Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Angola

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports


2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Angola made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government launched a national program to raise awareness of child labor and there was an increase in the number of labor inspections conducted. However, children in Angola are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture and mining. There are gaps in the legal framework to protect children from sexual and labor exploitation. Law enforcement agencies lack the necessary human and financial resources to adequately enforce laws against child labor. In addition, social programs do not target all sectors in which children work.

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Children in Angola are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture and mining.(1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Angola.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

25.7 (694,458)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):


Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):


Primary completion rate (%):


Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2, 2001.(7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity




Farming, including planting and picking tomatoes,* harvesting vegetables,* plowing,* and the production of rice* (1-5)

Fishing,* activities unknown (4, 5)

Cattle herding* (1, 5)

Production of charcoal* (4, 5)


Artisanal diamond mining (1, 8)

Mining coal* (2)

Construction, including making and transporting bricks* (2-5, 9, 10)


Street work, including vending, car washing, begging,* and shoe shining* (1, 2, 4, 5)

Transporting loads (1, 2, 4)

Domestic work* (4, 5)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 4, 11, 12)

Forced labor, including in agriculture,* construction,* and domestic work,* each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 13-16)

Forced labor in artisanal diamond mining* (3)

Use in illicit activities, including the sale and transport of drugs,* and moving illicit goods across the border of Angola and Namibia (3, 4, 13)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Evidence indicates that girls as young as age 13 are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation.(3) Research suggests that undocumented Congolese migrant children enter Angola for work in diamond-mining districts and experience conditions of forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation in mining camps.(1, 3)

The Government permitted children to attend school without birth registration, but only up to the fourth grade.(4) The level of birth registration is low due to high costs, great distances to service centers, and parents who lack documentation. Additionally, many families, especially those in rural areas, face difficulty in paying informal school fees.(4, 17, 18) A family’s inability to obtain birth registration and afford school fees may hinder children from attending school and make them more vulnerable to child labor.

Angola has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor



ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor


UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons


The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor




Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work



Article 254 of the Labor Law (19)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work



Article 256 of the Labor Law (19)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children



Article 256 of the Labor Law; Joint Executive Decree No. 171/10 (19, 20)

Prohibition of Forced Labor



Articles 18, 19, and 23 of the Money Laundering Law (21)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking



Articles 19 and 23 of the Money Laundering Law (21)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children



Articles 19, 22, and 23 of the Money Laundering Law (21)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities



Articles 4 and 7 of the Drug Trafficking Law (22)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment



Article 2 of the Military Service Law (23)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service



Article 11 of the Military Service Law (23)

Compulsory Education Age



Articles 8 and 17 of the Basic Law of the Education System (24, 25)

Free Public Education



Article 7 of the Basic Law of the Education System (24)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (24, 25)

The hazardous work list, established by Joint Executive Decree No. 171/10, prohibits 57 activities for minors, including fireworks production, stone mining, animal slaughter, leather production, paper making, and pornography; however, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not include diamond mining, an area of work where there is evidence of work conducted underground, underwater, at dangerous heights, or in confined spaces.(20)

Laws related to commercial sexual exploitation are not sufficient, as the use, procurement, offering, and financial benefit of a child for the production of pornography and pornographic performances are not criminally prohibited. Furthermore, the law does not criminally prohibit the distribution and possession of pornography.(21)

The law establishes that primary education is compulsory and free for 6 years.(24) The Government reported to the UNESCO Institute of Statistics that children begin primary education at age 6, making education compulsory until age 12.(25) Ending compulsory education at age 12 leaves children ages 12 through 14 vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to attend school, but they also are not legally permitted to work. In addition, this age conflicts with the National Development Plan (2013–2017), which sets the compulsory education age at 14.(10)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement



The Ministry of Public Administration, Labor, and Social Security (MAPTSS)

Enforce laws against child labor. Inspectors can fine an employer or send the case to the Ministry of Interior for further investigation and the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights for prosecution.(26) Employ labor inspectors in all 18 provinces to carry out inspections and joint operations with social service providers.(26)

National Children’s Institute (INAC)

Receive complaints about cases of child abuse, including child labor, through its research and investigation branch. INAC’s inspection teams conduct regular oversight missions in collaboration with various ministries, the ILO, and civil society.(26, 27)

Ministry of the Interior and its agencies, including the National Police, Border Police, and Immigration Services

Enforce criminal laws and conduct operations and investigations related to the worst forms of child labor.(1, 10, 27)

The Attorney General’s Office and Court for Minors

Prosecute child labor cases, including the worst forms of child labor.(26) The Court for Minors handles protective proceedings where a child has been the victim of abuse, exploitation, or neglect.(28)


Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Angola took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement



Labor Inspectorate Funding


Unknown (5)

Number of Labor Inspectors

157 (5)

187 (5)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (5)

Yes (5)

Training for Labor Inspectors



Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (5)

Yes (5)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (5)

Unknown (29)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (5)

Yes (5)

Number of Labor Inspections

6,693 (5)

7,147 (5)

Number Conducted at Worksite


Unknown (5)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews


Unknown (5)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found


Unknown (5)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed


Unknown (5)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected


Unknown (5)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (5)

Yes (5)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (5)

Yes (5)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (5)

Yes (5)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (5)

Yes (5)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (5)

Yes (5)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (27)

Yes (5)


According to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed countries, Angola should employ approximately 262 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(5, 30-32) Research also found that resources for conducting inspections may be insufficient.(5)

Ministry of Public Administration, Labor, and Social Security (MAPTSS) inspectors work with the National Children’s Institute (INAC) and the Ministry of Assistance and Social Reintegration (MINARS) to ensure that child labor victims receive the appropriate social services.(27)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Angola took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement



Training for Investigators


Initial Training for New Employees

Training on New Laws Related to the

Yes (5)

Yes (5)

Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (10)


Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (5)

Yes (5, 16)

Number of Investigations


1,330 (5)

Number of Violations Found


44 (16)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated


2 (16)

Number of Convictions


Unknown (5)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (13, 27)

Yes (5)


During the reporting period, seven criminal investigators in Luanda pursued cases of the worst forms of child labor.(5) Research did not identify whether criminal investigators are employed in other parts of Angola.

The Government identified 44 victims of the worst forms of child labor. Forty minors were identified as victims of forced labor, three boys were identified as human trafficking victims for labor or sexual exploitation, and one girl was identified as a victim of human trafficking for sexual exploitation.(16) The Ministry of Justice and Human Rights collaborated with the National Police to map human trafficking cases to better understand the nature of human trafficking in Angola.(16)

In November, a 14-year-old girl was rescued by police from a house in Luanda province, after she had been trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation. The police and the Office of the Attorney General are investigating the case and have reunited the minor with her family.(12)

In July 2015, police stopped a truck filled with 19 children under age 15 in Huila province. The children were allegedly being transported to Namibe province in Southern Angola for forced labor in agriculture.(14) A prosecution against the bus driver began in November, and the investigation is ongoing to determine whether the case is part of an organized crime scheme for forced child labor.(16) In November, a Congolese national was prosecuted for trafficking three Congolese children ages 6, 8, and 10 to Luanda for domestic service.(16)

The National Police and Immigration Services refer victims of the worst forms of child labor to INAC and MINARS to receive social services; victims of child trafficking are referred to INAC’s Child Protection Network and government Safe Houses.(13, 16, 27)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Child Labor Commission

Mandate provincial governments to analyze child labor at the provincial level. Coordinated by the National Council for Children.(33)

Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate enforcement efforts on human trafficking, including child trafficking for labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Comprises representatives from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, Ministry of Assistance and Social Reintegration (MINARS), MAPTSS, and Ministry of the Interior.(10) Since its establishment in November 2014, the commission has met four times at the ministerial level, while working-level sub-groups meet more regularly. The group is focused on creating a comprehensive national strategy to fight human trafficking.(34) In 2015, created a bilateral working group with the Mozambican National Reference Group for the Protection of Children and Combating Trafficking in Persons to discuss regional concerns and share best practices to combat human trafficking.(16)

National Council for Children

Coordinate the Government’s efforts on children’s issues, including the worst forms of child labor. Led by MINARS, comprises 17 ministries and related organizations, including the Ministries of Justice and Human Rights, the Interior, Education, Culture, and MAPTSS, as well as UNICEF, religious institutions, and civil society organizations.(1)


Ensure coordination between various government agencies related to social welfare and victim protection.(1) A network of institutions and shelters protect children from abusive, exploitative, and dangerous situations.(35)


Coordinate child protection services. Work with MINARS to provide shelter and help reintegrate children found in child labor situations with their families.(26)


In 2015, ad hoc commissions to combat human trafficking were created in five provinces that had possible human trafficking activity. While it is unclear whether these commissions are permanent coordinating bodies, they have made progress in standardizing victim support services, raising awareness of human trafficking in communities, and alerting law enforcement authorities of suspected human trafficking cases.(16)

The Government of Angola has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor



National Strategy to Prevent and Combat Violence Against Children

Guides the Government’s efforts to address violence against children, including physical and psychological violence, child labor, child trafficking, and sexual abuse. Developed by INAC under the Eleven Commitments for Angolan Children policy.(11)

Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children

Aims to protect and defend the rights of child victims of sexual and economic exploitation, including rehabilitation.(36)

The Eleven Commitments for Angolan Children

Outlines the Government’s main policies for protecting children’s rights; goals include protecting children from exploitation and providing education to every child.(11, 37, 38)

National Development Plan (2013–2017)

Guarantees the protection of children’s rights by combating child labor, preventing and combating violence against children, establishing mechanisms and bodies to defend and protect children’s rights, and expanding the educational system. Guarantees 9 years of compulsory, free education until age 14.(39)

Birth Registration and Justice for Children*

Makes birth registration free for all Angolan citizens until 2016. Allows parents to get identity cards for free so that they can register their children.(17) Aims to expand birth registration coverage of all children from 56 to 80 percent by the end of 2017.(17)

Poverty Reduction Strategy (2005–2015)

Serves as the main policy document that guides the Government’s anti-poverty actions. Supports the Millennium Development Goals and includes as its objectives poverty reduction, democratic governance, crisis prevention and recovery, environmental protection, and sustainable development.(40)

National Action Plan for Education (2001–2015)*

Aims to achieve universal primary education by 2015.(11) A National Development Plan for Education (2015–2025) is being developed.(41)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

Research did not find whether the Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children is being implemented.(36)

In 2015, the Government of Angola funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor



Cata Vento*†

MINARS-led campaign that aims to engage relevant government authorities, social partners, and civil society members in combating child labor, including its worst forms.(42)

Mobile Schools†

Ministry of Education program that provides education in mobile schools to migrant children who work with their parents in cattle herding. The program specifically targets children at the highest risk of involvement in child labor in southern Angola.(1) Some mobile schools also have kitchens, which facilitate the Government’s school meal program.(1, 43)

Microcredit Project†

MAPTSS program that provides cash assistance to parents so that their children do not need to work.(1)

National Institutes of Job and Professional Training†

Government-funded program of 555 centers that provides free, professional training for youth so that they have skills to enter the formal labor market.(1, 44)

Free Meals for Children†

Government program that offers free meals for school children.(1, 26) One program in Benguela province, supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, NGOs, and the Government of Angola, is reported to have fed more than 220,000 school children. The Ministry of Education reports similar programs in Lunda Norte and Lunda Sul provinces.(26)

Child Protection Network†

INAC program in all 18 provinces that oversees a national network of child support centers that offer health care, psychological care, legal and social assistance, meals, basic education, and family reunification for crime victims, including human trafficking victims between the ages of 9 and 16.(3, 13, 36) Child victims over age 16 are referred to Safe Houses.(36)

Safe Houses†

MINARS, the Ministry of Family and Women’s Affairs, and the Organization of Angolan Women operate 52 shelters that assist trafficking victims.(3, 16, 35)

UNICEF Country Program

UNICEF program, in coordination with the Government, designed to plan and implement education and child protection-focused interventions. Education interventions aim to increase access to quality early childhood, primary, first-cycle secondary, and second-chance education.(18) One of the child protection program components aims to increase birth registration to 80 percent in seven target provinces for children under age 5.(18) In addition, UNICEF is working with an NGO and INAC to set up a child protection hotline that will feed into the design of a national child hotline.(33)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Angola.

The provincial government of Huila, in partnership with the University of Huila and with support from UNICEF, conducted a study on child labor in 2014. The provincial government is designing a plan of action based on the findings of that study.(33)

Although Angola has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. Furthermore, research did not identify programs that target children engaged in certain worst forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation, illicit activities, and forced labor.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Angola (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms


Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law prohibits hazardous occupations or activities for children in all relevant sectors in Angola, including diamond mining.

2011 – 2015

Ensure that the legal framework protects children from exploitation in child pornography and pornographic performances, and includes penalties for the distribution and possession of child pornography.

2014 – 2015

Increase the compulsory education age to 14 to be consistent with the National Development Plan and the minimum age for work.

2009 – 2015


Make information publicly available regarding the labor inspectorate’s funding, training on new laws related to child labor, number of labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk review, number of violations found, and number of convictions.

2011 – 2015

Strengthen the labor inspection system by increasing the number of labor inspectors in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce, and by providing all inspectors with adequate training and the appropriate resources.

2009 – 2015

Strengthen law enforcement by ensuring that criminal investigators are deployed nationwide.


Government Policies

Expand birth registration and identification processes to promote school enrollment and provide social services to vulnerable children.

2010 – 2015

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2009 – 2015

Revise and strengthen the Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children and ensure its effective implementation.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Develop social programs to ensure that all children have access to education and are not inhibited by informal fees or lack of birth certificates.

2013 – 2015

Institute programs that target children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation, illicit activities, and forced labor, and expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2010 – 2015

1.         U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 27, 2014.

2.         Government of Angola. Response to the Questionaire about Child Labor in Angola; 2014. [source on file].

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Angola," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015;

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Angola," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015;

5.         U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 1, 2016.

6.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2, 2001. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

8.         Government of Angola. Human Rights and Economic Development Issues in the Gemstone and Precious Metals Trade of AGOA Recipient Countries. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (September 23, 2009) “Request for Public Comments on Annual Review of Country Eligibility for Benefits Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).” October 16, 2009.

9.         Vieira, A. "Child labour cases on the rise in Angola." [online] June 6, 2013 [cited March 3, 2014];

10.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, January 21, 2015.

11.       ILO-IPEC. Angola: Estudo sobre a aplicação das Convenções n.° 138 e n.° 182 da OIT e suas recomendações na legislação nacional dos países da CPLP. Geneva; December 2012.

12.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, November 27, 2015.

13.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 17, 2015.

14.       Ultimas Online. "Polícia angolana impede trabalho infantil." [online] July 24, 2015 [cited

15.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 25, 2014.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, December 17, 2015.

17.       Carvalho, V. "Eight citizens in a day - A story on birth registration in Angola." December 11, 2013 [cited November 24, 2014];

18.       UNICEF. Angola Country programme document 2015-2019; September 11, 2014.

19.       Government of Angola. Lei Geral do Trabalho, No. 7/15, enacted June 15, 2015.

20.       Government of Angola. Decreto-executivo conjunto n.º 171/10, enacted December 14, 2010.

21.       Government of Angola. Lei sobre a Criminalização das Infracções Subjacentes ao Branqueamento de Capitais, no. 3/2014, enacted February 10, 2014. [source on file].

22.       Government of Angola. Lei sobre o Tráfico e Consumo de Estupefacientes, Substâncias Psicotrópicas e Precursores, No. 3/99, enacted August 6, 1999.

23.       Government of Angola. Lei Geral do Serviço Militar, No. 1/93, enacted March 26, 1993.

24.       Government of Angola. Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educação, no. 13/01, enacted December 31, 2001.

25.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Global Education Digest 2011: Comparing Education Statistics Across the World; 2011.

26.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 13, 2013.

27.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, April 14, 2015.

28.       Government of Angola. Lei sobre o Julgado de Menores, No. 9/96, enacted April 19, 1996.

29.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 3, 2016.

30.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2016];

31.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012.

32.       ILO. Strategies and practice for labour inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006.

33.       UNICEF. UNICEF Annual Report 2014- Angola.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, March 13, 2015.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, October 7, 2014.

36.       ILO Committe of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Angola (ratification: 2001) Published: 2015; accessed November 3, 2015;

37.       Agência Angola Press. "Angola apresenta declaração em nome da CPLP na sessão da OIT " [online] March 20, 2014 [cited May 21, 2014];,1f86ff1d-8a3c-4b92-85c4-25f113650d71.html.

38.       Governo de Angola, Ministério da Assistência e Reinserção Social (MINARS), and Conselho Nacional da Criança (CNAC). Estratégia de divulgação dos 11 compromissos; 2009.

39.       Ministério do Planeamento e do Desenvolvimento Territorial. Plano Nacional de Desenvolvimento 2013-2017; December 2012.

40.       Ministério do Planeamento. Estratégia de combate à pobreza; 2005. [source on file].

41.       Government of Angola. Despacho Presidencial No. 19/15. February 20, 2015.

42.       Agência Angola Press. "Governo angolano lança campanha contra o trabalho infantil." [online] January 16, 2015 [cited January 19, 2015];,e7e1073c-6b98-4908-9c86-d5b0de06710e.html.

43.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 23, 2014.

44.       allAfrica. "Inefop Trains Over 20,000 Young People." [online] December 11, 2014 [cited

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