Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Belize

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Belize

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2015, Belize made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government provided training to enforcement officials on its trafficking in persons and commercial sexual exploitation legislation, both passed in 2013. However, children in Belize are engaged in child labor, including in the production of sugarcane, bananas, and citrus fruits, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Important gaps in the country’s legal framework remain. Belize does not set a minimum age of 14 for work for all sectors, and the country lacks a list of hazardous occupations that are prohibited for children. In addition, the Government does not appear to have programs that aim to reduce child labor in agriculture, a sector in which it remains prevalent.

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Children in Belize are engaged in child labor, including in the production of sugarcane, bananas, and citrus fruits. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1, 2) The 2013 Report of the National Child Activity Survey, conducted by the Government in collaboration with ILO-IPEC, estimates that 5,565 children work, of which 3,528 are engaged in child labor and 3,381 are engaged in hazardous work.(3) Over half of working children are employed in two industries, in agriculture and in trade and repairs.(3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Belize.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

1.6 (1,405)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

Agriculture

Industry

Services

 

24.6

10.5

64.9

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

94.5

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

1.2

Primary completion rate (%):

102.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from National Child Activity Survey, 2013.(5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of beans,* bananas, citrus fruits, cereals,* corn,* rice,* sugarcane, papayas,* and vegetables* (3, 6-11)

Fishing,* including for fish,* lobster,* and conch* (3)

Butchering or livestock raising,* including poultry* and cattle* (3)

Industry

Construction,* carpentry,* masonry,* wood carving* (3)

Quarrying,* activities unknown (11)

Services

Street vending* (8)

 

Retail vending* (3)

Farm work,* yard work,* including chopping, using lawnmowers and machetes (3)

Seamstressing* (3)

Working and cooking in food service,* including wielding large mixers and grills (3)

Auto repair* (3)

Pumping gas* (3)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 2, 9-14)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Agricultural work and street vending are reported to often take place in the company of parents.(8-10) The 2013 Report of the National Child Activity Survey estimated that 60 percent of working children engage in hazardous work, primarily in craft and trade, or in elementary occupations, such as yard cleaning, construction, farm or kitchen help, or common labor.(3) According to the 2013 Report of the National Child Activity Survey, the majority of children in hazardous work are boys, ages 14 to 17 years old, who reside in rural areas.(3)

Some reports indicate that some children working in the agricultural sector may be vulnerable to human trafficking or forced labor.(2) Children’s access to education is sometimes hindered when schools charge fees and parents must pay for textbooks, uniforms, and meals.(12, 15, 16)

Belize has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

12

Articles 54, 164, and 169 of the Labor Act; Articles 2 and 3 of the Shops Act (17, 18)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

14

Articles 2 and 7 of the Families and Children Act; Articles 2 and 164 of the Labor Act (17, 19)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

No

 

 

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 8 of the Constitution; Articles 157 and 158 of the Labor Act (17, 20)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 11–14 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Act, 2013; Article 9 of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Prohibition) Act, 2013; Articles 49–51 of the Criminal Code (21-23)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 2, 11, 13, and 14 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Act, 2013; Articles 2–9 of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Prohibition) Act, 2013; Articles 49–51 of the Criminal Code (21-23)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 16 of the Defense Act (24)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

14

Articles 2 and 59 of the Education and Training Act; Articles 2 and 34 of the Education Act (15, 25)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 70 of the Education and Training Act; Article 45 of the Education Act (15, 25)

* No conscription.(26)

Article 169 of the Labor Act sets the general minimum age of employment at 12 years, which does not conform to international standards.(17, 27) However, Article 3(1) of the Shops Act sets the minimum age at 14 for work in wholesale or retail trade or business.(18)

Belizean law is not consistent with international standards on hazardous work. Under Article 164 of the Labor Act, children under age 14 are prohibited from working in industrial undertakings.(17) In Article 2 of the Labor Act, industrial undertakings include activities such as mining, manufacturing, and construction.(17) Although Article 7 of the Families and Children Act prohibits children under age 18 from being employed or engaged in any activity that may be detrimental to their health, education, or mental, physical, or moral development, Belizean law does not specify which activities are included in this; however, this article is subject to the Labor Act, which explicitly permits children over age 14 to work in industrial undertakings.(19) Research determined that Belizean law lacks a list of comprehensive activities that are prohibited for all children under age 18.

The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Prohibition) Act and the Criminal Code prohibit all forms of child sexual exploitation, with the former explicitly prohibiting child pornography.(22, 23) Article 3(2) of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Prohibition) Act, however, permits consensual sex with a child age 16 or 17, including cases in which a person gives or promises remuneration, gifts, goods, food, or other benefits. This provision leaves these children vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(22, 28) Research could not determine whether laws prohibit the use of children in specific illicit activities, such as drug trafficking.(29)

Although Article 70 of the Education and Training Act and Article 45 of the Education Act make primary and secondary education tuition-free in Belize, schools may charge fees, with the approval of the chief education officer.(15, 25)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Local Government, and Rural Development

Identify cases and enforce laws related to child labor and hazardous child labor through its Labor Department.(6, 10, 11)

Ministry of Human Development and Social Transformation, Department of Human Services

Receive referrals for child labor cases; train immigration officials, labor inspectors, and the Belize Police Department (BPD) in making referrals; and handle human trafficking cases.(6, 9, 30) Provide victims with welfare services, including medical and social services and counseling assistance.(11, 31)

BPD

Investigate cases of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking through its Sexual Offense and Family Violence Units.(6, 7, 9)

Office of the Director of Public Prosecution

Prosecute criminal offenses, including cases of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking.(32)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

Research did not find information on whether labor law enforcement agencies in Belize took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (10, 33)

Unknown (11)

Number of Labor Inspectors

26 (10)

24 (11)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown

Unknown (11)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown (11)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A (11)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (11)

Number of Labor Inspections

1,800 (31)

Unknown* (11)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown (11)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (10)

Unknown (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (10)

Unknown (11)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown (10)

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (10)

Yes‡ (10)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (10)

Yes‡ (10)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (10)

Yes‡ (10)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (10)

Yes‡ (10)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes

Yes (11)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.
‡ Data are from January 1 to December 31, 2014.

In 2015, the Labor Department employed 24 labor inspectors in 9 offices throughout the country, a decrease from 26 inspectors in 10 offices in 2014.(9-11) The budget allocated to the Labor Department for the reporting period was $841,666, an increase from $765,000 in 2014; however, the exact amount dedicated to labor inspections is unknown.(11, 31) Labor inspectors conduct both routine- and complaint-driven labor inspections, but information on the number of complaints is not available. Reports indicate that labor inspections in rural, agricultural areas were hampered by a lack of resources, including vehicles and fuel.(10)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Belize took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (10)

Unknown (11)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (10)

N/A (11)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (10)

Yes (11)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown (11)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

0 (30)

Number of Convictions

0 (34)

0 (30)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Yes (11)

 

In 2015, the Office of the Director of Public Prosecution employed nine criminal prosecutors, a number reported to be insufficient to effectively investigate all criminal offenses in the country, including the worst forms of child labor.(32)

In 2015, the 24 labor inspectors of the Labor Department worked with the BPD to enforce criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor.(11) The BPD investigated seven new human trafficking cases involving six individuals, four of whom were children.(30) No prosecutions and no convictions were documented during the reporting period.(30) As of 2015, the ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions noted that no human trafficking convictions have been made since 2005.(34) Reports indicate that criminal investigators and police officers lacked sufficient resources, including vehicles, to effectively investigate violations of criminal law, including the worst forms of child labor.(32)

The Women’s Department of the Ministry of Human Development, Social Transformation and Poverty Alleviation provided training on human-anti-trafficking during the reporting period.(11) It worked with a local NGO, the Child Development Foundation, to provide training on child abuse and protection to 101 frontline officers, including police, labor, immigration, and social workers.(11) In addition, the International Law Enforcement Academy provided a 5-day training for 8 police officers on Trafficking in Persons and Child Exploitation.(30)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Child Labor Committee

Coordinate efforts between ministries to combat child labor and implement the National Child Labor Policy. Led by the Ministry of Labor and 14 government and civil society members.(6, 7, 27)

Anti-Trafficking in Persons Council

Identify and rescue human trafficking victims, train law enforcement officials, and educate the public about the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Led by the Vice Minister of Human Development and Social Transformation and includes 12 other government agencies and civil society organizations.(2, 6, 7, 33)

National Committee for Families and Children

Promote, monitor, and evaluate Belize’s compliance with its national and international commitments to children, including the UN CRC, which includes protections against the commercial sexual exploitation of children and the use of children in illicit activities, such as drug trafficking.(31)

 

The National Child Labor Committee is responsible for implementing the National Child Labor Policy;(27) however, research could not determine whether the committee has convened during the reporting period.(11)

The Government of Belize has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Child Labor Policy

Establishes a rights-based framework to eradicate child labor. Focuses on priority areas that include strengthening current child labor laws, creating new legislation to address existing gaps, and providing educational assistance to children who have been or who are currently engaged in child labor.(7, 35) Promotes awareness and advocacy efforts, the strengthening of government institutions and services, and the training of labor officers to identify and provide care to children engaged in child labor.(7, 27, 35)

Anti-Trafficking in Persons Strategic Plan of Action (2013–2015)

Charts a human rights, victim-centered approach to human trafficking that focuses on prevention, protection, and prosecution. Developed in 2012 with the IOM. Defines the roles and responsibilities of the constituent members of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Council.(2)

CARE Model

Coordinates the protection, care, and monitoring of sexually exploited and trafficked children. Outlines the role of the Department of Human Services and the BPD in receiving allegations of commercial sexual exploitation of children, makes referrals to other agencies for services, and protects children from future exploitation.(6, 33)

National Plan of Action for Children and Adolescents (2004–2015)

Calls for the revision of child labor legislation and includes the following three aims: (1) to establish protocols to improve interagency coordination, (2) to increase institutional capacity to enforce legislation, and (3) to strengthen child labor prevention programs, including the creation of awareness-raising campaigns. Prioritizes child labor issues, including the worst forms of child labor.(2, 36, 37)

National Development Framework, Horizon 2030*

Promotes economic growth and national well-being. Recognizes education as a basic human right and ensures access to quality education up through secondary school.(38, 39)

Ministry of Education, Early Childhood Development Policy (2011–2015)

Promotes the rights of children, from conception to age 8, and provides support to all primary caregivers. Aims to develop innovative programs that target families of child laborers, particularly those engaged in the worst forms of child labor, and to ensure those children attend school.(40)

Ministry of Education, Belizean Education Sector Strategy (2011–2016)*

Aims to improve the quality and accessibility of education by focusing on retention rates, years of attendance, and teacher training. Stems from collaboration among the Ministry of Education, the Caribbean Development Bank, and other educational stakeholders.(41)

Declaration of the Vice-Ministers of the XX Regional Conference on Migration

Aims to strengthen regional cooperation to protect the human rights of migrants, especially youth and children, in countries of origin, transit, and destination, including by increasing opportunities for education and employment. Adopted by Belize at the XX Regional Conference on Migration in Mexico City (November 2015).(42, 43) In 2015, the Government of Belize participated in two meetings with the Ad Hoc Group on Migrant Children and Adolescents of the Regional Conference on Migration to identify ways for member states to increase protections for underage migrants and refugees. These meetings promoted the exchange of information on migrant children’s rights and experiences, the guiding principles relating to migration, and the holistic protection of children and adolescents.(44)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

In 2015, the Government of Belize funded and participated in programs that may contribute to the prevention or elimination of child labor (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Building Opportunities for Our Social Transformation Program (2011–2015)†

Government-run, conditional cash transfer initiative to reduce poverty, funded in part by the World Bank, provides monetary incentives for families that comply with program requirements.(7, 45) Families must ensure that children ages 5 to 17 maintain an annual school attendance record of 85 percent.(6, 7, 45, 46) Program continued to expand in the southern most districts during 2015.(47)

Primary School Completers Subsidy Program†

Government-funded education program, increases school enrollment by providing families with cash subsidies, contingent upon children completing primary education.(7, 10, 48)

Certification of Primary School Teachers Program†

Countrywide teacher training program, improves quality of instruction, school attendance, and completion rates.(7)

Special Envoy for Women and Children Outreach Program†

Special Envoy for Women and Children campaign, raises awareness of the commercial sexual exploitation of children; includes hosting conferences and producing public service messages.(9, 10)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project (2011–2017)

USDOL project, established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010 and implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries, to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016. Aims to improve evidence base on child labor through data collection and research.(49)

UNICEF Country Program
(2013–2016)

UNICEF program to advance the rights of children by building institutional capacity to reduce disparities and inequalities, promote early childhood development, and increase educational opportunities. Geographic areas of focus include southern Belize and the south side of Belize City.(50)

Make Your Child Count Birth Registration Campaign (2011–2015)

UNICEF project that encourages parents to register children at birth to facilitate their access to education and health benefits.(10, 51)

† Program is funded by the Government of Belize.

Although the Government of Belize has a program to address the commercial sexual exploitation of children, research found no evidence that the Government has carried out programs to assist children working specifically in agriculture. The Government continues to face budgetary constraints for social programs that address child labor, and poverty remains high.(9)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Belize (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure the law prohibits commercial sexual exploitation with children ages 16 and 17.

2013 – 2015

Ensure the minimum age for work is 14 in all sectors.

2013 – 2015

Adopt a list of hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children and ensure that all children under age 18 are prohibited from engaging in hazardous work.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that laws prohibit the use of children in specific illicit activities, such as drug trafficking.

2013 – 2015

Enforcement

Ensure that law enforcement agencies have sufficient resources to conduct labor inspections and criminal investigations.

2009, 2011 – 2015

 

Make information publicly available on enforcement efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor, including the number of trainings, complaints, criminal investigations, convictions, and penalties.

2009 – 2015

 

Make information publicly available on labor inspectorate responsibilities, including authority to assess penalties and conduct unannounced inspections, number of labor inspections conducted, and child labor violations found.

 2015

Coordination

Conduct regular meetings of the National Child Labor Committee and develop concrete goals for the committee.

2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into national education and development policies.

2012 – 2015

Social Programs

Increase access to education by eliminating all fees and by providing textbooks, uniforms, and meals.

2011 – 2015

 

Develop new programs aimed at reducing the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2015

 

1.         U.S. Department of State. "Belize," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices-2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236878.pdf.

2.         UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, Joy Ngozi Ezeilo; June 11, 2014. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Trafficking/Pages/visits.aspx.

3.         ILO-IPEC. Report of the National Child Activity Survey. Geneva, Statistical Institute of Belize; 2015.

4.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://www.data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

5.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from the National Child Activity Survey, 2013. Analysis received April 21, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. reporting, January 27, 2012.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. reporting, February 27, 2013.

8.         U.S. Department of State. "Belize," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

9.         U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. reporting, January 21, 2014.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. reporting, January 22, 2015.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. reporting, January 15, 2016.

12.       UNICEF. The Situation Analysis of Children and Women in Belize 2011: An Ecological Review. Belize City; July 2011. http://www.unicef.org/sitan/files/SitAn_Belize_July_2011.pdf.

13.       Lopez, J. Organized Crime and Insecurity in Belize. Working Paper; 2013.

14.       U.S. Department of State. "Belize " in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/245365.pdf.

15.       Government of Belize. Education Act, enacted December 31, 2000. http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Belize/Belize_Education_Act_chapt_36.pdf.

16.       National Human Development Advisory Committee and Ministry of Economic Development, Commerce and Industry, and Consumer Protection. 2009 Country Poverty Assessment. Belmopan; August 2010. http://www.belize.gov.bz/public/Attachment/131612504571.pdf [source on file].

17.       Government of Belize. Labour Act, Revised, enacted December 31, 2000. http://www.belizelaw.org/lawadmin/index2.html [source on file].

18.       Government of Belize. Shops Act, Chapter 287, Revised Edition 2000, enacted December 31, 2000. http://www.belizelaw.org/web/lawadmin/index2.html.

19.       Government of Belize. Families and Children Act, Revised Edition, enacted December 31, 2000. http://www.belizelaw.org/lawadmin/index2.html [source on file].

20.       Government of Belize. The Constitution of Belize, Revised Edition, enacted December 31, 2000. http://www.belizelaw.org/lawadmin/index2.html [source on file].

21.       Government of Belize. Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Act, 2013, No. 2, enacted January 31, 2013.

22.       Government of Belize. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Prohibition) Act, 2013, No. 3, enacted January 31, 2013.

23.       Government of Belize. Criminal Code, enacted December 31, 2000. http://www.belizelaw.org/lawadmin/index2.html [source on file].

24.       Government of Belize. Defence Act, Revised Edition, enacted December 31, 2000. http://www.belizelaw.org/lawadmin/index2.html [source on file].

25.       Government of Belize. Education and Training Act of 2010, enacted April 14, 2010. http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Belize/Belize-education-and-training-act-2010.pdf.

26.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

27.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Belize (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed April 14, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

28.       U.S. Department of State. "Belize," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220631.pdf.

29.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Belize (ratification: 2000) Published: 2015; accessed November 7, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185758.

30.       U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. reporting February 5, 2016.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Belmopan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 29, 2015.

32.       U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. reporting, March 16, 2015.

33.       U.S. Department of State. reporting, February 24, 2012.

34.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Forced labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Belize (ratification: 1983) Published: 2015; accessed November 7, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186378.

35.       Government of Belize. The National Child Labour Policy. Belmopan, Ministry of Labor; 2009. http://www.belize.gov.bz/ct.asp?xItem=1588&ctNode=633&mp=27 [source on file].

36.       UNICEF. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survery (MICS) Belize Final Report. New York; November 2011. http://www.childinfo.org/mics4_surveys.html.

37.       Government of Belize. The National Plan of Action for Children and Adolescents in Belize 2004-2015. Belize City; September 04, 2004. http://www.humandevelopment.gov.bz/downloads/NPA.pdf [source on file].

38.       Government of Belize. Final Report: Preparing Horizon 2030 - Long Term National Development Framework for Belize. previously online. Belmopan, Barnett & Company Ltd.; June 10, 2011. [source on file].

39.       Horizon 2030, Government of Belize, [previously online] [cited November 19, 2012]; [source on file].

40.       Ministry of Education. Early Childhood Development Policy for Belize. Belmopan; May 2011. http://bit.ly/zI7meP.

41.       Government of Belize. Education Sector Strategy 2011-2016: Improving access, quality and governance of education in Belize. Belmopan; March 2012. http://www.moe.gov.bz/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=189&Itemid=249 [source on file].

42.       Regional Conference on Migration. The Regional Conference on Migration or Puebla Process, RCM, [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.rcmvs.org/Descripcion.htm.

43.       Regional Conference on Migration. Meeting of the Vice-Ministers of the XX Regional Conference on Migration - Declaration in Mexico City 2015: "Return and Social and Productive Reintegration of Migrants", RCM, [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.rcmvs.org/Eventos/CRM_GRCM/XX_RCM.docx.

44.       IOM. IOM, Partners Work with the Americas to Protect Migrant Children. Press Release; August 21, 2015. http://www.iom.int/news/iom-partners-work-americas-protect-migrant-children.

45.       World Bank. Country Partnership Strategy (FY2012 - FY2015). Washington, DC; July 29, 2011. http://bit.ly/z9bndT.

46.       World Bank. Belize ”Boosts” school attendance and access to financial services for the poor. Press Release. Belmopan; June 28, 2012. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/2012/06/28/belize-boosts-schoool-attendance-and-acces-to-financial-services-for-the-poor.

47.       U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. reporting, November 13, 2015.

48.       U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. reporting, February 18, 2011.

49.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labour Issues [Gap 11]. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015.

50.       UNICEF. Country Programme Document- 2013-2016 Belize; September 14, 2012. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Belize-2013-2016-final_approved-English-14Sept2012.pdf.

51.       UNICEF. National Campaign to Increase Birth Registration in Belize: Make Your Child Count Belize City, Belize, UNICEF; 2011. http://www.unicef.org/belize/20638_22121.htm.

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