List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 148 goods from 76 countries, as of September 20, 2018.
ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.
Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.
The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.
ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.
On December 27, 2007, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.
|Korea, North||Forced Labor|
There are reports that children as young as age five are forced to work in coal mines in Balochistan, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and the Northwest Frontier Province. Some of these children work as bonded labor; under this arrangement, which is typical of the Pakistani “peshgis” system, children work alongside, or in place of, other members of their indebted families. The children are forced to work without protective equipment. Their work involves blasting rocks with dynamite and digging to extract coal in deep narrow shafts below ground. The children are also forced to lead donkeys deep underground and lead them back out hauling the mined coal.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the (DRC)||Child Labor|
There are reports that children in Colombia as young as 11 years old are forced to cultivate and pick coca, and to scrape coca leaves. The Government, NGOs, media, and the ILO indicate that some children are forcibly recruited by non-state armed groups, such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, the National Liberation Army, and criminal groups to pick coca. Others are forced by drug traffickers. Criminal and illegal armed groups use threats of torture or death to prevent children from attempting to escape.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|
There is evidence that children ages 5 to 13 cultivate cocoa in Brazil. In the North of Brazil, children work with family members to cultivate cocoa. The ILO has found that generally children who work in agriculture may be at risk of exposure to hazards including, working long hours, carrying heavy loads, using dangerous tools, and exposure to the elements, physical injuries, and chemicals, such as pesticides. The Government of Brazil’s 2015 National Household Survey considers all work performed by children below age 14 to be child labor. Based on an analysis of the survey, an estimated 2,597 child laborers cultivate cocoa. The release of this survey demonstrates the Government of Brazil’s commitment to addressing child labor and its acknowledgement that data collection is vital to the design and implementation of sound policies and programs.