Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Namibia

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Namibia
2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Namibia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government ratified the Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labor Convention and issued a notice instructing the Wages Commission to investigate and report on the conditions of employment for child domestic workers. The government also launched an online platform to receive reports of child pornography and remove child pornographic material from the Internet. However, children in Namibia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in cattle herding. Hazardous work prohibitions for children in the agriculture sector are not comprehensive. In addition, social programs do not address child labor in agriculture.

Children in Namibia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in cattle herding. (1; 2; 3; 4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Namibia. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

Unavailable

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

86.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016. (5)
Data were unavailable from Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis, 2018. (6)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Tending and herding livestock, including cattle, sheep, and goats (1; 7; 8; 9)

Services

Domestic work (8; 10; 11; 12)

Working in bars (shebeens) (8; 13)

Street work, including selling candies, fruits, handicrafts, and cell phone air time vouchers (14; 9; 3)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (15; 3)

Forced labor in agriculture, cattle herding, and domestic work, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (8; 16; 15; 3)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children are trafficked within Namibia for forced labor in agriculture, cattle herding, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation. San children are particularly vulnerable to forced labor on farms or in homes. (15; 3) Some Angolan children are trafficked into Namibia for forced labor in cattle herding. (4; 3) The government has not collected and published data on child labor, including its worst forms, to inform policies and social programs.

Namibia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Namibia’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the lack of a comprehensive hazardous work list for children’s work in the agriculture sector.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Chapter 2, Article 3(2) of the Labor Act (17)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 15(2) of the Constitution; Chapter 2, Article 3(4) of the Labor Act (17; 18)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Chapter 2, Articles 3(3)(d) and 4 of the Labor Act; Section 234 of the Child Care and Protection Act (17; 19)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 9 of the Constitution; Chapter 2, Article 4 of the Labor Act; Section 15 of the Prevention of Organized Crime Act; Articles 202 and 234 of the Child Care and Protection Act (17; 18; 19; 20)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Section 15 of the Prevention of Organized Crime Act; Sections 202 and 234 of the Child Care and Protection Act (19; 20)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Section 2 of the Combating of Immoral Practices Act Amendment Act; Section 234 of the Child Care and Protection Act (19; 21)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 234 of the Child Care and Protection Act (19)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Section 17 of the General Regulations relating to Namibian Defence Force (Defence Act of 2010) (22)

Non-state

Yes

18

Section 234(1)(b) of the Child Care and Protection Act (19)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Section 53 of the Education Act (23)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 38 of the Education Act (23)

* No conscription (24)

 

In December 2017, the government passed the Education Amendment Act, which amended the Education Act to provide that tuition, books, materials and examination fees are provided free of charge through the completion of secondary education. In 2018, the government also passed the Combatting of Trafficking in Persons Act, but it has not yet taken effect. (25; 26) During the reporting period, the government ratified the Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labor Convention, becoming the 21st country to do so. (27) In February 2017, the Minister of Labor issued a notice mandating the Wages Commission to investigate the conditions of employment of domestic workers throughout Namibia, including to investigate and make recommendations on a minimum wage for child domestic workers, measures that would ensure they have access to education and training, and the types of domestic work that are likely to harm children. (28)

Although there are hazardous work prohibitions for children, these prohibitions do not specifically include hazardous work in livestock herding. In addition, research has shown that livestock herding activities can expose children to unsafe environments such as extreme temperatures. (29)The Ministry of Labor, Industrial Relations and Employment Creation (MLIREC) reported that in 2013 it drafted additional hazardous work prohibitions, but these still await final approval. (14; 30; 31)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the MLIREC that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

 

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Industrial Relations and Employment Creation (MLIREC)

Enforce child labor laws and investigate allegations of violations, including forced labor, and cases involving human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children. Work with the Ministry of Safety and Security (MSS); Ministry of Gender, Equality, and Child Welfare (MGECW); Namibia Central Intelligence Service; and Ministry of Education on child labor matters. (1; 10) Lead these ministries in joint inspection teams. (1; 10)

MSS

Enforce criminal laws and conduct site visits with labor inspectors. (1; 10) Handle enforcement through the Namibian Police. (10)

MGECW

Collaborate with the Namibian Police’s Gender Based Violence Protection Units (GBVPUs) on cases involving human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children. (10; 32) Remove children from child labor situations during inspections, and transfer them to a regional GBVPU to receive assistance from MGECW social workers. (32)

Joint Child Labor Inspection Committee

Coordinate activities to enforce child labor laws. Committee includes MLIREC, MSS, and MGECW. (1) Refer children identified during labor inspections to MGECW social workers or to an MGECW shelter for care. (1)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Namibia took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the MLIREC that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including its lack of authority to assess penalties for violations.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$4,950,000† (33)

$2,384,000 (34)

Number of Labor Inspectors

97 (33)

79 (34)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (33)

No (34)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (33)

Yes (34)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (33)

Yes (34)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (33)

Yes (34)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

3,988 (33)

4,334 (34)

Number Conducted at Worksites

3,988 (33)

4,334 (34)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (33)

0 (34)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

N/A (33)

N/A (34)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

N/A (33)

N/A (34)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown* (33)

Yes (34)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown* (33)

Yes (34)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (33)

Yes (34)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown* (33)

Yes (34)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (33)

Yes (34)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (33)

Yes (34)

* The government does not publish this information.
† Data are from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016.

 

The Ministry of Gender, Equality, and Child Welfare’s (MGECW) shelters to house victims of the worst forms of child labor are not operational. (34) Research also indicates that the MLIREC primarily conducts inspections in the formal agricultural sector and in urban areas, leaving self-employed children and children working in remote rural areas unprotected. (8) Sources also reported that although inspectors have the legal authority to inspect private farms, they often encounter difficulties accessing the farms due to locked gates. (8; 35)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Namibia took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the Ministry of Safety and Security and the Namibian Police that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including investigation and prosecution planning.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown* (33)

Unknown* (34)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown* (33)

Unknown* (34)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown* (33)

Yes (34)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (33)

Unknown* (34)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (33)

Unknown* (34)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (33)

Unknown* (34)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (30)

Unknown* (34)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (33)

Yes

 (34)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

The Namibian Police operate a toll-free hotline to report crimes, including child trafficking. An NGO operates another hotline for victims of gender-based violence and child exploitation to access information about available resources and get referrals to relevant government social services providers. (33) Research could not find information about the number of complaints concerning child labor, including its worst forms, received through the Namibian Police toll-free hotline.

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination among agencies.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Inter-Ministerial Committee on Child Labor

Coordinate government policies and efforts to combat child labor. Comprises officials from the MLIREC, the Ministry of Education (MOE), the MGECW, the MSS, and the Office of the Ombudsman. (31) Met in 2017 to discuss roles and responsibilities of participating agencies. (4) Reported reviving its purpose in November but did not report conducting actions during the year. (34)

GBVPUs

Provide victim protection services to children rescued from the worst forms of child labor. Comprises 15 units that arrange lodging, medical, and psychosocial care for victims. (30) Consist of personnel from the MLIREC, Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration, Namibian Police, MGECW, and MOE. (10) Research was unable to determine whether services were provided to victims of child labor during the year.

Child Care and Protection Forums

Organize forums to address child protection issues and coordinate services in the country. Participants include 14 regional councils, MGECW social workers, government agencies, NGOs, community leaders, churches, and other local-level stakeholders. (10) Met several times during the year. (36)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including the continuing lack of a child labor policy.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Decent Work Country Program (2010–2017)

Outlined strategies to promote decent work in Namibia. Prioritized employment promotion, enhanced social protections, and strengthened social dialogue and tripartism. Outcomes included the reduction of forced labor and child labor cases. (37)

National Development Plan V (2017/2018–2021/2022)

Includes goals for addressing child trafficking and protection concerns. (38)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (39)

 

Namibia currently has no child labor policy, but the MGECW worked to finalize a National Agenda for Children, slated for implementation in 2018. (34). In addition, the National Plan of Action on Gender Based Violence was not renewed in 2017. Despite this, the government continued 16 days of the international awareness campaign against gender-based violence. (36) Child labor elimination and prevention strategies are not integrated into the National Agenda for Children, the National Protection Referral Network, or the Education for All National Plan of Action. (40; 41; 42) Research was unable to determine whether the government undertook activities to implement the Decent Country Work Program and the National Development Plan V during the reporting period.

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the child labor problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (2011–2017)

USDOL-funded program implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, a project established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build government capacity and develop strategic policies to eliminate child labor and strengthen legal protections and social services for child domestic workers. (43) The program drafted a National Action Plan on Child Labor and Domestic Work in 2016, but the government has yet to adopt it. (43) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Combatting Human Trafficking Initiative (2016–2019)

USDOS-funded 3-year project implemented by the IOM, in collaboration with the Namibian government, to combat trafficking in persons. (44) Under this initiative, passed the Combatting of Trafficking in Persons Act. (36)

Namibian School Feeding Program†

Government program that provides mid-morning meals to school children. (45) Serves 330,000 pre-primary and primary school students in 1,400 schools in all 14 regions. (36)

National Youth Service†

Government program that offers training in civic education, national voluntary service, and job skills to unemployed youth, some of whom have never attended school. (45) According to the national budget estimates for fiscal years 2018 and 2019, allocated N$74.4 million (~USD $6 million) for 2017–2018, down 34 percent from N$112 million (~USD $9 million) for the previous year. According to NGOs, includes skills building programs for youth. (36)

Shelters and victim services†

Six government-established shelters for women and children assist victims of sexual assault, gender-based violence, and the worst forms of child labor. (10) Did not operate in 2017 due to lack of funding. (34) The Government, however, provided an N$26,000 (USD $2,000) per month subsidy to an NGO that provided shelter services and social workers to gender-based violence and human trafficking victims. (46; 34)

† Program is funded by the Government of Namibia.

 

In 2017, the MGECW, in partnership with UNICEF and Childline, launched a reporting portal to receive anonymous reports of images and videos depicting child sexual abuse. The portal also aids in removing pornographic images of children from the internet. (47; 48) In 2017, the UK-based Internet Watch Foundation reported they found no pornographic materials involving Namibian children. (36) The government also launched an e-birth notification system to register children at birth. (49)

Although the Government of Namibia provided assistance to vulnerable children and services to some victims of child labor, research found no evidence of programs specifically addressing children working in agriculture or domestic work.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Namibia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2014 – 2017

Enforcement

Authorize the Inspectorate to assess child labor penalties.

2016 – 2017

Ensure labor inspectors can access all types of businesses to fulfill their inspection mandates.

2017

Ensure inspections occur in all sectors to provide minimum age law protections to all children, including those who are self-employed and children working in the informal sector.

2016 – 2017

Publish information about refresher trainings, the number of criminal investigations conducted, number of violations found, number of prosecutions initiated, and number of convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2016 – 2017

Government Policies

Establish a National Child Labor Policy.

2017

Renew key policies such as the National Plan of Action on Gender Based Violence.

2017

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into relevant policies.

2013 – 2017

Publish information about the implementation of the Decent Country Work Program and the National Development Plan V.

2016 – 2017

Social Programs

Adopt and implement the National Action Plan on Child Labor and Domestic Work.

2017

Conduct research on the prevalence of child labor to inform the development of policies and social programs.

2013 – 2017

Ensure shelters are operational to care for to victims of child labor.

2016 – 2017

Institute programs to address child labor in agriculture and domestic work.

2009 – 2017

1. U.S. Embassy- Windhoek. Reporting, February 14, 2014.

2. Namibian Sun. Editorial: Child labour on Workers' Day. April 30, 2013. [Source on file].

3. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking In Persons Report- 2017: Namibia. Washington, DC. July 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271249.htm.

4. —. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016: Namibia. Washington, DC. June 30, 2016. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258881.pdf.

5. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Child Activity Survey (SIMPOC), 2013. Analysis received January 12, 2018. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182) Namibia (ratification: 2000) Published: 2013. Accessed December 2, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3084812.

8. U.S. Department of Labor official. Interview with Namibian Employers' Federation. December 8, 2016.

9. Jason, Loide. Human trafficking a global trend. New Era. June 14, 2017. https://www.newera.com.na/2017/06/14/human-trafficking-a-global-trend/.

10. U.S. Embassy- Windhoek. Reporting, February 20, 2013.

11. Kangootui, Nomhle. Police rescue San girls. The Namibian. April 15, 2016. http://www.namibian.com.na/154457/archive-read/Police-rescue-San-girls.

12. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Namibia (ratification: 2000) Published: 2016. Accessed November 1, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13201:::NO:13201:P13201_COUNTRY_ID:103008.

13. U.S. Embassy- Windhoek. Reporting, February 18, 2014.

14. U.S. Embassy- Windhoek official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 14, 2015.

15. The Patriot. Namibia's 'concealed' human trafficking crisis. October 27, 2017. https://thepatriot.com.na/index.php/2017/10/27/namibias-concealed-human-trafficking-crisis/.

16. Nashuuta, Lahja. Namibia finally moves to pass the anti-human trafficking law. The Southern Times. November 17, 2017. [Source on file].

17. Government of the Republic of Namibia. Promulgation of Labour Act, 2007 (Act No. 11 of 2007). Enacted: December 31, 2007. http://www.mol.gov.na/documents/432260/1685800/2007_LabourAct.pdf/2f4ad2c4-f075-440b-bfd9-a658a7323e0c.

18. —. The Constitution of the Republic of Namibia. Enacted: February 1990. http://www.orusovo.com/namcon.

19. —. Promulgation of Child Care and Protection Act, 2015 (Act No. 3 of 2015). Enacted: May 29, 2015. http://www.lac.org.na/laws/2015/5744.pdf.

20. —. Prevention of Organised Crime Act. Enacted: May 2009. [Source on file].

21. —. Combating of Immoral Practices Amendment Act. Enacted: May 2000. [Source on file].

22. —. General regulations relating to Namibian Defence Force- No. 189. August 20, 2010. http://www.lac.org.na/laws/2010/4547.pdf.

23. —. Promulgation of Education Act, 2001 (Act No. 16 of 2001). Enacted: December 27, 2001. http://www.lac.org.na/laws/2001/2673.pdf.

24. Child Soldiers International. Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies. Louder than words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers. London. 2012. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

25. U.S. Embassy- Windhoek. Reporting, January 29, 2018. [Source on file].

26. Government of the Republic of Namibia. Combatting of Trafficking in Persons Act of 2018. https://laws.parliament.na/cms_documents/combating-of-trafficking-in-persons--63572e8e99.pdf.

27. ILO. Namibia joins the global movement to combat forced labour. November 6, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/global/standards/subjects-covered-by-international-labour-standards/forced-labour/WCMS_591477/lang--en/index.htm.

28. Government of the Republic of Namibia. Notice of convening Wages Commission to investigate current terms and conditions of employment of domestic workers, terms of reference of Wages Commission and invitation for written representations: Labour Act, 2007. February 24, 2017. http://www.mol.gov.na/documents/432260/3321775/NOTICE+OF+CONVENING+WAGES+COMMISSION.pdf/38f13afa-bf67-4c81-a42f-d2cb1b0bcd72.

29. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. Children’s work in the livestock sector: Herding and beyond. 2013. http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i3098e/i3098e.pdf.

30. U.S. Embassy- Windhoek. Reporting, February 5, 2016.

31. —. Reporting, February 9, 2015.

32. U.S. Department of State. Country Report on Human Rights Practices- 2015: Namibia. Washington, DC. April 13, 2016. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/252923.pdf.

33. U.S. Embassy- Windhoek. Reporting, January 27, 2017.

34. —. Reporting, January 29, 2018. [Source on file].

35. UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Concluding observations on the second report of Namibia. April 22, 2016. [Source on file].

36. U.S. Embassy- Windhoek. Reporting, May 16, 2018.

37. ILO. Namibia Decent Country Work Programme (DWCP) 2010-2014. April 2010. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/namibia.pdf.

38. Government of the Republic of Namibia. Namibia's Fifth National Development Plan 2017/18 to 2021/22. 2017. http://www.gov.na/documents/10181/14226/NDP+5/5a0620ab-4f8f-4606-a449-ea0c810898cc?version=1.0.

39. U.S. Embassy- Windhoek. Reporting, January 27, 2017.

40. Government of the Republic of Namibia. National Agenda for Children 2012-2016. Windhoek. 2012. [Source on file].

41. —. Education for All (EFA) National Plan of Action 2002-2015. Windhoek. [Source on file].

42. Sister Namibia. Namibia's National Protection Referral Network. December 1, 2013. https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-356909192.html.

43. ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. 2016: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

44. IOM. IOM, Namibia Launch Initiative to Combat Human Trafficking. April 12, 2016. https://www.iom.int/news/iom-namibia-launch-initiative-combat-human-trafficking.

45. U.S. Embassy- Windhoek official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 2, 2013.

46. U.S. Embassy- Windhoek. Reporting, March 1, 2017.

47. Katjangua, Ngaevarue. Namibian children risk online exploitation. New Era. June 29, 2017. https://www.newera.com.na/2017/06/29/namibian-children-risk-online-exploitation/.

48. Namibian Sun. Online child porn watchdog launched. July 5, 2017. https://www.namibiansun.com/news/online-child-porn-watchdog-launched.

49. Xinhua News Service. Namibia launches e-birth notification. The Herald. May 19, 2017. http://www.herald.co.zw/namibia-launches-e-birth-notification-system/.