Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Angola

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Angola

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Angola made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government updated its list of hazardous activities and occupations prohibited for children and published the results of the 2015–2016 Survey on Multiple Health Indicators, which includes information on child labor. The government also announced the creation of an alert system to combat crimes against children, including human trafficking. However, children in Angola engage in forced labor in agriculture. Children also perform dangerous tasks in construction. The gap between the compulsory education age and minimum age for work leaves children ages 12 and 13 vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. There are not enough labor inspectors to provide sufficient coverage of the workforce, and social programs do not target all sectors in which children work.

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Children in Angola engage in forced labor in agriculture. (1; 2) Children also perform dangerous tasks in construction. (3) The 2015–2016 Survey on Multiple Health Indicators found that 23 percent of children ages 5 to 17 engage in child labor. The percentage of children engaged in child labor is higher in rural areas compared to urban areas; Cuanza Sul and Cuando Cubango provinces have the highest percentage of child laborers. (4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Angola.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

25.7 (694,458)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

65.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

22.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

46.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2 (MICS 2), 2001. (6)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including plowing, planting and picking tomatoes, harvesting vegetables, and the production of rice (3; 7; 8; 2; 9)

Fishing, activities unknown (9)

Cattle herding (7)

Production of charcoal (9)

Industry

Artisanal diamond mining (7; 9)

Mining coal (3)

Construction, including making and transporting bricks (3; 10; 9)

Slaughtering cattle, goats, and pigs† (9)

Services

Street work, including vending, car washing, shoe shining, and transporting heavy loads† (3; 8; 2; 9)

Domestic work (9)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1)

Forced labor, including in agriculture, construction, artisanal diamond mining, and domestic work, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2; 11; 1)

Use in illicit activities, including the transport of illicit goods across the border of Angola and Namibia (1)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Undocumented Congolese migrant children enter Angola for work in diamond-mining districts, and some experience conditions of forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation in mining camps. (7; 1) Girls as young as age 12 are trafficked from Kasai Occidental in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to Angola for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Angolan boys are taken to Namibia and forced to herd cattle. (1)

The government permits children to attend school without birth registration, but only up to the fourth grade. (12) Families face difficulty paying informal school fees, and many schools do not have enough classroom space for all children. (13; 12)

Angola has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Angola’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the prohibition of commercial sexual exploitation of children.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 254 of the Labor Law (14)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 3(21) and 256 of the Labor Law (14)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 256 of the Labor Law; Hazardous Work List (14; 15)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 18–19 and 23 of the Money Laundering Law (16)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 19 and 23 of the Money Laundering Law (16)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Articles 19 and 22–23 of the Money Laundering Law (16)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 4 and 7 of the Drug Trafficking Law (17)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

20

Article 2 of the Military Service Law (18)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 11 of the Military Service Law (18)

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

No

12‡

Articles 8 and 17 of the Basic Law of the Education System (19)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 7 of the Basic Law of the Education System (19)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (19; 20)

 

In 2017, the government updated the list of hazardous activities and occupations prohibited for children. (9) The legislation identifies 57 activities that are prohibited for children; however, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not include diamond mining, a sector in which there is evidence of work conducted underground. (15)

Laws related to commercial sexual exploitation are not sufficient because using, procuring, and offering a child for the production of pornography and pornographic performances are not criminally prohibited. (16) The 2016 draft Penal Code, which contains prohibitions on the commercial sexual exploitation of children, remains before parliament for approval. (21; 9)

Ending compulsory education at age 12 leaves children ages 12 and 13 vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to attend school, but also are not legally permitted to work. (19; 20) In addition, this age conflicts with the National Development Plan (2013–2017), which sets the compulsory education age at 14. (22)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Public Administration, Labor, and Social Security (MAPTSS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Administration, Labor, and Social Security (MAPTSS)

Enforce laws against child labor. Fine employers or send cases to the Ministry of Interior for further investigation and to the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights for prosecution. (23) Employ labor inspectors nationwide to carry out inspections and joint operations with social services providers. (24)

National Children’s Institute (INAC)

Receive complaints about cases of child exploitation, including child labor. Conduct inspections and respond to reports of child labor. (23)

Ministry of Interior’s National Police

Enforce criminal laws and conduct operations and investigations related to the worst forms of child labor. (7)

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights

Investigate and prosecute the worst forms of child labor cases. (23)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Angola took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the framework of the MAPTSS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resources allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

153 (25)

135 (9)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (24)

Yes (9)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (25)

Yes (9)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (25)

Yes (9)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (25)

Yes (26)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

5,261 (25)

5,384 (9)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

5 (9)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

0 (9)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (25)

Yes (9)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (25)

Yes (9)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (24)

Yes (9)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (25)

Yes (9)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (25)

Yes (9)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (25)

Yes (9)

 

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Angola’s workforce, which includes approximately 12.5 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Angola would employ about 312 labor inspectors. (27; 28; 29; 9)

Inspectors from the MAPTSS work with the National Children’s Institute (INAC) and the Ministry of Social Action, Family, and the Promotion of Women (MASFAM) to ensure that child labor victims receive the appropriate social services. (9)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Angola took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including publicly available information.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (9)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (30)

Yes (9)

Number of Investigations

2 (30)

2 (31)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (25)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

4 (30)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown (25)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (25)

Yes (9)

 

In 2017, National Police initiated investigations into two cases of child trafficking for labor exploitation. The cases included six children who were being trafficked to Namibia for forced labor. (31) The government created a system to combat crimes against children, including child trafficking. The system alerts social media networks and local authorities to reports of disappearances of minors. (31)

The Ministry of Interior refers victims of the worst forms of child labor to the INAC and the MASFAM to receive social services. (32; 9)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the capacity to coordinate efforts to address child labor, including the efficacy of coordination efforts on child labor.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate enforcement efforts on human trafficking, including child trafficking for labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Led by the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. (33) Research was unable to determine coordination activities taken during the year.

National Council for Social Action

Promote and defend children’s rights through social consultation and monitoring of public policies. Led by the Ministry of Social Action, Family, and the Promotion of Women. (26; 34) Research was unable to determine coordination activities taken during the year.

Ministry of Social Action, Family, and the Promotion of Women (MASFAM)

Ensure coordination among various government agencies related to social welfare and victim protection. (7; 31) A network of institutions and shelters protect children from abusive, exploitative, and dangerous situations. (35) Research was unable to determine coordination activities taken during the year.

INAC

Coordinate child protective services. Work with the MASFAM to provide shelter and help reintegrate children found in child labor situations with their families. (23; 31) Research was unable to determine coordination activities taken during the year.

 

Research shows there is no specific coordinating mechanisms dedicated solely to addressing issues related to the worst forms of child labor, outside the scope of human trafficking.

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children

Aims to protect and defend the rights of child victims of sexual and economic exploitation, including rehabilitation. (36)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (22)

 

Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children during the reporting period. (26) Although the government has adopted the Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children, research found no evidence of a policy on other worst forms of child labor.

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Social Protection Programs†

National network of child support centers implemented by the government, in coordination with NGOs, that offer meals, shelter, basic education, and family reunification services to crime victims, including child trafficking victims. The MASFAM and the Organization of Angolan Women operate 52 children’s shelters. (1; 31)

Microcredit Project†

MAPTSS program that provides cash assistance to parents so that their children do not need to work. (7)

Birth Registration and Justice for Children†

Government-run program that makes birth registration free for all Angolan citizens. Aimed to expand birth registration coverage of all children from 56 percent to 80 percent by the end of 2017. (37)

UNICEF Country Program (2015–2019)

UNICEF program, in coordination with the government, designed to plan and implement education and child protection-focused interventions. (38) Collaborates with the government to run a child helpline in Luanda Province. (13)

National Institutes of Job and Professional Training†

Government-funded program of 555 centers that provides professional training for youth so that they have the skills to enter the formal labor market. (7; 39)

Mobile Schools and Free Meals for Children†

Ministry of Education program that provides education in mobile schools to migrant children who work with their parents in cattle herding. Specifically targets children at the highest risk of involvement in child labor in southern Angola. (7) Supports some mobile schools with kitchens, which facilitate the free school meals program. (7; 23; 40) In 2017, the government gradually reintroduced the school meals program after it was halted in 2016. (41; 26)

† Program is funded by the Government of Angola.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (42)

 

Although Angola has implemented programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. Furthermore, research did not identify programs that seek to reach children engaged in certain worst forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Angola (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law prohibits hazardous occupations or activities for children in all relevant sectors in Angola, including diamond mining.

2011 – 2017

Ensure that the legal framework protects children from exploitation in child pornography and pornographic performances.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Increase the compulsory education age to 14 to be consistent with the National Development Plan and the minimum age for work.

2009 – 2017

Enforcement

Publish information regarding the Labor Inspectorate’s funding and the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites, as well as the number of criminal violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions achieved.

2011 – 2017

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice.

2009 – 2017

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat all forms of child labor.

2016 – 2017

Ensure coordination mechanisms related to child labor are active during the year.

2017

Government Policies

Ensure that the Plan of Action and Intervention Against the Sexual and Commercial Exploitation of Children is effectively implemented.

2014 – 2017

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant worst forms of child labor, such as forced labor.

2017

Social Programs

Develop and expand existing social programs to ensure that all children have access to education and are not restricted by informal fees, lack of birth certificates, and lack of classroom space. Ensure the continuation of the free school meals program.

2013 – 2017

Institute programs that target children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor, and expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2010 – 2017

1. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Angola. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/271345.pdf.

2. Agência Angola Press. Huambo: INAC constata aumento do trabalho infantil. June 13, 2016. http://www.angop.ao/angola/pt_pt/noticias/sociedade/2016/5/24/Huambo-INAC-constata-aumento-trabalho-infantil,e879e781-1dc9-4594-b09d-6dc0c9dee3d5.html.

3. Government of Angola. Response to the Questionnaire About Child Labor in Angola. 2014. [Source on file].

4. —. Inquérito de Indicadores Múltiplos e de Saúde (IIMS) 2015-2016. June 2017. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR327/FR327.pdf.

5. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed: March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2, 2001. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting, February 27, 2014.

8. Paulino, Carlos. Sobe trabalho infantil nas ruas de Menongue. Jornal de Angola. March 19, 2016. http://jornaldeangola.sapo.ao/reportagem/sobe_trabalho_infantil_nas_ruas_de_menongue.

9. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting, February 22, 2018.

10. Vieira, Arnaldo. Child Labour Cases on the Rise in Angola. June 6, 2013. http://www.africareview.com/News/Child-labour-cases-on-the-rise-in-Angola-/-/979180/1874160/-/kryvs6/-/index.html.

11. Agência Lusa. Polícia intercepta autocarro com 19 crianças para trabalho infantil. July 24, 2015. http://www.redeangola.info/policia-intercepta-autocarro-com-19-criancas-para-trabalho-infantil/.

12. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Angola. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265780.pdf.

13. UNICEF. UNICEF Annual Report 2015- Angola. 2015. https://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Angola_2015_COAR.pdf.

14. Government of Angola. Lei Geral do Trabalho, Lei No. 7/15. Enacted: June 15, 2015. http://c026204.cdn.sapo.io/1/c026204/cld-file/1426522730/6d77c9965e17b15/aa4ced447f00ac5becad3d5eeddd34cb/fiscalidadeonline/2015/Lei%20geral%20do%20trabalho%202015-06-15.pdf.

15. —. Decreto Presidencial No. 30/17. February 22, 2017. [Source on file].

16. —. Lei sobre a Criminalização das Infracções Subjacentes ao Branqueamento de Capitais, No. 3/2014. Enacted: February 10, 2014. [Source on file].

17. —. Lei sobre o Tráfico e Consumo de Estupefacientes, Substâncias Psicotrópicas e Precursores, Lei No. 3/99. Enacted: August 6, 1999. [source on file].

18. —. Lei Geral do Serviço Militar, Lei No. 1/93. Enacted: March 26, 1993. [Source on file].

19. —. Lei de Bases do Sistema de Educação, No. 13/01. Enacted: December 31, 2001. [Source on file].

20. UNESCO. Global Education Digest. 2012. http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Documents/ged-2012-en.pdf.

21. Government of Angola. Anteprojecto de Código Penal. 2016. [Source on file].

22. Government of Angola, Ministry of Planning and Territorial Development. Plano Nacional de Desenvolvimento 2013-2017. December 2012. https://www.mindbank.info/item/5513.

23. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting, February 13, 2013.

24. ILO. Angola: Labour Inspection Structure and Organization. October 26, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/labadmin/info/WCMS_151303/lang--en/index.htm.

25. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting, January 19, 2017.

26. U.S. Embassy Luanda official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 5, 2018.

27. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed: January 19, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see :Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

28. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

29. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. November 2006: GB.297/ESP/3. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf.

30. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting, February 13, 2017.

31. —. Reporting, February 12, 2018.

32. U.S. Embassy Luanda official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 14, 2015.

33. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting January 21, 2015.

34. U.S. Embassy Luanda official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 14, 2018.

35. U.S. Embassy- Luanda. Reporting, October 7, 2014.

36. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Angola (Ratification: 2001) Published: 2015. Accessed: November 3, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3185745:NO.

37. Carvalho, Vinícius. Eight citizens in a day- A story on birth registration in Angola. UNICEF. December 11, 2013. http://www.unicef.org/esaro/5440_angola_eight-citizens.html.

38. UNICEF. Angola Country programme document 2015-2019. September 11, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2014-PL4-Angola_CPD-final_approved-EN.pdf.

39. allAfrica. Inefop Trains Over 20,000 Young People. December 11, 2014. http://allafrica.com/stories/201412120427.html.

40. U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 23, 2014.

41. U.S. Embassy Luanda official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 6, 2017.

42. ILO. Programme Pays pour le Travail Décent 2014-2017. 2014. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-addis_ababa/---sro-yaounde/documents/genericdocument/wcms_436262.pdf.

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