Women workers, particularly women of color, experience multiple types of inequality in the labor force, including gender and racial wage gaps, occupational segregation, and a disproportionate burden of costs associated with caregiving.

The U.S. Department of Labor is committed to addressing inequality in all its forms to support workers and advance our mission.

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Still Bearing the Cost: Black and Hispanic Women Lose Billions Due to Job Segregation

This update to our prior report uses 2022 data to measure the price that Black and Hispanic women still pay due to their overrepresentation in certain industries and occupations that, on average, pay lower wages than those held by white men.

Review the brief ➔

Read the press release ➔

A graphic of a report with the title Bearing the Cost

Bearing the Cost: How Overrepresentation in Undervalued Jobs Disadvantaged Women During the Pandemic

Our report details how women, especially women of color, were impacted by the COVID-19 economic crisis, the role of occupational segregation, and how we are committed to addressing these disparities to create a more equitable economy.

Read our full report ➔

Read our report fact sheet ➔

A graphic of a report with the title Bearing the Cost

Connecting the dots: "Women's work" and the wage gap

Women's over or under representation in different jobs is a major contributor to gender and racial wage gaps.

Read our blog post ➔

two women working at a coffee shop

The wage gap, by the numbers

This interactive tool shows women's and men’s earnings and the gender wage gap among full-time workers by race, ethnicity, and occupation group. 

Explore the data ➔

Read more on the gender wage gap from a research paper by the U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Labor Women's Bureau ➔

compare women's to men's earnings and earnings ratio by race and occupation group

Additional resources

Women Need #EqualPayNow

Equal Pay and Pay Transparency Protections

See more resources from the Women's Bureau on Equal Pay and Pay Transparency.

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Data and Statistics

Explore more data on working women from the Women's Bureau.

Infographic: bearing the cost - segregation by industry and occupation has a high cost for women of color

Social Toolkit

See our key messages about the Bearing the Cost report.

Secretary Walsh on Expanding Career Opportunities for Women

WATCH: Secretary Walsh on Expanding Career Opportunities for Women

Secretary Walsh shares a few key takeaways on the economic consequences of occupational segregation and how it worsens inequality.