Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Azerbaijan

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Azerbaijan

Moderate Advancement

In 2014, Azerbaijan made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed amendments to the Administrative Offenses Code and the Criminal Code that impose a fine or imprisonment for employing people without an effective employment agreement, thereby providing children working without a contract with protection. The Government also instituted a new National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, and law enforcement officials received training on best practices in investigating and prosecuting cases of human trafficking. In addition, the Government funded a program for the rehabilitation of child victims of human trafficking. However, children in Azerbaijan are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. There are gaps in Azerbaijan's labor inspection system and in the training of its law enforcement officials. In addition, research found limited evidence of government programs to address child labor in the sectors where it is most prevalent.

 

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Children in Azerbaijan are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture.(1-8) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(5, 6, 9-12) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Azerbaijan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

4.5 (70,034)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

91.9

Industry

0.8

Services

7.2

School attendance, ages 6 to 14 (%):

94.3

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

4.9

Primary completion rate (%):

92.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(13
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Child Labor Survey (SIMPOC) Survey, 2005.(14)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cotton, tea,* and tobacco*† (1-8)

Industry

Construction,* activities unknown (2, 4, 15)

Services

Street work, including begging, washing cars, and vending (1-6, 8-10)

Washing cars at commercial car washes (15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5, 6, 9-12)

Forced begging (10-12)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

The majority of child labor in Azerbaijan occurs in the agriculture sector. Evidence suggests that the number of child laborers involved in the production of cotton, tea, and tobacco has considerably declined in the past decade, although the significance of the decline is unknown.(2-4)

Children in Azerbaijan are trafficked for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation both domestically and transnationally. Street children, many of whom become homeless after their release from government-run orphanages and correctional facilities, are at the highest risk of becoming victims of human trafficking.(11) Children living in border towns and economically depressed rural communities have also been identified as vulnerable to becoming victims of human trafficking.(16)

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Azerbaijan has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 42 of the Labor Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan (17)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 250 of the Labor Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan (17)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Articles 98 and 250 — 254 of the Labor Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan; Decision 58 of the Cabinet of Ministers in 2000; Article 9 of the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Rights of the Child (17-19)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 35 of the Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic; Article 144-2 of the Criminal Code of the Azerbaijan Republic (20, 21)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

The Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on Trafficking in Persons; Articles 106, 144-1, 144-3, and 173 of the Criminal Code of the Azerbaijan Republic (21-24)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 108, 151, 152, 171, 171-1, and 242 — 244 of the Criminal Code of the Azerbaijan Republic (22, 25)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 28 of the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Rights of the Child; Article 170 of the Criminal Code of the Azerbaijan Republic (19, 22)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Articles 2,3, and 12 of the Law on Military Obligation and Military Service (26)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

19

Article 36 of the Law on Military Obligation and Military Service (26, 27)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Articles 5 and 19 of the Education Law of Azerbaijan (28, 29)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Education Law of Azerbaijan; Article 22 of the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Rights of the Child (19, 28)

According to Articles 2 and 3 of the Labor Code, the Labor Code only applies to workers with written employment contracts.(17) As a result, labor protections do not apply to children working without a written employment agreement. However, in February 2014, the president signed amendments to the Administrative Offenses Code and the Criminal Code that impose a fine or imprisonment for employing people without an effective employment agreement, thereby attempting to ensure that all working children will be working under a contract.(6)

In June 2014, the Government amended the Labor Code to require all labor contracts to be registered in a central database, including the retroactive entry of all current valid contracts. Additionally, the legislation requires all businesses to register with the Government in order to grant contracts to any employees.(15, 16) Companies that do not enter their contracts into the database are subject to the same penalties as those who employ workers without a contract. This will assist with the enforcement of child labor laws by facilitating the detection of child workers who are employed without a contract.(15, 16)

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The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

The Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of Population (MLSPP)

Enforce labor laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(30)

State Labor Inspection Service (SLIS) within the MLSPP

Enforce the Labor Code, including provisions related to child labor.(2) Investigate child labor complaints and ensure that violations of child labor law receive attention from the proper agencies.(30)

Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA)

Function as the central executive agency responsible for public security and prevention and exposure of criminal offences, including child trafficking and begging.(2) Through the Anti-Trafficking Division (ATD), enforce trafficking laws, investigate trafficking violations, and enforce criminal laws related to the use of children in illicit activities.(5) Refer children who are victims of human trafficking to social services for assistance with school enrollment, registering for recreational activities, and obtaining proper documentation.(5)

The Commission on Juvenile Issues and Protection of Minors' Rights

Coordinate efforts on enforcement of laws related to the worst forms of child labor. Located under the Cabinet of Ministers and consists of relevant state agencies.(30)

The National Referral Mechanism for Trafficking in Persons (NRM)

Refer victims of human trafficking to the relevant authorities, ensuring the protection of their rights.(31) Refer human trafficking cases to the ATD for prosecution.(12) Led by the National Coordinator and the Deputy-Minister of the MIA; counts a large number of government agencies as members, including the MLSPP and the State Committee on Family, Women and Children's Affairs (SCFWCA).(12)

Law enforcement agencies in Azerbaijan took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the State Labor Inspection Service (SLIS) employed 220 labor inspectors.(32) The SLIS reports that all inspectors receive training on identification of trafficking victims and situations of labor exploitation.(16) However, research did not find information on whether inspectors received training on laws and the enforcement of laws relating specifically to child labor and/or hazardous child labor. Limited evidence suggests that inspectors may not be adequately trained on child labor, including hazardous child labor.(6)

In 2014, the SLIS conducted 8,546 labor inspections, during which compliance with child labor laws was examined. The MLSPP has reported difficulty in investigating and prosecuting child labor violations due to conflicting bureaucratic mandates and the lack of mechanisms for effective interagency cooperation.(15)

In 2014, the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of Population (MLSPP) reported carrying out targeted child labor inspections in the trade, construction, and service sectors, but information on the number of investigations conducted was unavailable. The SLIS identified six child labor law violations, all of which involved children working at car washes.(15) Five of the companies found to be in violation received fines of $13,800, while one company received a warning.(16)

While the SLIS does conduct unannounced inspections, the MLSPP reports that subjects of unannounced child labor investigations are often warned of the investigation in advance through unofficial channels, indicating a problem with internal integrity of the SLIS.(15) In addition, the Government does not have a mechanism for filing and responding expeditiously to complaints about child labor.(6)

Criminal Law Enforcement

Research did not find information on the number of investigators responsible for enforcing criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor. During the reporting period, officials from the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA) attended numerous trainings on trafficking in persons both in Azerbaijan and internationally.(16) In addition, in November 2014, the U.S. Embassy in Baku trained 25 prosecutors, judges, criminal investigators, and trafficking victim shelter personnel on best practices in investigating and prosecuting cases of human trafficking.(33)

In 2014, the Anti-Trafficking Division (ATD) of the MIA reported one child victim of commercial sexual exploitation.(16) Research did not find information on investigations, convictions, or penalties implemented for violations of criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor during 2014.(6)

Although the National Referral Mechanism for Trafficking in Persons (NRM) exists to refer victims of trafficking, including child trafficking, to the relevant government agencies, research found that the NRM's efficacy was damaged by a lack of interagency cooperation, despite the introduction of a number of MOUs between key agencies within the NRM in 2013. In addition, NGOs report that no human trafficking victims referred to the NRM by NGOs have succeeded in receiving government services.(16)

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The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor*

Identify government priorities in the sphere of child labor prevention to facilitate efficient mobilization of resources. Established through the Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project and comprised of representatives from the MLSPP, the SCFWCA, the Ministry of Education, the Employers' Confederation, the Trade Unions' Confederation, the OSCE, UNICEF, and the ILO.(34)

State Committee on Family, Women and Children's Affairs (SCFWCA)

Serve as the primary central executive body responsible for implementing child-related policies.(2) Create and maintain an interagency case management database on child rights.(35)

Control-Coordination Group

Work with the Ministry of Education and SCFWCA to develop a national database for local agencies to identify children who are not in school and to track absentees over time and across districts.(30, 36) Established from the State Program on Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development in 2008 — 2015. Membership includes representatives from the SCFWCA, the Ministries of Education, Health, and Labor and Social Protection of Population are also represented.(30)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

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The Government of Azerbaijan has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Joint Action Plan (2013–2015) on Elimination of Child Labor Exploitation

Joint action plan outlining coordination between the MLSPP and the SCFWCA. Planned activities include preparing social awareness campaigns on the negative consequences of child labor exploitation; organizing seminars and roundtables for state agencies involved in the fight against child labor; conducting research on child labor throughout the country; and training labor inspectors on the worst forms of child labor.(30) In 2014, the SCFWCA published a booklet on child labor rights, which it disseminated to children.(32)

National Action Plan on the Protection of Human Rights (2012–2015)

Seeks to ensure that the Criminal Code is compatible with international standards on preventing the sexual exploitation of children and to strengthen efforts to fulfill the ILO child labor conventions, respectively. Addresses human trafficking and calls for rehabilitation centers for victims.(37)

National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings (NAP) (2014–2018)†

Aims to identify and combat the causes of vulnerability to human trafficking in Azerbaijan, through improved coordination among the government agencies, NGOs, and intergovernmental organizations involved in combating human trafficking. Also seeks to improve the identification, protection, and provision of services to victims, and to ameliorate social conditions that make victims vulnerable to human trafficking.(38) Places special emphasis on protecting the rights of child victims and preventing trafficking of vulnerable children and youth.(16, 38)

UNDAF (2011–2015)

Seeks to improve identification, referral, and legal support services for victims of trafficking, as well as to build the capacity of judiciary and law enforcement personnel.(39)

State Program on Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development (2008–2015)

Seeks to improve social protection for the most vulnerable populations, including child laborers. Calls for developing a national action plan to address the issues of abandoned and street children.(40) Includes a plan to improve efforts to make schools better and more accessible, and to decrease educational costs by providing free textbooks and hot meals for children.(40)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

The ATD consulted with a wide array of international and domestic partners, including NGOs, when developing the National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings (NAP). The NAP addresses many prior international recommendations, but lacks clear indicators of the source and amount of funding for full implementation of associated programs.(16) NGO-run shelters that are tasked by the NAP with providing victim services do not currently receive funding from the Government. Directors of these shelters note that the informal method of funding prevents long-term planning and capacity building of shelters.(16)

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In 2014, the Government of Azerbaijan funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

The program of social rehabilitation and social reintegration of child victims of trafficking (2014–2016)†‡

Government program implemented by the MLSPP, SCFWCA, and Ministry of Education. Assists children who are victims of human trafficking and their families by establishing a system of monitoring the social reintegration of child victims of trafficking and providing for professional development of psychologists and medical professionals.(41, 42)

Victim Assistance Center (VAC) for Victims of Human Trafficking

MLSPP-supported program that provides medical, psychological, and social rehabilitation and reintegration assistance to victims of trafficking, including children.(12, 16)

Baku Shelter for Victims of Human Trafficking‡

MIA-run shelter for victims of human trafficking. In 2014, MIA invested $120,000 to renovate the shelter.(16)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the Government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor in Azerbaijan.(34) In 2014, facilitated the establishment of a National Steering Committee on Child Labor.(34)

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP)†

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in 10 countries, including Azerbaijan, to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity of the Government to conduct research in this area.(43)

Targeted Social Assistance Program (TSA)*‡

MLSPP-run program that provides cash transfers to low-income families.(44, 45)

Statistical Analysis on Child Labor and Street Children in Azerbaijan

SCFWCA and UNICEF collaboration to create a comprehensive report on the situation of street children in 11 cities and districts of Azerbaijan.(16)

Centers for Vulnerable Children‡

Government-funded program comprising 13 centers that provide social services to vulnerable children including street children and orphans.(46, 47) NGOs reported that the centers are effective in providing services and may contribute to a reduction in child labor.(6) The centers were originally established in 2013, but ran out of funds and closed by the end of 2013.(6) In August 2014, funding for the shelters was restored; however it is not clear if the funding is permanently secured.(46, 47)

MIA Identification Document Program‡

Provides identification documents to undocumented minors who may be street children or victims of human trafficking.(6)

USAID Anti-Trafficking in Persons Project†

$610,00 USAID-funded, OSCE-implemented program to provide technical assistance and financial support to civil society organizations operating shelters for victims of human trafficking, including children.(33, 48)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
† Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Azerbaijan.

Although the Government of Azerbaijan has implemented programs to address child trafficking, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs to assist children working in agriculture, in construction, or on the street.

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Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Azerbaijan (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law's minimum age provisions apply to children working without a written employment agreement.

2011–2014

Enforcement

Ensure that labor inspectors receive adequate training on the enforcement of laws relating to child labor.

2014

Strengthen the inspection system by developing a system to receive and act on child labor complaints and by tracking and monitoring labor inspections to collect data that would facilitate targeted inspections.

2011–2014

Make complete data on the number of investigators responsible for enforcing criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor and on the number of investigations, convictions, and penalties related to criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor publicly available.

2014

Improve interagency cooperation to ensure that the NRM functions adequately and provides needed services to all victims of child trafficking, including victims identified and referred by NGOs.

2014

Government Policies

Fully fund the National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings.

2014

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the extent of children's continued involvement in the production of commercial agricultural goods, and to determine specific activities related to children's work in construction in order to inform policies and programs.

2013–2014

Assess the impact that existing programs may have on child labor.

2011–2014

Institute programs to address child labor in agriculture and on the streets.

2009–2014

 

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1.Azerbaijan Ministry of Labor official. Interview with USDOL official. May 22, 2012.

2.ICF International. In-Country Data Collection on Child Labor for Use in TDA and Related Reporting: Azerbaijan. Washington, DC, USDOL; May 22, 2012.

3.NGO Alliance on Children's Rights official. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2012.

4.Sadagat Gambarova- Child Labor Expert. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2012.

5.U.S. Embassy- Baku. reporting, February 28, 2013.

6.U.S. Embassy- Baku. reporting, February 12, 2014.

7.UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention: Concluding observations: Azerbaijan. Geneva; March 12, 2012.

8.USDOL official. Field Observations of USDOL Official. Field observations. Bilasuvar; 2012.

9.Children's Union Azerbaijan official. Interview with USDOL official. May 21, 2012.

10.U.S. Department of State. "Azerbaijan," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014;.

11.U.S. Department of State. "Azerbaijan," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington DC; June 20, 2014;.

12.U.S. Embassy- Baku. reporting, February 13, 2014.

13.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015];. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

14.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Child Labor Survey, 2005 Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

15.U.S. Embassy- Baku. reporting, January 15, 2015.

16.U.S. Embassy- Baku. reporting, February 13, 2015.

17.Government of Azerbaijan. Labor Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Chapter X, Section 240, enacted February 1, 1999.

18.Government of Azerbaijan. Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Azerbaijan "On approval of list of jobs with difficult and hazardous work conditions, professions as well as underground works where application of labor of children under age of 18 is prohibited", No. 58, enacted March 24, 2000.

19.Government of Azerbaijan. Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Rights of the Child, No. 499, enacted May 19, 1998.

20.Government of Azerbaijan. Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic, Article 35, enacted November 12, 1995.

21.U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 14, 2015.

22.Government of Azerbaijan. Criminal Code of the Azerbaijan Republic, Articles 106 and 173, enacted September 1, 2000.

23.Government of Azerbaijan. Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on Trafficking in Persons, enacted August 5, 2005.

24.Government of Azerbaijan. Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on Amendments to the Criminal Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan, enacted April 19, 2013.

25.Government of Azerbaijan. Decree on Amendments to the Criminal Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan, enacted June 29, 2012.

26.Government of Azerbaijan. Law of The Republic of Azerbaijan on Military Duty and Military Service, No. 274-IVQ, enacted December 23, 2011. http://e-qanun.az/print.php?internal=view&target=1&docid=23021&doctype=0#http://e-qanun.az/print.php?internal=view&target=1&docid=23021&doctype=0#alpiViewDocFirstDoc.

27.Government of Azerbaijan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 30, 2015.

28.Government of Azerbaijan. Education Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan, 324, enacted 1992.

29.U.S. Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 25, 2012.

30.Government of Azerbaijan. Information provided by the Azerbaijani authorities. submitted with regard to the U.S. Department of Labor Questionnaire on Child Labor and Forced Labor. Baku; January 15, 2014.

31.Government of Azerbaijan. "Rules of the National Referral Mechanism on victims of human trafficking", No. 123, enacted August 11, 2009.

32.Government of Azerbaijan. Responses of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the US Department of Labor questionnaire on child labor in Azerbaijan in the context of preparation of 2014 Findings on the worst forms of child labor (TDA Report). Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2015) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Baku; February 24, 2015.

33.U.S. Embassy- Baku. reporting, December 1, 2014.

34.ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Chlid Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report Geneva; October 2014.

35.U.S. Embassy- Baku official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 12, 2013.

36.Government of Azerbaijan official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 1, 2014.

37.Government of Azerbaijan. National Program for Action to Raise Effectiveness of the Protection of Human Rights and Freedoms in the Republic of Azerbaijan. January 10, 2012.

38.The Government of Azerbaijan. The National Action Plan for the years 2014-2018 on Combating trafficking in human beings in Azerbaijan Republic, No. 667, enacted July 24, 2014.

39.UN Country Team in Azerbaijan. United Nations Development Assistance Framework- Azerbaijan 2011-2015. Baku, UNADF; December 16, 2010.

40.Government of Azerbaijan. State Program on Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development in the Republic of Azerbaijan for 2008-2015. Baku; September 15, 2008.

41.U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 11, 2014.

42.Government of Azerbaijan. The Program of Social Rehabilitation and Social Reintegration of Child Victims of Trafficking, No. 37, enacted February 6, 2014.

43.ILO-IPEC. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP). Technical Progress Report Geneva; October 2014.

44.World Bank. Azerbaijan Living Conditions Assessment Report. Assessment Report. Washington, DC; 2010. Report No. 52801-AZ. [source on file].

45.International Monetary Fund. Republic of Azerbaijan: 2014 Article IV Consulation - Staff Report; Press Release. Washington, D.C.; June 2014.

46.U.S. Embassy- Baku official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 8, 2015.

47.U.S. Embassy- Baku official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 10, 2015.

48.OSCE Project Coordinator in Baku. USAID, OSCE support Azerbaijan in combating human trafficking, OSCE, [online] November 20, 2014 [cited January 9, 2015];.

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