Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Benin

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Benin

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Benin made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed an amendment to the Child Code, containing provisions on labor exploitation, the sale or possession of child pornography, and begging. The Government hired 31 new labor inspectors, trained criminal law enforcement officials, and initiated a birth registration awareness-raising campaign. However, children in Benin are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, particularly in the production of cotton, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work. Limited resources for the systematic enforcement of child labor laws impede government efforts to protect children from the worst forms of child labor. The national action plan pertaining to the worst forms of child labor remains unfunded, and social programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Benin are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, particularly in the production of cotton.(1-3) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work.(4-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Benin.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

20.9 (680,004)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

71.0

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

16.3

Primary completion rate (%):

76.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2011–2012.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cotton† and cashew nuts*† (3, 9, 10)

 

Capturing,* cleaning,* and descaling fish*† (1, 11, 12)

Raising livestock*† (11)

Industry

Collecting,*† crushing,*† washing,*† and sieving stones† for gold mining*† and gravel*† and granite quarrying† (5, 13-15)

Construction, including brickmaking*† (1, 6, 12, 15)

Services

Domestic work† (1, 2, 5, 6, 15-18)

Working as mechanics† and in the transportation industry*† (1, 13, 15)

Street vending,† including gasoline* (1, 13, 15)

Dressmaking*† and carpentry*† (1, 11)

Begging*† (1, 6)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in domestic work, construction,* mining,* fishing,* granite quarrying, and agriculture,* including in the production of cotton, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 14, 16, 17, 19)

Forced begging* (2, 20, 21)

Commercial sexual exploitation* sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (2, 4, 6, 22)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Benin is a source, transit, and destination country for trafficked children. Children are trafficked mostly within Benin but also to other West and Central African countries, primarily Gabon, Nigeria, and the Republic of Congo.(23) Children are trafficked for domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation, as well as to work in vending, farming, stone quarries, and handicraft activities.(5, 16, 24-26)

Through the system of vidomegon, girls as young as age 7 are sent to relatives or strangers to work as domestic workers in exchange for food, housing, and schooling. In practice, some of these girls receive care and an education; however, many become victims of labor exploitation and sexual abuse.(1, 5, 6, 16, 23) In Northern Benin, some boys placed in the care of Koranic teachers for the purpose of education are forced by their teachers to beg on the street or to work in fields; they must then surrender the money they have earned to their teachers.(6, 20, 21)

A study conducted by ILO-IPEC in 2013 found 2,553 children working in 102 surveyed mines and quarries across Benin.(14) Children who work in quarries are subject to long working hours and to physical injuries and illnesses from dynamite explosions, falling rocks, collapsing quarry walls, and dust inhalation.(13, 14, 27) A UNICEF study of three markets in Benin revealed more than 7,800 children working in the markets, mainly as street vendors. Children working in markets are exposed to injuries and sexual and physical abuse.(6, 28)

Although the constitution guarantees free compulsory primary education by law, in practice, some parents are expected to pay school fees for registration, uniforms, books, and materials.(1, 4, 16, 29) This may make children more vulnerable to child labor, including its worst forms. In addition, evidence suggests that incidences of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, including corporal punishment and rape of students by teachers, prevent some children from remaining in school.(6, 22, 30, 31) Children with disabilities had no access to the regular education system.(1)

The Government has been working with UNICEF to establish new civil registration centers in smaller towns and neighborhoods and, in January 2015, initiated a 2-week national birth registration awareness campaign; however, some children in Benin continued to be unregistered.(6, 23, 32) Unregistered children may have difficulty accessing services, such as education.

Benin has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 166 of the Labor Code; Article 210 of the Child Code (33, 34)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 1 of the Hazardous Occupation List (35)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Occupation List (35)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 303 of the Labor Code; Article 4 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors; Article 212 of the Child Code (33, 34, 36)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 303 of the Labor Code; Articles 6 and 22 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors; Article 212 of the Child Code (33, 34, 36)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Law on the Prevention and Repression of Violence Against Women and Children; Article 4 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors; Articles 212 and 378 of the Child Code (34, 36, 37)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 212 of the Child Code; Article 4 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors (34, 36)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 6 of Law 2005-43(38)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 6 of Law 2005-43(38)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

11‡

Article 24 of Act No. 2003-17(39)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 13 of the Constitution; Article 114 of the Child Code (34, 40)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (39)

Benin’s Child Code is a compilation of existing legislation related to children’s rights, education, protection, labor, and health. In January 2015, the Government passed an amendment to the Child Code containing provisions regarding offenses involving minors, including labor exploitation, the sale or possession of child pornography, and begging.(34) The amendment also prohibits using, procuring, or offering children for the production and trafficking of drugs, as defined by international standards regarding the worst forms of child labor.(34)

Article 22 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors prescribes penalties—6 months to 2 years of imprisonment—or fines for human trafficking crimes involving labor exploitation. These punishments are neither sufficiently stringent nor commensurate with the punishments prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape.(2, 36) A revised Labor Code, which proposes to increase the penalties for child labor violations and to increase the minimum age of employment to age 15, has been developed.(41) Research did not find information indicating whether the revised Labor Code had been approved in 2015.

Beninese children are required to attend only 6 years of primary school, through age 11.(1, 42) Since the minimum age for children to work is 14, children ages 12 and 13 are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, as they may have completed primary school but are not legally permitted to work.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Civil Service’s Office of Labor

Enforce labor laws and investigate Labor Code infractions, including those related to child labor.(1, 4, 22, 43)

Ministry of Interior’s Central Office for the Protection of Minors (OCPM), under the Criminal Police Department

Enforce criminal laws related to the protection of minors, including the worst forms of child labor.(2, 4, 6, 22)

Ministry of Family, Social Affairs, and National Solidarity (MFSN)

Provide support to victims of child labor and human trafficking.(6, 22) In the case of the Directorate of the Family, Children, and Adolescence, tasked with implementing assistance and social reinsertion programs for children in difficult situations.(1, 4, 6, 15)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Benin took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown (32)

Number of Labor Inspectors

56 (32)

87 (32)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (2)

Yes (32)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (32)

Unknown (32)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (32)

No (32)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (32)

Unknown (32)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

Unknown (32)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown (32)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown (32)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

4 (32)

Unknown (32)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown (32)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown (32)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

No (32)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown (32)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (32)

Yes (32)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown (32)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (32)

Yes (32)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (32)

Yes (32)

 

In 2015, Ministry of Labor personnel were employed in 12 departments across Benin to ensure the application of labor laws, including those on child labor.(32) In November, the Ministry of Labor hired 31 additional labor inspectors, 25 labor controllers, and 5 labor administrators.(32) According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, the Government of Benin should employ approximately 92 inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(44-46) The labor inspectorate 10Tlacks material and financial resources to effectively conduct inspections.(2, 6) 10TThere is no formal or informal mechanism to coordinate enforcement actions between the Ministry of Labor and Civil Service and the Ministry of Interior’s Central Office for the Protection of Minors (OCPM).(47) Additionally10T, 10TUNICEF reports that child rights laws, including child labor laws, are often not enforced.(48)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Benin took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (23)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No (32)

Unknown (32)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (23)

Number of Investigations

4 (32)

Unknown (32)

Number of Violations Found

4 (32)

Unknown (32)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown (32)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown (32)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (22, 49)

Yes (32)

 

In 2015, the Government of Benin worked with UNICEF to provide training to 60 press and radio journalists on child labor and human trafficking.(23) The Government also collaborated with Terre des Hommes to train police officers, social assistants, journalists, and local NGOs in Benin on the identification and reintegration of migrant children and to provide similar trainings for community workers both in Benin and in Nigeria.(23) In 2015, senior police officials learned about child trafficking as part of their police academy training, and judges and other officials in charge of child protection participated in anti-trafficking in persons trainings in Benin or abroad.(23)

The Government does not maintain comprehensive records of criminal enforcement for all agencies. OCPM reported handling 49 child trafficking cases and 12 exploitive child labor cases in 2015, involving 12 suspected traffickers.(23) OCPM also reported rescuing and providing shelter to 131 child trafficking victims in 2015.(23, 32). Additionally, in 2015, gendarmes arrested a trafficker for bringing two girls to a village in Nigeria to work as domestic servants.(23) Despite these efforts, OCPM remained understaffed; underfunded; and without adequate office supplies, transportation, and fuel to enforce laws effectively and to provide victims with immediate assistance.(2, 6, 32) The police lacked the transportation resources to investigate human trafficking cases and the tools with which to maintain database records.(23) Court officials were also unable to maintain database records on trafficking in persons and lacked the personnel and infrastructure to efficiently prosecute cases.(23)

In 2015, the Ministry of Family developed an integrated database to include information that would allow for the identification of children in need of special protection and information related to violence against women and children.(23)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Executive Committee to Combat Child Labor

Provide policy guidance; approve programs; and coordinate, monitor, and evaluate efforts to combat child labor in Benin.(4, 6) Led by the Ministry of Labor and Civil Service. Comprises delegates from multiple Beninese ministries, UNICEF, ILO, trade unions, and NGOs.(4, 22, 41) In 2015, the National Executive Committee to Combat Child Labor met once to coordinate and evaluate existing child labor programs in Benin.(47)

National Monitoring and Coordination Working Group for Child Protection (CNSCPE)

Implement, coordinate, and monitor government efforts on child protection. Chaired by MFSN and comprises five technical committees, including a committee for human trafficking and labor exploitation.(41) Each committee has an action plan and proposes activities to the CNSCPE.(50) Includes 40 members from sector-based ministries, NGO networks, international technical and financial partners, and bilateral partners.(50, 51) The CNSCPE did not meet during the reporting period.(23)

Departmental Monitoring and Coordination Working Group for Child Protection

Coordinate, monitor, and evaluate efforts on child protection at the departmental level. Comprises six departmental committees that identify child protection activities. Compile and analyze the data gathered and report it to the CNSCPE.(12, 52)

National Commission on Children’s Rights

Coordinate and promote efforts on children’s rights at the national level. Chaired by the Ministry of Justice. Comprises delegates from multiple other ministries and representatives of civil society groups, who are appointed by the Minister of Justice.(6)Met during the reporting period.(53)

 

The mandates of the National Executive Committee to Combat Child Labor, the National Monitoring and Coordination Working Group for Child Protection, and the National Commission on Children’s Rights overlap and are a source of confusion.(6, 48) In addition, although there is an information management system at the national level, data are rarely analyzed or used to affect implementation on the ground.(48, 53)

The Government of Benin has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor (NAP) in Benin (2012–2015)

Aims to improve child labor by conducting awareness-raising campaigns; increasing access to education and training; reducing socioeconomic vulnerabilities through livelihood strategies; increasing enforcement efforts; strengthening protection and monitoring measures for victims of exploitive child labor; and harmonizing the legal sector by ensuring that judges, police officers, and labor inspectors have access to and understand pertinent laws related to child labor.(4, 54) The Government publicized and disseminated NAP and began work to harmonize legislation related to the worst forms of child labor.(41, 55) The Ministries of Labor, Justice, and Family and National Solidarity conduct activities under NAP that are also included in each ministry’s 2015 activity plans.(55)

Bipartite Declaration to Combat Child Labor Between the Government of Benin and the Beninese Worker Associations

Pledges to promote efforts to reduce the worst forms of child labor and to collaborate at all levels with all parties concerned with combating child labor.(56)

Action Plan to Eradicate Child Exploitation in Markets

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in the major markets of Benin, including Dantokpa in Cotonou, Ouando in Porto-Novo, and Arzèkè in Parakou, and to strengthen child labor laws, raise awareness of child labor in markets, and create social programs for children rescued from labor exploitation in the targeted markets.(57, 58)

Benin and Nigeria Joint Committee to Combat Child Trafficking

Aims to reinforce border security measures and repatriate victims of human trafficking between Benin and Nigeria.(59, 60)

Anti-Trafficking Accord Between the Republic of Benin and the Republic of the Congo

Targets the identification, prevention, and rehabilitation of cross-border trafficked children between Benin and the Republic of the Congo. Includes components for monitoring and evaluation, and for conducting cross-border investigations.(61, 62)

National Policy for Child Protection (2014–2025)

Aims to improve child protection in Benin. Includes components to improve school feeding programs and to combat the worst forms of child labor, with a focus on child trafficking.(57, 63) Implemented by MFSN.(57, 63)

Decent Work Country Program (2010–2015)

Identifies three objectives of decent work: (1) promoting social dialogue, (2) creating jobs and guaranteeing rights at work for vulnerable populations, and (3) extending social protection.(64) Includes, as an outcome, improving the operational environment for the elimination of child labor and its worst forms. Led by the Ministry of Labor and Civil Service’s Office of Labor and supported by the ILO.(64)

Education Sector Action Plan

(2006–2015)*

Aims to reduce poverty and improve access to primary education, especially for girls. Overseen by the Ministry of Education.(65)

Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper PRSP (2011–2015)*

Aims to improve free universal primary education, education quality, student retention rates, provision of social services, and vocational training and microfinance for youth and women. Led by the Ministry of Development and Economic Analysis and supported by international donors.(66)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

In 2015, the National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Benin remained unfunded.(53, 57)

In 2015, the Government of Benin funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Strengthening Social Dialogue as an Effective Tool to Address the Worst Forms of Child Labor

(2012–2015)

Government of Ireland-funded, 3-year, $760,883 project to combat child labor through social dialogue.(67)

Irish Aid-ILO Partnership Program Phase II (2014–2015)

Government of Ireland-funded, 3-year, $798,913 project to combat child labor in stone-breaking. Aimed to improve decent working conditions for women in Benin’s stone-breaking cooperatives and associations by providing equipment that is safer and more productive, thereby increasing women’s earning potential and decreasing the need for child labor.(68, 69)

Understanding Children's Work–Action Against Child Labor (2015–2017)

Government of Canada-funded, 3-year, $334,106 project to combat child labor by supporting data collection and policy efforts related to children’s work and youth employment.(70)

 

MFSN Social Promotion Centers†

Government program that provides food, shelter, education, and vocational training to vulnerable children, including victims of labor exploitation. MFSN operates 85 centers located throughout the country, which provided services to 131 trafficking victims in 2015.(2, 6, 22)

Transit Center for Children

OCPM facility used as interim care facility for human trafficking survivors prior to their placement in a long-term shelter.(22, 41)

Awareness-raising campaigns†

Government-implemented human trafficking campaigns.(2)

Ministry of Mines’ Social Services†

Business management training offered to families, particularly women, involved in mining and quarrying. Also, protection equipment, including boots and gloves, provided to mining craftsman in three cities.(41, 57)

Vocational School Program for Survivors of Child Trafficking†

MFSN program, implemented with UNICEF. Maintains a vocational school program to train survivors of child trafficking in a trade.(41, 53)

Benin Global Partnership for Education Program

(2014–2017)

Approximately $42.3-million, World Bank-funded project that aims to improve access and equity to quality basic education in highly impoverished districts in Benin. Primary completion rate in targeted districts increased to 52.5 percent in 2015 from 40.4 percent in 2011.(71)

Second Chance Schools

(2013–2015)

USAID-funded, $3.5-million, 4-year project, which ended in October, 2015. Promoted alternative approaches to basic education by providing out-of-school children with basic literacy, numeracy, and life skills.(53, 72, 73)

† Program is funded by the Government of Benin.

Although the Government of Benin has implemented programs to protect children from human trafficking and participated in programs focused on child labor in quarrying and mining, research found no evidence that the Government has conducted programs to assist children engaged in other worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, or agriculture.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Benin (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Create meaningful penalties for human trafficking crimes involving labor exploitation.

2014 – 2015

Raise the compulsory education age to be equivalent to the minimum age for work.

2009 – 2015

Enforcement

Provide training on the worst forms of child labor to labor law enforcement officials.

2013 – 2015

Increase resources, the number of labor inspectors, and criminal investigators to enforce laws against child labor and provide immediate victim assistance.

2009 – 2015

Make publicly available information on labor inspection funding; the number and type of labor inspections conducted; whether routine inspections are targeted; and the number of labor and criminal law inspections and investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and penalties related to child labor, including its worst forms.

2009 – 2015

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by initiating routine inspections rather than performing inspections solely based on complaints received.

2015

Establish a mechanism to coordinate enforcement actions between labor and criminal law enforcement agencies.

2015

Increase the resources available to law enforcement officials to efficiently track child labor cases.

2015

Coordination

Ensure the Departmental Monitoring and Coordination Working Group for Child Protection carries out its responsibilities related to the worst forms of child labor.

2013 – 2015

Take measures to coordinate efforts at the national level to eliminate duplicative activities, committees, and actors at the local level.

2013 – 2015

Analyze the data received from national information management systems and disseminate results nationwide.

2013 – 2015

Government Policies

Fund and implement the NAP.

2010 – 2015

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Sector Action Plan and the PRSP.

2010 – 2015

Social Programs

Increase access to education by:

  • Eliminating school-related fees,
  • Ensuring school administrators and teachers allow children without birth certificates to attend school,
  • Taking measures to ensure children with disabilities have access to regular schools, and
  • Ensuring the safety of children in schools.

2010 – 2015

Institute programs to address the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, and agriculture, and monitor the progress of these programs.

2010 – 2015

1.         U.S. Department of State. "Benin," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015. 40TUhttp://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2014&dlid=236328U40T.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Benin," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; 40TUhttp://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243397.htmU40T.

3.         World Vision. Forced and Child Labor in the Cotton Industry-Fact Sheet; 2012. 40TUhttp://campaign.worldvision.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Forced-and-child-labour-in-the-cotton-industry-fact-sheet.pdfU40T.

4.         Republique du Benin: Ministere de Travail et de la Fonction Publique. "Plan d’Action National pour l’Elimination des Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants au Bénin  (2012-2015)." 2011.

5.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Benin (ratification: 2001) Published: 2015; accessed November 19, 2015; 40TUhttp://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htmU40T.

6.         UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, Najat Maalla M’jid, Mission to Benin. Geneva; March 5, 2014. Report No. A/HRC/25/48/Add.3. 40TUhttp://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Children/Pages/CountryVisits.aspxU40T.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015] 40TUhttp://data.uis.unesco.org/U40T. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2011-2012. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

9.         Guinebault, M. "Textile and apparel industries still using child labor." fashionmag.com [online] October 11, 2013 [cited January 22, 2015 ]; 40TUhttp://us.fashionmag.com/news/Textile-and-apparel-industries-still-using-child-labor,360680.html#.VrORPlROnZ4U40T.

10.       I-Witness News. "Slavery in Africa today: Benin." iwnsvg.com [online] November 19, 2013 [cited January 22, 2015 ]; 40TUhttp://www.iwnsvg.com/2013/11/19/slavery-in-africa-today-benin/U40T.

11.       L'Autre Fraternité. "Lutte contre le travail des enfants." lautrefraternite.com [online] September 24, 2012 [cited January 22, 2015]; 40TUhttp://lautrefraternite.com/2012/09/24/lutte-contre-le-travail-des-enfants-un-changement-de-comportement-simpose/U40T.

12.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 17, 2015.

13.       USDOL official. In-Country Observations; 2012 September.

14.       ILO-IPEC. Étude d’approfondissement des connaissances sur le travail des enfants dans les mines et carrières du Benin; 2013 May.

15.       Marie Annick Savripène. "Bénin: Le travail des enfants prend des proportions inquiétantes." July 28, 2015 [cited December 21, 2015]; [sources on file].

16.       Children's Rights Information Network. Benin: Children's Rights in the Universal Periodic Review (Second Cycle). London; October 25, 2012. 40TUhttp://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=29669U40T.

17.       Youngbee Dale. "Benin: Child Slavery is Endemic." Washington Times, December 16, 2011. [source on file].

18.       ILO-IPEC. Ending child labour in domestic work and protecting young workers from abusive working conditions. Geneva; June 12, 2013. 40TUhttp://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_207656/lang--en/index.htmU40T.

19.       Wolfe, C. Child trafficking in Benin: Difficult choices and devastating consequences, Dagbe, [previously online] May 3, 2013 [cited December 4, 2013]; 40TUhttp://www.dagbe.org/?p=858U40T [source on file}.

20.       BCAT/LASDEL. Le système Talibé à Malanville; May 2011. [source on file].

21.       Thorson, D. "Children Begging for Qur’ānic School Masters: Evidence from West and Central Africa." UNICEF Briefing Paper No. 5, (2012); 40TUhttp://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Briefing_paper_No_5_-_children_begging_for_Quranic_school_masters.pdfU40T.

22.       ECPAT. Rapport Global de Suivi de la Mise en Oeuvre des Actions de Lutte Contre l’Exploitation Sexuelle des Enfants à des Fins Commerciales- Benin; 2014. 40TUhttp://www.ecpat.net/sites/default/files/A4A_AF_BENIN_FINAL.pdfU40T.

23.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, February 16, 2016.

24.       UNICEF. In Benin, Making Education a Priority [YouTube video]: UNICEF; April 13, 2012, 03 min., 19 sec., 40TUhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g_Qo7i1s6po&feature=player_embedded#U40T.

25.       Mark, M. "Benin's Poverty Pushes Youngsters into the Employ of Child Traffickers." The Guardian, London, November 27, 2012. 40TUhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2012/nov/27/benin-poverty-child-traffickersU40T.

26.       International Labour Office. Children in hazardous work:  What we know, What we need to do. Geneva, International Labour Organization; 2011. 40TUhttp://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_155428.pdfU40T. While country-specific information on the dangers children face in street work is not available, research studies and other reports have documented the dangerous nature of tasks in street work and their accompanying occupational exposures, injuries and potential health consequences to children working in the sector.

27.       "Lutte contre le travail des enfants dans le Mono-Couffo: Des carrières de graviers vers l’école." Le Matin, February 22, 2011.

28.       L’Institut National de la Statistique et de l’Analyse Économique (INSAE), and UNICEF. Recensement des Enfants Travailleurs des Marchés Dantokpa, Ouando et Arzeke (REM). Cotonou; 2013. 40TUhttp://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CD0QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.insae-bj.org%2F%3Ffile%3Dfiles%2Fenquetes-recensements%2Fautres%2FRecensement_Enfants_Marche_2013.pdf&ei=M7bZUqu1D5fLsQTfwoL4BQ&usg=AFQjCNHpsrJ93DyltJlGIXwuixulsxVdQw&sig2=__Zw_bwWz9ntXSDrNvnb8Q&bvm=bv.59568121,d.cWc&cad=rjaU40T.

29.       Jakob Engel, Edmond Magloire Cossou, and Pauline Rose. Benin's Progress in Education: Expanding Access and Narrowing the Gender Gap. London, Overseas Development Institute; 2011. 40TUhttp://www.developmentprogress.org/sites/default/files/benin_education_progress.pdfU40T.

30.       Plan Benin. Benin: Submission to inform the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women on its consideration of the periodic report of Benin under the CEDAW Convention. Benin; 2013.

31.       Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children. Country report for Benin; April, 2015. 40TUhttp://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/progress/country-reports/benin.htmlU40T.

32.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, January 15, 2016.

33.       Government of Benin. Loi No. 98-004 du 27 janvier 1998, Portant code du travail, enacted 1998. 40TUhttps://fonacbenin.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/1998_loi-portant-code-du-travail.pdfU40T.

34.       Government of Benin. Code de l’enfant, Law No. 2015-08, enacted January 23, 2015. 40TUhttps://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/99941/119603/F-860169827/BEN-99941.pdfU40T.

35.       Government of Benin. Décret No. 2011-029 du 31 Janvier 2011: Liste des Travaux Dangereux Interdits aux Enfants en République du Bénin, enacted 2011.

36.       Government of Benin. Loi No. 2006-04 du 10 Avril 2006 Portant Conditions de Déplacement des mineurs et Répression de la Traite d'Enfants en République du Bénin, enacted 2006.

37.       Government of Benin. Loi No. 2011-26 du 09 Janvier 2012, Portant prévention et répression des violences faites aux femmes, enacted March 2012. 40TUhttp://www.bj.undp.org/content/dam/benin/docs/emancipationdesfemes/violences-faites-aux-femmes.pdfU40T

38.       Government of Benin. Loi No. 2005-43 du 26 Juin 2006 Portant statut général des personnels Militaires des Forces Armées Béninoises, enacted 2006.

39.       Government of Benin. Loi No. 2003-17 portant orientation de l'éducation nationale en République du Bénin, enacted November 11, 2003. 40TUhttp://www.axl.cefan.ulaval.ca/afrique/benin-loi-17-2003.htmU40T.

40.       Government of Benin. Constitution of the Republic of Benin, enacted 1990. 40TUhttp://confinder.richmond.edu/admin/docs/Benin1990English.pdfU40T.

41.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, January 17, 2014.

42.       UNESCO. The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education. Paris; March 1, 2011. [source on file].

43.       Government of Benin. Normes du travail au Bénin. Cotonou, Ministère du Travail, de la Fonction Publique, de la Réforme Administrative et Institutionnelle; 2015. 40TUhttp://www.travail.gouv.bj/index.php/attributions/normes-du-travail.htmlU40T.

44.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; 40TUhttps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131U40T. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

45.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. 40TUhttp://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdfU40T. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

46.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. 40TUhttp://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdfU40T. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

47.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. Email communication to USDOL official. February 12, 2016.

48.       Child Frontier, UNICEF, and Plan Benin. Cartographie et Analyse du Système National de Protection de l’Enfance au Bénin. Porto Novo; 2011. 40TUhttp://offebenin.org/?wpdmact=process&did=NDcuaG90bGluaw==U40T.

49.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, January 20, 2015.

50.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, January 30, 2013.

51.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, January 27, 2012.

52.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, February 17, 2015.

53.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. USDOL official. April 13, 2016.

54.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Benin (ratification: 2001) Published: 2015; accessed November 19, 2015; 40TUhttp://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3182325U40T.

55.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 30, 2014.

56.       Conseil National du Patronat du Benin, and Obisacote. Déclaration bipartite sur le travail des enfants. Cotonou; February 18, 2013.

57.       U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. reporting, January 14, 2015.

58.       24haubenin. "Bénin : Signature d’une charte contre l’exploitation des enfants." October 12, 2014 [cited January 26, 2015]; 40TUhttp://www.24haubenin.info/?Benin-Signature-d-une-charteU40T.

59.       Abeaokuta, EN. "NAPTIP rescues 384 children in Ogun." The Nation, November 2, 2012. [source on file].

60.       U.S. Department of State. "Benin," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2012. Washington, DC; June 19, 2012; 40TUhttp://www.refworld.org/docid/4fe30ce1c.htmlU40T.

61.       Comite Contre L'esclavage Moderne. "Le Congo et le Bénin s’Unissent pour Lutter contre la Traite des Eenfants." 2012. 40TUhttp://www.esclavagemoderne.org/011-590-Le-Congo-et-le-Benin-contre-la-traite-des-enfants.htmlU40T.

62.       Gouvernement de la Republique de Benin, and Gouvernement de la Republique du Congo. Accord de Cooperation sur la Lutte Contre la Traite des Enfants. formerly online. Cotonou; 2011. [source on file].

63.       ACotonou.com. "Bénin : adoption d’une politique nationale de protection de l’enfant." May 7, 2014 [cited January 26, 2015]; 40TUhttp://news.acotonou.com/h/22863.htmlU40T.

64.       Government of Benin. Decent Work Country Programme (DWCP) 2010-2015. Geneva, International Labor Organization; May 2010. 40TUhttp://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/benin.pdfU40T.

65.       Government of Benin. Plan Décennal de Dévelopment du Secteur de l'Éducation 2006-2015. Cotonou; 2006. 40TUhttp://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Benin/Benin_PDDE_T1_T2_CMEF.pdfU40T.

66.       IMF, and World Bank. Benin: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper 2011-2015. Washington, DC; October 2011. 40TUhttp://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Benin/Benin_PRSP_2011_2015.pdfU40T.

67.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 9, 2015.

68.       ILO and Irish Aid. Irish Aid-ILO Partnership Programme 2012-15 Phase II, 2014-2015, Progress Report 2014; May 2015. 40TUhttp://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---exrel/documents/genericdocument/wcms_369809.pdfU40T.

69.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

70.       Government of Canada. Project profile: Understanding Children's Work - Action Against Child Labour, Government of Canada, [Online] March 30, 2016 [cited March 30, 2016];

71.       World Bank. Benin Global Partnership for Education Program. Implementation Status & Results Report. Washington, DC; December 11, 2015. 40TUhttp://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/AFR/2015/12/11/090224b083c4cf3b/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Benin000Benin00Report000Sequence003.pdfU40T.

72.       USAID official. Letter to USDOL official. February 13, 2013.

73.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to U.S. Department of Labor official. May 2014.

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