Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Angola

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Angola

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Angola made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government drafted a new Penal Code that contains prohibitions on the commercial sexual exploitation of children. The Government also deployed 50 officials to increase birth registration in rural municipalities. However, children in Angola engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor. The gap between the compulsory education age and minimum age for work leaves children ages 12 and 13 vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. There are not enough labor inspectors to provide sufficient coverage of the workforce. In addition, social programs do not target all sectors in which children work.

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Children in Angola engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor.(1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Angola.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

25.7 (694,458)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

65.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

22.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

49.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2, 2001.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including plowing, planting, and picking tomatoes, harvesting vegetables, and the production of rice (1, 4, 7-10)

Fishing, activities unknown (4)

Cattle herding (7)

Production of charcoal (4)

Industry

Artisanal diamond mining (2, 3, 7)

Mining coal (1)

Construction, including making and transporting bricks (1, 3, 4, 11)

Services

Street work, including vending, car washing, begging, shoe shining, and transporting heavy loads (1, 4, 9, 10)

Domestic work (4)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 4)

Forced labor, including in agriculture, construction, artisanal diamond mining, and domestic work, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 10, 12)

Use in illicit activities, including the sale and transport of drugs, and moving illicit goods across the border of Angola and Namibia (3, 4)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Undocumented Congolese migrant children enter Angola for work in diamond-mining districts and experience conditions of forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation in mining camps.(3, 7) Girls as young as age 12 are trafficked from Kasai Occidental in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to Angola for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Angolan boys are taken to Namibia and forced to herd cattle.(3)

The Government permitted children to attend school without birth registration, but only up to the fourth grade.(4) Many families face difficulty in paying informal school fees, and many schools do not have enough classroom space for all children.(4, 13)

Angola has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Angola’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 254 of the Labor Law (14)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 3(21) and 256 of the Labor Law (14)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 256 of the Labor Law; Joint Executive Decree No. 171/10 (14, 15)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 18, 19, and 23 of the Money Laundering Law (16)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 19 and 23 of the Money Laundering Law (16)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Articles 19, 22, and 23 of the Money Laundering Law (16)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 4 and 7 of the Drug Trafficking Law (17)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

20

Article 2 of the Military Service Law (18)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 11 of the Military Service Law (18)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

No

12‡

Articles 8 and 17 of the Basic Law of the Education System (19)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 7 of the Basic Law of the Education System (19)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (19, 20)

In 2016, the Government continued the process of revising the Penal Code, which began in 2004. The 2016 draft contains prohibitions on the commercial sexual exploitation of children.(21, 22) However, laws related to commercial sexual exploitation are not sufficient, as using, procuring, and offering of a child for the production of pornography and pornographic performances are not criminally prohibited.(16)

The hazardous work list, established by Joint Executive Decree No. 171/10, prohibits 57 activities for minors, including fireworks production, animal slaughter, leather production, paper making, and pornography; however, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not include diamond mining, an area of work in which there is evidence of work conducted underground.(15)

Ending compulsory education at age 12 leaves children ages 12 and 13 vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to attend school but are also not legally permitted to work.(19, 20) In addition, this age conflicts with the National Development Plan (2013–2017), which sets the compulsory education age at 14.(23)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Administration, Labor, and Social Security (MAPTSS)

Enforce laws against child labor. Fine employers or send cases to the Ministry of Interior for further investigation and to the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights for prosecution.(24) Employ labor inspectors in all 18 provinces to carry out inspections and joint operations with social service providers.(25)

National Children’s Institute (INAC)

Receive complaints about cases of child exploitation, including child labor. Conduct inspections and respond to reports of child labor.(24)

National Police, Border Police, and Immigration Services

Enforce criminal laws and conduct operations and investigations related to the worst forms of child labor.(7)

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights

Investigate and prosecute the worst forms of child labor cases.(24)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Angola took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (8)

Unknown (26)

Number of Labor Inspectors

187 (8)

153 (26)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (8)

Yes (25)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (8)

Yes (26)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (27)

Yes (26)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (8)

Yes (26)

Number of Labor Inspections

7,147 (8)

5,261 (26)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (8)

Yes (26)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (8)

Yes (26)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (8)

Yes (25)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (8)

Yes (26)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (8)

Yes (26)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (26)

 

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Angola’s workforce, which includes over 10.8 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Angola should employ approximately 271 labor inspectors.(8, 28-30) In 2016, inspectors conducted 369 unannounced inspections in the industrial and construction sectors.(26)

Inspectors from the Ministry of Public Administration, Labor, and Social Security (MAPTSS) work with the National Children’s Institute (INAC) and the Ministry of Assistance and Social Reintegration (MINARS) to ensure that child labor victims receive the appropriate social services.(24)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Angola took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (8)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (8, 31)

Yes (32)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

2 (32)

Number of Violations Found

44 (31)

Unknown (26)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

2 (31)

4 (32)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (8)

Unknown (26)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (26)

 

In 2016, the Government conducted two investigations of the commercial sexual exploitation of children and initiated four prosecutions of the worst forms of child labor, one of which involved children exploited for labor on farms.(32)

The National Police and Immigration Services refer victims of the worst forms of child labor to INAC and MINARS to receive social services.(31, 33)

Although the Government has established the Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate enforcement efforts on human trafficking, including child trafficking for labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Led by the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights.(34)

National Council for Children

Coordinate the Government’s efforts on children’s issues, including the worst forms of child labor. Led by the Ministry of Assistance and Social Reintegration (MINARS), comprises 17 ministries and related organizations.(7)

MINARS

Ensure coordination among various government agencies related to social welfare and victim protection.(7) A network of institutions and shelters protect children from abusive, exploitative, and dangerous situations.(35)

INAC

Coordinate child protection services. Work with MINARS to provide shelter and help reintegrate children found in child labor situations with their families.(24)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Strategy to Prevent and Combat Violence Against Children

Guides the Government’s efforts to address violence against children, including physical and psychological violence, child labor, child trafficking, and sexual abuse. Developed by INAC under the Eleven Commitments for Angolan Children policy.(36, 37)

Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children

Aims to protect and defend the rights of child victims of sexual and economic exploitation, including rehabilitation.(38)

‡ The Government has other policies which may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(23)

Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children during the reporting period.

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Social Protection Programs†

INAC-implemented national network of child support centers that offer legal and psychological assistance, meals, and basic education to crime victims, including child trafficking victims.(3, 31) MINARS, the Ministry of Family and Women’s Affairs, and the Organization of Angolan Women operate 52 children’s shelters.(3)

Microcredit Project†

MAPTSS program that provides cash assistance to parents so that their children do not need to work.(7)

Birth Registration and Justice for Children†

Government-run program that makes birth registration free for all Angolan citizens. Aims to expand birth registration coverage of all children from 56 to 80 percent by the end of 2017.(39) During the reporting period, UNICEF supported the Government to train and deploy 50 officials to municipalities in which it is most difficult to deliver birth registration services.(40)

UNICEF Country Program (2015–2019)

UNICEF program, in coordination with the Government, that is designed to plan and implement education and child protection-focused interventions.(41) Collaborates with MINARS, INAC, and NGOs to run a child helpline in Luanda province.(13)

National Institutes of Job and Professional Training†

Government-funded program of 555 centers that provides professional training for youth so that they have skills to enter the formal labor market.(7, 42)

Mobile Schools and Free Meals for Children†

Ministry of Education program that provides education in mobile schools to migrant children who work with their parents in cattle herding. Specifically targets children at the highest risk of involvement in child labor in southern Angola.(7) Supports some mobile schools with kitchens, which facilitate the free school meals program.(7, 24, 43) Research was unable to determine whether the Government restarted the free school meals program after it was halted in the beginning of 2016.(22)

† Program is funded by the Government of Angola.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(44)

During the reporting period, the Government conducted human trafficking awareness raising campaigns at local universities and on the radio and television.(32) Although Angola has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. Furthermore, research did not identify programs that target children engaged in certain worst forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Angola (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the legal framework protects children from exploitation in child pornography and pornographic performances.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that the law prohibits hazardous occupations or activities for children in all relevant sectors in Angola, including diamond mining.

2011 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Increase the compulsory education age to 14 to be consistent with the National Development Plan and the minimum age for work.

2009 – 2016

Enforcement

Publish information regarding the labor inspectorate’s funding, the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk review, child labor violations found, and penalties imposed and collected, as well as training for new criminal investigators, the number of violations found, and convictions achieved.

2011 – 2016

Strengthen the labor inspection system by increasing the number of labor inspectors in order to provide sufficient coverage of the workforce.

2009 – 2016

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including in all its worst forms.

2016

Government Policies

Ensure that the Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children is effectively implemented.

2014 – 2016

Social Programs

Develop and expand existing social programs to ensure that all children have access to education and are not restricted by informal fees, lack of birth certificates, and lack of classroom space. Ensure the continuation of the free school meals program.

2013 – 2016

Institute programs that target children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor, and expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2010 – 2016

1.         Government of Angola. Response to the Questionnaire About Child Labor in Angola; 2014. [Source on file].

2.         Leber, B. Human Rights and Economic Development Issues in the Gemstone and Precious Metals Trade of AGOA Recipient Countries. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (September 23, 2009) “Request for Public Comments on Annual Review of Country Eligibility for Benefits Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).”

October 16, 2009.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Angola," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Angola," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/252861.pdf.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2, 2001. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 27, 2014.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 1, 2016.

9.         Paulino, C. "Sobe  trabalho infantil nas ruas de Menongue." sapo.ao [online] March 19, 2016 [cited June 16, 2017]; http://jornaldeangola.sapo.ao/reportagem/sobe_trabalho_infantil_nas_ruas_de_menongue.

10.       "Huambo: INAC constata aumento do trabalho infantil." Angop.ao [online] June 13, 2016 [cited June 16, 2017]; http://www.angop.ao/angola/pt_pt/noticias/sociedade/2016/5/24/Huambo-INAC-constata-aumento-trabalho-infantil,e879e781-1dc9-4594-b09d-6dc0c9dee3d5.html.

11.       Vieira, A. "Child Labour Cases on the Rise in Angola " africareview.com [online] June 6, 2013 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://www.africareview.com/News/Child-labour-cases-on-the-rise-in-Angola-/-/979180/1874160/-/kryvs6/-/index.html.

12.       Agência Lusa. "Polícia intercepta autocarro com 19 crianças para trabalho infantil." July 24, 2015 [cited February 23, 2017]; http://www.redeangola.info/policia-intercepta-autocarro-com-19-criancas-para-trabalho-infantil/.

13.       UNICEF. UNICEF Annual Report 2015- Angola. https://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Angola_2015_COAR.pdf.

14.       Government of Angola. Lei Geral do Trabalho, Lei No. 7/15, enacted June 15, 2015. http://c026204.cdn.sapo.io/1/c026204/cld-file/1426522730/6d77c9965e17b15/aa4ced447f00ac5becad3d5eeddd34cb/fiscalidadeonline/2015/Lei%20geral%20do%20trabalho%202015-06-15.pdf.

15.       Government of Angola. Decreto Executivo Conjunto No. 171/10 de 12 de Dezembro que Aprova a Lista de Actividades Proíbidas ou Condicionadas a Menores, enacted December 24, 2010.

16.       Government of Angola. Lei sobre a Criminalização das Infracções Subjacentes ao Branqueamento de Capitais, No. 3/2014, enacted February 10, 2014. [source on file].

17.       Government of Angola. Lei sobre o Tráfico e Consumo de Estupefacientes, Substâncias Psicotrópicas e Precursores, Lei No. 3/99, enacted August 6, 1999.

18.       Government of Angola. Lei Geral do Serviço Militar, Lei No. 1/93, enacted March 26, 1993.

19.       Government of Angola. Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educação, No. 13/01, enacted December 31, 2001. [Source on file].

20.       UNESCO. Global Education Digest; 2012. http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Documents/ged-2012-en.pdf.

21.       Government of Angola. Anteprojecto de Código Penal, enacted 2016. [Source on file].

22.       U.S. Embassy-Luanda official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 6, 2017.

23.       Government of Angola, Ministry of Planning and Territorial Development,. Plano Nacional de Desenvolvimento 2013-2017. December 2012. https://www.mindbank.info/item/5513.

24.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 13, 2013.

25.       ILO. Angola: Labour Inspection Structure and Organization, [online] [cited October 26, 2016]; http://www.ilo.org/labadmin/info/WCMS_151303/lang--en/index.htm.

26.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, January 19, 2017.

27.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 3, 2016.

28.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

29.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies,” “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies,” and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

30.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, December 17, 2015.

32.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, February 13, 2017.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda official. Email communication to USDOL Official. April 14, 2015.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting January 21, 2015.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Luanda. reporting, October 7, 2014.

36.       ILO-IPEC. Angola: Estudo sobre a Aplicação das Convenções n.° 138 e n.° 182 da OIT e Suas Recomendações na Legislação Nacional dos Países da CPLP. Geneva; December 2012. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_222484/lang--en/index.htm.

37.       Government of Angola, Ministry of Assistance and Social Reintegration, National Council for Children,. Estratégia de divulgação dos 11 compromissos; 2009. http://www.cidadao.gov.ao/VerPublicacao.aspx?id=498.

38.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Angola (ratification: 2001) Published: 2015; accessed November 3, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185745:NO.

39.       Carvalho, V. "Eight citizens in a day - A story on birth registration in Angola." unicef.org [online] December 11, 2013 [cited November 24, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/esaro/5440_angola_eight-citizens.html.

40.       Mendes, P. Travelling to Angola's remotest communities to register new births, UNICEF, [online] January 17, 2017 [cited March 30, 2017]; https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/angola_94410.html.

41.       UNICEF. Angola Country programme document 2015-2019; September 11, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2014-PL4-Angola_CPD-final_approved-EN.pdf.

42.       allAfrica. "Inefop Trains Over 20,000 Young People." allafrica.com [online] December 11, 2014 [cited June 16, 2017]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201412120427.html.

43.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 23, 2014.

44.       ILO. Programme Pays pour le Travail Décent 2014-2017; 2014. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/angola14-17.pdf.

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