Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Tunisia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Tunisia

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Tunisia made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed the Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons, which provides a legal definition for human trafficking crimes, strengthens punishments for offenders, and contains provisions for support to victims. The Government’s new National Commission on Trafficking in Persons planned and conducted a national anti-trafficking awareness campaign. Further, the Government launched a USDOL-funded four-year project entitled Project Tunisien Ensemble Contre le Travail des Enfants (PROTECTE) to support the implementation of Tunisia’s Child Labor National Action Plan. Regarding enforcement, border officials at the Ministry of the Interior and judges and magistrates at the Ministry of Justice received training on the new anti-trafficking law. Also, the Government took steps to increase the budget of the Labor Inspectorate over the previous year. Children in Tunisia perform dangerous tasks in street work. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in domestic work and seasonal agriculture, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. The number of children dropping out of school, which may make them vulnerable to child labor, remains high. In addition, the law’s minimum age protections do not apply to children who are engaged in work in the informal sector, and the Government has not made information available on labor law and criminal law enforcement.

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Children in Tunisia perform dangerous tasks in street work. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Tunisia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

3.0 (50,364)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.2

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

2.8

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

99.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011–2012.(7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, activities unknown (1-3, 5, 8-11)

Industry

Construction, activities unknown (3)

Services

Domestic work (1-4, 9, 12, 13)

Street work, including shining shoes, begging, vending, auto washing and repairing, and scavenging garbage† (1-3, 5, 8-10, 14)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking (4, 5, 10, 15, 16)

Use in illicit activities, including stealing, smuggling, and drug trafficking (4, 5, 10, 14, 15)

Forced labor in seasonal agriculture, activities unknown (13)

Forced labor in domestic work and begging, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 10, 13, 15)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children are engaged in child labor in the informal sector, predominantly in street work, including in vending and garbage scavenging.(13, 14) Child migrants from sub-Saharan countries and those fleeing conflict in Libya and Syria, as well as young girls from Tunisia’s northwest region, are particularly vulnerable to human trafficking.(15) There were no reports in 2016 of forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups.(10, 17)

Girls in Tunisia face additional barriers to education, including limited transportation options, security concerns while commuting, and parents prioritizing boys’ education.(12, 18, 19) Students face barriers to education, especially in rural areas, in the form of lack of adequate transportation, household poverty, and religious customs.(3, 8, 10, 12, 18) As the Government has not conducted a National Child Labor Survey, research is lacking to determine the prevalence and sectoral distribution of child labor in Tunisia.

Tunisia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Tunisia’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 53 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of the Law on the Situation of Domestic Workers (20, 21)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 58 of the Labor Code (20)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 1 of the Ministry of Social Affairs Order of January 19, 2000 (22)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 105 and 250 of the Penal Code; Articles 2(1), 2(5), 2(6) and 8 of the Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons (23, 24)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 2, 3, 5, 8 and 23 of the Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons (24)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 226 bis, 232, 233, and 234 of the Penal Code; Article 25 of the Child Protection Code; Article 2(7) of the Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons (23-25)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 5 and 11 of Law No. 92–52 on Narcotics (26)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

20

Article 2 of the National Service Law (27)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 2 of the National Service Law (27)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 2(5) of the Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons; Articles 3 and 18 of the Child Protection Code (24, 25)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Section 1 of the Law on Education (28)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 38 of the Constitution (29)

 

During the reporting period, Tunisia passed the Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against the Trafficking of Persons, which provides a legal definition for trafficking crimes, strengthens punishments for trafficking offenders, and contains provisions for support to victims.(24, 30, 31) The types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover street work, an activity in which there is evidence of children working in an unhealthy environment. Further, the Government acknowledges, as evident from the high rates of recidivism, that the fines and penalties for child labor law violations are not dissuasive.(32)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Social Affairs (MSA)

Conduct labor inspections and assess fines and penalties for infractions.(10, 20) Coordinate with the Ministry of Education to identify and provide support to children vulnerable to child labor.(10) Maintain a database of human trafficking victims and work with the Ministry of Justice (MOJ) to ensure that victims of human trafficking are not prosecuted for trafficking crimes.(33) Collaborate with the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health to identify and provide support to children vulnerable to child labor.(10, 13, 16, 17)

Ministry of Women, Family, and Childhood

Through its Delegates for the Protection of Children, gather evidence and conduct investigations on child welfare cases, conduct needs assessments and intervention plans, and act as judicial police in cases of imminent danger to children.(17, 25)

Ministry of the Interior (MOI)

Investigate reports of child labor as a criminal violation, complaints that are outside of the labor inspectorate’s mandate, including complaints in the informal sector.(14) Through its Child Protection Service in the National Police, address the commercial sexual exploitation of children and coordinate with MSA regarding violations.(10, 34) Through its Judicial Police, coordinate with MSA to refer cases of at-risk youth.(10, 17, 32, 35)

Ministry of Justice (MOJ)

Coordinate anti-trafficking efforts and the criminal enforcement of child labor laws.(16)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Tunisia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$4,966,000 (14)

$5,425,994 (10)

Number of Labor Inspectors

347 (14)

357 (10)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

Unknown

26 (10)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (14)

Yes (10)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (14)

Yes (10)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Yes (32)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (10)

Number of Labor Inspections

16,133 (14)

19,913 (17)

Number Conducted at Worksite

367 (14)

Unknown (10)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown (10)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

61 (14)

140 (17)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

4 (14)

6(17)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

4 (14)

6 (17)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (14)

Yes (10)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Yes (10)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (14, 20)

Yes (10)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (10)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (14)

Yes (10)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (14)

Yes (17, 32)

 

In 2016, the Government increased the budget of the Labor Inspectorate by 9.2 percent over the previous year.(10) However, the Government also noted that the budget for fuel and transportation was inadequate to carry out inspections, especially in remote areas of the country.(10, 14)

Mechanisms do not exist to enforce the minimum age protections for children on inhabited premises such as private homes, without permission of the property owner or a court order.(10, 14, 20)

 

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Tunisia took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

No (17)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Yes (10)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (35)

No (17)

Number of Investigations

41 (36)

292 (17)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

292 (17)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (35)

5 (17)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (35)

Unknown (10)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

No (14)

Yes (10, 32)

In 2016, border officials at the MOI and judges and magistrates at the Ministry of Justice received training on the new Law on the Prevention and the Trafficking of Persons, as well as training focused on the identification and treatment of vulnerable trafficking in persons victims.(10, 16, 30)

A referral mechanism exists between the Judicial Police at the MOI and social services at the MSA for at-risk youth, including victims of human trafficking, street work, and domestic work.(10, 17, 32, 35)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee for the Implementation of the Child Labor National Action Plan (NAP-TN)

Coordinate efforts to combat child labor. Led by MSA, includes membership of five other ministries and two unions, with support from ILO.(14, 37-39) In 2016, held a national seminar on child labor, during which the Child Labor National Action Plan was presented and explained to an audience of approximately 60 civil society members, government officials, international organizations, and members of the diplomatic community.(17)

National Commission on Trafficking in Persons†

Coordinate anti-human trafficking efforts and raise awareness of human trafficking issues. Include membership of 12 ministries, two members of civil society, one media representative and one member of the National Commission of Human Rights.(16, 17, 40) In 2016, the committee planned and conducted a national anti-trafficking awareness campaign, met several times to coordinate efforts to implement the Law on the Prevention and the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons, and drafted a National Strategy Against Trafficking in Persons in Tunisia.(10, 16, 17, 41-43)

† Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Child Labor National Action Plan (2015–2020)

Aims to raise awareness, build the capacity of stakeholders, and encourage action from NGOs and the public.(14, 34, 37) In 2016, began implementation with the appointment of a high-level Government point of contact and consultations with ILO before activities begin.(44)

UNICEF Country Program Document (2015–2019)†

Aims to decrease dropout rates and improve education quality and access to early education, teach life skills to adolescents, and improve access to information to protect children against violence and economic exploitation.(45, 46) In 2016, the Government and UNICEF signed the second phase of the program, focusing on the support of social and health policies, reform of the education system, and child protection.(47)

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2015–2017)

Aims to build the capacity of civil society to address human trafficking; boost public awareness of human trafficking; and train police, customs, and penitentiary officials to identify victims of human trafficking.(33, 48) In 2016, the MOJ launched a national awareness campaign called “Not for Sale,” in conjunction with IOM; campaign included several short films and dramatic reenactments depicting victims of trafficking, which were released on social media and national television and shared with stakeholders.(17, 41, 49)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

During the reporting period, the National Commission on Trafficking in Persons, in cooperation with UNODC and Tunisian civil society representatives, drafted a national strategy against human trafficking in Tunisia, but the strategy has not been finalized.(17, 42)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects to Address Child Labor

USDOL projects in Tunisia aim to conduct research on child labor and strengthen Tunisia’s ability to implement its Child Labor National Action Plan, a multi-stakeholder effort involving government, business, and civil society. These projects include PROTECTE,* $3 million project implemented by the ILO; and the Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP), implemented in at least 10 countries by the ILO.(10, 14, 44, 50, 51) For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our Web site.

Support Efforts to Combat Human Trafficking (2014–2017)

USDOS-funded project implemented by IOM to carry out anti-human trafficking activities in collaboration with the Ministries of Justice; Interior; Social Affairs; and Women, Family, and Childhood. Includes three objectives: (a) build the capacity of relevant institutions and agencies to identify and assist victims of trafficking based on their individual needs; (b) strengthen cross-sector cooperation and the sharing of information through the implementation of a national referral mechanism; and (c) conduct an awareness-raising campaign to keep children in school and discourage illegal migration that could lead to human trafficking.(34) In 2016, continued the implementation of the SHARE II project. The steering committee held three meetings and a discussion on human trafficking issues with representatives of 11 sub-Saharan NGOs based in Tunisia. Also provided training for 37 migration focal points at the Tunisian Red Crescent on human trafficking issues and further participated in several seminars and workshops.(49)

Shelters and Services for Victims of Human Trafficking†

MSA operates shelters to serve victims of human trafficking, particularly children. Provides services that include lodging, food, clothing, psychological services, legal aid through a network of pro bono lawyers, and free medical care in collaboration with the Ministry of Health. Places unaccompanied children and adults in dedicated centers to receive schooling. In 2016, the Government trained shelter staff in Sfax and Sousse to provide service and care for human trafficking victims through a series of programs organized by IOM with a budget of $200,000 spanning September 2016–September 2017.(30, 33, 35, 52, 53)

Centers to Provide Aid to Victims of Child Labor†

The Government maintains 22 youth centers, with two additional youth centers under construction during the reporting period, and 67 child protection institutions that can serve up to 6,000 children engaged in child labor or vulnerable to child labor.(34, 54) In 2016, 19 Centers for Social Defense and Integration provided assistance to children who are homeless, have had trouble with the law, or experienced domestic trauma.(14) Centers for Social Protection provided material and moral support to vulnerable children.(14) Social and Educative Centers developed educational programs and activities for at-risk children.(14)

Programs to Reduce School Dropout Rates†

MOE-funded School Dropout Prevent Program maintains over 2,500 social protection units in schools and mobile units in rural areas to monitor students and prevent school dropout, covering 43% of all educational institutions. In 2016, the units supported 10,700 children at risk of dropout out of 14,800 total cases.(54) A separate UN WFP-funded program provides technical support to the MOE for a national school feeding program to reduce dropout rates in public primary schools, reaching 240,000 children in 2,500 schools.(55)

† Program is funded by the Government of Tunisia.
* Program was launched during the reporting period.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(17, 30, 56, 57)

Although Tunisia has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(14)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Tunisia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2016

Enforcement

Publish information on labor law enforcement, including the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk reviews.

2015 – 2016

Provide adequate resources for the labor inspectorate to conduct additional inspections, particularly in remote areas.

2015 – 2016

Ensure mechanisms exist to enforce the minimum age protections for children on inhabited premises, such as private homes, without permission of the property owner or a court order.

2014 – 2016

Collect and publish information on the number of convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2013 – 2016

Provide sufficient initial training for new employees and refresher training to agents in charge of criminal law enforcement of child labor laws.

2014 – 2016

Conduct a National Child Labor Survey to identify the prevalence and sectoral distribution of child labor.

2016

Increase penalties for those who employ children in child labor.

2016

Social Programs

Address barriers to education, such as lack of reliable transportation, household poverty, and religious custom.

2015 – 2016

Provide sufficient resources to expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2015 – 2016

1.         Post-Revolution Tunisia Struggles with Child Labour, SOS Children's Villages Canada, [online] June 2, 2012 [cited June 20, 2017]; http://www.soschildrensvillages.ca/news/news/child-protection-news/child-labournews/pages/post-revolution-tunisia-struggles-with-child-labour-157.aspx.

2.         Fitouri, S. "Post-Revolution Child Labor in Tunisia: Enduring Issues Rise to the Surface." Tunisia Live [online] January 30, 2012 [cited June 24, 2016]; http://www.tunisia-live.net/2012/01/30/post-revolution-child-labor-in-tunisia-enduring-issues-rise-to-the-surface/.

3.         Dabbar, S. "Tunisian children shoulder heavy burden." Gulf News [online] November 23, 2012 [cited June 20, 2017]; http://gulfnews.com/news/region/tunisia/tunisian-children-shoulder-heavy-burden-1.1109067.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Tunisia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

5.         U.S. Department of State. "Tunisia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265734.pdf.

6.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [accessed December 16, 2016] http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011–2012. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         Marzouk, Z. "Harsh Realities: Meeting Tunisia’s Child Street Sellers." Tunisia Live [online] July 13, 2015 [cited November 6, 2015]; http://www.tunisia-live.net/2015/07/13/tunisia-street-vendors-child/.

9.         AbdelRahmen el Lahga, and Ines Bouassida. Analyse de la Pauvrete Infantile en Tunisie: Une approche de privations multiples; 2014. http://www.social.tn/fileadmin/user1/doc/APauvretInfantileTunisieUNICEF.pdf.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis. reporting, January 17, 2017.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis. reporting, February 19, 2013.

12.       Moez El Elj, and Mehdi Ben Braham. Etude sur le Travail Domestique des Enfants: Case Study of Children Originating in Jendouba and Bizerte Governorates: Preliminary Report. Study of Child Domestic Workers in Tunisia; 2014. [Source on file].

13.       U.S. Department of State. "Tunisia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253161.pdf.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis. reporting, January 28, 2016.

15.       IOM. Baseline Study of TIP Tunisia, Assessing the Scope and Manifestations. Geneva; 2013. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Baseline%20Study%20on%20Trafficking%20in%20Persons%20in%20Tunisia.pdf.

16.       U.S. Embassy - Tunis. reporting, February 27, 2017.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2017.

18.       Khawla Al Ashy, and Hanene Zbiss. "Tunisian female students: matrimony or hard labor." Arab Reporters For Investigative Journalism [online] April 21, 2014 [cited March 1, 2016]; http://en.arij.net/report/tunisian-female-students-matrimony-or-hard-labor/.

19.       Wright, R. "Don't Fear All Islamists, Fear Salafis." [online] August 19, 2012 [cited June 20, 2017]; http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/20/opinion/dont-fear-all-islamists-fear-salafis.html.

20.       Government of Tunisia. Code du travail, Loi n° 66–27, enacted 1966. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/778/Labour%20Code%20Tunisia.pdf.

21.       Government of Tunisia. Loi n° 65–25 du 1er juillet 1965, relative à la situation des employés de maison, modifiée par la loi n°2005–32 du 4 avril 2005, enacted 1965. http://www.e-justice.tn/fileadmin/fichiers_site_francais/droits_homme/legis_nat/enfant/L_1965_25.pdf.

22.       Government of Tunisia, Ministry of Social Affairs. Arrêté du ministre des affaires sociales du 19 janvier 2000, fixant les types de travaux dans lesquels l'emploi des enfants est interdit, enacted 2000. http://www.cnudst.rnrt.tn/jortsrc/2000/2000f/jo0092000.pdf.

23.       Government of Tunisia. Code Pénal, enacted 1913. http://www.jurisitetunisie.com/tunisie/codes/cp/menu.html.

24.       Government of Tunisia. Loi organique n° 2016–61 du 3 août 2016, relative à la prévention et à la lutte contre la traite des personnes, enacted 2016. http://legislation-securite.tn/node/54460.

25.       Government of Tunisia. Code de la protection de l'enfant, Loi n° 95–92, enacted 1995. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/42904/64989/F95TUN01.htm.

26.       Government of Tunisia. Loi n° 92–52 du 18 mai 1992 relative aux stupéfiants, enacted 1992. https://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/tun/loi-no--92-52_html/Loi_n_92-52_du_18_mai_1992fr.pdf.

27.       Government of Tunisia. Loi n° 2004–1 du 14 janvier 2004, relative au Service national, enacted 2004. http://legislation-securite.tn/sites/default/files/files/lois/Loi%20n%C2%B0%202004-1%20du%2014%20Janvier%202004%20(Fr).pdf.

28.       Government of Tunisia. Loi d'orientaiton n° 2002–80 du 23 juillet 2002, relative à l'éducation et à l'enseignement scolaire, enacted 2002. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/61806/55086/F1183773494/TUN-61806.pdf.

29.       Government of Tunisia. Constitution, enacted 2014. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Tunisia_2014.pdf.

30.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis. reporting, November 21, 2016.

31.       Le Parlement tunisien adopte à l’unanimité la Loi 29/2015 contre la traite des personnes, IOM, [online] July 22, 2016 [cited November 8, 2016]; https://unictunis.org.tn/2016/07/22/loi-292015-contre-la-traite-des-personnes/.

32.       Government of Tunisia. Official Elements on Child Labor. Submitted in response to USDOL Federal Register Notice (September 6, 2016) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Tunis; March 14, 2017. [Source on file].

33.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis. reporting, December 3, 2014.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 1, 2015.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis. reporting, February 29, 2016.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis. reporting, May 6, 2016.

37.       ILO-IPEC and Government of Tunisia. National Plan of Action to Combat Child Labor. Tunis; 2014. [Source on file].

38.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 30 and June 2, 2014.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis. reporting, March 18, 2015.

40.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis. reporting, February 10, 2017.

41.       Lorena Lando, and Hélène Le Goff. Tunisia Launches "Not for Sale" Human Trafficking Awareness Raising Campaign, IOM, [online] [cited November 8, 2016]; http://www.iom.int/news/tunisia-launches-not-sale-human-trafficking-awareness-raising-campaign.

42.       UNODC. Working towards a National Strategy against human trafficking in Tunisia, UNODC, [online] April 14, 2016 [cited November 8, 2016]; http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/Webstories2016/working-towards-a-national-strategy-against-human-trafficking-in-tunisia.html.

43.       Zied. Campagne « Pas à vendre » : 23 enfants et jeunes orphelins et sans soutien familial sensibilisés à la traite des personnes, IOM, [online] August 24, 2016 [cited November 8, 2016]; https://tunisia.iom.int/news/campagne-%C2%AB-pas-%C3%A0-vendre-%C2%BB-23-enfants-et-jeunes-orphelins-et-sans-soutien-familial-sensibilis%C3%A9s.

44.       ILO-IPEC. Together Against Child Labor. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; December 2016.

45.       UNICEF. Report on Regular Resources 2013; 2014. http://www.unicef.org/publicpartnerships/files/2013_Report_on_Regular_Resources_3_June_2014.pdf.

46.       UNICEF. Country programme document 2015–2019. Geneva; September 11, 2014. https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2014-PL8-Tunisia_CPD-Final_approved-EN.pdf.

47.       UNICEF. Signature du plan d’action du programme de pays entre le gouvernement Tunisien et UNICEF, [previously online] [cited February 23, 2017]; http://www.unicef.org.tn/non-classe/signature-du-plan-daction-du-programme-de-pays-entre-le-gouvernement-tunisien-et-unicef/ [Source on file].

48.       Government of Tunisia - Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Framework of the National Action Plan for the Prevention and Punishment of Human Trafficking. Tunis; 2015. [source on file].

49.       U.S. Embassy - Tunis official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 8, 2017.

50.       ILO-IPEC. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP). Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015.

51.       USDOL. Together Against Child Labor in Tunisia. Project Summary. Washington, DC; 2016. [source on file].

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53.       U.S. Embassy- Tunis. reporting, February 27, 2015.

54.       ILO-IPEC official. E-mail communication to ILO-IPEC Tunis official. February 2014.

55.       Lukyanova, M. Tunisia and Morocco Country Brief. Rome, WFP; August, 2016. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Tunisia%20and%20Morocco_CB_August%202016%20OIM.pdf.

56.       UNESCO. Education for All Global Monitoring Report-  Youth and skills: putting education to work. Paris; October 16, 2012. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002180/218003e.pdf.

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