Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Algeria

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Algeria

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Algeria made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government established the National Committee for the Prevention of and Fight Against Trafficking in Persons. Furthermore, it established the National Authority of Child Protection and Promotion to advocate, in part, for children in danger of economic exploitation. It also provided advanced training for government personnel on investigating and prosecuting trafficking in persons and protecting victims, in coordination with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. However, children in Algeria engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and forced begging. Children in Algeria perform dangerous tasks in street work. The Government has not sufficiently prohibited the use of children in illicit activities or determined by national law or regulation the types of work that are hazardous.

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Children in Algeria engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and forced begging. Children in Algeria perform dangerous tasks in street work.(1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Algeria.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

6.7 (413,729)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

92.3

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

7.2

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

105.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4 (MICS 4), 2012–2013.(7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including harvesting olives (1, 2, 8-12)

Industry

Construction, activities unknown (5, 8-10, 12, 13)

Services

Street work, including vending, collecting plastics, and begging (1, 3, 5, 8, 9, 14-18)

Domestic work (1, 2, 5, 10, 19)

Working in small workshops and businesses, including mechanics shops (4, 8, 10, 11, 19)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 5, 9, 17, 19, 20)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking (12)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (14, 15, 17)

Forced domestic work, including drawing water from wells, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (17)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Evidence suggests that children, primarily unaccompanied Sub-Saharan migrants, are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation and forced domestic work.(5, 20-22) Touareg and Maure human traffickers based in northern Mali and southern Algeria force some Sub-Saharan refugee and asylum-seeking children to draw water from wells; those children are often beaten and robbed of their possessions, including their identification documents.(17, 20) Increased instability in neighboring countries has depressed the tourism sector in the southern region of Algeria, created an influx of migrants, and exacerbated the problem of human trafficking.(23) Some migrants—those from Niger, in particular—keep young children, often not their own, at their side while begging in the street.(12, 20)

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MTESS) reported that most underage workers are employed part-time in the informal service industry, in small family businesses (including restaurants, cafés, and workshops), or on family farms.(24) The Government reported child labor was most prevalent in the provinces of Algiers, Oran, Batna, and Constantine.(25) Research could not find a current and comprehensive study on the activities and scope of the child labor situation in Algeria.(1, 5, 26)

Most children with disabilities do not have the opportunity to access mainstream education, partly because of social stigma, the relatively low number of teachers with specialized training, the lack of a transportation system for children with disabilities, and limited accessibility of school buildings.(1, 19) A study by the NGO Doctors of the World determined that a main reason for non-schooling among migrants is the lack of administrative documents.(27) However, NGOs have reported that the number of migrant children enrolled in schools has increased since the Ministry of Education instructed schools to allow migrant and refugee children to enroll.(19, 25) Barriers to education, including those placed on migrant children and children with disabilities, should be eliminated because absence from school increases vulnerability to child labor. Furthermore, because birth certificates are required to attend school, many unregistered children remain out of school and vulnerable to child labor.(25)

Algeria has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Algeria's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 15 of the Labor Code; Article 7 of Executive Decree No. 96-98 on the List and Content of Special Books and Registers Mandatory for Employers (28, 29)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 15 of the Labor Code; Article 7 of Executive Decree No. 96-98 on the List and Content of Special Books and Registers Mandatory for Employers (28)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

No

 

 

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 303 bis 4 of the Penal Code (30)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 303 bis 4 and 319 of the Penal Code (30)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 319, 333 bis 1, 343, and 344 of the Penal Code (30)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

Article 195 bis of the Penal Code (30)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

19

Article 3 of Law No. 14-06 on National Service (31)

State Voluntary

Yes

17

Article 14 of Presidential Decree No. 08-134 on the National People's Army (32)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 12 of Law No. 08-04 on National Education (33)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 13 of Law No. 08-04 on National Education (33)

 

In 2016, Algeria added a provision to its Constitution, prohibiting the employment of children under the age of 16.(25, 34) Algeria continued to work on a bill to amend the Labor Code; it was noted that further discussions among the Government, trade unions, and businesses were ongoing.(12, 22, 25, 35-37) The Labor Code prohibits anyone under 19 from working at night and anyone under 18 from performing work that is harmful to their health, safety, or morals; however, Algeria has not determined by national law or regulation the types of work that are hazardous.(5, 18, 28, 38) In addition, Algerian law does not provide either increased penalties for or categorize as a separate crime the involvement of children in either the production or trafficking of drugs. Also, the law does not criminally prohibit the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MTESS)

Enforce labor laws, including laws related to child labor, through its General Labor Inspectorate, distribute written notices and issue tickets in response to violations, and refer violations to the Ministry of Justice.(8, 19) Supervise the application of laws and regulations related to labor relations, working conditions, and worker safety.(12) Share child labor reports with the Ministry of National Solidarity to ensure follow-up with social services.(12, 14)

Ministry of the Interior and Local Assemblies

Enforce criminal laws related to child trafficking through the Directorate General for National Security (DGSN), which comprises eight active brigades of 77 specialized police officers, focused on illegal immigration and human trafficking and 50 brigades of 300 police officers, specialized in the protection of children.(12, 17, 24, 25)

Ministry of National Defense

Enforce criminal laws pertaining to the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking, in rural and border regions through the National Gendarmerie.(17) Work with DGSN and NGO Algerian Network for the Defense of Children's Rights to administer hotlines for the reporting of child abuse.(14, 24, 39, 40)

Ministry of Justice

Prosecute child exploitation cases, including those related to non-compliance with labor laws, through its Office of Criminal Affairs and Amnesty Procedures.(39)

National Authority of Child Protection and Promotion*

Protect and promote children's rights and provide advocacy for children in danger of economic exploitation. Act as a liaison between the Ministry of Justice and members of the public alleging violations of children's rights.(12, 24) In 2016, led by an appointed national delegate.(12) Announced plans in December to set up a toll-free phone number and a website to report physical or psychological violence against children.(12)

* Agency responsible for child labor enforcement was created during the reporting period.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Algeria took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (5)

$21,000,000 (12)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown* (11)

563 (12, 24)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown (5)

No (18)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (11)

Yes (25)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (5)

N/A (12)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (11)

Yes (12)

Number of Labor Inspections

15,093 (25)

11,575 (41)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (5)

11,575 (12, 18)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (5)

N/A (18)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

97 (11)

12 (41)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (5)

Unknown (12)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown (5)

Unknown (12)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown (5)

Yes (24)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (5)

Yes (24)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown (5)

Yes (12)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (5)

Yes (24)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (14)

Yes (14, 24)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (14)

Yes (24)

* The Government does not publish this information.

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Algeria's workforce, which includes over 11 million workers. According to the ILO's recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Algeria should employ roughly 785 inspectors, notably in all geographic areas of the country, both urban and rural.(11, 42, 43) In 2016, the Government reported that it set aside 46 days to train 247 inspectors.(12)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Algeria took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (5)

Yes (25)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (5)

N/A (12)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (17)

Yes (24)

Number of Investigations

0 (17)

Unknown (12)

Number of Violations Found

0 (17)

Unknown (12)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (17)

117 (25)

Number of Convictions

0 (17)

89 (25)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (17)

Yes (12)

In 2016, the National Gendarmerie arrested six individuals in connection with an alleged human trafficking scheme that included 17 children; prosecutions of the individuals are ongoing.(22) The Ministry of Justice prosecuted 117 cases involving illegal employment of children, human trafficking, economic exploitation of a child, or buying and selling of children under the age of 18, with 76 percent of the cases ending in conviction.(24)

UNODC also provided advanced training on investigating and prosecuting human trafficking, and protecting victims to build on the basic training workshop held in 2015. Participants included 12 representatives from various entities and departments that make up the National Committee for the Prevention of and Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and 23 law enforcement officers of the National Gendarmerie, and the Directorate General of National Security.(22, 44) One hundred police officers from the DGSN’s child protection brigades received training on the protection of children who are victims of crime. The Ministry of Justice organized six training sessions for 136 judges on the legal framework for the protection of children, and 60 training sessions on the mistreatment of minors.(25) The Government acknowledged the need for additional training to build the capacity of law enforcement personnel to prevent trafficking in persons, and identify human trafficking victims.(17) The Government has an informal practice in place for law enforcement personnel to refer potential victims of human trafficking to the prosecutor, who then notifies social services as needed.(12, 17, 24)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission for the Prevention of and Fight Against Child Labor

Prevent and eliminate child labor by coordinating between government ministries and all other agencies that oversee labor activities.(8, 40) Led by MTESS, with members from the National Labor Union and NGOs, as well as nine other governmental agencies.(40, 45) In 2016, the commission met once as part of an annual meeting to review policies.(24)

National Committee for the Prevention of and  Fight Against Trafficking in Persons*

Monitor implementation of the National Action Plan for the Prevention of and Fight Against Trafficking in Persons, established by Decree 16-249. Comprises representatives from the President's Office; the Prime Minister's Office; 12 ministries, including MTESS; and other government entities.(12, 22, 46) In 2016, the committee was formalized by decree and included a budget; 20 people were named to serve on the committee.(12, 24, 46)

National Entity for the Protection and Promotion of Children

Protect children from exploitation and violence, including child labor.(5)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan for the Prevention of and Fight Against Trafficking in Persons

Aims to prevent and reduce human trafficking by raising awareness of the issue, strengthening legislation, prosecuting trafficking crimes, improving the provision of protective services to victims, and increasing collaboration with national and international NGOs.(12, 17) During the reporting period, the Government did not implement measures of the plan; however, efforts were undertaken to name individuals to the nascent National Committee for the Prevention of and Fight Against Trafficking in Persons.(24)

 

Although the Government of Algeria has adopted the National Action Plan for the Prevention of and Fight Against Trafficking in Persons, research found no evidence of a policy regarding other worst forms of child labor.

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Child Labor Awareness Raising*†

The National Commission for the Prevention of and Fight Against Child Labor distributed brochures to raise awareness among employers, workers, parents, and children of the negative consequences of child labor on children’s health and education and also organized seminars and cultural events and ran an awareness campaign in cooperation with local mosques.(25)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Algeria.

 

Although Algeria has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Algeria (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws prohibit the use of children in all illicit activities, including using, procuring, and offering of children for the production and trafficking of drugs.

2013 – 2016

Determine the types of hazardous work prohibited for children under the age of 18, in consultation with employers' and workers' organizations.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Enforcement

Publish information on the enforcement of child labor laws, including the number of penalties imposed and collected; and the number of criminal investigations, violations, and convictions.

2009 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors in accordance with the ILO recommendation and ensure that child labor laws are enforced effectively in all geographic areas.

2009 – 2016

Provide additional training to labor inspectors and criminal law enforcement personnel to build enforcement capacity to address child labor violations, prevent trafficking of persons, and identify human trafficking victims.

2015 – 2016

Government Policies

Ensure implementation of the National Action Plan for the Prevention of and Fight Against Trafficking in Persons.

2016

Adopt a policy that includes all relevant worst forms of child labor, such as forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation.

2015 – 2016

Social Programs

Research and publish information on children involved in child labor, or are at risk of being involved in it; specify these activities and publish information to inform policies.

2014 – 2016

Take measures to register children at birth and remove barriers to accessing education, particularly for migrant children and children with disabilities.

2015 – 2016

Provide sufficient resources to expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2016

1.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Algeria. Geneva; July 18, 2012. Report No. CRC/C/DZA/CO/3-4. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/DZA/CO/3-4&Lang=En.

2.         UNICEF. UNICEF Annual Report 2013 - Algeria. New York; May 29, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Algeria_COAR_2013.pdf.

3.         Hamatou, R. "Exploitation des enfants à Batna." Liberté, El Achour, December 13, 2012. http://www.djazairess.com/fr/liberte/190632.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Algeria," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2015&dlid=252917.

5.         U.S. Embassy- Algiers. reporting, February 4, 2016.

6.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics From National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2012-2013. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Algiers. reporting, March 4, 2014.

9.         Zahra, Y. "Travail des enfants en Algérie: Une réalité poignante!" Le Journal de l'Emploi [online] June 22, 2015 [cited October 23, 2015]; [Source on file].

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Algeria," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236804.pdf.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers. reporting, March 22, 2016.

12.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers. reporting, January 17, 2017.

13.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Summary Record: Algeria,. Geneva; June 18, 2012. Report No. CRC/C/SR.1715. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FSR.1715&Lang=en.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 12, 2015.

15.       Massalaki, A. "Algeria and Niger start repatriation of 3,000 illegal migrants." Reuters [online] December 10, 2014 [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/12/10/us-niger-algeria-idUSKBN0JO23W20141210.

16.       Dunes Voices. "Le travail des enfants défie les lois à Oran." HuffPost [online] June 2, 2015 [cited October 23, 2015]; http://www.huffpostmaghreb.com/2015/06/02/le-travail-des-enfants-defie-les-lois-a-oran_n_7491260.html.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers. reporting, February 2, 2016.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers. reporting, July 24, 2017.

19.       U.S. Department of State. "Algeria," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265702.pdf.

20.       U.S. Department of State. "Algeria," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

21.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 14, 2014.

22.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers. reporting, February 13, 2017.

23.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers. reporting, November 3, 2016.

24.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers. reporting, February 15, 2017.

25.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 21, 2017.

26.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Algeria (ratification: 1984) Published: 2015; accessed October 23, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3183212:YES.

27.       Bersali, A. "Migrants subsahariens en Algérie : 68% sont en situation irrégulière." Algeria-Watch [online] October 19, 2016 [cited February 18, 2016]; http://www.algeria-watch.de/fr/article/pol/migration/situation_irreguliere.htm.

28.       Government of Algeria. Loi n° 90-11 du 21 avril 1990 relative aux relations de travail, modifiée et complétée au 11 janvier 1997, enacted April 21, 1990. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/9557/64805/F97DZA01.htm.

29.       Government of Algeria. Décret exécutif n° 96-98 du 17 Chaoual 1416 correspondant au 6 mars 1996 déterminant la liste et le contenu des livres et registres spéciaux obligatoires pour les employeurs, enacted March 6, 1996. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=fr&p_isn=79172&p_country=DZA&p_classification=12.

30.       Government of Algeria. Ordonnance n° 66-156 du 8 juin 1966 portant code pénal, enacted June 8, 1966. http://www.joradp.dz/TRV/FPenal.pdf.

31.       Government of Algeria. Loi n° 14-06 du 13 Chaoual 1435 correspondant au 9 août 2014 relative au service national, enacted August 9, 2014. http://www.elmouwatin.dz/IMG/pdf/loi_14-06.pdf.

32.       Government of Algeria. Décret présidentiel n° 08-134 du 30 Rabie Ethani 1429 correspondant au 6 mai 2008 fixant les conditions de recrutement des officiers de carrière de l' Armée nationale populaire, enacted May 11, 2008. [source on file].

33.       Government of Algeria. Loi d’orientation sur l'éducation nationale, Law No. 08-04, enacted January 23, 2008. http://www.africanchildforum.org/clr/Legislation%20Per%20Country/algeria/algeria_education_2008_fr.pdf.

34.       Government of Algeria. Constitution de la Republique Algerienne Democratique et Populaire, Loi n° 16-01 du 6 mars 2016, enacted 2016. http://www.joradp.dz/TRV/Fcons.pdf.

35.       Algérie Presse Service. "Future labour code meets requirements of new international economic order." aps.dz [online] May 1, 2016 [cited October 25, 2016]; [Source on file].

36.       Loukil, D. "Les dispositions du nouveau code de travail débattues à Oran - Inquiétudes sur le travail des enfants mineurs." Liberté Algérie [online] April 4, 2016 [cited October 19, 2016]; http://www.liberte-algerie.com/ouest/inquietudes-sur-le-travail-des-enfants-mineurs-245167.

37.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Algeria (ratification: 1962) Published: 2016; accessed October 19, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3254948.

38.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Algeria (ratification: 1984) Published: 2012; accessed March 10, 2017; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:2699942:YES.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers. reporting, March 11, 2015.

40.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers. reporting, January 25, 2015.

41.       U.S. Embassy- Algiers official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. Februray 14, 2017.

42.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 15, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

43.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

44.       UNDOC. Prosecuting trafficking in persons and protecting victims in Algeria, [online] [cited October 19, 2016]; http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/Webstories2016/prosecuting-trafficking-in-persons-and-protecting-victims-in-algeria.html.

45.       Government of Algeria. Décision n° 006 du 16 mars 2003 portant création, composition et fonctionnement de la commission intersectorielle relative à la prévention et à la lutte contre le travail des enfants, enacted March 16, 2003. [Source on file].

46.       Government of Algeria. Décret prèsidentiel n° 16-249 du 24 Dhou El Hidja 1437 correspondant au 26 septembre 2016 portant crèation, organisation et fonctionnement du comitè national de prèvention et de lutte contre la traite des personnes., enacted September 26, 2016. http://www.joradp.dz/FTP/jo-francais/2016/F2016057.pdf.

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