Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Angola

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Angola
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Angola made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government approved the Penal Code, which prohibits the use of children for the production of pornography. It also approved a National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor, which aims to eliminate child labor by strengthening the rights of children, including increasing their access to education, and mapping child labor found throughout the country to better inform policies and programs. In addition, the government deployed the Southern African Development Community Trafficking in Persons regional database, which collects national data to facilitate the development and implementation of policies and programs to combat human trafficking. However, children in Angola engage in forced labor in agriculture. Children also perform dangerous tasks in construction. The gap between the compulsory education age and minimum age for work leaves children ages 12 and 13 vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. There are not enough labor inspectors to provide sufficient coverage of the workforce, and social programs do not target all sectors in which children work.

Children in Angola engage in forced labor in agriculture. (1,2) Children also perform dangerous tasks in construction. (3) The 2015–2016 Survey on Multiple Health Indicators found that 23 percent of children ages 5 to 17 engage in child labor. The percentage of children engaged in child labor is higher in rural areas compared to urban areas; Cuanza Sul and Cuando Cubango provinces have the highest percentage of child laborers. (4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Angola.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

15.1 (Unavailable)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

69.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

13.6

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

46.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (5) 

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2015–2016. (6) 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including plowing, planting and picking tomatoes, harvesting vegetables, and the production of rice (1,3,7-10)

Fishing, including artisanal fishing, and cleaning fish for deep freezing or sun drying (11-13) 

Cattle herding (2,11) 

Industry

Artisanal diamond mining (2,11) 

Mining coal (2,3,11) 

Construction, including making and transporting bricks† (3,9,10)

Slaughtering animals,† including cattle, goats, and pigs (9,14) 

Services

Street work, including vending, car washing, shoe shining, and transporting heavy loads† (1,3,8-10)

Domestic work (9)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2) 

Forced labor, including in agriculture, construction, artisanal diamond mining, and domestic work, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1,2,15) 

Use in illicit activities, including the transport of illicit goods across the border of Angola and Namibia (2) 

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Undocumented Congolese migrant children enter Angola for work in diamond-mining districts, and some experience conditions of forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation in mining camps. (2,7) Girls as young as age 12 are trafficked from Kasai Occidental in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to Angola for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Angolan boys are taken to Namibia and forced to herd cattle or work as couriers to transport illicit goods. (2)

Although tuition is free up to the sixth grade, families often face difficulty paying informal school fees, such as books or fees paid to education officials. (16) Additional barriers to education for children include poor infrastructure and lack of teachers, which have led to several school closings, resulting in thousands of elementary school children being unable to begin or continue their education. (17-19) The government permits children to attend school without birth registration, but only up to the fourth grade. (20)

Angola has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Angola's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including lack of a compulsory education age.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 254 of the Labor Law (21)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 3(21) and 256 of the Labor Law (21)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 256 of the Labor Law; Hazardous Work List (14,21)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 18–19 and 23 of the Money Laundering Law (22)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 19 and 23 of the Money Laundering Law (22)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Articles 19 and 22–23 of the Money Laundering Law; Articles 197-200 of the Penal Code (22,23) 

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 4 and 7 of the Drug Trafficking Law (24)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 11 of the Military Service Law (25)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Military Service Law (25)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

No

   

Compulsory Education Age

No

12‡

Articles 8 and 17 of the Basic Law of the Education System (26)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 7 of the Basic Law of the Education System (26)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (26,27)

During the reporting period, the government drafted legislation to protect human trafficking victims, including children, through all stages of an investigation and the prosecution of cases. (28) The Penal Code, approved in January 2019, criminalizes the use of children for the production of pornography; however, it does not prohibit the procuring or offering of a child for the production of pornography, or the use, procuring, or offering of a child for pornographic performances. (23) Although the list of hazardous activities and occupations prohibited for children identifies 57 activities that are prohibited for children, the legislation does not include diamond mining, a sector in which there is evidence of work conducted underground. (9,14)

Ending compulsory education at age 12 leaves children ages 12 and 13 vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to attend school, but they also are not legally permitted to work. (26,27) In addition, this age conflicts with the National Development Plan (2018–2022), which sets the compulsory education age at 14. (29)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Public Administration, Labor, and Social Security (MAPTSS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Administration, Labor, and Social Security

Enforces laws against child labor. Fines employers or sends cases to the Ministry of Interior for further investigation and to the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights for prosecution. (7) Employs labor inspectors nationwide to carry out inspections and joint operations with social services providers. (30)

National Children's Institute (INAC)

Receives complaints about cases of child exploitation, including child labor. Conducts inspections and responds to reports of child labor. (7,11)

Ministry of Interior's National Police

Enforces criminal laws and conducts operations and investigations related to the worst forms of child labor. (7) Through its Criminal Investigation Services, collaborates with the Juvenile Court on child labor, child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and illicit recruitment investigations. (11) 

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights

Investigates and prosecutes the worst forms of child labor. (7) 

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Angola took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the framework of the MAPTSS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including the allocation of human resources.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown (11) 

Number of Labor Inspectors

135 (9)

117 (11) 

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (9)

Yes (11) 

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (9) 

Yes (11) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (9)

Yes (11) 

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (31) 

Yes (11) 

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

5,384 (9)

4,871 (11) 

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown (11) 

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

5 (9)

395 (13,32) 

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (9)

Unknown (11) 

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

N/A

Unknown (11) 

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (9)

Yes (11) 

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (9)

Yes (11) 

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (9)

Yes (11)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (9)

Yes (11) 

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (9)

Yes(11) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (9)

Yes (11) 

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Angola's workforce, which includes approximately 12.51 million workers. According to the ILO's technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Angola would employ about 313 labor inspectors. (9,33-35)

During the reporting period, the government aggressively targeted forced labor in the artisanal diamond mining trade by closing informal diamond trading houses and unlicensed artisanal mine operations. In addition, it established new regulations to license artisanal mines that aim to reduce the demand for forced labor in the sector. (28) 

Inspectors from the MAPTSS work with the National Children's Institute (INAC) and the Ministry of Social Action, Family, and the Promotion of Women (MASFAMU) to ensure that child labor victims receive the appropriate social services. (9)

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Angola took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including allocation of financial resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (9)

Yes (11) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A (11) 

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (9)

Yes (11) 

Number of Investigations

2 (36)

9 (28) 

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

5 (37) 

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

5 (37)  

Number of Convictions

Unknown

9 (28) 

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (28) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (9)

Yes (11) 

In 2018, the government investigated nine human trafficking cases, six of which originated in Cunene Province, which borders Namibia. They involved 21 victims, mostly Angolan minors, and an unspecified number of Angolan and Namibian perpetrators. (28) In addition, the government secured nine convictions during the reporting period, involving adults and children being trafficked to Namibia for forced labor. The Governments of Angola and Portugal cooperated on one case of three minors, two boys and a girl, who were trafficked by two Angolan men, who were subsequently convicted by a Portuguese court. (28) In addition, the government deployed the Southern African Development Community Trafficking in Persons regional database, which collects national data to facilitate the development and implementation of policies and programs to combat human trafficking. (28)

The Ministry of Interior refers victims of the worst forms of child labor to INAC and the MASFAMU to receive social services. (9,38) Reports indicate that the government assisted 35 human trafficking victims during the reporting period, the majority of whom were children. (28)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including efforts to address all forms of child labor.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinates enforcement efforts on human trafficking, including child trafficking for labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Led by the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. (39) Continued to meet periodically during the reporting period. (2) Worked on the National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons. (28) 

National Council for Social Action

Promotes and defends children's rights through social consultation and monitoring of public policies. Led by the Ministry of Social Action, Family, and the Promotion of Women (MASFAMU). (31,40) Research was unable to determine activities undertaken by the National Council for Social Action during the reporting period.

MASFAMU

Ensures coordination among various government agencies related to social welfare and victim protection. (7,36) A network of institutions and shelters protect children from abusive, exploitative, and dangerous situations. (41) In 2018, launched the National Plan of Action to Eradicate Child Labor. (2,28) 

INAC

Coordinates child protective services. Works with MASFAMU to provide shelter and helps reintegrate children found in child labor situations, with their families. (36) In 2018, conducted a seminar on Child Victims of Human Trafficking and Child Labor. (28) 

Despite the existence of the Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons, the government faces challenges aggregating and synthesizing data on human trafficking cases. (28) Research shows that there is no specific coordinating mechanism dedicated solely to addressing issues related to the worst forms of child labor outside the scope of human trafficking.

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor (2018–2022)†

Aims to eliminate child labor by strengthening the rights of children, including increasing access to education, and mapping areas and types of child labor found across the country to better inform relevant policies to combat child labor. (42)  

Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children

Aims to protect and defend the rights of child victims of sexual and economic exploitation, including by providing rehabilitation. (43) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children during the reporting period.

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (29,44)

Reports indicate the National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons remained in draft form during the reporting year. (28)

Although the government has adopted the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor, research indicates lack of funding hindered its implementation during the reporting period. (11)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Social Protection Programs†

National network of child support centers implemented by the government, in coordination with NGOs, that offer meals, shelter, basic education, and family reunification services to crime victims, including child trafficking victims. MASFAMU and the Organization of Angolan Women operate 52 children's shelters. (36,45) In 2018, MASFAMU, along with partners, held a workshop aimed at framing an integrated and inclusive Social Protection program, in accordance with the new guidelines of the National Development Plan (2018–2022). This program provides financial support for families in situations of social vulnerability, particularly those with children under age 5. (13) 

Birth Registration and Justice for Children†

Government-run program making birth registration free for all Angolan citizens. In 2018, continued to expand its birth registration goals through the campaign "Registered at Birth,"launched in July 2017, with the aim of automatically registering all children born in maternity wards. (46) Currently 118,000 children have been registered. (46) Program also launched a campaign encouraging fathers to register their children. (47,48) 

UNICEF Country Program (2015–2019)

UNICEF program, in coordination with the government, designed to plan and implement education and child protection-focused interventions. (49) Collaborates with the government to run a child helpline in Luanda Province. (50) During the reporting period, in flood-affected communities, 839 children accessed education services through the provision of UNICEF tents, recreational kits, and school kits for children in Bié, Cunene, and Huila provinces. (13,51) 

National Institutes of Job and Professional Training†

Government-funded program of 555 centers that provide professional training for youth so that they have the skills to enter the formal labor market. (7,52) Reports indicate a merging of government training centers across the country during the reporting period, due to the financial crisis. It is unknown how many centers remain open. (53) 

Mobile Schools and Free Meals for Children†

Ministry of Education program that provides education in mobile schools to migrant children who work with their parents in cattle herding. Specifically targets children at the highest risk of involvement in child labor in southern Angola. (7) Supports some mobile schools with kitchens, which facilitate the free school meals program. (7,54) In 2018, the program continued to be introduced in schools throughout the country. (55,56) 

† Program is funded by the Government of Angola.

Although Angola has implemented programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. Furthermore, research did not identify programs that seek to reach children engaged in certain worst forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Angola (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law prohibits hazardous occupations or activities for children in all relevant sectors in Angola, including diamond mining.

2011 – 2018

Ensure that the legal framework prohibits the procuring and offering of children for the production of pornography, and the use, procuring, and offering of a child for pornographic performances.

2018

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2018

Increase the compulsory education age to 14 to be consistent with the National Development Plan and the minimum age for work.

2009 – 2018

Enforcement

Publish information regarding the labor inspectorate's funding and the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites, and the number of child labor violations for which penalties were imposed and collected.

2011 – 2018

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO's technical advice.

2009 – 2018

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat all forms of child labor.

2016 – 2018

Increase the capacity to aggregate and synthesize data on human trafficking cases.

2018

Ensure that the National Council for Social Action, responsible for the monitoring of public policies related to promoting and defending children's rights, is active and capable of adhering to its mandate.

2018

Government Policies

Ensure that the Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children is effectively implemented.

2014 – 2018

Ensure that the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor has sufficient funds for implementation.

2018

Ensure that the National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons is approved and implemented.

2018

Social Programs

Develop and expand existing social programs to ensure that all children have access to education and are not restricted by informal fees, lack of birth certificates, lack of teachers, or poor school infrastructure.

2013 – 2018

Institute programs that target children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor, and expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2010 – 2018

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    http://www.angop.ao/angola/pt_pt/noticias/sociedade/2016/5/24/Huambo-INAC-constata-aumento-trabalho-infantil,e879e781-1dc9-4594-b09d-6dc0c9dee3d5.html.

  2. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018: Angola. Washington, DC. June 28, 2018.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/angola/

  3. Government of Angola. Response to the Questionnaire About Child Labor in Angola. 2014. Source on file.

  4. Government of Angola. Inquérito de Indicadores Múltiplos e de Saúde (IIMS) 2015-2016. June 2017. .
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  5. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed: March 16, 2019. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  6. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2015–2016. Analysis received May 30, 2019. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  7. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting. February 27, 2014.

  8. Paulino, Carlos. Sobe trabalho infantil nas ruas de Menongue. Jornal de Angola, March 19, 2016.
    http://jornaldeangola.sapo.ao/reportagem/sobe_trabalho_infantil_nas_ruas_de_menongue.

  9. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting. February 22, 2018.

  10. Brandão, André. Trabalho infantil aumenta em Ndalatando e arredores. Jornal de Angola. June 14, 2018.
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  11. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting. February 14, 2019.

  12. Agência Angola Press. Governador desencoraja crianças na actividade pesqueira. July 20, 2018.
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  13. U.S. Embassy- Luanda official. Email communication to USDOL official. July 9, 2019.

  14. Government of Angola. Decreto Presidencial No. 30/17. February 22, 2017. Source on file.

  15. Agência Lusa. Polícia intercepta autocarro com 19 crianças para trabalho infantil. July 24, 2015.
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  16. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2018: Angola. Washington, DC. March 13, 2019.
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  18. Ganga, Marcela. Escolas em risco de desabamento em Luanda. Agência de Notícias. March 14, 2018.
    https://www.angop.ao/angola/pt_pt/noticias/educacao/2018/2/11/Escolas-risco-desabamento-Luanda,d30a28ff-3fe2-4f00-bac7-8e96375078f9.html.

  19. Moniz, Francisco. Milhares de crianças fora da escola por falta de professores em município do Uíge. VOA. February 14, 2018.
    https://www.voaportugues.com/a/dezenas-escolas-fechadas-falta-de-professores-uige/4254580.html.

  20. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Angola. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2016-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/.

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  22. Government of Angola. Lei sobre a Criminalização das Infracções Subjacentes ao Branqueamento de Capitais, No. 3/2014. Enacted: February 10, 2014. Source on file.

  23. Government of Angola. Lei que Aprova o Codigo Penal Angolano. January 2019.
    http://www.parlamento.ao/documents/506145/0/PROP.+LEI+CÓDIGO+PENAL.pdf.

  24. Government of Angola. Lei sobre o Tráfico e Consumo de Estupefacientes, Substâncias Psicotrópicas e Precursores, Lei No. 3/99. Enacted: August 6, 1999. Source on file.

  25. Government of Angola. Lei Geral do Serviço Militar, Lei No. 1/93. Enacted: March 26, 1993. Source on file.

  26. Government of Angola. Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educação, No. 13/01. Enacted: December 31, 2001. Source on file.

  27. UNESCO. Global Education Digest. 2012.
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  28. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting. March 29, 2019.

  29. Government of Angola. Plano de Desenvolvimento Nacional 2018-2022. Ministry of Economy and Planning. April 26, 2018.
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  30. ILO. Angola: Labour Inspection Structure and Organization. October 26, 2016.
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  31. U.S. Embassy- Luanda official. Email communication to USDOL official. March 5, 2018.

  32. Simão, Yara. “Proteger a criança é obrigação de todos.” Jornal de Angola. June 13, 2019.
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  33. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed: January 19, 2018. Please see :Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
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  34. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York: 2017. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf.

  35. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. November 2006: GB.297/ESP/3.
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  36. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting. February 12, 2018.

  37. U.S. Embassy- Luanda official. Email communication to USDOL official. July 16, 2019.

  38. U.S. Embassy- Luanda official. Email communication to USDOL official. April 14, 2015.

  39. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting January 21, 2015.

  40. U.S. Embassy- Luanda official. Email communication to USDOL official. May 14, 2018.

  41. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting. October 7, 2014.

  42. Government of Angola. PLANO DE ACÇÃO NACIONAL DE ERRADICAÇÂO DO TRABALHO INFANTIL EM ANGOLA - PANETI (2018-2022). 2018. Source on file.

  43. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Angola (Ratification: 2001) Published: 2015. Accessed: November 3, 2015.
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  44. Government of Angola. ESTRATÉGIA NACIONAL DE MÉDIO PRAZO PARA OS DIREITOS HUMANOS. MINISTÉRIO DA JUSTIÇA E DOS DIREITOS HUMANOS. December 2018.
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  45. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Angola. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2017-trafficking-in-persons-report/angola/.

  46. Augusto, Francisca. Registo de nascimento ganha nova dinâmica. Agência Angola Press. August 28, 2018.
    http://www.angop.ao/angola/pt_pt/noticias/sociedade/2018/7/35/Registo-nascimento-ganha-nova-dinamica,b1fc2c0c-0ecc-459b-b06b-545d24b8d04e.html.

  47. UNICEF Angola. Porta-voz da Polícia Nacional incentiva a Paternidade Responsável. December 12, 2018.
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