Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Tunisia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Tunisia

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2017, Tunisia made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government passed the Law on Specific Measures for the Consecration of the Obligation of Access to Initial Vocational Training that obligates children who have dropped out of school to attend vocational training and imposes monetary penalties on their non-cooperative guardians. As part of its Child Labor National Action Plan, the government conducted a national child labor survey and released preliminary results, which indicated that nearly 8 percent of all children engaged in child labor, roughly 63 percent of whom were engaged in hazardous work. Regarding enforcement, trainings were held for juvenile and family court judges with five sessions to train judges on the implementation of the 2016 Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons. Also, the government took steps to increase the budget of the Labor Inspectorate over the previous year by 37 percent. However, children in Tunisia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture and street work. The number of children dropping out of school, which may make them more vulnerable to child labor, remains high. In addition, the law’s minimum age protections do not apply to children who are engaged in work in the informal sector.

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Children in Tunisia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture and street work. (1; 2; 3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Tunisia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

3.0 (50,364)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.2

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

2.8

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

103.2

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011–2012. (5)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, activities unknown (6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12)

Industry

Construction, activities unknown (11; 12)

Services

Domestic work (13; 7; 14; 9; 12)

Street work, including shining shoes, begging, vending, auto washing and repairing, and scavenging garbage† (6; 7; 8; 15; 9; 10; 12)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking (13; 8; 16; 17)

Use in illicit activities, including stealing, smuggling, and drug trafficking (13; 8; 15; 16)

Forced labor in domestic work and begging, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (13; 8; 16; 18; 10; 19)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children are engaged in child labor in the informal sector, predominantly in street work, including vending and garbage scavenging. (20; 15) Child migrants from sub-Saharan countries and those fleeing conflict in Libya and Syria, as well as young girls from Tunisia’s northwest region, are particularly vulnerable to human trafficking. (16; 19) Preliminary results from the National Child Labor Survey conducted by the government indicated that 7.9 percent of all children are engaged in child labor, with 63.2 percent of whom involved in hazardous work. The northwest region—consisting of the governorates of Béja, Jendouba, Kef, and Siliana—noted the highest incidence of child labor at 27.7 percent. (12) The government has not yet made the full dataset from this survey publicly available, or allowed other government agencies to access it, leaving the nature and causes of children’s involvement in specific forms of child labor unknown.

Students face barriers to education, especially in rural areas, due to inadequate transportation, household poverty, and religious customs. (6; 8; 14; 21; 10) It is estimated that each year approximately 100,000 students, including a disproportionate number of girls, drop out, many as a result of physical violence in schools. (9; 22; 23; 10)

Tunisia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Tunisia’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the lack of comprehensive hazardous work prohibitions for children.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 53 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of the Law on the Situation of Domestic Workers (24; 25)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 58 of the Labor Code (24)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 1 of the Ministry of Social Affairs Order of January 19, 2000 (26)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 105 and 250 of the Penal Code; Articles 2.1, 2.5, 2.6, and 8 of the Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons (27; 28)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 2–3, 5, 8, and 23 of the Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons (28)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 226 bis and 232–234 of the Penal Code; Article 25 of the Child Protection Code; Article 2.7 of the Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons (27; 28; 29)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 11 of Law No. 92.52 on Narcotics (30)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

20

Article 2 of the National Service Law (31)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 2 of the National Service Law (31)

Non-state

Yes

18

Article 2(5) of the Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons; Articles 3 and 18 of the Child Protection Code (28; 29)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Section 1 of the Law on Education (32)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 38 of the Constitution (33)

 

In 2017, Tunisia passed the Law on Specific Measures for the Consecration of the Obligation of Access to Initial Vocational Training that obligates children who have dropped out of school to attend vocational training with corresponding penalties for non-cooperative guardians of the child. Remedial courses are offered to those under age 15 to meet the ninth grade requirement to attend vocational training. (10; 34; 11; 35)

The Elimination of Violence Against Women law amended sections of the Penal Code to increase penalties for violence against female children. (36) Also, in 2017, Tunisia became the first non-european country to sign the Council of Europe’s Lanzarote Convention on the protection of children against exploitation and sexual abuse. (37; 11; 19) The types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover street work, an activity in which there is evidence of children working in an unhealthy environment. Further, the government acknowledges, as evident from the high rates of recidivism, that the fines and penalties for child labor law violations are not dissuasive. (38)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Social Affairs (MSA) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Social Affairs (MSA)

Conduct labor inspections and assess fines and penalties for infractions. (8; 24; 39) Maintain a database of human trafficking victims and work with the Ministry of Justice (MOJ) to ensure that victims of human trafficking are not prosecuted for trafficking crimes. (40) Collaborate with the Ministry of Education (MOE) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) to identify and provide support to children vulnerable to child labor. (8; 20; 17; 41; 10)

Ministry of Women, Family, and Childhood (MWFC)

Through its Delegates for the Protection of Children, gather evidence and conduct investigations on child welfare cases, conduct needs assessments and intervention plans, and act as judicial police in cases of imminent danger to children. (41; 29; 10)

Ministry of the Interior (MOI)

Investigate reports of child labor as a criminal violation, including complaints that are outside of the Labor Inspectorate’s mandate and complaints in the informal sector. (15) Through its Child Protection Service in the National Police, address the commercial sexual exploitation of children and coordinate with the MSA and the MWFC regarding violations. (8; 42; 10) Through its Judicial Police, coordinate with the MSA to refer cases of at-risk youth. (8; 41; 38; 43)

Ministry of Justice (MOJ)

Coordinate anti-trafficking efforts and the criminal enforcement of child labor laws. (17)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Tunisia took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the MSA that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including the lack of ability to enforce the minimum age protections for children on inhabited premises, such as private homes, without permission of the property owner or a court order.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$5,425,994 (8)

$7,450,000 (11)

Number of Labor Inspectors

357 (8)

348 (11)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (8)

Yes (11)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (8)

Yes (11; 35)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (38)

N/A (11)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (8)

Yes (11; 35)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

19,913 (44)

13,708 (11)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown (8)

13,708 (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

140 (44)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

6 (44)

1 (11)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

6 (44)

1 (11)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (8)

Yes (11)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (8)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (8)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (8)

Yes (11)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (8)

Yes (11; 35)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (38; 44)

Yes (11)

 

In 2017, the government increased the budget of the Labor Inspectorate by 37 percent over the previous year. (11) However, the government also noted that the budget for fuel and transportation was inadequate to carry out inspections, especially in remote areas of the country. (45; 11)

Mechanisms do not exist to enforce the minimum age protections for children on inhabited premises, such as private homes, without permission of the property owner or a court order. (8; 24; 10)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Tunisia took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including the lack of publication of the number of investigations conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions of criminal law enforcement efforts related to child labor.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

No (41)

Yes (11)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (8)

Yes (11)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (41)

Yes (11)

Number of Investigations

292 (44)

13 (46)

Number of Violations Found

292 (44)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

5 (44)

4 (46)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (8)

1 (46)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8; 38)

Yes (11)

 

In 2017, the IOM, in partnership with the government, conducted trainings for civil society and professionals on human trafficking. (2) Trainings were held for juvenile and family court judges, with five specific sessions focused on the implementation of the 2016 Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons. (11)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Steering Committee for the Implementation of the Child Labor National Action Plan (PAN-TN)

Coordinate efforts to combat child labor. Led by MSA, includes membership of five other ministries and two unions, with support from ILO. (15; 47; 48; 49)

National Commission on Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate anti-human trafficking efforts and raise awareness of human trafficking issues. Includes membership of 12 ministries, 2 members of civil society, 1 media representative, and 1 member of the National Commission of Human Rights. (17; 41; 50; 51) In 2017, the MOJ appointed an individual from the Judges Union to lead the commission as president and organized a workshop to gain feedback from civil society and international organizations on the nascent anti-trafficking strategy still in draft. (3; 11; 35; 19)

The government has established policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Child Labor National Action Plan (PAN-TN) (2015–2020)

Aims to raise awareness, build the capacity of stakeholders, and encourage action from NGOs and the public. (15; 42; 47) In 2017, the plan continued implementing social programs such as the National Child Labor Survey as part of its objective to increase the knowledge base about child labor. (11; 19)

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2015–2017)

Aims to build the capacity of civil society to address human trafficking; boost public awareness of human trafficking; and train police, customs, and penitentiary officials to identify victims of human trafficking. (40; 52) In 2017, conducted awareness-raising activities. (35)

UNICEF Country Program Document (2015–2019)

Aims to decrease dropout rates and improve education quality and access to early education, teach life skills to adolescents, and improve access to information to protect children against violence and economic exploitation. (53; 54) In 2017, supported regional and national consultations on “Investing in Children” through policy dialogue and advocacy with the government and partners to promote child-sensitive social protection mechanisms and secure government commitments to model a child allowance scheme. (35)

 

During the reporting period, the National Commission on Trafficking in Persons continued work on a national strategy against human trafficking in Tunisia, but the strategy has not yet been finalized. (41; 55; 19)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects in Tunisia aim to conduct research on child labor and strengthen Tunisia’s ability to implement its Child Labor National Action Plan, a multi-stakeholder effort involving government, business, and civil society. These projects include PROTECTE (2016–2020),* $3 million project implemented by the ILO; and Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP), $7 million project implemented in at least 10 countries by the ILO. (8; 15; 56; 57; 58) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Support Efforts to Combat Human Trafficking (2014–2017)

USDOS-funded project implemented by the IOM to carry out anti-human trafficking activities in collaboration with the MOJ, MOI, MSA, and MWFC. Includes three objectives: (a) build the capacity of relevant institutions and agencies to identify and assist victims of trafficking based on their individual needs, (b) strengthen cross-sector cooperation and the sharing of information through the implementation of a national referral mechanism, and (c) conduct an awareness-raising campaign to keep children in school and discourage illegal migration that could lead to human trafficking. (42) In 2017, the program continued to support capacity-building efforts related to the recent anti-trafficking law with the training of 332 public officers and civil society organizations, the development and dissemination of a manual on the anti-trafficking law, and the production of awareness-raising materials on the law. (35)

Shelters and Services for Victims of Human Trafficking†

The Government of Tunisia operates shelters to serve victims of human trafficking, particularly children. Provides services that include lodging, food, clothing, psychological services, legal aid through a network of pro bono lawyers, and free medical care in collaboration with the MOH. Places unaccompanied children and adults in dedicated centers to receive schooling. (59; 40; 43; 60; 61) In 2017, the shelters continued to operate and provide both accommodation and medical assistance during the reporting period. (35)

Centers to Provide Aid to Victims of Child Labor†

The government maintains 23 youth centers and 67 child protection institutions that can serve up to 6,000 children engaged in child labor or vulnerable to child labor. (42; 62) In 2017, these centers provided assistance to children through programs in educational and vocational rehabilitation, and programs providing social support for homeless children who are exposed to all forms of danger, including economic exploitation, sexual exploitation, drug use, violence, and exploitation by gangs and terrorist networks. (15; 35)

Programs to Reduce School Dropout Rates†

MOE-funded School Dropout Prevention Program maintains about 2,300 social protection units in schools and mobile units in rural areas to monitor students and prevent school dropout. In 2017, no specific activities to reduce school dropout rates were reported. (62; 35)

† Program is funded by the Government of Tunisia.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (41; 59; 63; 64)

 

Although Tunisia has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. (15)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Tunisia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2016 – 2017

Enforcement

Provide adequate resources for the Labor Inspectorate to conduct additional inspections, particularly in remote areas.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that mechanisms exist to enforce the minimum age protections for children on inhabited premises, such as private homes, without permission of the property owner or a court order.

2014 – 2017

Collect and publish information on the number of child labor violations found related to the criminal enforcement of child labor laws.

2013 – 2017

Increase penalties for those who employ children in child labor.

2016 – 2017

Social Programs

Address barriers to education, especially for girls in rural areas, such as lack of reliable transportation, household poverty, physical violence, and religious custom.

2015 – 2017

Provide sufficient resources to expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2015 – 2017

Publish the full results of the National Child Labor Survey and make the microdata publicly available so that they can be used to inform programming and policies.

2017

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2. Khouni, Taieb. Traite des enfants en Tunisie, le phénomène en chiffres. Les Africains en sont les premières victimes? August 30, 2017. http://www.huffpostmaghreb.com/2017/08/30/traite-enfants-tunisie_n_17866134.html.

3. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Tunisia. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271302.htm.

4. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011-2012. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6. Marzouk, Z. Harsh Realities: Meeting Tunisia’s Child Street Sellers. July 13, 2015. [Source on file].

7. El Lahga, AbdelRahmen, and Ines Bouassida. Analyse de la pauvrete Infantile en Tunisie: Une approche de privations multiples. 2014. http://www.social.tn/fileadmin/user1/doc/APauvretInfantileTunisieUNICEF.pdf.

8. U.S. Embassy- Tunis. Reporting, January 17, 2017.

9. Agence France-Presse. La Tunisie veut lutter contre le travail des enfants. April 17, 2017. http://www.huffpostmaghreb.com/2017/04/17/travail-enfants-tunisie_n_16059930.html.

10. U.S. Embassy- Tunis. Reporting, August 4, 2017.

11. —. Reporting, January 12, 2018.

12. National Institute of Statistics, ILO. Enquête Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants en Tunisie, 2017: Principaux Résultats. December 2017. http://www.ins.tn/sites/default/files/publication/pdf/Travail%20de%20l%27enfant-v2-6-web.pdf.

13. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016: Tunisia. Washington, DC. June 30, 2016. http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

14. El Elj, Moez, and Mehdi Ben Braham. Etude sur le Travail Domestique des Enfants: Case Study of Children Originating in Jendouba and Bizerte Governorates: Preliminary Report. Study of Child Domestic Workers in Tunisia. 2014. [Source on file].

15. U.S. Embassy- Tunis. Reporting, January 28, 2016.

16. IOM. Baseline study on trafficking in persons in Tunisia: assessing the scope and manifestations. 2013. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Baseline%20Study%20on%20Trafficking%20in%20Persons%20in%20Tunisia.pdf.

17. U.S. Embassy- Tunis. Reporting, February 27, 2017.

18. Agency Tunis Afrique Press. Campaign to raise awareness of fight against human trafficking in Tunisia launched. June 7, 2017. [Source on file].

19. U.S. Embassy- Tunis. Reporting, February 21, 2018.

20. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015: Tunisia. Washington, DC. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253161.pdf.

21. Al Ashy, Khawla, and Hanene Zbiss. Tunisian female students: matrimony or hard labor. Arab Reporters For Investigative Journalism. April 21, 2014. http://en.arij.net/report/tunisian-female-students-matrimony-or-hard-labor/.

22. Boughzou, Khaled. L’Abandon Scolaire en Tunisie: Etat des Lieux, Caracteristiques et Perspectives. L’Education en débats: analyse comparée, 7 (2016). https://www.unige.ch/fapse/erdie/files/4414/6651/2677/Boughzou-EED7.pdf.

23. Samoud, Wafa. Tunisie: Près de 100 mille élèves abandonnent les bancs de l'école chaque année, selon le ministère de l'Education. February 22, 2017. http://www.huffpostmaghreb.com/2017/02/22/decrochage-scolaire-tunis_n_14925734.html.

24. Government of Tunisia. Code du travail, Loi n° 66–27. Enacted: 1966. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/778/Labour%20Code%20Tunisia.pdf.

25. —. Loi n° 65–25 du 1er juillet 1965, relative à la situation des employés de maison, Modifiée par la loi n°2005–32 du 4 avril 2005. Enacted: July 1, 1965. http://www.e-justice.tn/fileadmin/fichiers_site_francais/droits_homme/legis_nat/enfant/L_1965_25.pdf.

26. —. Arrêté du ministre des affaires sociales du 19 janvier 2000, fixant les types de travaux dans lesquels l'emploi des enfants est interdit. Enacted: January 19, 2000. http://www.cnudst.rnrt.tn/jortsrc/2000/2000f/jo0092000.pdf.

27. —. Code Pénal. Enacted: July 9, 1913. http://www.jurisitetunisie.com/tunisie/codes/cp/menu.html.

28. —. Loi organique n° 2016–61 du 3 août 2016, relative à la prévention et à la lutte contre la traite des personnes. Enacted: 2016. [Source on file].

29. —. Loi n° 95–92 du 9 Novembre 1995, Relative à la Publication du Code de la Protection de L'enfant. Enacted: November 9, 1995. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/42904/64989/F95TUN01.htm.

30. —. Loi n° 92–52 du 18 mai 1992 relative aux stupéfiants. Enacted: May 18, 1992. https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/tun/loi-no--92-52_html/Loi_n_92-52_du_18_mai_1992fr.pdf.

31. —. Loi n° 2004–1 du 14 janvier 2004, relative au Service national. Enacted: January 14, 2004. [Source on file].

32. —. Loi d'orientaiton n° 2002–80 du 23 juillet 2002, relative à l'éducation et à l'enseignement scolaire. Enacted: July 23, 2002. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/61806/55086/F1183773494/TUN-61806.pdf.

33. —. Constitution. Enacted: 2014. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Tunisia_2014.pdf.

34. —. Loi n° 2017-13 du 13 mars 2017, relative aux mesures spécifiques pour la consécration de l'obligation d'accès à la formation professionnelle initiale. Enacted: March 13, 2017. http://www.legislation.tn/sites/default/files/news/tf2017131.pdf.

35. U.S. Embassy- Tunis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 12, 2018.

36. Government of Tunisia. Loi organique n° 2017-58 du 11 août 2017, relative à l’élimination de la violence à l’égard des femmes. Enacted: August 11, 2017. http://www.legislation.tn/sites/default/files/news/tf2017581.pdf.

37. Webdo. Protection des enfants : La Tunisie, premier pays non-européen à signer la convention de Lanzarote. May 4, 2017. http://www.webdo.tn/2017/05/04/protection-des-enfants-la-tunisie-premier-pays-non-europeen-a-signer-la-convention-de-lanzarote/.

38. Government of Tunisia. Official Elements on Child Labor. Submitted in response to USDOL Federal Register Notice (September 6, 2016) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor”. March 14, 2017. [Source on file].

39. UN General Assembly Human Rights Council. National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21: Tunisia. February 20, 2017: A/HRC/WG.6/27/TUN/1. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/038/08/pdf/G1703808.pdf?OpenElement.

40. U.S. Embassy- Tunis. Reporting, December 3, 2014.

41. U.S. Embassy- Tunis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2017.

42. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 1, 2015.

43. U.S. Embassy- Tunis. Reporting, February 29, 2016.

44. U.S. Embassy- Tunis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 5, 2017.

45. USDOL official. In Country Observations. February 25, 2016.

46. U.S. Embassy- Tunis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 30, 2018.

47. ILO-IPEC and Government of Tunisia. National Plan of Action to Combat Child Labor. 2014. [Source on file].

48. U.S. Embassy- Tunis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 30 and June 2, 2014.

49. U.S. Embassy- Tunis. Reporting, March 18, 2015.

50. —. Reporting, February 10, 2017.

51. Agency Tunis Afrique Press. National Authority against Trafficking in Human Beings officially set up. February 8, 2017. [Source on file].

52. Government of Tunisia. The Framework of the National Action Plan for the Prevention and Punishment of Human Trafficking. 2015. [Source on file].

53. UNICEF. REPORT ON REGULAR RESOURCES 2013: RESULTS FOR CHILDREN. 2014. http://www.unicef.org/publicpartnerships/files/2013_Report_on_Regular_Resources_3_June_2014.pdf.

54. —. Tunisia - Country programme document 2015–2019. September 11, 2014. https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2014-PL8-Tunisia_CPD-Final_approved-EN.pdf.

55. UNODC. Working towards a National Strategy against human trafficking in Tunisia. April 14, 2016. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/Webstories2016/working-towards-a-national-strategy-against-human-trafficking-in-tunisia.html.

56. USDOL. Together Against Child Labor in Tunisia. 2016: Project Summary. [Source on file].

57. ILO-IPEC. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP). October 2017: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

58. —. Together Against Child Labor. October 2017: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

59. U.S. Embassy- Tunis. Reporting, November 21, 2016.

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61. U.S. Embassy- Tunis. Reporting, February 27, 2015.

62. ILO-IPEC official. E-mail communication to ILO-IPEC Tunis official. February 2014.

63. UNESCO. Education for All Global Monitoring Report- Youth and skills: putting education to work. October 16, 2012. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002180/218003e.pdf.

64. U.S. Embassy- Tunis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 4, 2013.

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