Find data on how selected labor force characteristics change over time. Labor force and earnings data are presented by sex, age, race and Hispanic origin, and parental status when available.

Percentage of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) workers who are women

 

 

Year STEM Engineers Computer occupations Mathematics occupations Life and physical scientists Social scientists
1970 7 3 15 15 14 17
1980 14 8 26 36 21 36
1990 23 12 34 41 27 51
2000 25 12 30 44 33 48
2010 26 14 27 47 39 56
2018 26 16 25 48 45 60

Civilian labor force by sex

Civilian labor force by sex
Year Number of women in the civilian labor force (in thousands) Number of men in the civilian labor force (in thousands) Share of the civilian labor force who are women (percent) Share of the civilian labor force who are men (percent)
1948 17,335 43,286 28.6 71.4
1949 17,788 43,498 29 71
1950 18,389 43,819 29.6 70.4
1951 19,016 43,001 30.7 69.3
1952 19,269 42,869 31 69
1953 19,382 43,633 30.8 69.2
1954 19,678 43,965 30.9 69.1
1955 20,548 44,475 31.6 68.4
1956 21,461 45,091 32.2 67.8
1957 21,732 45,197 32.5 67.5
1958 22,118 45,521 32.7 67.3
1959 22,483 45,886 32.9 67.1
1960 23,240 46,388 33.4 66.6
1961 23,806 46,653 33.8 66.2
1962 24,014 46,600 34 66
1963 24,704 47,129 34.4 65.6
1964 25,412 47,679 34.8 65.2
1965 26,200 48,255 35.2 64.8
1966 27,299 48,471 36 64
1967 28,360 48,987 36.7 63.3
1968 29,204 49,533 37.1 62.9
1969 30,513 50,221 37.8 62.2
1970 31,543 51,228 38.1 61.9
1971 32,202 52,180 38.2 61.8
1972 33,479 53,555 38.5 61.5
1973 34,804 54,624 38.9 61.1
1974 36,211 55,739 39.4 60.6
1975 37,475 56,299 40 60
1976 38,983 57,174 40.5 59.5
1977 40,613 58,396 41 59
1978 42,631 59,620 41.7 58.3
1979 44,235 60,726 42.1 57.9
1980 45,487 61,453 42.5 57.5
1981 46,696 61,974 43 57
1982 47,755 62,450 43.3 56.7
1983 48,503 63,047 43.5 56.5
1984 49,709 63,835 43.8 56.2
1985 51,050 64,411 44.2 55.8
1986 52,413 65,422 44.5 55.5
1987 53,658 66,207 44.8 55.2
1988 54,742 66,927 45 55
1989 56,030 67,840 45.2 54.8
1990 56,829 69,011 45.2 54.8
1991 57,178 69,168 45.3 54.7
1992 58,141 69,964 45.4 54.6
1993 58,795 70,404 45.5 54.5
1994 60,239 70,817 46 54
1995 60,944 71,360 46.1 53.9
1996 61,857 72,087 46.2 53.8
1997 63,036 73,261 46.2 53.8
1998 63,714 73,959 46.3 53.7
1999 64,855 74,512 46.5 53.5
2000 66,303 76,280 46.5 53.5
2001 66,848 76,886 46.5 53.5
2002 67,363 77,500 46.5 53.5
2003 68,272 78,238 46.6 53.4
2004 68,421 78,980 46.4 53.6
2005 69,288 80,033 46.4 53.6
2006 70,173 81,255 46.3 53.7
2007 70,988 82,136 46.4 53.6
2008 71,767 82,520 46.5 53.5
2009 72,019 82,123 46.7 53.3
2010 71,904 81,985 46.7 53.3
2011 71,642 81,975 46.6 53.4
2012 72,648 82,327 46.9 53.1
2013 72,722 82,667 46.8 53.2
2014 73,039 82,882 46.8 53.2
2015 73,510 83,620 46.8 53.2
2016 74,432 84,755 46.8 53.2

Includes persons in the civilian noninstitutional population that are employed or actively looking for work. Based on persons 16 years of age and older. The comparability of historical data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey.
Source: 1948-2016 annual averages, Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics


Labor force participation rate by sex, race and Hispanic ethnicity

Labor force participation rate by sex, race and Hispanic ethnicity
Year All Women All Men White Women White Men Black Women Black Men Asian Women Asian Men Hispanic Women Hispanic Men
1948 32.7 86.6 - - - - - - - -
1949 33.1 86.4 - - - - - - - -
1950 33.9 86.4 - - - - - - - -
1951 34.6 86.5 - - - - - - - -
1952 34.7 86.3 - - - - - - - -
1953 34.4 86 - - - - - - - -
1954 34.6 85.5 33.3 85.6 - - - - - -
1955 35.7 85.4 34.5 85.4 - - - - - -
1956 36.9 85.5 35.7 85.6 - - - - - -
1957 36.9 84.8 35.7 84.8 - - - - - -
1958 37.1 84.2 35.8 84.3 - - - - - -
1959 37.1 83.7 36 83.8 - - - - - -
1960 37.7 83.3 36.5 83.4 - - - - - -
1961 38.1 82.9 36.9 83 - - - - - -
1962 37.9 82 36.7 82.1 - - - - - -
1963 38.3 81.4 37.2 81.5 - - - - - -
1964 38.7 81 37.5 81.1 - - - - - -
1965 39.3 80.7 38.1 80.8 - - - - - -
1966 40.3 80.4 39.2 80.6 - - - - - -
1967 41.1 80.4 40.1 80.6 - - - - - -
1968 41.6 80.1 40.7 80.4 - - - - - -
1969 42.7 79.8 41.8 80.2 - - - - - -
1970 43.3 79.7 42.6 80 - - - - - -
1971 43.4 79.1 42.6 79.6 - - - - - -
1972 43.9 78.9 43.2 79.6 48.7 73.6 - - - -
1973 44.7 78.8 44.1 79.4 49.3 73.4 - - 41 81.5
1974 45.7 78.7 45.2 79.4 49 72.9 - - 42.4 81.7
1975 46.3 77.9 45.9 78.7 48.8 70.9 - - 43.2 80.7
1976 47.3 77.5 46.9 78.4 49.8 70 - - 44.3 79.6
1977 48.4 77.7 48 78.5 50.8 70.6 - - 44.3 80.9
1978 50 77.9 49.4 78.6 53.1 71.5 - - 46.6 81.1
1979 50.9 77.8 50.5 78.6 53.1 71.3 - - 47.4 81.3
1980 51.5 77.4 51.2 78.2 53.1 70.3 - - 47.4 81.4
1981 52.1 77 51.9 77.9 53.5 70 - - 48.3 80.6
1982 52.6 76.6 52.4 77.4 53.7 70.1 - - 48.1 79.7
1983 52.9 76.4 52.7 77.1 54.2 70.6 - - 47.7 80.3
1984 53.6 76.4 53.3 77.1 55.2 70.8 - - 49.6 80.6
1985 54.5 76.3 54.1 77 56.5 70.8 - - 49.3 80.3
1986 55.3 76.3 55 76.9 56.9 71.2 - - 50.1 81
1987 56 76.2 55.7 76.8 58 71.1 - - 52 81
1988 56.6 76.2 56.4 76.9 58 71 - - 53.2 81.9
1989 57.4 76.4 57.2 77.1 58.7 71 - - 53.5 82
1990 57.5 76.4 57.4 77.1 58.3 71 - - 53.1 81.4
1991 57.4 75.8 57.4 76.5 57.5 70.4 - - 52.4 80.3
1992 57.8 75.8 57.7 76.5 58.5 70.7 - - 52.8 80.7
1993 57.9 75.4 58 76.2 57.9 69.6 - - 52.1 80.2
1994 58.8 75.1 58.9 75.9 58.7 69.1 - - 52.9 79.2
1995 58.9 75 59 75.7 59.5 69 - - 52.6 79.1
1996 59.3 74.9 59.1 75.8 60.4 68.7 - - 53.4 79.6
1997 59.8 75 59.5 75.9 61.7 68.3 - - 55.1 80.1
1998 59.8 74.9 59.4 75.6 62.8 69 - - 55.6 79.8
1999 60 74.7 59.6 75.6 63.5 68.7 - - 55.9 79.8
2000 59.9 74.8 59.5 75.5 63.1 69.2 59.2 76.1 57.5 81.5
2001 59.8 74.4 59.4 75.1 62.8 68.4 59 76.2 57.6 81
2002 59.6 74.1 59.3 74.8 61.8 68.4 59.1 75.9 57.6 80.2
2003 59.5 73.5 59.2 74.2 61.9 67.3 58.3 75.6 55.9 80.1
2004 59.2 73.3 58.9 74.1 61.5 66.7 57.6 75 56.1 80.4
2005 59.3 73.3 58.9 74.1 61.6 67.3 58.2 74.8 55.3 80.1
2006 59.4 73.5 59 74.3 61.7 67 58.3 75 56.1 80.7
2007 59.3 73.2 59 74 61.1 66.8 58.6 75.1 56.5 80.5
2008 59.5 73 59.2 73.7 61.3 66.7 59.4 75.3 56.2 80.2
2009 59.2 72 59.1 72.8 60.3 65 58.2 74.6 56.5 78.8
2010 58.6 71.2 58.5 72 59.9 65 57 73.2 56.5 77.8
2011 58.1 70.5 58 71.3 59.1 64.2 56.8 73.2 55.9 76.5
2012 57.7 70.2 57.4 71 59.8 63.6 56.5 72.2 56.6 76.1
2013 57.2 69.7 56.9 70.5 59.2 63.5 57.1 73 55.7 76.3
2014 57 69.2 56.7 69.8 59.2 63.6 55.8 72.4 56 76.1
2015 56.7 69.1 56.2 69.7 59.7 63.8 55.2 71.4 55.7 76.2
2016 56.8 69.2 56.3 69.8 59.4 64.1 55.5 72.1 55.8 76

Represents the percentage of persons in the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age and older that are employed or actively looking for work. Data for the individual race groups do not include people of two or more races. Hispanics can be of any race.
Source: 1948-2016 annual averages, Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Labor force participation rate of mothers by age of youngest child

Labor force participation rate of mothers by age of youngest child
Year Youngest child under 18 years Youngest child between 6 to 17 years Youngest child under 6 years Youngest child under 3 years
1975 47.4 54.9 39 34.3
1976 48.8 56.2 40.1 34.1
1977 50.8 58.3 41.2 35.4
1978 53 60 44 39.4
1979 54.5 61.6 45.7 41.1
1980 56.6 64.3 46.8 41.9
1981 58.1 65.5 48.9 44.3
1982 58.5 65.8 49.9 45.6
1983 58.9 66.3 50.5 46
1984 60.5 68.1 52.1 47.6
1985 62.1 69.9 53.5 49.5
1986 62.8 70.4 54.4 50.8
1987 64.7 72 56.7 52.9
1988 65.1 73.3 56.1 52.4
1989 65.7 74.2 56.7 52.4
1990 66.7 74.7 58.2 53.6
1991 66.6 74.4 58.4 54.5
1992 67.2 75.9 58 54.5
1993 66.9 75.4 57.9 53.9
1994 68.4 76 60.3 57.1
1995 69.7 76.4 62.3 58.7
1996 70.2 77.2 62.3 59
1997 72.1 78.1 65 61.8
1998 72.3 78.4 65.2 62.2
1999 72.1 78.5 64.4 60.7
2000 72.9 79 65.3 61
2001 72.7 79.4 64.4 60.7
2002 72.2 78.6 64.1 60.5
2003 71.7 78.7 62.9 58.7
2004 70.7 77.5 62.2 57.3
2005 70.5 76.9 62.6 58.9
2006 70.6 76.9 63 59.9
2007 71.3 77.7 63.5 60.1
2008 71.2 77.5 63.6 59.6
2009 71.6 78.2 63.6 61.1
2010 71.3 77.2 64.2 61.1
2011 70.9 76.5 64.2 60.9
2012 70.9 76 64.7 60.7
2013 70.3 74.8 64.7 62.1
2014 70.8 75.8 64.3 61.8
2015 69.9 74.6 63.9 61.4
2016 70.8 75 65.3 63.1

Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, step-children, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Labor force participation rate represents the percentage of persons in the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older that are employed or actively looking for work. The comparability of historical data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey.
Source: 1975-2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplements, Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Labor force participation rate of women by age

Labor force participation rate of women by age
Year 16 years and older 16 to 24 years 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and older
1948 32.7 43.9 33.2 36.9 35 24.3 9.1
1949 33.1 43.9 33.4 38.1 35.9 25.3 9.6
1950 33.9 43.9 34 39.1 37.9 27 9.7
1951 34.6 44.8 35.4 39.8 39.7 27.6 8.9
1952 34.7 43.6 35.4 40.4 40.1 28.7 9.1
1953 34.4 42.8 34 41.3 40.4 29.1 10
1954 34.6 42.6 34.4 41.2 41.2 30 9.3
1955 35.7 43.1 34.9 41.6 43.8 32.5 10.6
1956 36.9 44.4 35.4 43.1 45.5 34.9 10.8
1957 36.9 43.7 35.6 43.3 46.5 34.5 10.5
1958 37.1 43 35.6 43.4 47.8 35.2 10.3
1959 37.1 41.8 35.3 43.4 49 36.6 10.2
1960 37.7 42.8 36 43.4 49.9 37.2 10.8
1961 38.1 43.4 36.4 43.8 50.1 37.9 10.7
1962 37.9 43.3 36.3 44.1 50 38.7 10
1963 38.3 42.9 37.2 44.9 50.6 39.7 9.6
1964 38.7 43.3 37.2 45 51.4 40.2 10.1
1965 39.3 44 38.5 46.1 50.9 41.1 10
1966 40.3 46.5 39.8 46.8 51.7 41.8 9.6
1967 41.1 47.6 41.9 48.1 51.8 42.4 9.6
1968 41.6 48.5 42.6 48.9 52.3 42.4 9.6
1969 42.7 50.4 43.7 49.9 53.8 43.1 9.9
1970 43.3 51.3 45 51.1 54.4 43 9.7
1971 43.4 51.1 45.6 51.6 54.3 42.9 9.5
1972 43.9 53 47.8 52 53.9 42.1 9.3
1973 44.7 54.9 50.4 53.3 53.7 41.1 8.9
1974 45.7 56.6 52.6 54.7 54.6 40.7 8.1
1975 46.3 57.2 54.9 55.8 54.6 40.9 8.2
1976 47.3 58 57.3 57.8 55 41 8.2
1977 48.4 59.6 59.7 59.6 55.8 40.9 8.1
1978 50 61.7 62.2 61.6 57.1 41.3 8.3
1979 50.9 62.5 63.9 63.6 58.3 41.7 8.3
1980 51.5 61.9 65.5 65.5 59.9 41.3 8.1
1981 52.1 61.9 66.7 66.8 61.1 41.4 8
1982 52.6 62 68 68 61.6 41.8 7.9
1983 52.9 61.9 69 68.7 61.9 41.5 7.8
1984 53.6 62.8 69.8 70.1 62.9 41.7 7.5
1985 54.5 63.7 70.9 71.8 64.4 42 7.3
1986 55.3 64.3 71.6 73.1 65.9 42.3 7.4
1987 56 64.6 72.4 74.5 67.1 42.7 7.4
1988 56.6 64.5 72.7 75.2 69 43.5 7.9
1989 57.4 64.4 73.5 76 70.5 45 8.4
1990 57.5 62.9 73.5 76.4 71.2 45.2 8.6
1991 57.4 61.7 73.1 76.5 72 45.2 8.5
1992 57.8 61.8 73.9 76.7 72.6 46.5 8.3
1993 57.9 62 73.4 76.6 73.5 47.2 8.1
1994 58.8 62.5 74 77.1 74.6 48.9 9.2
1995 58.9 62.3 74.9 77.2 74.4 49.2 8.8
1996 59.3 62.2 75.2 77.5 75.4 49.6 8.6
1997 59.8 62.6 76 77.7 76 50.9 8.6
1998 59.8 63.3 76.3 77.1 76.2 51.2 8.6
1999 60 62.9 76.4 77.2 76.7 51.5 8.9
2000 59.9 63 76.1 77.2 76.8 51.9 9.4
2001 59.8 62 75.5 77.1 76.4 53.2 9.6
2002 59.6 61.1 75.1 76.4 76 55.2 9.8
2003 59.5 59.2 74.1 76 76.8 56.6 10.6
2004 59.2 58.7 73.6 75.6 76.5 56.3 11.1
2005 59.3 58.6 73.9 75.8 76 57 11.5
2006 59.4 57.9 74.4 75.9 76 58.2 11.7
2007 59.3 57.2 74.5 75.5 76 58.3 12.6
2008 59.5 56.5 75.2 76.1 76.1 59.1 13.3
2009 59.2 55.2 75 75.9 76 60 13.6
2010 58.6 53.6 74.7 75.2 75.7 60.2 13.8
2011 58.1 53.3 73.9 74.7 75.4 59.5 14
2012 57.7 53.2 74.1 74.8 74.7 59.4 14.4
2013 57.2 53.5 73.5 74 74.1 59.2 14.9
2014 57 53.6 73.8 74.1 73.8 58.8 15.1
2015 56.7 53.8 73.4 74.3 73.4 58.5 15.3
2016 56.8 53.8 74.5 74.5 73.9 58.4 15.5

Represents the percentage of persons in the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age and older that are employed or actively looking for work. The comparability of historical data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey.
Source: 1948-2016 annual averages, Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.