Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Albania

Albania
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Albania made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government enacted the Decision of the Council of Ministers No. 91, which establishes rules and procedures to follow when a child's rights have been violated and strengthens the role of the State Agency for Rights and Protection of Children. Moreover, it adopted the Decision of the Council of Ministers No. 353 to regulate the functioning of the cross-sectorial technical group to adequately address child protection needs. The government also increased the number of child protection units, trained police officers on countering child trafficking, and volunteered to be a Pathfinder Country for Alliance 8.7 in order to expedite the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals related to eliminating child labor and human trafficking by 2025. However, children in Albania engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging and mining chromium. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Although the government made meaningful efforts in all relevant areas during the reporting period, the law does not explicitly prohibit using, procuring, or offering children for illicit activities. In addition, the labor inspectorate needs to be strengthened so it can inspect all sectors in which child labor is known to occur.

Children in Albania engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging and mining chromium. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. (1-4,5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Albania.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

4.6 (23,665)

Working Children by Sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

87.5

Industry

 

2.9

Services

 

9.6

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

92.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

5.2

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

106.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (6) 

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from National Child Labor Survey, 2010. (7

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, activities unknown (3,8) 

Industry

Mining,† including chromium (3,9-20) 

Construction, activities unknown (1,21) 

Working in the textile, garment, and footwear sectors (3,10,22-26) 

Processing fish (24) 

Services

Begging (5,8,10,22-24,27)  

Street work, including vending, washing vehicles, busking, and shining shoes (2,8,10,27,28)

Collecting recyclable materials on the street and in landfills (5,8,10,24,27) 

Working in wholesale and retail trade (1,22)  

Working in hotels and restaurants (1,10)  

Working in call centers (10,21)  

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including burglary, drug trafficking, and harvesting and processing cannabis (3,5,8,10,20,24,27)    

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3,5,8,10,18,20,24,29)  

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2,3,5,8,10,20,23,24,28-30)   

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182


Albania lacks recent, comprehensive data on children engaging in the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture and construction. (3) Children are trafficked internally in Albania and abroad to neighboring and EU countries for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor, including forced begging. (2,3,5) Internal child trafficking and forced begging have increased in recent years, particularly during the tourist season. (3,5,31) Street children, especially those from Roma and Balkan Egyptian communities, are particularly vulnerable to becoming victims of human trafficking, in some cases because they lack adult supervision. (3,5,20,31,32) 

In addition, children in Albania informally collect chromium around mines where debris from mine tunnels are found, and they sometimes carry heavy rocks for miles. (3,4,9-11,16,17,33) The work is not coerced, and parents are aware that their children collect chromium. (3,10,11,33)  

During the reporting period, some children, particularly those located in the city of Shkodër, were unable to access school due to their families' involvement in blood feuds based on the Kanun, a set of traditional Albanian laws. (3,34) Children were confined to their homes due to fear of revenge attacks. (34) 

Although Albania allows children without a birth certificate to enroll in public schools, some children from Roma and Balkan Egyptian families and refugees may face obstacles in obtaining birth certificates, which may affect their access to social services and education. (3,35,36) Children not in school are more vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. Some Roma and Balkan Egyptian children also experienced financial hurdles to accessing education, such as transportation. (3,10,24,36) Discrimination in schools and being physically separated in classrooms are also challenges faced by Roma and Balkan Egyptian students. (24,36) 

Some migrant and refugee children from Syria, Algeria, and Libya faced difficulties accessing education due to language barriers. (3) Children with disabilities also experienced hurdles to accessing inclusive education. (3)

Albania has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Albania's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the prohibition of using children in illicit activities.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 98 of the Code of Labor; Article 24 of the Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (37,38)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 98–101 of the Code of Labor; Article 24 of the Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (37,38)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 99–101 of the Code of Labor; Decree of the Council of Ministers on Defining Hazardous and Hard Works; Article 34 of the Law on Occupational Safety and Health at Work; Regulation on Protection of Children at Work (37,39-41)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 8 of the Code of Labor; Article 124/b of the Criminal Code (37,42)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 128/b of the Criminal Code (42)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 114–115, 117, and 128/b of the Criminal Code; Article 26 of the Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (38,42)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

Article 129 of the Criminal Code; Articles 24–25 of the Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (38,42)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

 

Article 9 of the Law on Military Service (43) 

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

N/A*

 

Article 9 of the Law on Military Service (43)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Article 28 of the Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (38)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 22 of the Law on Pre-University Education System (44)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 57 of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania; Article 5 of the Law on Pre-University Education System (44,45)

* No conscription (43)

In 2019, the government approved Law 69/2018, which addresses statelessness, including lack of registration or absence of parents' documentation. The law empowers the courts to solve registration issues, including for Roma and Balkan Egyptian communities, and requires Child Protection Units (CPUs) to initiate registration procedures. (3,46) 

During the reporting period, the Decision of the Council of Ministers No. 91 was passed, which sets the rules and procedures for when a child's rights have been violated and aims to strengthen the role of the State Agency for Rights and Protection of Children. (3,47) The government passed the Decisions of the Council of Ministers No. 499 and No. 578 regarding the identification and referral process for victims or potential victims of human trafficking, including exploited children. (3,48,49) In addition, Albania adopted the Decision of the Council of Ministers No. 54 to regulate the functioning of the National Council for the Rights and Protection of the Child and enable the Council to undertake actions in line with the UN CRC. (3,50) Lastly, the Decision of the Council of Ministers No. 353 was adopted to regulate the functioning of a cross-sectoral technical group to adequately address child protection needs. (3,51)

The law in Albania does not explicitly prohibit using, procuring, or offering children under age 18 for illicit activities, including in the production and trafficking of drugs. Article 129 of the Criminal Code only prohibits inducing or encouraging children under age 14 to participate in criminality. (42) In addition, although Albania has a list of activities in which light work may be permitted, it does not limit the number of hours for light work. (37,38)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Finance, Economy, and Labor that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Finance, Economy, and Labor

Enforces laws related to child labor and hazardous work, and monitor the quality of social services provided through the State Labor Inspectorate. (3) Receives, documents, and responds to child labor complaints through the State Social Services Agency. (3) Child Protection Units (CPUs) are the responsible agencies at the local level. (3) 

Ministry of Health and Social Care

Develops policies and laws related to child protection. (3) 

Ministry of Interior

Enforces all laws, including laws related to the worst forms of child labor through protection officers. (10,22) Coordinates the work of the 12 illicit human trafficking sections in the Regional Police Directorate through the General Directorate of State Police. (3) Establishes the government's policy on combating human trafficking through the State Committee Against Trafficking in Persons, chaired by the Interior Minister. (52)

Office of the Prosecutor General

Investigates and prosecutes child trafficking cases through the Serious Crimes Prosecution Office. (23,53) 

Child Protection Units (CPUs)

Identify at-risk children, take case referrals from enforcement agencies, and conduct initial evaluations of each case at the municipal level. Manages cases of at-risk children and refer them to appropriate social services. (23,54,55) Coordinates the assistance of an ad hoc technical group with social services, police, health, education, justice, and NGOs. (3) Every municipality or administrative unit with at least 3,000 children is required to have at least 1 CPU. (10)

The number of CPUs increased from 221 in 2017 to 235 in 2018. (3,19,56,57) However, CPUs lack communication with the State Labor Inspectorate and Social Services (SLISS) and do not possess adequate knowledge of child labor issues. (18-20)

During the reporting period, the government reclassified police positions to focus on specific criminal cases related to minors. (3) However, NGOs alleged that the Ministry of Interior focused more on issues related to judicial and police reform than on child trafficking and migration. (3,32)  

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Albania took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Finance, Economy, and Labor that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including inspection planning and human resource allocation for all relevant sectors in which child labor is known to occur.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1,427,636 (3) 

$1,804,272 (3) 

Number of Labor Inspectors

113 (10)

112 (3,21) 

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (10)

Yes (3) 

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

No (3)

Yes (3) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (3)

Yes (3) 

Refresher Courses Provided

No (10)

No (3) 

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

74  (3)

94‡ (3) 

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

74 (10)

94‡ (3) 

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

71 (10)

13 (3,21) 

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

39 (10) 

13 (3,21) 

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

0 (10)

0 (3) 

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (10)

Yes (3) 

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (10)

Yes (3) 

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (10)

Yes (3) 

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes  (10)

Yes (3) 

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (10)

Yes (3) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (10)

Yes (3) 

‡ Data are from January 2018 to November 2018.

During the summer tourist season, the inspections focus on child labor in tourist areas. (21,58) The SLISS can inspect all registered private entities but cannot inspect private homes, private farms, or unregistered businesses. (3,21) The SLISS has an inspection plan, but in 2018 it did not include other sectors in which child labor is known to occur, specifically the agricultural sector, wholesale and retail trade, hotel restaurants, and mining. (58,59)

There is no dedicated referral mechanism for child labor unless it relates to child trafficking and protection. (3, 60) If a child is trafficked for labor exploitation, the case is referred to the police and state social services by the agency that detected the violation. The case may also be referred to CPUs, which connect the child to social services. (3,49,51) 

The government noted that the 2018 budget did not cover all resources needed for labor inspectors, such as vehicles and office space. (3,21,59) According to the SLISS, the number of labor inspectors was insufficient, given that only 5 percent of workplaces were inspected in 2018. Although labor inspectors received training during the reporting period, NGOs and the SLISS commented on the lack of specialized skills and understaffing of SLISS employees. (3,21,31,59,61) In addition, the SLISS lacks clear anti-human trafficking jurisdiction, which may have allowed some businesses to continue using forced labor. (31) 

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Albania took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including allocating human resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (10)

Yes (3) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (10)

Yes (3) 

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (10)

Yes (3) 

Number of Investigations

20 (10)

17 (3) 

Number of Violations Found

19 (10)

41 (3) 

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

19 (10)

43 (3) 

Number of Convictions

1 (10)

5 (32) 

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

1 (10) 

15 (32) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (10)

Yes (3) 

During the reporting period, police officers received trainings on child protection and human trafficking, especially in the context of migration flows through the Western Balkans. (3) In addition, 180 police officers were trained to handle cases involving minors, and the European Border and Coast Guard Agency and the IOM held trainings on countering human trafficking. (3)

In 2018, a source reported that the anti-trafficking police had sufficient resources. (31) NGOs, however, noted that due to police turnover, frequent training for police officers is needed to improve identification of child trafficking victims and street children, including child beggars trafficked from neighboring countries. (2,31,62)

If a child is trafficked for labor exploitation, the agency identifying the child refers the child to the police and state social services and then to an anti-trafficking shelter. (3,10) Standard operating procedures (SOPs) exist to identify and refer victims of trafficking, including children. In 2018, SOPs were reviewed to align with the new legal framework and institutional changes. (31)

Sources reported that border police did not consistently identify human trafficking victims from Kosovo and failed to identify migrants or other potential victims. (18,20,31) In addition, gaps exist in the screening of minors, including among children traveling to and from neighboring countries. (18,20,31,62)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the adequate coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination among agencies.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

State Agency for Rights and Protection of Children

Oversees implementation of the government's child rights protection policies, including monitoring the National Action Plan for the Identification and Protection of Children in Street Situations. (22,24) Manages cases of at-risk children and refers them to appropriate social services. (23,54,55) Sanctions those who fail to protect children from violence and exploitation. (54) Under the new law on children's rights and protection, coordinates local and central structures on health, security, and education of children. (3)

Office of the National Coordinator for the Fight Against Trafficking in Human Beings (ONAC)

Coordinates all anti‑trafficking efforts in Albania. Oversees 12 regional anti-human trafficking committees that carry out local action plans in cooperation with civil society partners. (24) Leads data collection and report writing for the National Database for Human Trafficking Victims/Potential Victims. (24) Runs the Closed Case Task Force with the Serious Crimes Prosecution Office and Albanian State Police. (2)

Ad-Hoc Cross-Sectorial Technical Groups (CTGs)

Addresses child protection cases in municipalities with more than 30,000 children. CTGs include representatives from the police, social services, education, health, justice, and NGOs. (3) Council of Ministers Decision 353 defines the roles and responsibilities of CTGs regarding strengthening local-level coordination. (3,51)

National Referral Mechanism

Coordinates the identification, protection, referral, and rehabilitation of trafficking victims between government and civil society organizations. (63) Chaired by the Ministry of the Interior's ONAC vis-à-vis an agreement signed by 13 government agencies. (3,63,64) Met four times in 2018. (31)

The Closed Case Task Force did not meet in 2018 due to government reorganization. (32) Coordination among the SLISS and the Albanian State Police has traditionally been sporadic. (18,65)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementing a new national child labor action plan.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan for Combating Trafficking in Persons (2018–2020)†

Ensures the identification and referral for the protection of child victims and potential victims of human trafficking in accordance with standard operating procedures. (3,66) Increases the use of CPUs, police, and border controls to identify victims, including children in street situations. Raises public awareness of all forms of human trafficking, including forced labor. (3,31,66) 

The Albanian National Agenda for Children's Rights (2017–2020)

Aims to protect and promote children's rights by supporting physical and psychosocial development, and the social inclusion of children. (67) Objectives include improving children's access to services and enhancing legal and institutional mechanisms for child protection. (10,67) Goals include promoting, respecting, and protecting children's rights through governance; eliminating all forms of violence against children; and creating child-friendly systems and services in education, justice, health, and social protection. (2,10) In early 2019, held a conference on child protection workers (CPWs) with the goal of strengthening coordination among CPW professionals. (32)

The Action Plan for the Social-Economic Reintegration of Women and Girl Victims of Trafficking (2018–2020)

Increases resources available to victims and attempts to reintegrate female trafficking victims by providing education and social services to combat future forced labor and human trafficking. (71) Part of the Strategy for Combating Trafficking in Persons Action Plan. (24) Active in 2018. (32)  

National Action Plan for Roma and Balkan Egyptian Community Reintegration (2016–2020)

Aims to provide Roma and Balkan Egyptian children with full access to education, reduce discrimination, enhance social inclusion, and promote intercultural dialogue between different actors in the community. (59,68,73) Active in 2018. (32)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (3,31,74) 

Although the Government of Albania has adopted the National Action Plan for Combatting Trafficking in Persons, research found no evidence of a policy on other worst forms of child labor, including children used in scavenging chromium. During the reporting period, the State Agency for Rights and Protection of Children completed drafting the National Action Plan for the Protection of Children from Economic Exploitation. (3,56) Once passed, the Action Plan will define interactions among responsible institutions on child protection, including children working in mining, in street situations, and in other situations that violate the law. (3,56)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Program of Cooperation for Sustainable Development (2017–2021)

UN program that aims to increase access to education for vulnerable children and improve protections for child victims of human trafficking. (75,76) Active in 2018. (3) 

Human Trafficking Hotline and Shelters

ONAC program supported by USAID, UNODC, World Vision, and the Vodafone Albania Foundation. Through the Human Trafficking Helpline, Report, and Save Mobile App, provides services to victims of crime, improves prevention of human trafficking, and serves as a public awareness tool. (2,63) The National Shelter Coalition† comprises one state-run and three NGO-run shelters. The National Reception Center for Victims of Trafficking, under the supervision of the Directorate General of State Social Services, provides shelter and access to social services for human trafficking victims. (2,77) The Tjeter Vizion NGO shelter provides services for minors. (2,3) Active in 2018. (3) 

National Emergency Transition Center†

Government-run center that aims to provide vulnerable families with housing, health care, psychosocial and educational services, legal assistance, and employment placement aid. (3) Accommodates 39 families. Active in 2018. (3)

Child Allowance Program (Ndihma Ekonomike)†

$46 million government-funded cash transfer program that provides an allowance for families receiving economic aid through the Law on Social Assistance and Services. Active in 2018. (3)

† Program is funded by the Government of Albania.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (31,57)

During the reporting period, police occasionally referred street children or unaccompanied minors to human trafficking shelters and contacted their parents. (32) Some state- and NGO-run services were available for children who were forced to beg; however, research found no evidence that programs were carried out to assist children scavenging chromium. (3,4,10,29,64) In addition, programs did not specifically target all types of human trafficking. A lack of financial and human resources and issues of decentralization of social funds from central government to municipalities were also cited as gaps in efficiently carrying out all of the social programs. (3,4,31,59)

In 2018, the Government of Albania volunteered to be a Pathfinder Country for Alliance 8.7 to expedite the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals related to eliminating child labor and human trafficking by 2025. (3,61) Activities include tracking child labor data, organizing workshops, and developing strategies to eliminate child labor. (3,61)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Albania (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that using, procuring, and offering children under age 18 for illicit activities, including in the production and trafficking of drugs, is criminally prohibited.

2015 – 2018

Ensure that the law's light work provisions limit the number of hours for light work.

2018

Enforcement

Increase coordination and communication between child protection units and the SLISS, and provide child protection units with sufficient training to carry out their work.

2018

Ensure that the Ministry of Interior focuses on child trafficking and does not dedicate all resources to judicial and police restructuring.

2018

Ensure that labor inspectors can inspect the informal sector in which child labor is known to occur, and that the labor inspectorate plan is adequate, targeting sectors in which child labor is known to occur.

2010 – 2018

Strengthen and promote the labor complaint referral mechanism so that the general public can report cases of child labor.

2017 – 2018

Provide the labor inspectorate with the necessary, and increase the number of labor inspectors.

2017 – 2018

Include enforcement of human trafficking prohibitions in the labor inspectorate's jurisdiction.

2018

Ensure that both labor inspectors and police investigators receive frequent training to identify children engaged in the worst forms of child labor.

2013 – 2018

Ensure that the border police officers properly screen minor children, including children from Kosovo and migrants, and properly implement standard operating procedures to identify victims of child trafficking.

2016 – 2018

Coordination

Increase coordination between the SLISS and the Albanian State Police.

2016 – 2018

Government Policies

Ensure that the government implements the National Action Plan for the Protection of Children from Economic Exploitation.

2018

Social Programs

Conduct research to further identify children's activities in agriculture and construction to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2018

Set measures to assist children whose families are involved in blood feuds so they can attend school.

2018

Increase resources, access to civil registration, and social services available to children, including Roma and Balkan Egyptian children engaged in or at risk of engaging in child labor.

2011 – 2018

Ensure that barriers to education, such as the prohibitive cost of school supplies and discrimination against Roma and Balkan Egyptian children and children with disabilities, are removed.

2013 – 2018

Provide language teachers for migrant and refugee children and inclusive education for children with disabilities.

2018

Increase the number of shelters for children who are referred by police officers.

2017 – 2018

Institute programs to assist children who are victims of human trafficking and those who are used in scavenging chromium.

2014 – 2018

Ensure that funding and human resources are increased for social programs for child labor and that decentralized social funds to municipalities are appropriately allocated to adequately carry out programs.

2018

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    http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/all-publications/WCMS_202853/lang--en/index.htm.

  2. U.S. Embassy- Tirana. Reporting. February 16, 2018.

  3. U.S. Embassy- Tirana. Reporting. February 6, 2019.

  4. Ombudsman official. Interview with USDOL official. November 15, 2018.

  5. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2019: Albania. Washington, DC. June 20, 2019.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-trafficking-in-persons-report-2/albania/.

  6. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  7. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Child Labour Survey, 2010. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  8. UNICEF. Save The Children, and the Ministry of Social Welfare and Youth. National Study on children in street situation in Albania. April 2014.
    http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se/sites/default/files/documents/final_research_report_english.pdf.

  9. Martinelli, Alice. Children workers who help the family. October 31, 2017.
    https://www.iene.mediaset.it/video/bambini-lavoratori-che-aiutano-la-famiglia_12669.shtml.

  10. U.S. Embassy- Tirana. Reporting. January 17, 2018.

  11. Mayor of Bulqize and Child Protection Unit official. Interview with USDOL official. November 13, 2018.

  12. Social Organization for the Support of Youth official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. November 23, 2015.

  13. Wolfe, Debbie. This Report Gives Canadians a Way to Stop Supporting Child Labour. June 10, 2016.
    http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/debbie-wolfe/child-labour-report_b_10382398.html.

  14. De Burca, Deirdre. Strengthening Child Protection in the EU and Globally. Accessed October 3, 2016.
    https://euobserver.com/opinion/135232.

  15. Kronholm, Axel. In Photos: Murder, Misery and Children in Albania's Mining Industry. June 4, 2014.
    https://news.vice.com/article/in-photos-murder-misery-and-children-in-albanias-mining-industry.

  16. Gazeta Shqip. Poor over chrome. November 16, 2017.
    http://gazeta-shqip.com/lajme/2017/11/16/te-varfer-siper-kromit/.

  17. World Vision International. Chrome's shine tarnished by child labour in Albania. February 27, 2017.
    http://www.wvi.org/it-takes-world/article/chromes-shine-tarnished-child-labour-albania.

  18. OSCE Albania official. Interview with USDOL official. November 15, 2018.

  19. UNICEF official. Interview with USDOL official. November 14, 2018.

  20. NGO Roundtable on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Interview with USDOL official. November 15, 2018.

  21. State Labor Inspectorate and Social Services official. Interview with USDOL official. November 14, 2018.

  22. U.S. Embassy- Tirana. Reporting. January 22, 2016.

  23. U.S. Embassy- Tirana. Reporting. January 17, 2014.

  24. U.S. Embassy- Tirana. Reporting. January 17, 2017.

  25. Gender Alliance for Development Centre. Shadow Report with a Special Focus to the Applications and Implications of the Article 11 in Shoes and Textile Industry in Albania, Albanian NGO’s Shadow Report. UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Complementing the Albanian Government Reports CEDAW/C/ALB/4 and CEDAW/ALB/Q/4/Add.1 to the CEDAW Committee. June 2016.
    http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CEDAW/Shared Documents/ALB/INT_CEDAW_NGO_ALB_24256_E.pdf.

  26. ARSIS Organization for the Support of Youth official. Interview with USDOL official. March 22, 2018.

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