Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Belize

Bananas
Bananas
Child Labor Icon
Citrus Fruits
Citrus Fruits
Child Labor Icon
Sugarcane
Sugarcane
Child Labor Icon
Belize
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Belize made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government drafted legislation to create a hazardous work list and light work framework and created a curriculum for labor inspectors to help identify child workers. The Labor Department appointed a Senior Labor Officer dedicated specifically to child labor and improving interagency coordination. In addition, the government expanded its secondary school subsidy program to serve all rural areas in the country. However, children in Belize engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture, fishing, and construction. Although Belize made meaningful efforts in all relevant areas during the reporting period, the country's minimum age for work is 12 and does not meet international standards. In addition, the country lacks prohibitions against the use of children in illicit activities. Also, the government does not appear to have programs that aim to reduce child labor in agriculture, except in the sugar industry.

Children in Belize engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture, fishing, and construction. (1-3)

Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Belize.


Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

1.6 (1,405)

Working children by sector

   

Agriculture

 

24.6

Industry

 

10.5

Services

 

64.9

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

1.2

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

103.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (4) 

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from National Child Activity Survey, 2013. (5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.


Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of beans, bananas, citrus fruits, cereals, corn, rice, sugarcane, papayas, and vegetables (3,6,7,8-11)

Fishing, including for fish, lobster, and conch (3,6,7) 

Butchering or raising livestock, including poultry and cattle (6,7)

Industry

Construction, carpentry, masonry, wood carving, carrying heavy loads, and using power tools (3,6,7)

Quarrying, including operating stone crushers (7,8)

Services

Street and retail vending (7)

Yard work, including using lawnmowers, weed-eaters, and machetes (6,7,12)

Sewing (7)

Working and cooking in food service, including using large mixers and grills (3,6,7)

Work in tourist sector, including in food and alcohol service and hospitality, and as tour guides, maintenance personnel, and security guards (3)

Auto repair (6,7) 

Welding (7) 

Pumping gas (6) 

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1,3,8,10,13,14)

Illicit activities, including trafficking of drugs and weapons (3,7,15)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Belize lacks a recent comprehensive child labor study, which makes it difficult to clearly determine the sectors and activities in which working children are engaged. (3) However, reports suggest that children in rural areas work in the agriculture and fishing industries, and children in urban areas work in the construction and tourist industries. Children work on family-owned farms and accompany adults to employment sites to assist in planting and harvesting. (3)

Among Belize’s ethnic groups, Mennonites had the highest percentage of child labor with approximately 9.5 percent of Mennonite children engaged in child labor. (6,7,12) Non-Mennonite children are also engaged in child labor on Mennonite-owned land. (9) Children working on Mennonite land often use dangerous tools like machetes, tractors, and plows, and work long hours in the sun without proper hydration. (9,12) Limited reporting also indicates that boys working mainly in Mennonite communities may be involved in operating heavy machinery and flying small airplanes to spray crops. (3)

Children in Belize are also engaged in child labor in diving and fishing for fish, lobster, and conch. Many of these children cannot swim or may be involved in swimming at extreme depths, and have been injured working with dangerous tools such as anchors, fish traps, chipping hammers, and spears. (3,7)

Government officials indicate that Belize has a reputation as being a destination for child sexual exploitation, with reports of children being trafficked in areas frequented by tourists or seasonal works, such as San Pedro, Punta Gorda, and Belize City. (3,14,16) Girls from impoverished communities and LGBTI children are particularly vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation and labor trafficking in Belize. (14,15,17,16) In 2018, there were reports of girls in Punta Gorda being exploited by family members and made to engage in sexual relationships with American expats, who would reward the families financially. (3) Anecdotal reports also indicate that boys from Belize City and San Pedro were recruited to transport and sell drugs and firearms and commit murders as part of gang warfare. (3,7,12,15)

Primary and secondary education is tuition free in Belize up to age 14, but children’s access to education is sometimes hindered by the cost of school fees, textbooks, uniforms, and meals. (3,15,18-20) In 2018, the government expanded its secondary school subsidy program to serve all rural areas in the country and Punta Gorda, Dangriga, and Corozal, with anecdotal reports indicating that the expansion has resulted in more rural children having access to high school education. (3,21) Still, some Spanish-speaking children in northern districts face language barriers at schools that provide instruction only in English. (9) In addition, Belize lacks qualified teachers, basic supplies, and facilities to educate children. (3,7)

Belize has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).


Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Belize’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the minimum age for work and hazardous work.


Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

12

Articles 54, 164, and 169 of the Labor Act; Articles 2–3 of the Shops Act (22,23)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

No

14

Articles 2 and 7 of the Families and Children Act; Articles 54 and 169 of the Labor Act (22,24)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

No

   

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 8 of the Constitution; Articles 157–158 of the Labor Act (22,25)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 11–14 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Act; Article 9 of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Prohibition) Act; Articles 49–51 of the Criminal Code (26-28)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Articles 2, 11, and 13–14 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Act; Articles 2–9 of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Prohibition) Act; Articles 49–51 of the Criminal Code (26-28)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

   

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

 

Article 16 of the Defence Act (29)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

N/A*

   

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

No

   

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

14

Articles 2 and 59 of the Education and Training Act; Articles 2 and 34 of the Education Act (18,30)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 70 of the Education and Training Act; Article 45 of the Education Act (18,30)

* No conscription (29) 

In 2018, the Government of Belize cooperated with USDOL to launch the Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor II (CLEAR II) project, which was designed to review and amend legislation addressing child labor issues and improve monitoring and enforcement efforts. The project's Legislative Review Committee drafted a hazardous work and light work list and is proposing extending the compulsory education age to age 16, but these efforts are pending ministry- and cabinet-level review and approval. (3)

Belizean law does not conform to international standards because it sets the minimum age for employment at age 12. (22) However, the minimum legal age for work in wholesale or retail trade, or business, is age 14. (23) Belizean law is also inconsistent with international standards on hazardous work. Children under age 14 are prohibited from working in industrial undertakings—including activities such as mining, manufacturing, and construction—but children over age 14 are explicitly permitted to work in those types of activities. (22) Although Belizean law indicates that children under age 18 are prohibited from being employed or engaged in any activity that may be detrimental to their health, education, or mental, physical, or moral development, the law does not specify which employment activities are detrimental to children. (22,24) A list of hazardous work prohibited for all children has not been adopted as law. (31,32,33) Furthermore, Belizean law is inconsistent with international standards on light work, because the types of light work permissible for children have not yet been identified. (22,33)

The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Prohibition) Act and the Criminal Code prohibit all forms of child sexual exploitation, with the former explicitly prohibiting child pornography. (26,27) However, consensual sex with children ages 16 or 17 is permitted, including in cases in which a person gives or promises remuneration, goods, food, or other benefits in exchange for the sexual act. This provision leaves children vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. (31,26) Research could not determine whether laws prohibit the use of children in specific illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs. (34,35)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor and other relevant ministries that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.


Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Local Government, and Rural Development

Identifies cases and enforces laws related to child labor and hazardous child labor through its Labor Department. (8,13)

Ministry of Human Development and Social Transformation, Department of Human Services

Receives referrals for child labor cases; trains immigration officials, labor inspectors, and the Belize Police Department (BPD) in making referrals; and handles human trafficking cases. (10,36) Provides victims with welfare services, including medical and social services and counseling assistance. (8,37)

BPD

Investigates cases of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking through Sexual Offense and Family Violence Units. (10)

Ministry of Education, Youth, Sports, and Culture

Investigates truancy offenses in schools and issues fines for these violations. (38)

Office of the Director of Public Prosecution

Prosecutes criminal offenses, including cases of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking. (39)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Belize took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including insufficient inspections and penalties to deter child labor violations.


Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (7)

Unknown (3)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown (7)

25 (3)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (40)

Yes (3)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Unknown (7)

N/A (3)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (7)

N/A (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (7)

Yes (3)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown (7)

970 (3)

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (7)

970 (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (7)

25 (3)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (7)

0 (3)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (7)

0 (3)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown (7)

Yes (3)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (7)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (7)

Yes (3)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (7)

Yes (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (7)

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (7)

Yes (3)

The government does not publish information regarding labor inspectorate funding. However, government officials indicate that the level of funding is insufficient and that the inspectorate has a need for more vehicles, fuel, and inspectors. (3) Although the Labor Department is required to visit every business at least once a year, it usually falls short of this goal due to a lack of resources. (3,7) Labor inspectors are able to assess penalties, but the current fine for child labor infractions is only $13.50. Thus, inspections and penalties may be insufficient to deter child labor violations in Belize. (3,41) Although training is provided to new inspectors, funding is insufficient to address the inspectorate's full need for refresher training on existing laws throughout the year. (3)

In 2018, the labor inspectorate carried out 50 child labor-specific inspections in the Orange Walk and Corozal districts and identified 25 cases of child labor. However, these inspections were limited to the sugarcane industry and did not include other sectors in which children work, such as in tourism, construction, fishing, and commercial sexual exploitation. (3)

In 2018, 16 labor officers, 2 truancy officers, 2 Social Security Board inspectors, 1 immigration inspector, and 2 community police officers participated in a training of trainers workshop as part of the CLEAR II project; this training introduced participants to curriculum on identifying, addressing, and preventing child labor that could then be shared within participants' respective organizations. (3,42) The CLEAR II project also developed a curriculum in collaboration with the Ministry of Labor to guide labor inspectors on how to monitor and enforce child labor laws. (43)

Child labor complaints can be submitted to the Labor Department, the Belize Police Department (BPD), or the Department of Human Services. Limited reporting from local NGOs and the private sector indicates that it is difficult to follow up on the status of complaints made. (3)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Belize took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators.


Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Unknown (7)

No (3)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (7)

N/A (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (7)

No (3)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (7)

Unknown (3)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (7)

0 (3)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (7)

0 (3)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (7)

0 (3)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

No (2) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (7)

Yes (3)

In 2018, Belize increased its efforts to combat human trafficking. The Ministry of Human Development signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with a domestic violence shelter that will house trafficking victims, and the BPD signed an MOU with the Human Trafficking Institute to improve victim identification and support. (2) The government initiated investigations into at least two cases of child sexual exploitation that possibly involved human trafficking and referred five child trafficking victims to social services. (2) The government also provided specialized training to various government representatives on trafficking in persons, including sending various government representatives to the International Law Enforcement Academy's Executive Policy and Development Symposium on Human Trafficking and Model Law in New Mexico, which focused on responding to human trafficking and child exploitation. (2) Belize continued to implement a public awareness campaign on child sex tourism, which includes public service announcements and billboards at the international airport and border crossings. (2)

Despite these efforts, there have been no human trafficking convictions in Belize since 2005, and although the country's laws allow for the imprisonment of violators, trafficking cases are often dismissed by lower courts. (2,44) Belize lacks official statistics on child sex tourism, and criminal investigators and police officers lacked sufficient resources—such as vehicles, fuel, office supplies, and adequate training—to investigate violations of criminal law, including the worst forms of child labor. (2,12)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including accomplishing mandates.


Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Child Labor Committee

Coordinates efforts among ministries to combat child labor and implement the National Child Labor Policy. Led by the Ministry of Labor and 14 government and civil society members, and chaired by a Senior Labor Officer. (45,46) In 2018, the committee held at least 10 regular meetings. (3) 

Anti-Trafficking in Persons Council

Identifies and rescues human trafficking victims, trains law enforcement officials, and educates the public about the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Led by the Vice Minister of Human Development and Social Transformation; includes 12 other government agencies and civil society organizations. (1) In 2018, the Council provided human trafficking training to prison staff as well as immigration personnel. (2) 

National Committee for Families and Children (NCFC)

Promotes, monitors, and evaluates Belize’s compliance with its national and international commitments to children, including the UN CRC. (37) Implements the National Results Framework for Children and Adolescents 2017–2030, also referred to as the Children's Agenda. (11,47,48) In 2018, the Ministry of Labor and NCFC collaborated with municipal governments and UNICEF to host a 2-day event to review provisions and mechanisms outlined in the Children's Agenda. Nine participating mayors signed a memorandum of understanding to express their commitment to implementing the Agenda's initiatives. (49)

In 2018, the Labor Department appointed a Senior Labor Officer dedicated specifically to child labor, who serves as the secretary of the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC). The appointment has resulted in improved communications from the Labor Department on child labor issues with stakeholders. (3,50)

Although the NCLC was re-activated in 2017 and the committee met regularly in 2018, there is no record of actions or recommendations produced by this committee in 2018. (3,51) Furthermore, limited reporting revealed government concerns that the committee was not functioning properly. (52)

In 2018, the Labor Department collaborated with the Belize Sugar Cane Farmer's Association to study child labor in the sugarcane industry, specifically in the northern Corozal and Orange Walk districts. (3) The study identified 25 cases of child labor, and the Department applied a new approach of education and awareness instead of imposing penalties, because the cases were not considered severe. (3,50) The results of the study were shared with the Ministry of Human Development in late 2018. (53)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementation.


Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Child Labor Policy

Focuses on strengthening child labor laws, creating legislation to address existing gaps, and providing educational assistance to children who have been or who are currently engaged in child labor. (54,55) Aims to strengthen government institutions and services and to train labor officers. (45,55)

CARE Model

Coordinates the protection, care, and monitoring of sexually exploited and trafficked children. Outlines the role of the Department of Human Services and the BPD in receiving allegations of commercial sexual exploitation of children and referring children to services. (56) 

National Results Framework for Children and Adolescents (Children’s Agenda) 2017–2030

Launched in June 2017. (11,47,48) Sets out the government’s agenda and priorities to protect the rights of children and adolescents, including in education, health, economic security and opportunity, and protection from discrimination, abuse, and exploitation, including child labor. (47) Raises awareness of the role of families in promoting early childhood education. (48) As part of this policy, government ministries received training from UNICEF Belize and private partners in 2018 on how to develop data dashboards that highlight outcomes of the Children's Agenda. (57)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (17)

Research was unable to identify actions taken during the reporting period under the National Child Labor Policy or the CARE Model.

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy to address the full scope of the problem in all sectors.


Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor II (CLEAR II)

$7 million, USDOL-funded project, implemented by Winrock International and partners Verité and Lawyers Without Borders in seven countries to build local and national capacity of governments to address child labor. (3) As part of the CLEAR II project, Belize collaborated with USDOL to create the inter-agency Legislative Review Committee, which met regularly in 2018 to review legislative amendments on child labor. The committee has provided an opportunity for greater inter-agency collaboration and cooperation between responsible agencies that previously did not frequently interact or share information. (3,50) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (10,13,58)

Research found no evidence of government programs to combat commercial sexual exploitation of children or assist children working in agriculture, fisheries, or construction.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Belize (Table 11).


Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law prohibits all forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children ages 16 and 17.

2013 – 2018

Ensure that the minimum age for work is age 14 in all sectors.

2013 – 2018

Adopt a list of hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children and ensure that all children under age 18 are prohibited from engaging in hazardous work.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that laws prohibit the use of children in specific illicit activities, such as the production and trafficking of drugs.

2013 – 2018

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 into non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2018

Enforcement

Ensure that law enforcement agencies have sufficient resources to conduct labor inspections and criminal investigations, especially in rural areas and in areas where children are more vulnerable.

2009 – 2018

Provide initial and refresher training on the worst forms of child labor to criminal investigators, and ensure that funding is sufficient to implement adequate training systems.

2018

Ensure that the level of inspections and penalties are sufficient to deter child labor law violations.

2018

Conduct targeted inspections in sectors in which child labor is known to occur.

2018

Improve complaint mechanisms so that the case status of labor complaints can be tracked.

2018

Impose criminal penalties for the worst forms of child labor and ensure that courts hear and try human trafficking cases.

2017 – 2018

Publish complete information on enforcement efforts to combat child labor, including labor inspectorate funding and the number of criminal investigations.

2015 – 2018

Prosecute and penalize violations of the worst forms of child labor.

2018

Coordination

Ensure that the National Child Labor Committee is developing and implementing recommendations, and provide oversight to ensure that the committee functions as intended.

2015 – 2018

Government Policies

Ensure that regular actions are taken to implement the National Child Labor Policy and CARE Model.

2018

Social Programs

Conduct a comprehensive study of children’s activities to determine whether they are engaged in or at risk for involvement in the worst forms of child labor, to inform policies and programs.

2018

Increase access to education by eliminating fees, improving educational facilities, hiring additional qualified teachers, providing textbooks, uniforms, and meals, and addressing language barriers for Spanish-speaking students.

2011 – 2018

Develop programs aimed at reducing child labor, including in agriculture, construction, and fisheries, and that address the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2009 – 2018

  1. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Joy Ngozi Ezeilo. June 11, 2014.
    http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Trafficking/Pages/visits.aspx.

  2. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Reporting (TIP). February 28, 2019.

  3. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Reporting. January 15, 2019.

  4. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  5. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Child Activity Survey (SIMPOC), 2013. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  6. ILO-IPEC. Report of the National Child Activity Survey. Geneva, Statistical Institute of Belize. 2015. Source on file.

  7. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Reporting. January 12, 2018.

  8. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Reporting. January 15, 2016.

  9. Ministry of Education official. Interview with USDOL official. December 22, 2017.

  10. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Reporting. January 21, 2014.

  11. NGO official. Interview with USDOL official. April 5, 2017.

  12. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Reporting. February 3, 2017.

  13. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Reporting. January 22, 2015.

  14. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Belize. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2017-trafficking-in-persons-report/belize/.

  15. Child Development Foundation official. Interview with USDOL official. January 17, 2018.

  16. U.S. Department of State. 2019 Trafficking in persons Report: Belize June 20, 2019.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-trafficking-in-persons-report-2/belize/.

  17. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Reporting, February 14, 2017.

  18. Government of Belize. Education Act. Enacted: December 31, 2000. Source on file.

  19. National Human Development Advisory Committee, Ministry of Economic Development, Commerce and Industry, and Consumer Protection. 2009 Country Poverty Assessment. August 2010. Source on file.

  20. Carneiro, Francisco Galrao. Belize, right choices bright future. January 2016: Working Paper. World Bank Group.
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/870551467995073017/Belize-right-choices-bright-future-systematic-country-diagnostic.

  21. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Email communication. January 25, 2019.

  22. Government of Belize. Labour Act, Revised. Enacted: December 31, 2000. Source on file.

  23. Government of Belize. Shops Act, Chapter 287, Revised Edition 2000. Enacted: December 31, 2000.
    http://www.belizelaw.org/web/lawadmin/index2.html.

  24. Government of Belize. Families and Children Act, Revised Edition. Enacted: December 31, 2000. Source on file.

  25. Government of Belize. The Constitution of Belize, Revised Edition. Enacted: December 31, 2000. Source on file.

  26. Government of Belize. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Prohibition) Act, 2013, No. 3. Enacted: January 31, 2013. Source on file.

  27. Government of Belize. Criminal Code. Enacted: December 31, 2000. Source on file.
    https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265776.pdf.

  28. Government of Belize. Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Act, 2013, No. 2. Enacted: January 31, 2013. Source on file.

  29. Government of Belize. Defence Act, Revised Edition. Enacted: December 31, 2000. Source on file.

  30. Government of Belize. Education and Training Act of 2010. Enacted: April 14, 2010.
    http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/en/2010/belize-education-and-training-act-2010-4916.

  31. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Belize. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2016-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/belize/

  32. Government of Belize. "Appendix: Hazardous Occupations for Young Workers," in National Child Labour Policy. 2009. Source on file.

  33. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No.138) Belize (ratification: 2000) Published: 2017. Accessed January 5, 2018.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3294159.

  34. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Belize (ratification: 2000) Published: 2015. Accessed November 7, 2015.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185758.

  35. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Belize (ratification: 2000) Published: 2017. Accessed October 22, 2017.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3294334.

  36. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Reporting. February 5, 2016.

  37. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan official. Email communication to USDOL official. April 29, 2015.

  38. U.S. Embassy - Belmopan official. Email communication to USDOL official. May 9, 2018.

  39. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Reporting. March 16, 2015.

  40. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Email communication to USDOL official. March 9, 2017.

  41. DOS Office of Investment Affairs. Belize Country Commercial Guide. April 9, 2018
    https://www.export.gov/article?id=Belize-Labor

  42. Love FM. Eliminating child labour. November 27, 2018
    http://lovefm.com/eliminating-child-labour/.

  43. News 5 Live. News cast. November 29, 2018
    https://www.facebook.com/News5Live/videos/344709029660348/.

  44. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Belize (Ratification: 1983) Published: 2017. Accessed October 22, 2017.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3295515.

  45. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Belize (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014. Accessed April 14, 2015.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3294159:NO.

  46. Winrock International. CLEAR II. October 30, 2017: Technical Progress Report. Source on file.

  47. Government of Belize. Children's Agenda 2017-2030. May 15, 2017.
    http://humandevelopment.gov.bz/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Childrens-Agenda-2017-2030.pdf.

  48. The San Pedro Sun. The Children's Agenda 2017-2030 officially launched. June 15, 2017.
    https://www.sanpedrosun.com/youth/2017/06/15/childrens-agenda-2017-2030-officially-launched/.

  49. The San Pedro Sun Sustainable and Child-Friendly Municipality Initiative Mayors Retreat October, 19, 2018
    https://www.sanpedrosun.com/community-and-society/2018/10/19/sustainable-child-friendly-municipality-initiative-mayors-retreat/

  50. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan Official. Email communication to USDOL official. January 24, 2019.

  51. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan official. Email communication to USDOL official. March 23, 2018.

  52. Winrock International. CLEAR II Technical Progress Report. October 2018. Source on file.

  53. 7 News Belize Child Labour, The Reality in Belize August 7, 2018.
    http://7newsbelize.com/sstory.php?nid=45766

  54. Government of Belize. National Child Labor Policy. 2009. Source on file.

  55. U.S. Embassy- Belmopan. Reporting. 2019.

  56. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons. June 11, 2014. Source on file.

  57. Community Systems Foundation Visualizing Real-Time Data to Map Progress of the Belizean National Children's Agenda March 3, 2018. .
    https://www.communitysystemsfoundation.org/impact/visualizing-real-time-data-to-map-progress-of-the-belizean-national-childrens-agenda

  58. Sugar online. Belize: Government teams with EU on child labour consultation. April 13, 2017.
    http://www.sugaronline.com/news/website_contents/view/1250346.