Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Benin

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Benin

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Benin made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government launched a public awareness campaign and inspection program in the open-air markets of Cotonou, Ouando, and Parakou that identified 822 children in working conditions and referred 77 children to care centers or reunited them with families. The government also established an inter-ministerial task force to coordinate government-wide efforts on trafficking in persons and validated the new national policy for child protection. The First Lady of Benin, along with other leading figures, made a declaration in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, on child protection, including from child trafficking, exploitation, child labor, and all other forms of violence against children. However, children in Benin engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production of cotton and crushed granite. Children also perform dangerous tasks in domestic work and street vending. Limited resources for the systematic enforcement of child labor laws impede government efforts to protect children from the worst forms of child labor. Benin continues to lack a national action plan pertaining to the worst forms of child labor, and social programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Benin engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production of cotton and crushed granite. Children also perform dangerous tasks in domestic work and street vending. (1; 2; 3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Benin.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

20.9 (680,004)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

71.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

16.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

81.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2011–2012.
 (5)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cotton† and cashew nuts† (6; 7; 3)

Capturing, cleaning, and descaling fish† (8; 9)

Raising livestock† (9)

Industry

Collecting,† crushing,† washing,† and sieving stones† for gold mining† and gravel† and granite quarrying† (1; 10; 11)

Construction, including brickmaking† (2; 8; 11)

Services

Domestic work† (1; 2; 11; 12)

Working as mechanics† and in the transportation industry† (11; 7)

Street vending† (11; 13; 14; 15)

Dressmaking† and carpentry† (9)

Begging (2)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in domestic work, construction, artisanal mining, fishing, granite quarrying, and agriculture, including in the production of cotton, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 2; 7; 10; 16)

Forced begging (17)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2; 13; 18; 19)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children are trafficked mostly within Benin but also to other countries, primarily Gabon, Nigeria, and the Republic of Congo, for domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation, as well as to work in vending, farming, and stone quarrying. (1; 17; 20; 21; 22; 2) Children working in mines and quarries are subject to long working hours and physical injuries and illnesses from dynamite explosions, falling rocks, collapsing quarry walls, and dust inhalation. (10) Traditionally, under a practice known locally as vidomegon, children, up to 95 percent of them girls, live with relatives or family friends to perform household services in exchange for educational opportunities; however, many children become victims of labor exploitation and sexual abuse. (1; 2; 17; 20; 23; 24)

The constitution guarantees free compulsory primary education; nevertheless, some parents are expected to pay school fees because many schools lack funds. (25; 26) In addition, evidence suggests that incidences of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, including corporal punishment and rape of students by teachers, prevent some children from remaining in school. (2; 13; 17; 18; 27; 28) Children with disabilities have no access to the regular education system, and a lack of reliable transport forces some children to walk long distances to school. (24; 29; 25) In rural areas in particular, children are often unregistered due to limited understanding of procedures to receive a birth certificate and the associated costs. Unregistered children face denial of public services, and 15 percent of children under age 5 continue to be unregistered. (30; 22; 25)

Benin has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Benin’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including insufficient penalties.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 166 of the Labor Code; Article 210 of the Child Code (31; 32)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 1 of the Hazardous Occupations List (33)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Occupations List (33)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 303 of the Labor Code; Article 4 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors; Article 212 of the Child Code (31; 32; 34)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 303 of the Labor Code; Articles 2–4, 6, 18, and 22 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors; Articles 212 and 352–353 of the Child Code (31; 32; 34)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Law on the Prevention and Repression of Violence Against Women and Children; Article 4 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors; Articles 212 and 378 of the Child Code (32; 34; 35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 212 of the Child Code; Article 4 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors (32; 34)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 6 of Law 2005-43; Title II, Article 32 of the Constitution (26; 36)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 6 of Law 2005-43 (36)

Non-state

Yes

18

Articles 2 and 4 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors (34)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 24 of Act No 2003-17; Article 4 of the Law on the Prevention of Violence Against Women and Children (35; 37)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 13 of the Constitution; Article 114 of the Child Code (32; 26)

 

During the reporting period, the draft Labor Code was presented to the Supreme Court for consideration and advice. The National Assembly’s Law Commission is also examining the new draft Penal Code, set to incorporate specific penalties related to trafficking in persons. (9) Currently, Article 22 of the Law Relating to the Transportation and Trafficking of Minors prescribes insufficient penalties, especially in comparison to punishments for other serious crimes, such as rape. (34; 21)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor and Civil Service (MOLCS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Civil Service (MOLCS)

Enforce child labor laws and investigate labor code infractions, including those related to child labor. (13; 18; 38) Provide support to victims of child labor and human trafficking. (2; 18; 39) In 2017, the Ministry of Labor, Civil Service, and Social Affairs split into MOLCS and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Microfinance. (22)

Ministry of Social Affairs and Microfinance

Offer social assistance and social support services to vulnerable populations. Through its Office of Family, Childhood, and Adolescence, provide assistance to trafficking victims by means of Social Promotion Centers. (9)

Ministry of the Interior

Enforce criminal laws related to the protection of minors, including the worst forms of child labor, through the Central Office for the Protection of Minors under the Criminal Police Department. (2; 18; 21) Through its Brigade des Moeurs (vice squad), address human trafficking for sexual exploitation. (23)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Benin took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MOLCS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including an insufficient number of labor inspectors.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$6,700 (13)

$42,881 (22)

Number of Labor Inspectors

35 (13)

35 (22)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (13)

Yes (22)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (13)

No (22)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (13)

N/A (22)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (13)

No (22)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

27 (13)

30 (22)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown (13)

Unknown (22)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

1,278 (13)

812 (22)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown (13)

Unknown (22)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown (13)

Unknown (22)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (13)

Yes (22)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (13)

Yes (22)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (13)

Yes (22)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (13)

Unknown (22)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (13)

Yes (22)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (13)

Yes (22)

 

In 2017, 77 children were removed from child labor during inspections conducted in the open-air markets of Cotonou, Ouando, and Parakou. These children were placed in protective care or reunited with families. (22) MOLCS, in partnership with IOM, trained 50 law enforcement agents, magistrates, and civil society activists at a 3-day seminar. The Ministry also held a separate training for trainers on child trafficking prevention in 2017. (22) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Benin’s workforce, which includes over 3 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Benin should employ approximately 92 inspectors. (40; 41) The Labor Inspectorate stated that it 10Tlacks material and financial resources to adequately conduct inspections. (2; 13) The Central Office for the Protection of Minors (OCPM) under the Ministry of the Interior works together with Social Promotion Centers under MOLCS to provide social services to child victims and ensure criminal investigation of the cases. (42)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Benin took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (13)

No (22)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (13)

Yes (22)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (13)

30 (43)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (13)

Unknown (22)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (13)

Unknown (22)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (13)

6 (43)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (13)

Yes (22)

 

In September 2017, OCPM, with UNICEF, organized a 2-week training-of-trainers workshop for 26 gendarmes and police on child protection best practices. (44) OCPM, which maintains a transit center for trafficking victims, received 176 child trafficking victims in 2017. UNICEF worked with police in Alibori, Atlantique, Borgou, and Zou departments to provide police with OCPM-type support services. (22; 9) Yet, OCPM remained understaffed, underfunded, and without adequate office supplies, transportation, and fuel to adequately enforce laws and provide victims with immediate assistance. (2) Police lacked the transportation resources to investigate human trafficking cases and the tools with which to maintain database records. Court officials continued to express difficulties maintaining database records on human trafficking and reported a lack of personnel and infrastructure to efficiently prosecute cases. (20; 44)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including the clarity of institutional mandates.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Executive Committee to Combat Child Labor

Provide policy guidance; approve programs; and coordinate, monitor, and evaluate efforts to combat child labor in Benin. (2) Led by the MOLCS, and comprising delegates from multiple ministries, UNICEF, the ILO, trade unions, and NGOs. (18; 45)

National Commission on Children’s Rights

Coordinate and promote efforts on children’s rights at the national level. Chaired by the Ministry of Justice, with the participation of delegates from multiple other ministries and representatives of civil society groups, who are appointed by the Minister of Justice. (2)

Inter-Ministerial Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons*

Coordinate government efforts to address trafficking in persons through five committees: prosecution, prevention and protection, statistics, intellectual, and policy. Led by the Ministry of Planning and Development and includes the membership of key ministries and NGOs. (22; 44; 9)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

 

The government formed the Inter-Ministerial Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons to consolidate efforts to address trafficking in persons. In 2017, the group organized a 2-day workshop to finalize a national human trafficking policy and action plan, including an implementation plan, and a policy on data collection. (22; 44; 9) The mandates of the National Executive Committee to Combat Child Labor and the National Commission on Children’s Rights overlap and are a source of confusion. Moreover, neither committee met in 2017. (2) In addition, although there is an information management system at the national level, data are rarely analyzed or used to effect implementation on the ground. (46)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including the lack of a National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Action Plan to Eradicate Child Exploitation in Markets

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in the major markets of Benin, including Dantokpa in Cotonou, Ouando in Porto-Novo, and Arzèkè in Parakou; strengthen child labor laws; raise awareness of child labor in markets; and create social programs for children rescued from labor exploitation in the targeted markets. (47; 48; 22) As part of this initiative in 2017, the government launched the “Zero Children in Working Situations in the Markets” campaign, which aims to remove children from these situations. (49; 50)

National Policy for Child Protection (2014–2025)

Aims to improve child protection in Benin. Includes components to improve school feeding programs and combat the worst forms of child labor, with a focus on child trafficking. (13; 48; 51) At the end of 2017, the policy was awaiting final approval by the Council of Ministers. (22)

UN Development Assistance Framework (2014–2018)

Outlines the collective actions and strategies of the UN system for achieving national development goals, including specific activities to address child labor by increasing access to social protection services. (52) In 2017, undertook activities to support a school canteen program and a second-chance education program for children who drop out of school. (9)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (22)

 

The First Lady of Benin, along with other leading figures, made a declaration in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, on child protection, including from child trafficking, exploitation, child labor, and all other forms of violence against children. (53; 54)

Research was unable to determine whether the expired National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Benin was renewed. (22) The government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the Education Sector Plan. (17; 55)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Understanding Children’s Work-Action Against Child Labor (2015–2018)

$750,000 Government of Canada-funded, 3-year project to combat child labor by supporting data collection and policy efforts related to children’s work and youth employment. (56) In 2017, research was unable to determine whether any actions were undertaken. (9)

Government-Funded Shelters†

Social Promotion Centers provide food, shelter, education, and vocational training to vulnerable children, including victims of labor exploitation, in 85 centers. The Central Office for the Protection of Minors also operates an interim care facility for human trafficking survivors before their placement in a long-term shelter. (18; 39; 45; 22; 9) In 2017, the Social Promotion Centers continued to provide assistance to trafficking victims in the 77 communes of Benin. (9)

Government-Funded Re-Training Centers†

MOLCS, with the assistance of UNICEF, maintains a vocational school program to train survivors of child trafficking in a trade. (45; 46) In 2017, the two counseling and leisure centers in the markets of Bohicon and Zakpota continued to operate and provide training opportunities to children exposed to labor exploitation. (13; 9)

Benin Global Partnership for Education Program (2014–2018)

Approximately $42.3 million, World Bank-funded project to provide equity in access to basic education in impoverished districts. In 2017, the project was extended through April 30, 2018. (57; 9)

† Program is funded by the Government of Benin.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (13; 39; 58; 59)

 

In 2017, the government carried out a public awareness and inspection campaign, “Zero Children in Working Situations in the Markets,” at open-air markets in major cities in Benin. A third phase with increased mobilization is projected for 2018. (22; 44; 9) Although the Government of Benin has implemented programs to protect children from human trafficking and participated in programs focused on child labor in quarrying and mining, research was unable to determine whether the government has conducted programs to assist children engaged in other worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, or agriculture. (13)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Benin (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Create meaningful penalties for child trafficking crimes involving labor exploitation.

2014 – 2017

Enforcement

Provide consistent training for criminal and labor law enforcement officials on child labor.

2013 – 2017

Increase resources, including the number of labor inspectors and criminal investigators, to enforce laws against child labor and provide immediate victim assistance.

2009 – 2017

Publish data on whether unannounced inspections are conducted, as well as the number of inspections conducted at worksites, child labor violation penalties imposed and collected, violations, and prosecutions related to child labor.

2009 – 2017

Increase the resources available to law enforcement officials to efficiently investigate child labor cases.

2015 – 2017

Coordination

Take measures to coordinate efforts between the National Executive Committee to Combat Child Labor and the National Commission on Children’s Rights, ensuring that committees meet and coordinate mandates.

2013 – 2017

Analyze the data received from national information management systems and disseminate the results nationwide.

2013 – 2017

Government Policies

Complete a new National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Benin.

2010 – 2017

Ensure that child labor elimination and prevention strategies are integrated into the Education Sector Plan.

2010 – 2017

Social Programs

Increase access to education by eliminating school-related fees, ensuring that children with disabilities have access to regular schools, ensuring the safety of children in schools, providing reliable transport, and increasing birth registration rates.

2010 – 2017

Institute programs to address the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, and agriculture, and monitor and report annually on the progress of these programs.

2010 – 2017

1. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Benin (ratification: 2001) Published: 2015. Accessed November 19, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3182325.

2. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Najat Maalla M’jid, Mission to Benin. March 5, 2014: Report No. A/HRC/25/48/Add.3. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G14/118/26/PDF/G1411826.pdf?OpenElement.

3. Trusted Clothes. Little fingers: Child labour in the garment industry. April 2, 2017. https://www.trustedclothes.com/blog/2017/04/02/little-fingers-child-labour-in-the-garment-industry/.

4. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2011-2012. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6. Guinebault, Matthieu. Textile and Apparel Industries Still Using Child Labor. Fashionmag.com. October 11, 2013. http://us.fashionnetwork.com/news/Textile-and-apparel-industries-still-using-child-labor,360680.html#.WRSGCU11ofg.

7. I-Witness News. Slavery in Africa Today: Benin. Iwnsvg.org. November 19, 2013. http://www.iwnsvg.com/2013/11/19/slavery-in-africa-today-benin/.

8. U.S. Embassy- Cotonou official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 17, 2015.

9. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 23, 2018.

10. ILO-IPEC. Étude d’Approfondissement des Connaissances sur le Travail des Enfants dans les Mines et Carrières du Benin. Geneva. May 2013. [Source on file].

11. Savripène, M.A. Bénin: Le Travail des Enfants Prend des Proportions Inquiétantes. Gender Links. July 28, 2015. [Source on file].

12. ILO-IPEC. Ending child labour in domestic work and protecting young workers from abusive working conditions. Geneva. June 12, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_207656/lang--en/index.htm.

13. U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. Reporting, January 20, 2017.

14. Josaphat. Travail des enfants : L’éternel phénomène toujours irrésolu au Bénin. Benin Web TV. May 20, 2017. https://beninwebtv.com/v1/2017/05/travail-enfants-leternel-phenomene-toujours-irresolu-benin/.

15. UNICEF Benin. Video; Vie des enfants dans les marchés Dantokpa, Ouando et Arzèkè du Bénin. January 20, 2017. [Source on file].

16. L’Institut National de la Statistique et de l’Analyse Économique (INSAE) and UNICEF. Recensement des Enfants Travailleurs des Marches Dantokpa, Ouando et Arzeke (REM). Cotonou. 2013. [Source on file].

17. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Benin. February 25, 2016: Report No. CRC/C/BEN/CO/3-5. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/037/15/PDF/G1603715.pdf?OpenElement.

18. ECPAT. Rapport Global de Suivi de la Mise en Ouvre des Actions de Lutte Contre l’Exploitation Sexuelle des Enfants à des Fins Commerciales- Benin. 2014. http://www.ecpat.net/sites/default/files/A4A_AF_BENIN_FINAL.pdf.

19. Government of Benin. Enquête sur la prostitution et la pornographie impliquant les enfants dans les villes de Cotonou et de Malanville. June 2016. [Source on file].

20. U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. Reporting, February 16, 2016.

21. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Person Report- 2017: Benin. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. tps://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271147.htm.

22. U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. Reporting, January 18, 2018.

23. —. Reporting, February 14, 2017.

24. UN Human Rights Council. Compilation on Benin - Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. August 24, 2017: A/HRC/WG.6/28/BEN/2. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/247/72/PDF/G1724772.pdf?OpenElement.

25. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Benin. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265436.pdf.

26. Government of Benin. Constitution of the Republic of Benin. Enacted: 1990. http://confinder.richmond.edu/admin/docs/Benin1990English.pdf.

27. Plan Benin. Benin: Submission to Inform the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women on its Consideration of the Periodic Report of Benin under the CEDAW Convention. 2013. [Source on file].

28. Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children. Country report for Benin. February 2016. http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/progress/country-reports/benin.html.

29. UN Human Rights Council. Summary of stakeholders’ submissions on Benin - Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. August 8, 2017: A/HRC/WG.6/28/BEN/3. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/234/97/PDF/G1723497.pdf?OpenElement.

30. UNICEF Data. "Benin" in Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women. Accessed February 2, 2018. https://data.unicef.org/country/ben/.

31. Government of Benin. Code du travail, Loi n° 98-004. Enacted: January 27, 1998. https://fonacbenin.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/1998_loi-portant-code-du-travail.pdf.

32. —. Code de l’enfant en République du Bénin, Loi n° 2015-08. Enacted: January 23, 2015. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/99941/119603/F-860169827/BEN-99941.pdf.

33. —. Liste des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants en République du Bénin, Décret n° 200-029. Enacted: January 31, 2011. [Source on file].

34. —. Conditions de déplacement des mineurs et répression de la traite d'enfants en République du Bénin, Loi n° 2006-04. Enacted: April 10, 2006. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/73266/74783/F93417100/BEN73266.pdf.

35. —. Prévention et Répression des Violences Faites aux Femmes, Loi n° 2011-26. Enacted: January 9, 2012. http://www.bj.undp.org/content/dam/benin/docs/emancipationdesfemes/violences-faites-aux-femmes.pdf.

36. —. Statut Général des Personnels Militaires des Forces Armées Béninoises, Loi n° 2005-43. Enacted: June 26, 2006. [Source on file].

37. —. Orientation de l'Éducation Nationale en République du Bénin, Loi n° 2003-17. Enacted: November 11, 2003. http://www.axl.cefan.ulaval.ca/afrique/benin-loi-17-2003.htm.

38. —. Normes du Travail au Bénin. Cotonou, Ministère du Travail, de la Fonction Publique, et des Affaires Sociales. 2017. [Source on file].

39. U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 21, 2017.

40. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed June 7, 2017. https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

41. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf.

42. U.S. Embassy- Cotonou official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 9, 2017.

43. U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 2, 2018.

44. U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. Reporting, November 8, 2017.

45. —. Reporting, January 17, 2014.

46. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 12, 2016.

47. 24haubenin.info. Bénin: Signature d’une Charte Contre l’Exploitation des Enfants. October 12, 2014. http://www.24haubenin.info/?Benin-Signature-d-une-charte.

48. U.S. Embassy- Cotonou. Reporting, January 14, 2015.

49. Sossou, Ignace. Bénin: une campagne pour lutter contre le travail des enfants dans les marchés. Benin Web TV. July 7, 2017. https://beninwebtv.com/v1/2017/07/benin-campagne-lutter-contre-travail-enfants-marches/.

50. UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Concluding observations on the fourth periodic report of Benin - Addendum - Information provided by Benin in follow-up to the concluding observations. September 13, 2017: CEDAW/C/BEN/CO/4/Add.1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2fC%2fBEN%2fCO%2f4%2fAdd.1&Lang=en.

51. ACotonou.com. Bénin: adoption d’une politique nationale de protection de l’enfant. May 7, 2014. http://news.acotonou.com/h/22863.html.

52. UN Development Group. Rapport de Progrès UNDAF Edition 2016. January 2017. [Source on file].

53. Conference of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel on the Fight Against Child Trafficking, Exploitation, Child Labor, and All Forms of Violence Against Children. Declaration of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

54. —. Final Communique. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

55. U.S. Embassy- Cotonou official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 5, 2017.

56. Government of Canada. Project Profile: Understanding Children's Work - Action Against Child Labour. January 27, 2017. http://w05.international.gc.ca/projectbrowser-banqueprojets/project-projet/details/d000929001.

57. World Bank. Benin Global Partnership for Education Program (P129600). Implementation Status & Results Report: Sequence 07. December 27, 2017. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/333541514558135696/pdf/Disclosable-Version-of-the-ISR-Benin-Global-Partnership-for-Education-Program-P129600-Sequence-No-07.pdf.

58. Government of Benin. Programme d'Action du Gouvernement 2016-2021. 2016. http://www.cedatuac.org/attachments/article/79/consolidation%20PAG.pdf.

59. ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 9, 2017.

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