Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Albania

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Albania

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Albania made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government raised the minimum age at which children may participate in apprenticeship programs and light work to 15. The Government also issued a detailed instruction to national child protection stakeholders outlining each stakeholder’s role in child protection and the best practices for assisting vulnerable children. However, children in Albania are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging. Enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the limited number of inspectors in the State Inspectorate for Labor and Social Services and the General Directorate of State. In addition, programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

Expand All

Children in Albania are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture.(1-5) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging.(2, 3, 5-7) In 2014, the Government supported the publication of the first national assessment of children living and working on the street in Albania.(3) The report showed that the most common forms of street work among these children are vending, begging, and busking. Ninety-six percent of children interviewed reported family income generation as their reason for engaging in street work.(3) Data also showed that 74.3 percent of street children belong to the Roma and Egyptian communities, indicating that a disproportionately high number of children working on the street belong to ethnic minority groups.(3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Albania.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

4.6 (23,665)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

87.5

Industry

2.9

Services

9.6

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

92.5

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

5.2

Primary completion rate (%):

107.8

Source for primary completion rate: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from National Child Labor Survey (NCLS), 2010.(9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, activities unknown (1-5)

Shepherding* (5)

Industry

Mining,*† including mining chrome* (1, 2, 4, 10-12)

Construction, activities unknown (1-4)

Working in the textile,* garment,* and footwear* sectors (2, 4, 13)

Processing fish* (4, 14)

Services

Begging (2-5, 13, 15-17)

Street work, including vending, washing vehicles, busking, and shining shoes (3, 5, 18)

Collecting recyclable materials on the street and in landfills (3, 13, 19, 20)

Working in wholesale and retail trade (1, 2, 4)

Working in hotels and restaurants (1, 2, 4)

Working in call centers* (4)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including burglary, drug trafficking, drug couriering, and harvesting and processing cannabis* (2, 3, 5, 21, 22)

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 3, 5, 7)

Forced begging sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 3, 5-7)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Albania is a source country for children trafficked abroad to neighboring countries such as Kosovo, Macedonia, and Montenegro, as well as to EU countries for commercial sexual exploitation and forced begging.(23, 24) In addition, internal child trafficking and forced begging has reportedly increased in recent years.(7, 23) Street children, especially those from ethnic Egyptian and Roma communities, are at the greatest risk of becoming victims of human trafficking.(2, 3, 16, 25, 26)

The majority of children engaged in child labor in Albania work in the agriculture sector. However, there is little information available about the specific work activities in which these children are engaged.(1-3, 16)

Sources report that due to an ongoing police campaign to end cannabis production, child labor in cannabis production has substantially decreased.(27) However, research found that, since the onset of the police campaign, cannabis cultivation has moved to remote mountain regions of the country that are less accessible to NGO and government monitoring.  As a result, it is not clear whether child labor in the sector has ceased.(12)

Although the Constitution of the Republic of Albania and the Law on Pre-University Education guarantee free public education, children without birth certificates are unable to attend school.(5) Residency requirements continue to make it difficult for Roma and Egyptian families in particular to acquire birth registration for their children.(16, 23, 28) Lack of registration often prevents children in this community from accessing education and other social services.(14, 16, 28) Children from the Roma and Egyptian communities also experienced discrimination in schools, including being turned away from schools or physically separated from other children in the classroom.(5) Children who do not have access to education and other social services are at an increased risk of exploitation in child labor. In addition, the costs of books, uniforms, and classroom resources such as space heaters are prohibitive for low-income families.(5)

Albania has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 98 of the Code of Labor; Article 22 of the Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (29, 30)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 98–101 of the Code of Labor; Article 22 of the Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (29, 30)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Articles 99–101 of the Code of Labor; Decree of the Council of Ministers on Defining Hazardous and Hard Works; Decree of the Council of Ministers on the Protection of Minors at Work; Law on Occupational Safety and Health at Work (29, 31-34)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 8 of the Code of Labor (29)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 128/b of the Criminal Code (35)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 114, 114/a, 115, 117, and 128/b of the Criminal Code; Article 24 of the Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (30, 35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 52/a, 129, 124/b, 283, 283/a of the Criminal Code; Article 23 of the Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (18, 30, 35)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

19

Article 9 of the Law on Military Service (36, 37)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 22 of the Law on Pre-University Education System (38)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 57 of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania; Article 5 of the Law on Pre-University Education System (38, 39)

*No conscription (36)

In 2015, the Government introduced amendments to the Labor Code that increased the age at which children may be employed in light work from 14 to 15, and established 15 as the age at which children may participate in an apprenticeship program.(40, 41) However, research did not find a corresponding update to the Decree of the Council of Ministers on the Protection of Minors at Work, which lists the minimum age for light work as 14.(33)

The law does not criminally prohibit the use, procuring, or offering of all children under 18 for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs. Article 129 of the Penal Code only criminally prohibits inducing or encouraging children under 14 to participate in criminality.(29)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

State Inspectorate for Labor and Social Services (SLISS) under the Ministry of Social Welfare and Youth*

Enforce labor laws, including laws related to child labor and hazardous child labor. Receive, document, and respond to child labor complaints.(4, 6) Monitor the quality of social services provided by shelters and centers that assist vulnerable individuals, including victims of child trafficking.(4)

Social Services Agency under the Ministry of Social Welfare and Youth

Receive, document, and respond to child labor complaints.(6)

General Directorate of State Police and Regional Police Directorates under the Ministry of Interior

Enforce all laws, including child labor and child trafficking laws.(4) Each Regional Police Directorate has an officer designated to child protection, as well as an Illicit Trafficking section that investigates cases of child trafficking. The General Directorate of State Police coordinates the work of child protection officers and Illicit Trafficking sections at the regional level.(4)

Serious Crimes Prosecution Office

Investigate and prosecute cases involving human trafficking, including child trafficking.(2, 43)

Child Rights Units (CRUs)

Monitor the situation of high-risk children and families at the regional level, coordinate protection and referral activities by Child Protection Units (CPUs) at the local level, and manage cases of children whose needs cannot be met by CPUs due to lack of CPU capacity or lack of a CPU in a given municipality.(44, 45)

Child Protection Units (CPUs)

Identify children at risk, take case referrals from enforcement agencies, and conduct initial evaluations of each case at the municipal level. Manage cases of at-risk children and refer them to appropriate social services.(2, 45-47)

* Agency responsible for child labor enforcement was created during the reporting period.

There are currently 12 Child Rights Units (CRUs) and 202 Child Protection Units (CPUs) in Albania.(41) These institutions managed 1,116 cases of street children through September 2015, including 441 new cases.(41) CPUs are generally staffed by only one individual, and a majority of CPU staff are not able to focus on child protection issues full-time.(4, 28) Additionally, CPUs and CRUs often receive inadequate funding for child protection, and the Ombudsman has noted that the effectiveness of these units is often low.(2, 6, 43, 48) Instruction No. 10 on Cooperation and Intervention Procedures for Assisting Vulnerable Children for Institutions and Structures in Charge of Child Protection was issued in February 2015 to address the issue.(45) The Instruction requires municipal governments to allocate sufficient funds to allow CPUs to employ at least one social worker who focuses on children’s rights. However, it is not clear whether this requirement will be effective in increasing CPUs’ overall funding.(45)

In 2015, the State Labor Inspectorate gained the additional responsibility of monitoring the quality of social services provided to vulnerable Albanians and was renamed the State Inspectorate for Labor and Social Services (SLISS). The agency’s labor inspection function has not been affected by this change.(4)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Albania took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

$1,349,520 (41)

Number of Labor Inspectors

98 (6)

115 (4, 41)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (6)

Yes (4)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

No (4)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (5)

No (4, 41)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

45 (41)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown (4)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

28 (6)

16 (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (6)

0 (4)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A 

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (6)

No (4)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

No (4)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (6)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown (4)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (6)

Yes (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (4)

 

The SILSS does not inspect for child labor violations unless it has received a specific complaint. Inadequate staffing levels contributed to the inability of the SILSS to conduct routine targeted inspections for child labor.(4) In addition, a lack of adequate funding, office space, transportation, and training compromises the quality of inspections and the ability of the SILSS to fulfill its mandate.(4, 6)

In 2015, all 16 child labor law violations uncovered by the SILSS involved the business’s failure to register child workers with the tax office. In practice, the SILSS gives the business the opportunity to become compliant with the law before assessing the penalty.(4) Since the violations were discovered, 11 of the businesses have registered child workers with the tax office, and the remaining 5 businesses are taking steps to do so.(4)

Although there is no evidence of formal referral mechanisms, a source reported that child laborers discovered during the course of investigations are referred to social services. However, no children were referred to social services by the SILSS during 2015.(4)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Albania took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown 

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (6)

Yes (4)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

32 (4)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

4 (6)

8 (4)

Number of Convictions

2 (6)

5 (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (6)

Yes (4)

 

In 2015, 16 law enforcement officers were dedicated to crimes involving minors, including 3 police officers at the General Directorate of State Police and 13 officers in the 12 Regional Directorates.(4, 41) The number of police officers dedicated to child protection was inadequate to address the scope of the problem.(6) However, all 110 police officers across the country address cases involving minors as part of their regular duties.(4, 41)

During the reporting period, police investigated 6 cases of child exploitation for the purposes of begging, involving 14 children. All children discovered during the course of the investigation were referred to CPUs and State Social Services.(4)

Given the scope of the problem, the number of investigations and prosecutions of child trafficking are inadequate. Some NGOs also report that laws prohibiting the production and possession of child pornography are rarely enforced.(5)

In 2015, prosecutors, judges, and police officers attended trainings on legal standards for working with children in the justice system, protocol for investigating and prosecuting criminal offenses involving children, and standards for the protection of victims and witnesses in cases of child sexual abuse.(4, 41)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

State Agency for the Protection of Children’s Rights

Oversee implementation of the Government’s child rights protection policies.(4) Develop methodological guidelines for child protection and provide technical assistance and training to CRUs and CPUs. Sanction individuals or institutions that fail to protect children from violence and exploitation through inaction or misconduct.(45)

National Referral Mechanism

Coordinate the identification, protection, referral, and rehabilitation of trafficking victims between Government and civil society organizations. Chaired by the Office of the National Coordinator for the Fight Against Trafficking in Human Beings (ONAC).(23)

Office of the National Coordinator for the Fight Against Trafficking in Human Beings (ONAC)

Coordinate all anti‑human trafficking efforts in Albania. Serve as chair of the State Committee Against Trafficking in Persons, a deputy minister-level working group that establishes the Government’s policy on combating human trafficking. Oversee 12 regional anti-human trafficking committees that carry out local action plans in cooperation with civil society partners.(43) ONAC continued to receive funding in 2015, after receiving its own budget for the first time in 2014.(37)

 

In October 2015, the Ministry of Interior, the State Police, and the SILSS signed a memorandum of cooperation on identification of cases of labor exploitation and labor trafficking.(41)

In December 2015, the Office of the National Coordinator, the Office of the General Prosecutor, and the General Directorate of State Police signed a memorandum of understanding enabling interagency cooperation in the analysis of child trafficking cases and the identification of legal gaps in current anti-trafficking legislation.(4)

The Government of Albania has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Action Plan for Children
(2012–2015)

Promotes development of comprehensive interagency child protection policies and encourages capacity building of institutions designed to monitor and protect children’s rights. Includes a strategic objective on protecting children from the worst forms of child labor through strengthening prevention measures and increasing the SLISS’s role in preventing child labor.(14)

Instruction No. 10 on Cooperation and Intervention Procedures for Assisting Vulnerable Children for Institutions and Structures in Charge of Child Protection†

Outlines the child protection responsibilities of the State Police, Ministry of Education, Regional Directorates of Social Service, Regional Departments of Education, schools, municipal governments, CRUs, and CPUs.(45) Requires all agencies to refer known and suspected cases of child abuse and exploitation to CPUs. Outlines principles for case management and evaluation.(45)

Action Plan for the Identification and Protection of Children in Street Situations (2015–2017)†

Aims to protect children from exploitation, abuse, and neglect using a coordinated approach involving all stakeholders.(41) Defines the roles and responsibilities in identifying and providing assistance to street children, including children working on the street, of the Ministry of Social Welfare and Youth, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, relevant NGOs, and international organizations.(4)

White Paper on the Future of the Integrated Child Protection System in Albania†

Clarifies the roles and responsibilities of all government agencies involved in child protection and makes policy recommendations on ensuring government accountability in the sphere of child protection, providing effective child protection and response mechanisms, and creating a child-friendly justice system.(4)

Albanian Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016

Outlines a plan to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in Albania by 2016 with a focus on adequate legislation; effective law enforcement; accessible, quality education; accessible social protection for vulnerable families; promotion of youth employment; and formalization of the informal economy.(49)

Strategy for Combating Trafficking in Persons and Action Plan (2014–2017)

Outlines plan to improve law enforcement, build the capacity of social services programs that provide services to victims, and improve interagency coordination. Includes the goals of increasing successful prosecutions for child trafficking and increasing the sensitivity of the investigation and prosecution processes to fit the needs of child victims.(50) Facilitates the provision of services to vulnerable children and families, as well as training of professionals who work with street children.(37, 41)

National Action Plan for the Decade of Roma Inclusion, (2005–2015)

Objectives include monitoring cases of child labor exploitation in the Roma community, establishing shelters and day schools for street children, and improving birth registration and access to education for Roma children.(51)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government of Albania funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

UN Support to Social Inclusion (2012–2016)

UN program that works with several government ministries to improve implementation of social inclusion by developing informed policies and strengthening institutions.(52)

National Anti-Trafficking Month*†

Month-long ONAC-funded awareness-raising program. Includes direct outreach to schools and communities, as well as various forms of public service announcements.(4) In 2015, this program was created as an expansion on the previously existing National Anti-Trafficking Week.(4)

Trafficking in Persons Helpline and Report and Save Mobile App

ONAC projects, supported by USAID, UNODC, World Vision, and the Vodafone Albania Foundation, to provide services for victims of crime and improve prevention of trafficking in persons. Includes a national hotline for trafficking in persons victims and the mobile application “Report and Save,” which serves as a public awareness-raising tool and allows citizens to report suspected human trafficking cases and access information on victim assistance.(23)

Albania-UN Program of Cooperation (2012–2016)

UN program focuses on four thematic areas within the Government and civil society: governance and rule of law, economy and environment, regional and local development, and inclusive social policy.(53) Includes goals such as increased access to education for vulnerable children and increased protections for victims of child trafficking.(54)

National Emergency Transition Center†

Government-run center established to provide vulnerable families with temporary housing, health, psychosocial and educational services, legal assistance, vocational education programs, and employment placement assistance. Currently houses 53 Roma families, including 112 children.(6) Beneficiaries include children at risk of street begging. To receive benefits, families must keep their children enrolled in school.(2) Currently 53 families, including 80 children from the Roma community, are living in the shelter.(41)

National Reception Center for Victims of Trafficking†

Government-funded, high-security national shelter under the supervision of the Directorate General of State Social Service. Provides shelter and access to social services for human trafficking victims identified in Albania.(55)

Child Allowance Program (Ndihma Ekonomike)†

$46 million government-funded cash transfer program that provides a child allowance for families already benefiting from economic aid through Albania’s Law on Social Assistance and Services. Child allowance payments to eligible families are deemed too low to significantly reduce the number of children living in poverty, and therefore are unlikely to have an impact on reducing child labor.(6)

Decent Work Country Program
(2012–2015)

ILO technical assistance project detailing the policies, strategies, and results required to realize progress toward the goal of decent work for all. Outcomes include strengthening the effectiveness and quality of labor inspection systems, enhancing the capacity of policymakers to address informal and vulnerable employment of young people, and ensuring that labor laws better adhere to international labor standards, including those on the worst forms of child labor.(56)

World Day Against Child Labor*†

Awareness-raising campaign coordinated by the State Agency for the Protection of the Rights of the Child in cooperation with the OSCE, USAID, and NGO partners. Awareness-raising materials, including leaflets and T-shirts, were distributed to 100 schools, and success stories of children who have been removed from the street and provided social services were featured on television and social media.(41)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Albania.

Civil society organizations, rather than government organizations, generally provide social services for children engaged in the worst forms of child labor. However, these civil society organizations often lack well-trained staff and coordination with other protection services, especially at the local level.(2, 48, 57, 58) The National Reception Center for Victims of Trafficking lacked proper resources for victim reintegration services such as education, psychological support, and vocational training. Additionally, the Government did not provide sufficient financial assistance to the NGO-run shelters in Albania.(23)

Although Albania has implemented programs to assist street children and victims of child trafficking, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs to assist children in agriculture, construction, and mining, or children used in illicit activities.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Albania (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the Decree of the Council of Ministers on the Protection of Minors at Work reflects the 2015 amendment to the Labor Code, which increased the minimum age for light work to 15.

2015

Ensure that the use, procuring, and offering of all children under 18 for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs is criminally prohibited.

2015

Enforcement

Make the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk review publicly available.

2015

Provide CRUs and CPUs with adequate staffing and funding to carry out their work effectively.

2013 – 2015

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by initiating routine inspections and inspections targeted based on analysis of data related to risk-prone sectors and patterns of serious incidents.

2015

Provide inspectors with adequate training and the resources needed to carry out their tasks effectively.

2010 – 2015

Ensure there are an adequate number, nationwide, of police investigators for child rights and that an adequate number of investigations are carried out.

2013 – 2015

Fully enforce the provisions of the Criminal Code that prohibit the production and possession of child pornography.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Conduct additional research to further identify children’s activities in agriculture and construction to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2015

Increase resources, access to civil registration, and the number of social services available to children, including Roma and Egyptian children engaged in or at risk of engaging in child labor.

2011 – 2015

Ensure that financial barriers to education, such as the prohibitive cost of school supplies and classroom resources, are removed.

2013 – 2015

Increase payments to families who are eligible for assistance under the Social Assistance and Services Law.

2011 – 2015

Ensure that the Government makes sufficient services and resources available to victims of human trafficking.

2015

Institute programs to assist children being used in illicit activities.

2014 – 2015

1.         ILO and Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) of the Republic of Albania. The Results of the 2010 National Child Labour Survey. Budapest; July 2012. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/all-publications/WCMS_202853/lang--en/index.htm.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Tirana. reporting, January 17, 2014.

3.         UNICEF Save The Children and the Ministry of Social Welfare and Youth. National Study on children in street situation in Albania; April 2014. http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se/sites/default/files/documents/final_research_report_english.pdf.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Tirana. reporting, January 22, 2016.

5.         U.S. Department of State. "Albania," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2014&dlid=236492.

6.         U.S. Embassy- Tirana. reporting, January 21, 2015.

7.         U.S. Department of State. "Albania," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243380.htm.

8.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015] http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

9.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2005. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

10.       Axel Kronholm. In Photos: Murder, Misery and Children in Albania's Mining Industry, Vice News, [online] June 4, 2014 [cited January 9, 2015]; https://news.vice.com/article/in-photos-murder-misery-and-children-in-albanias-mining-industry.

11.       Thane Burnett. Albanian child labour takes shine off chrome industry, Toronto Sun, [online] June 7, 2014 [cited January 9, 2015]; http://www.torontosun.com/2014/06/06/albanian-child-labour-takes-shine-off-chrome-industry.

12.       ARSIS official. USDOL official. November 23, 2015 2015.

13.       World Vision Albania. Photo Captions. 2014. [source on file].

14.       Government of Albania. Written Communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2014) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Tirana; January 13, 2015.

15.       Prendi, B. "Breaking the Chains in the Cycle of Poverty through Education." wvi.org [online ] January 28, 2012 [cited March 15, 2013]; http://beta.wvi.org/content/breaking-chains-cycle-poverty-through-education.

16.       U.S. Department of State. "Albania," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

17.       UN Human Rights Committee. Concluding Observations on the Second Periodic Report of Albania. Geneva; August 22, 2013.

18.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Albania (ratification: 2001) Submitted: 2011; accessed March 15, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

19.       Jodi Hilton. Roma of Albania: Life on the Trash Heap, Vocativ, [online] March 10, 2014 [cited January 9, 2015]; http://www.vocativ.com/money/breadline/romaalbanialifetrashheap/.

20.       World Vision Albania. The 10-year-old boy who became a man, [online] January 27th, 2012 [cited January 9, 2016]; http://www.wvi.org/meero/article/10-year-old-boy-who-became-man.

21.       Philip Caulfield. Hundreds sickened harvesting cannabis in outlaw region of southern Albania, NY Daily News, [online] November 4, 2013 [cited January 9, 2015]; http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/hundreds-sickened-working-cannabis-fields-albania-article-1.1506004.

22.       Agence France-Presse. 700 Albanian drug farm workers hospitalized for 'cannabis intoxication', [online] November 1, 2013 [cited August 30, 2015]; http://www.rawstory.com/2013/11/700albaniandrugfarmworkershospitalizedforcannabisintoxication/.

23.       U.S. Embassy- Tirana. reporting, February 17, 2015.

24.       Jamie Doward. Surge in Albanian child slaves trafficked to Britain, The Guardian, [online] October 17, 2015 [cited March 16, 2016 2015]; http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/17/albanian-trafficked-child-slaves-surge.

25.       U.S. Department of State. "Albania," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013.

26.       U.S. Embassy- Tirana. reporting, February 6, 2016.

27.       Siobhan O'Grady. Albania Claims to Have Destroyed Almost All of the Country's Marijuana, Foreign Policy, [online] September 16, 2015 [cited October 13, 2015]; http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/09/16/albaniaclaimstohavedestroyedalmostallofthecountrysmarijuana/.

28.       Christopher Cuninghame, Elda Hallkaj. Child Rights Analysis 2012-2015. Tirana, Save the Children. https://albania.savethechildren.net/sites/albania.savethechildren.net/files/library/Save%20the%20Children%20-%20Low%20Res.pdf.

29.       Government of Albania. Code of Labor of the Republic of Albania, 7961, enacted 1995. http://www.mpcs.gov.al/dpshb/images/stories/files/kodet/3.3.1._Labour_Code_of_Albania.pdf.

30.       Government of Albania. Law for the Protection of the Rights of the Child, No. 10 347, enacted April 11, 2010. http://www.kqk.gov.al/sites/default/files/publikime/ligji_nr.10_347_date_04.11.2010.pdf.

31.       ILO-IPEC. Support for Policy Level and Up-Scaling Activities for Combating Child Labour in Central and Eastern Europe (1 January 2010- 31 December 2010). Final Progress Report. Geneva; 2011.

32.       Government of Albania. Decree of the Council of Ministers on Defining Hazardous and Hard Works, Nr. 207, enacted May 9, 2002. https://duapune.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/Legjislacioni/Per_percaktimin_e_puneve_te_veshtira_ose_te_rezikshme.pdf.

33.       Government of Albania. Decree of the Council of Ministers on the Protection of Minors at Work, Nr. 384, enacted May 20, 1996. https://duapune.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/Legjislacioni/Per_mbrojten_e_te_miturve_ne_pune.pdf.

34.       Government of Albania. Law on Occupational Safety and Health at Work, Nr. 10 237, enacted February 18, 2010. http://134.0.34.135/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Ligj_Nr.10237_-18.02.2010.pdf.

35.       Republic of Albania. Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania, 7895, enacted January 27, 1995. http://www.legislationline.org/documents/id/8777.

36.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; September 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

37.       U.S. Embassy Tirana official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 8, 2016.

38.       Government of Albania. Law on Pre-University Education System in the Republic of Albania, No. 69, enacted 2012. http://www.crca.al/sites/default/files/publications/Law%20on%20pre-university%20education%20system%20in%20the%20republic%20of%20Albania%20%282012%29.pdf.

39.       Government of Albania. Contitution of the Republic of Albania, enacted November 22, 1998. http://www.osce.org/albania/41888?download=true.

40.       Government of Albania. Law on some additions and amendments to Law No. 7961, the Labor Code of the Republic of Albania, 136/2015, enacted December 5, 2015. http://www.qbz.gov.al/botime/fletore_zyrtare/2015/PDF-2015/220-2015.pdf.

41.       Government of Albania. Report on the Worst Forms of Child Labour. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2012) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Tirana; January 27, 2015.

42.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Albania (ratification: 1998) Published: 2015.; accessed October 24, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3184709.

43.       U.S. Embassy- Tirana. reporting, February 14, 2014.

44.       U.S. Embassy- Tirana. reporting, January 29, 2013.

45.       Government of Albania. Instruction No. 10 on Cooperation and Intervention Procedures for Assisting Vulnerable Children for Institutions and Structures in Charge of Child Protection; February 25, 2015. http://www.qbz.gov.al/botime/fletore_zyrtare/2015/PDF-2015/33-2015.pdf.

46.       U.S. Embassy- Tirana. reporting, January 20, 2012.

47.       U.S. Embassy Tirana official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 3, 2014.

48.       Bradford, N. Child Protection Safety Net Project; March 2013. http://s3.amazonaws.com/rcpp/assets/attachments/1620_Tdh_CPSN_Capitalization_Report_2013_FINAL_original.pdf.

49.       ILO. IPEC Action Against Child Labour 2010: Highlights. Geneva; February 2011.

50.       Government of Albania. Highlights of the Strategy and Action Plan 2014-2017 - Submitted by National Coordinator Elona Gjebrea, [online] [cited March 24, 2015]; http://www.punetebrendshme.gov.al/files/news_files/Strategjia_-_Prezantuar_nga_Koordinatori_Kombetar_Elona_Gjebrea.pdf.

51.       Government of Albania. National Action Plan for the Decade of Roma Inclusion 2010-2015; 2010. http://www.romadecade.org/cms/upload/file/9296_file1_decade-national-action-plan_albania.pdf.

52.       UNDP. New Programme to Boost Social Inclusion in Albania. Press Release. New York; November 11, 2013. http://www.al.undp.org/content/albania/en/home/presscenter/pressreleases/2013/11/11/a-new-programme-to-boost-social-inclusion-in-albania/.

53.       UNESCO. Government of Albania-United Nations Programme of Cooperation 2012-2016, UNESCO Office in Venice, [online] [cited January 21, 2014]; http://www.unesco.org/new/en/venice/delivering-as-one/.

54.       Government of Albania and the United Nations. Government of Albania and United Nations Programme of Cooperation,; 2012. http://www.al.undp.org/content/dam/albania/docs/GoA-UN-Cooperation-Programme.pdf.

55.       Government of Albania. Report submitted by the Albanian authorities on measures taken to comply with Committee of the Parties Recommendation on the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. Strasbourg, Council of Europe; January 29, 2014. http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/trafficking/Docs/CommitteeParties/Reply_REC/CP_2014_1_RR_ALB_en.pdf.

56.       ILO. Albania Decent Work Country Programme 2012-2015. Project Document. Geneva; December 2012. http://www.ilo.org/budapest/what-we-do/decent-work-country-programmes/WCMS_195198/lang--en/index.htm.

57.       Save the Children. Save the Children and Municipality of Tirana Round Table: “Children Street Situation- Our Common Responsibility", Save the Children, [online] 2011 [cited March 15, 2013]; [source on file].

58.       European Comission. Albania 2012 Progress Report. Progress Report. Brussels; July 5, 2012. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2012/package/al_rapport_2012_en.pdf.

Related Content