Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Azerbaijan

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Azerbaijan

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2015, Azerbaijan made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government expanded social services available for migrants considered vulnerable to human trafficking and provided training to law enforcement officials on human trafficking. However, children in Azerbaijan are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Legal protections for workers only apply to workers with written employment contracts, leaving self-employed children and children working outside of formal employment relationships vulnerable to exploitation. There are gaps in Azerbaijan’s labor inspection system and in the training of its law enforcement officials. In addition, research found limited evidence of government programs to address child labor in agriculture and street work, the sectors in which it is most prevalent.

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Children in Azerbaijan are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture.(1-8) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(5, 6, 9-12) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Azerbaijan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

4.5 (70,034)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

91.9

Industry

0.8

Services

7.2

School attendance, ages 6 to 14 (%):

94.3

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

4.9

Primary completion rate (%):

98.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(13)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Child Labor Survey (SIMPOC) Survey, 2005.(14)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cotton, tea,* and tobacco*† (1-4, 6-8)

Industry

Construction,* activities unknown (2, 4, 15)

Services

Street work, including begging, washing cars, and vending (1-4, 6, 8, 9, 16)

Washing cars at commercial car washes* (15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (6, 9, 11, 12, 16)

Forced begging (12, 16, 17)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

The majority of child labor in Azerbaijan occurs in the agriculture sector. Evidence suggests that the number of child laborers involved in the production of cotton, tea, and tobacco has considerably declined in the last decade, although the significance of the decline is unknown.(2-4)

Children in Azerbaijan are trafficked for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation both domestically and transnationally. Street children, many of whom become homeless after they are released from government-run orphanages and correctional facilities, are particularly vulnerable to human trafficking.(11) Children living in border towns and economically depressed rural communities have also been identified as being vulnerable to human trafficking.(18)

Children with disabilities also face difficulty accessing mainstream education due to the inaccessibility of the physical infrastructure of schools, and a general social stigma against individuals with disabilities. As a result of these barriers, a source estimated that only 10 to 17 percent of children with disabilities are able to attend school, while the remaining children are either educated at home or do not receive an education.(16)

Azerbaijan has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 42 of the Labor Code (19)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 250 of the Labor Code (19)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Articles 98 and 250–254 of the Labor Code; Decision 58 of the Cabinet of Ministers in 2000; Article 9 of the Law on the Rights of the Child (19-21)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 35 of the Constitution; Article 144-2 of the Criminal Code (22, 23)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

The Law on Trafficking in Persons; Articles 106, 144-1, 144-3, and 173 of the Criminal Code (23-26)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 108, 151, 152, 171, 171-1, and 242–244 of the Criminal Code (24, 27)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 28 of the Law on the Rights of the Child; Article 170 of the Criminal Code (21, 24)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Articles 2, 3, and 12 of the Law on Military Obligation and Military Service (28)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

19

Article 36 of the Law on Military Obligation and Military Service (28, 29)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Articles 5 and 19 of the Education Law (30, 31)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Education Law; Article 22 of the Law on the Rights of the Child (21, 30)

 

According to Articles 2 and 3 of the Labor Code, the Labor Code only applies to workers with written employment contracts.(19) As a result, the law’s minimum age protections do not apply to children working outside formal employment relationships, or children who are self-employed.(32) The Government introduced both administrative and criminal penalties in 2014 for employing people without an effective employment agreement. Although this has strengthened protections for working children by attempting to ensure that all working children work under a contract, self-employed children and children working outside formal employment relationships remain unprotected.

In October 2015, the Cabinet of Ministers issued a decision expanding social services for migrants who are vulnerable to human trafficking; the decision also requires continual training of migration, customs, and border officials on identifying migrants as potential victims of human trafficking.(33)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

The Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of Population (MLSPP)

Enforce labor laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(34)

State Labor Inspection Service (SLIS) within the MLSPP

Enforce the Labor Code, including provisions related to child labor.(2) Investigate child labor complaints and ensure that violations of child labor law receive attention from the proper agencies.(34)

Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA)

Function as the central executive agency responsible for public security and prevention and exposure of criminal offences, including child trafficking and begging.(2) Through the Anti-Trafficking Division (ATD), enforce human trafficking laws, investigate human trafficking violations, and enforce criminal laws related to the use of children in illicit activities. Refer children who are victims of human trafficking to social services for assistance with school enrollment, participation in recreational activities, and obtaining proper documentation.(5)

The Commission on Juvenile Issues and Protection of Minors’ Rights

Coordinate the enforcement of laws related to the worst forms of child labor. Located within the Cabinet of Ministers.(34)

The National Referral Mechanism for Trafficking in Persons (NRM)

Refer victims of human trafficking to the relevant authorities, ensuring the protection of their rights.(35) Refer human trafficking cases to the ATD for prosecution. Led by the National Coordinator and the Deputy-Minister of the MIA and counts a large number of government agencies as members, including the MLSPP and the State Committee on Family, Women and Children’s Affairs (SCFWCA).(12)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Azerbaijan took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown (33)

Number of Labor Inspectors

214 (33)

214 (33)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (15)

Yes (15)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (18)

Yes (18)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Yes (33)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (36)

Yes (33)

Number of Labor Inspections

11,345 (33)

11,189 (33)

Number Conducted at Worksite

1,214 (33)

1,218 (33)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

10,131 (33)

9,971 (33)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

6 (18)

5 (33)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

5 (18)

4 (33)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

4 (33)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (33)

Yes (33)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (33)

No (33)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (15)

Yes (33)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (15)

Yes (33)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (33)

Yes (33)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (33)

No (33)

 

The State Labor Inspection Service (SLIS) reports that all inspectors receive training on identification of trafficking victims and situations of labor exploitation.(18) However, research did not find information on whether inspectors received training on laws and the enforcement of laws pertaining specifically to hazardous child labor. Limited evidence suggests that inspectors may not be adequately trained on child labor issues, including hazardous child labor.(6) In addition, the SLIS noted that it uses a different definition of forced labor than is prescribed in other aspects of Azerbaijani law. This may impact the severity of the penalties imposed by the SLIS for forced labor violations.(33)

While the SLIS does conduct unannounced inspections, the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of Population reports that subjects of unannounced child labor investigations are often warned of the investigation in advance through unofficial channels, which indicates a lack of integrity within the SLIS.(15)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Azerbaijan took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (18, 37)

Yes (33)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

1 (18)

1 (33)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (18)

Yes (18)

 

Although the National Referral Mechanism for Trafficking in Persons (NRM) exists to refer victims of human trafficking, including child trafficking, to the relevant government agencies, research found that the NRM’s efficacy suffers from a lack of interagency cooperation and an absence of standard operating procedures for referral of victims. In addition, NGOs report that human trafficking victims referred to the NRM by NGOs were not officially recognized as victims by the Government and did not receive government services.(33)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Identify government priorities in the sphere of child labor prevention to facilitate efficient mobilization of resources. Established through the Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project and comprising representatives from the MLSPP, the SCFWCA, the Ministry of Education, the Employers’ Confederation, the Trade Unions’ Confederation, the OSCE, UNICEF, and the ILO.(38)

State Committee on Family, Women and Children’s Affairs (SCFWCA)

Serve as the primary central executive body responsible for implementing child-related policies.(2) Create and maintain an interagency case management database on child rights.(39)

Control-Coordination Group

Work with the Ministry of Education and the SCFWCA to develop a national database for local agencies to identify children who are not in school, and to track absentees over time and across districts.(34, 40) Established from the State Program on Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development in 2008–2015. Membership includes representatives from the SCFWCA; the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health, and the MLSPP.(34)

The Government of Azerbaijan has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Joint Action Plan on Elimination of Child Labor Exploitation

(2013–2015)

Joint action plan outlining coordination between the MLSPP and the SCFWCA. Planned activities include preparing social awareness campaigns on the negative consequences of child labor exploitation; organizing seminars and roundtables for state agencies involved in the fight against child labor; conducting research on child labor throughout the country; and training labor inspectors on the worst forms of child labor.(34)

National Action Plan on the Protection of Human Rights (2012–2015)

Sought to ensure that the Criminal Code is compatible with international standards on preventing the sexual exploitation of children and to strengthen efforts to fulfill the ILO child labor conventions. Addressed human trafficking and called for rehabilitation centers for victims.(41)

National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings (NAP) (2014–2018)

Aims to identify and combat the causes of vulnerability to human trafficking in Azerbaijan, through improved coordination among the government agencies, NGOs, and intergovernmental organizations involved in combating human trafficking. Also seeks to improve the identification, protection, and provision of services to victims, and to ameliorate the social conditions that make victims vulnerable to human trafficking.(42) Places special emphasis on protecting the rights of child victims and preventing trafficking of vulnerable children and youth.(18, 42)

UNDAF (2011–2015)

Sought to improve identification, referral, and legal support services for victims of trafficking, as well as to build the capacity of judiciary and law enforcement personnel.(43)

State Program on Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development (2008–2015)

Sought to improve social protection for the most vulnerable populations, including child laborers. Called for developing a national action plan to address the issues of abandoned and street children.(44) Included a plan to improve efforts to make schools better and more accessible, and to decrease educational costs by providing free textbooks and hot meals for children.(44)

 

The National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings (NAP) addresses many prior international recommendations, but lacks clear indicators of the source and amount of funding. As a result, the NAP is lacking the funding necessary for full implementation of associated programs.(18)

In 2015, the Government of Azerbaijan funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the Government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor in Azerbaijan.(45) In 2015, conducted four training sessions to build the capacity of union representatives to identify and prevent child labor.(45)

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP)

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in 10 countries, including Azerbaijan, to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity of the Government to conduct research in this area.(46) In Azerbaijan, the MAP project is funding a rapid assessment of child labor among children in the Roma community. In 2015, the project conducted a training workshop for staff from the NGO partner that will conduct the rapid assessment.(47)

Statistical Analysis on Child Labor and Street Children in Azerbaijan

SCFWCA and UNICEF collaboration to create a comprehensive report on the situation of street children in 11 cities and districts of Azerbaijan.(18)

Centers for Vulnerable Children†

Government-funded program comprising 13 centers that provide social services to vulnerable children, including street children and orphans.(48) NGOs reported that the centers are effective in providing services and may contribute to a reduction in child labor.(6) The centers were originally established in 2013, but ran out of funds and closed by the end of 2013.(6) In August 2014, funding for the shelters was restored; however it is not clear if the funding was permanently secured.(48)

The Program of Social Rehabilitation and Social Reintegration of Child Victims of Trafficking (2014–2016)†

Government program implemented by the MLSPP, the SCFWCA, and the Ministry of Education. Assists children who are victims of human trafficking and their families by establishing a system of monitoring social reintegration of child victims of trafficking and by providing for the professional development of psychologists and medical professionals.(49, 50)

Victim Assistance Center for Victims of Human Trafficking†

MLSPP-supported program that provides medical, psychological, and social rehabilitation and reintegration assistance to victims of trafficking, including children.(12, 18) In 2015, had a budget of $27,320, which the director reported was inadequate to hire sufficient staff.(33)

Baku Shelter for Victims of Human Trafficking†

MIA-run shelter for victims of human trafficking that can accommodate up to 50 victims.(33)

Reception Center†

State Migration Service-run shelter for victims of human trafficking.(33)

Targeted Social Assistance Program†

MLSPP-run program that provides cash transfers to low-income families.(51, 52)

MIA Identification Document Program†

Provides identification documents to undocumented minors who may be street children or victims of human trafficking.(6)

USAID Anti-Trafficking in Persons Project

$610,000, USAID-funded, OSCE-implemented program to provide technical assistance and financial support to civil society organizations operating shelters for victims of human trafficking, including children.(37, 53)

† Program is funded by the Government of Azerbaijan.

Although the Government of Azerbaijan has implemented programs to address child trafficking, research found little evidence to indicate it has carried out programs to assist children working in agriculture or on the street.

NGO-run shelters that are tasked by the NAP with providing victim services do not receive consistent funding from the Government. Directors of these shelters note that the unpredictable nature of funding prevents long-term planning and capacity building of shelters.(33) Child victims are usually referred to the Azerbaijan Children’s Union shelter, where they have access to specialized care, including art therapy. This shelter does not receive consistent government funding and noted that most of its staff worked on a voluntary basis due to lack of government funding and an inability to receive foreign assistance caused by the restrictions imposed on NGOs over the last two years.(33)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Azerbaijan (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that all children are protected by law, including children working without a written employment agreement or outside of a formal employment relationship and children who are self-employed.

2011 – 2015

Enforcement

Ensure that labor inspectors receive adequate training on the enforcement of laws pertaining to child labor.

2014 – 2015

Make complete data on the funding of the inspectorate publicly available.

2015

Ensure that the State Labor Inspection Service uses a definition of forced labor that corresponds with Azerbaijani law.

2015

Make publicly available complete data on the number of investigations, prosecutions, and convictions related to criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2015

Improve interagency cooperation to ensure that the NRM functions adequately and provides needed services to all victims of child trafficking, including to victims identified and referred by NGOs.

2014 – 2015

Government Policies

Ensure the National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings receives the funding necessary for full implementation of associated programs.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the extent of children’s continued involvement in the production of commercial agricultural goods, and to determine specific activities related to children’s work in construction in order to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2015

Institute programs to address child labor in agriculture and on the streets

2009 – 2015

Ensure that NGO-run shelters for victims of human trafficking are sufficiently and consistently funded to provide services to victims effectively, as dictated by the NAP and NRM.

2015

1.         Azerbaijan Ministry of Labor official. Interview with USDOL official. May 22, 2012.

2.         ICF International. In-Country Data Collection on Child Labor for Use in TDA and Related Reporting: Azerbaijan. Washington, DC, USDOL; May 22, 2012.

3.         NGO Alliance on Children's Rights official. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2012.

4.         Sadagat Gambarova- Child Labor Expert. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2012.

5.         U.S. Embassy- Baku. reporting, February 28, 2013.

6.         U.S. Embassy- Baku. reporting, February 12, 2014.

7.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Azerbaijan. Geneva; March 12, 2012. http://www.ohchr.org.

8.         USDOL official. Field Observations of USDOL Official. Field observations. Bilasuvar; 2012.

9.         Children's Union Azerbaijan official. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2012.

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Azerbaijan," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper.

11.       U.S. Department of State. "Azerbaijan," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2012/192366.htm. .

12.       U.S. Embassy- Baku. reporting, February 13, 2014.

13.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

14.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Child Labor Survey, 2005 Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Baku. reporting, January 15, 2015.

16.       U.S. Department of State. "Azerbaijan," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2014&dlid=236500.

17.       U.S. Department of State. "Azerbaijan," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243389.htm.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Baku. reporting, February 13, 2015.

19.       Government of Azerbaijan. Labor Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Chapter X, Section 240, enacted February 1, 1999. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/54131/65184/E99AZE01.htm#c10.

20.       Government of Azerbaijan. Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Azerbaijan “On approval of list of jobs with difficult and hazardous work conditions, professions as well as underground works where application of labor of children under age of 18 is prohibited”, Decree No. 58, enacted March 24, 2000.

21.       Government of Azerbaijan. Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Rights of the Child, Law No. 499, enacted May 19, 1998. http://www.migration.gov.az/images/pdf/b373fca899bab5b1c0c667bdf07ab4d0.pdf.

22.       Government of Azerbaijan. Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic, Article 35, enacted November 12, 1995. http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/aj00000_.html.

23.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 14, 2015.

24.       Government of Azerbaijan. Criminal Code of the Azerbaijan Republic, Articles 106 and 173, enacted September 1, 2000. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4417f82d4.html.

25.       Government of Azerbaijan. Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on Trafficking in Persons, enacted August 5, 2005. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4417f1214.html.

26.       Government of Azerbaijan. Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on Amendments to the Criminal Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan, enacted April 19, 2013.

27.       Government of Azerbaijan. Decree on Amendments to the Criminal Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan, enacted June 29, 2012.

28.       Government of Azerbaijan. Law of The Republic of Azerbaijan on Military Duty and Military Service, Law No. 274-IVQ, enacted December 23, 2011. http://e-qanun.az/print.php?internal=view&target=1&docid=23021&doctype=0#http://e-qanun.az/print.php?internal=view&target=1&docid=23021&doctype=0#alpiViewDocFirstDoc.

29.       Government of Azerbaijan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 30, 2015.

30.       Government of Azerbaijan. Education Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Law No. 324, enacted 1992.

31.       U.S. Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 25, 2012.

32.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Azerbaijan (ratification: 1992) Published: 2015; accessed March 8, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3187549.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Baku official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 8, 2016.

34.       Government of Azerbaijan. Information provided by the Azerbaijani authorities. Submitted with regard to the U.S. Department of Labor Questionnaire on Child Labor and Forced Labor. Baku; January 15, 2014.

35.       Government of Azerbaijan. "Rules of the National Referral Mechanism on victims of human trafficking", No. 123, enacted August 11, 2009. http://iaqmi.gov.az/files/uploader/Az%C9%99rbaycan%20Respublikas%C4%B1n%C4%B1n_en.pdf.

36.       Government of Azerbaijan. Responses of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the US Department of Labor questionnaire on child labor in Azerbaijan in the context of preparation of 2014 Findings on the worst forms of child labor (TDA Report). Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2015) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Baku; February 24, 2015.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Baku. reporting, December 1, 2014.

38.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Chlid Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2014.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Baku official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 12, 2013.

40.       Government of Azerbaijan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 1, 2014.

41.       Government of Azerbaijan. National Program for Action to Raise Effectiveness of the Protection of Human Rights and Freedoms in the Republic of Azerbaijan. January 10, 2012.

42.       Government of Azerbaijan. The National Action Plan for the years 2014-2018 on Combating trafficking in human beings in Azerbaijan Republic, No. 667, enacted July 24, 2014.

43.       UN Country Team in Azerbaijan. United Nations Development Assistance Framework- Azerbaijan 2011-2015. Baku, UNADF; December 16, 2010. http://www.sl.undp.org/content/dam/azerbaijan/docs/Legal_docs/undaf_2011_2015_eng.pdf.

44.       Government of Azerbaijan. State Program on Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development in the Republic of Azerbaijan for 2008-2015. Baku; September 15, 2008. http://www.cled.az/pdf/others/Azerbaijan%20Poverty%20Program%20for%202008-2015.pdf.

45.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Chlid Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report Geneva; November 2015.

46.       ILO-IPEC. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP). Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2014.

47.       ILO-IPEC. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP). Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015.

48.       U.S. Embassy- Baku official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 8, 2015.

49.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 11, 2014.

50.       Government of Azerbaijan. The Program of Social Rehabilitation and Social Reintegration of Child Victims of Trafficking, No. 37, enacted February 6, 2014. http://www.cabmin.gov.az/?/az/pressreliz/view/1234/.

51.       World Bank. Azerbaijan Living Conditions Assessment Report. Assessment Report. Washington, DC; 2010. Report No. 52801-AZ. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2010/03/25/000333037_20100325235529/Rendered/PDF/528010ESW0GRAY1C0disclosed031241101.pdf [source on file].

52.       International Monetary Fund. Republic of Azerbaijan: 2014 Article IV Consulation - Staff Report; Press Release. Washington, D.C.; June 2014. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2014/cr14159.pdf.

53.       OSCE Project Coordinator in Baku. USAID, OSCE support Azerbaijan in combating human trafficking, OSCE, [online] November 20, 2014 [cited January 9, 2015]; http://www.osce.org/baku/126927.

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