explosions, falling rocks, collapsing quarry walls, and dust inhalation.(11, 12) A 2016 UNICEF‐sponsored survey conducted by the Government of Benin in the cities of Cotonou and Malanville indicated that girls are subjected to sexual exploitation in these two cities.(24, 25)

Traditionally under vidomegon, children, up to 95 percent of them girls, live with relatives or family friends to perform domestic chores in exchange for educational opportunities; however, many children become victims of labor exploitation and sexual abuse.(1, 2, 4, 14, 20, 23, 25) In Northern Benin, marabouts, Koranic teachers, exploit boys in forced begging on the street or in agricultural work.(2, 19)

The constitution guarantees free compulsory primary education; nevertheless, some parents are expected to pay school fees for registration, uniforms, books, and materials.(4, 14) In addition, evidence suggests that incidences of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, including corporal punishment and rape of students by teachers, prevent some children from remaining in school.(2, 17, 20, 21, 26, 27) Children with disabilities have no access to the regular education system.(4)

In January 2016, the Minister of Interior launched a two-week national awareness campaign to increase birth registration of children to ensure that they have access to services such as education, as 19.8 percent of children under age five continue to be unregistered.(2, 20, 23, 28-30)

Benin has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Benin’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 166 of the Labor Code; Article 210 of the Child Code (31, 32)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 1 of the Hazardous Occupation List (33)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Occupation List (33)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 303 of the Labor Code; Article 4 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors; Article 212 of the Child Code (31, 32, 34)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 303 of the Labor Code; Articles 2–4, 6, 18, and 22 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors; Articles 212, 352, and 353 of the Child Code (31, 32, 34)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Law on the Prevention and Repression of Violence Against Women and Children; Article 4 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors; Articles 212 and 378 of the Child Code (32, 34, 35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 212 of the Child Code; Article 4 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors (32, 34)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 6 of Law 2005–43; Title II, Article 32 of the Constitution (36, 37)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 6 of Law 2005-43 (37)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 2 and 4 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors (34)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 24 of Act No. 2003-17; Article 4 of the Law on the Prevention of Violence Against Women and Children (35, 38)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 13 of the Constitution; Article 114 of the Child Code (32, 36)

During the reporting period, the Government halted the review process to revise the Labor Code upon a change of administration, and formed a new committee to review the code.(39) Article 22 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors prescribes insufficient penalties, especially in comparison to punishments prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape.(16, 34)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Civil Service, and Social Affairs (MOLCSSA)

Enforce child labor laws and investigate labor code infractions, including those related to child labor.(17, 21, 40) Provide support to victims of child labor and human trafficking.(2, 21, 39) In 2016, the Ministry of Labor and Civil Service and the Ministry of Family, Social Affairs, and National Solidarity were merged.(39)

Ministry of Interior

Enforce criminal laws related to the protection of minors, including the worst forms of child labor, through the Central Office for the Protection of Minors (OCPM) under the Criminal Police Department.(2, 16, 21) Through its Brigade des Moeurs (vice squad), address human trafficking for sexual exploitation.(25)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Benin took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (28)

$6,700 (17)

Number of Labor Inspectors

87 (28)

55 (17)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (28)

Yes (17)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (28)

Yes (17)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (28)

N/A (17)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (28)

Yes (17)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown (28)

27 (17)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (28)

Unknown (17)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (28)

Unknown (17)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (28)

1,278 (17)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (28)

Unknown (17)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (28)

Unknown (17)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (28)

Yes (17)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (28)

Yes (17)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (28)

Yes (17)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (28)

Unknown (17)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (28)

Yes (17)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (28)

Yes (30)

 

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor, Civil Service, and Social Affairs (MOLCSSA) employed 55 labor inspectors, 32 fewer than in 2015, as a result of retirements.(17, 39) The Government, with the assistance of UNICEF, held a four-day workshop to train 50 labor inspectors and child protection agents on child labor prevention and increase participants’ capacities to address the worst forms of child labor.(17) With the assistance of the French Embassy, the Central Office for the Protection of Minors (OCPM), in conjunction with MOLCSSA, provided training on child trafficking prevention for four judges, 26 police officers, four members of civil society organizations, and religious and traditional leaders.(25)

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Benin’s workforce, which includes over 3 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Benin should employ approximately 92 inspectors.(41, 42) The labor inspectorate stated that it 10Tlacks material and financial resources to effectively conduct inspections.(2, 16, 17) The OCPM under the Ministry of the Interior works together with Centers for Social Promotion under MOLCSSA to provide social services to child victims and ensure criminal investigation of the cases.(30)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Benin took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (23)

Unknown (17)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No (28)

N/A (17)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (23)

Unknown (17)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (28)

Unknown (17)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (28)

Unknown (17)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (28)

Unknown (17)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (28)

Unknown (17)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (28)

Yes (17)

OCPM remained understaffed, underfunded, and without adequate office supplies, transportation, and fuel to enforce laws effectively and to provide victims with immediate assistance.(2, 16, 28) The police lacked the transportation resources to investigate human trafficking cases and the tools with which to maintain database records. Court officials were also unable to maintain database records on human trafficking, and lacked the personnel and infrastructure to efficiently prosecute cases.(23)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Executive Committee to Combat Child Labor

Provide policy guidance; approve programs; and coordinate, monitor, and evaluate efforts to combat child labor in Benin.(2) Led by MOLCSSA and comprised of delegates from multiple Beninese ministries, UNICEF, ILO, trade unions, and NGOs.(21, 43) In 2016, the committee met once to discuss how to enhance activities and partnerships.(30, 39, 44)

National Commission on Children’s Rights

Coordinate and promote efforts on children’s rights at the national level. Chaired by the Ministry of Justice and comprised delegates from multiple other ministries and representatives of civil society groups, who are appointed by the Minister of Justice.(2) In 2016, the commission did not meet.(39, 44)

 

The mandates of the National Executive Committee to Combat Child Labor and the National Commission on Children’s Rights overlap and are a source of confusion.(2) In addition, although there is an information management system at the national level, data are rarely analyzed or used to affect implementation on the ground.(44) The National Monitoring and Coordination Working Group for Child Protection has not met since 2014 and is no longer operational.(39)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Action Plan to Eradicate Child Exploitation in Markets†

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in the major markets of Benin, including Dantokpa in Cotonou, Ouando in Porto-Novo, and Arzèkè in Parakou, and to strengthen child labor laws, raise awareness of child labor in markets, and create social programs for children rescued from labor exploitation in the targeted markets.(45, 46) In 2016, MOLCSSA, in conjunction with UNICEF, completed a documentary film that features the economic exploitation of children in five markets of Benin.(17, 39)

National Policy for Child Protection (2014–2025)

Aims to improve child protection in Benin. Includes components to improve school feeding programs and to combat the worst forms of child labor, with a focus on child trafficking.(17, 46, 47) Implemented by MOLCSSA, which reported in 2016 that it is still in the process of finalizing an action plan for the operationalization of the policy.(17, 30, 46, 47)

UN Development Assistance Framework (2014–2018)

Outlines the collective actions and strategies of the UN system for achieving national development goals, including specific activities to address child labor by increasing access to social protection services.(48)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

Research was unable to determine whether the expired National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Benin was renewed. Research was also unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the UN Development Assistance Framework during the reporting period.(30) The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the Education Sector Plan.(20, 30)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Understanding Children's Work-Action Against Child Labor (2015–2018)

Government of Canada-funded, 3-year, $750,000 project to combat child labor by supporting data collection and policy efforts related to children’s work and youth employment.(49) In 2016, research was unable to determine whether any actions were undertaken.(30)

Government-Funded Shelters†

MOLCSSA-operated Social Promotion Centers that provide food, shelter, education, and vocational training to vulnerable children, including victims of labor exploitation, in 85 centers. OCPM also operates an interim care facility for human trafficking survivors before their placement in a long-term shelter.(21, 39, 43) In 2016, social workers from the Social Promotion Center of Kandi and members of the Réseau des Structures de Protection des Enfants en Situation Difficile trained 20 members of civil society organizations committed to the protection of children’s rights on the new child code.(2, 16, 17, 21, 39)

Government-Funded Re-Training Centers†

The Ministry of Mines’ Social Services offers business management training to families, particularly women, involved in mining and quarrying, and provides protection equipment, including boots and gloves, to mining craftsmen in three cities.(43, 46) MOLCSSA, with the assistance of UNICEF, maintains a vocational school program to train survivors of child trafficking in a trade.(43, 44) In 2016, the Government, with assistance of UNICEF and Caritas, established two counseling and leisure centers in the markets of Zakpota and Abomey in central Benin to provide counseling and training opportunities to children exposed to labor exploitation.(17)

Benin Global Partnership for Education Program (2014–2017)

Approximately $42.3-million, World Bank-funded project that aims to improve access and equity to quality basic education in highly impoverished districts. In 2016, the primary completion rate in targeted districts increased to 54.4 percent from 40.4 percent in 2011, and 10,700 teachers were provided with a 10-day in-service training.(50)

† Program is funded by the Government of Benin.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(4, 17, 39, 51, 52)

Although the Government of Benin has implemented programs to protect children from human trafficking and participated in programs focused on child labor in quarrying and mining, research was unable to determine whether the Government has conducted programs to assist children engaged in other worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, or agriculture.(17)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Benin (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Create meaningful penalties for human trafficking crimes involving labor exploitation.

2014 – 2016

Enforcement

Provide consistent training for law enforcement officials on the worst forms of child labor.

2013 – 2016

Increase resources, including the number of labor inspectors and criminal investigators, to enforce laws against child labor and provide immediate victim assistance.

2009 – 2016

Publish data on the type of labor inspections conducted, training for criminal investigators, and the number of criminal investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and penalties related to child labor, including its worst forms.

2009 – 2016

Increase the resources available to law enforcement officials to efficiently track child labor cases.

2015 – 2016

Coordination

Take measures to coordinate efforts at the national level to eliminate duplicative activities, committees, and actors at the local level.

2013 – 2016

Analyze the data received from national information management systems and disseminate results nationwide.

2013 – 2016

Government Policies

Complete a new National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Benin.

2010 – 2016

Undertake activities to implement the UN Development Assistance Framework.

2016

Ensure child labor elimination and prevention strategies are integrated into the Education Sector Action Plan.

2010 – 2016

Social Programs

Increase access to education by eliminating school-related fees, ensuring that children with disabilities have access to regular schools, ensuring the safety of children in schools, and increasing birth registration rates to ensure that children have access to services such as education.

2010 – 2016

Institute programs to address the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, and agriculture, and monitor and report annually on the progress of these programs.

2010 – 2016

Implement the Understanding Children's Work–Action Against Child Labor project.

2016

1.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Benin (ratification:  2001) Published: 2015; accessed November 19, 2015; https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3182325:NO.

2.         UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Najat Maalla M’jid, Mission to Benin. Geneva; March 5, 2014. Report No. A/HRC/25/48/Add.3. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G14/118/26/PDF/G1411826.pdf?OpenElement.

3.         World Vision. "Forced and Child Labor in the Cotton Industry-Fact Sheet." 2012 [cited December 15, 2016]; http://campaign.worldvision.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Forced-and-child-labour-in-the-cotton-industry-fact-sheet.pdf.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Human Rights Report," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/252863.pdf.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [accessed December 16, 2016] http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2011-2012. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         Guinebault, M. "Textile and Apparel Industries Still Using Child Labor." fashionmag.com [online] October 11, 2013 [cited May 17, 2017]; http://us.fashionnetwork.com/news/Textile-and-apparel-industries-still-using-child-labor,360680.html#.WRSGCU11ofg.

8.         I-Witness News. "Slavery in Africa Today: Benin." iwnsvg.org [online] November 19, 2013 [cited February 21, 2017]; http://www.iwnsvg.com/2013/11/19/slavery-in-africa-today-benin/.

9.         L'Autre Fraternite. "Lutte Contre Le Travail Des Enfants." lautrefraternite.com September 24, 2012 [cited [Source on file].

10.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 17, 2015.

11.       USDOL official. In-Country Observations USDOL official. September 3-7, 2012.

12.       ILO-IPEC. Étude d’Approfondissement des Connaissances sur le Travail des Enfants dans les Mines et Carrières du Benin. Geneva; May 2013. [Source on file].

13.       Savripène, M.A. "Bénin: Le Travail des Enfants Prend des Proportions Inquiétantes." Gender Links July 28, 2015 [cited December 21, 2015]; [Source on file].

14.       Children's Rights Information Network. Benin: Children's Rights in the Universal Periodic Review (Second Cycle). London; October 25, 2012. http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=29669.

15.       ILO-IPEC. Ending child labour in domestic work and protecting young workers from abusive working conditions. Geneva; June 12, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_207656/lang--en/index.htm.

16.       U.S. Department of State. "Trafficking in Persons Report," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, January 20, 2017.

18.       L’Institut National de la Statistique et de l’Analyse Économique (INSAE), and UNICEF. Recensement des Enfants Travailleurs des Marches Dantokpa, Ouando et Arzeke (REM). Cotonou; 2013. [Source on file].

19.       Thorson, D. "Children Begging for Qur’ānic School Masters: Evidence from West and Central Africa." UNICEF Briefing Paper No. 5, (2012); http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Briefing_paper_No_5_-_children_begging_for_Quranic_school_masters.pdf.

20.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Benin. Geneva; February 25, 2016. Report No. CRC/C/BEN/CO/3-5. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/037/15/PDF/G1603715.pdf?OpenElement.

21.       ECPAT. Rapport Global de Suivi de la Mise en Ouvre des Actions de Lutte Contre l’Exploitation Sexuelle des Enfants à des Fins Commerciales- Benin. Bangkok; 2014. http://www.ecpat.net/sites/default/files/A4A_AF_BENIN_FINAL.pdf.

22.       Mark, M. "Benin's poverty pushes youngsters into the employ of child traffickers." The Guardian, November 27, 2012. http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/nov/27/benin-poverty-child-traffickers.

23.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, February 16, 2016.

24.       Government of Benin. Enquête sur la prostitution et la pornographie impliquant les enfants dans les villes de Cotonou et de Malanville; June 2016. [Source on file].

25.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, February 14, 2017.

26.       Plan Benin. Benin: Submission to Inform the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women on its Consideration of the Periodic Report of Benin under the CEDAW Convention. Cotonou; 2013. [Source on file].

27.       Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children. "Country report for Benin." [online] February, 2016 [cited May 9, 2017]; http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/progress/country-reports/benin.html.

28.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, January 15, 2016.

29.       UNICEF Data. "Benin" in Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women; accessed November 4, 2016; https://data.unicef.org/country/ben/.

30.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 5, 2017.

31.       Government of Benin. Code du travail, Loi n° 98-004, enacted January 27, 1998. https://fonacbenin.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/1998_loi-portant-code-du-travail.pdf.

32.       Government of Benin. Code de l’enfant en République du Bénin, Loi n° 2015-08, enacted January 23, 2015. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/99941/119603/F-860169827/BEN-99941.pdf.

33.       Government of Benin. Liste des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants en République du Bénin, Décret n° 200-029, enacted January 31, 2011. [Source on file].

34.       Government of Benin. Conditions de déplacement des mineurs et répression de la traite d'enfants en République du Bénin, Loi n° 2006-04, enacted April 10, 2006. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/73266/74783/F93417100/BEN73266.pdf.

35.       Government of Benin. Prévention et Répression des Violences Faites aux Femmes, Loi n° 2011-26, enacted January 9, 2012. http://www.bj.undp.org/content/dam/benin/docs/emancipationdesfemes/violences-faites-aux-femmes.pdf.

36.       Government of Benin. Constitution of the Republic of Benin, enacted 1990. http://www.consulatbenin.fr/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/La-Constitution-.pdf.

37.       Government of Benin. Statut Général des Personnels Militaires des Forces Armées Béninoises, Loi n° 2005-43, enacted June 26, 2006. [Source on file].

38.       Government of Benin. Orientation de l'Éducation Nationale en République du Bénin, Loi n° 2003-17, enacted November 11, 2003. http://www.axl.cefan.ulaval.ca/afrique/benin-loi-17-2003.htm.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 21, 2017.

40.       Government of Benin. Normes du Travail au Bénin. Cotonou, Ministère du Travail, de la Fonction Publique, et des Affaires Sociales; 2017. http://www.travail.gouv.bj/index.php/attributions/normes-du-travail.html.

41.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 27, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

42.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies," and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

43.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, January 17, 2014.

44.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 12, 2016.

45.       24haubenin. "Bénin : Signature d’une Charte Contre l’Exploitation des Enfants." 24haubenin.info [online] October 12, 2014 [cited January 26, 2015]; http://www.24haubenin.info/?Benin-Signature-d-une-charte.

46.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, January 14, 2015.

47.       ACotonou.com. "Bénin : adoption d’une politique nationale de protection de l’enfant." Acotonou.com [online] May 7, 2014 [cited January 26, 2015]; http://news.acotonou.com/h/22863.html.

48.       Government of Benin, and UN Country Team. Rapport de progrés 2015 - UNDAF 2014-2018; January 2016. [Source on file].

49.       Government of Canada. "Project Profile: Understanding Children's Work - Action Against Child Labour." [online] January 27, 2017 [cited http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/cidaweb/cpo.nsf/vWebMCSAZEn/2BBC358E599E578185257E0C0035AD05.

50.       World Bank. Benin Global Partnership for Education Program (P129600). Implementation Status & Results Report: Sequence 05. Washington, DC; December 28, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/158681482930836751/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P129600-12-28-2016-1482930827540.pdf.

51.       Government of Benin. Programme d'Action du Gouvernement 2016-2021. Cotonou; 2016. http://www.cedatuac.org/attachments/article/79/consolidation%20PAG.pdf.

52.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 9, 2017.

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