Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Morocco

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Morocco

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Morocco made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Ministry of Moroccans Living Abroad and Migration Affairs drafted an anti-trafficking in persons law that is intended to be consistent with the Palermo Protocol, and the Ministry of Employment and Social Affairs drafted a domestic worker law forbidding employment of domestic workers under the age of 16 and strictly limiting the employment of children between the ages of 16 and 18 for domestic work.  The Government formally adopted the Integrated Public Policy on the Protection of Children, which incorporates the National Plan of Action for Children from 2006 to 2015. However, children in Morocco are engaged in child labor, including in agricultural activities, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. The number of labor inspectors is insufficient to effectively enforce child labor laws. Although the Government of Morocco has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Morocco are engaged in child labor, including in agricultural activities.(1-6) Children in Morocco are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(7-13) {U.S. Embassy-Morocco, January`, 2014 #190;Haut Commissariat au Plan, June 12`, 2011 #48;ILO-IPEC official Rabat, 2013 #117}National statistics from the Government’s High Planning Commission show a continued drop in the number of children ages 7 to 15 who are working, from 517,000 in 1999 to 59,157 in 2015.(14) Child labor occurs in urban areas, although it is primarily a rural phenomenon and is concentrated in areas where education levels remain low, especially in the following four regions: Chaouia-Ouardigha, Doukkala-Abda, El Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen, and Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz.(5, 14, 15) A 2014 study found that child labor is prevalent on small farms throughout Morocco.(1, 6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Morocco.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 10 to 14 (% and population):

4.5 (150,178)

School attendance, ages 6 to 14 (%):

82.9

Children combining work and school, ages 10 to 14 (%):

0.7

Primary completion rate (%):

101.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(16)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Enquête sur la Population et la Santé Familiale, 2003-2004.(17)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting and harvesting argan,* grain,* olives,* vegetables,* and fruits* (1)

Herding goats,* cattle,* and sheep* and raising them for the production of fertilizer,* and cattle for the production of milk* and butter* (1-4)

Fishing* (3, 5)

Forestry,* activities unknown (3, 5)

Industry

Construction,* including in carpentry* (6, 7, 18)

Weaving* textiles (2, 7)

Producing artisanal crafts* (3, 5-7, 18, 19)

Welding* (18)

Metallurgy (2, 6, 20)

Services

Begging* (21)

Domestic work (5, 8, 19, 22-26)

Working as salespersons in stores* and as tour guides* (18)

Tailoring textiles* (18)

Waiting tables in cafés or restaurants* (18)

Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles* (2, 12)

Street peddling (2, 9, 18, 27, 28)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (6-13)

Forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5-9, 12, 24, 29, 30)

Begging as a result of human trafficking (6, 8, 9)

Illegal sand extraction* (31)

Forced labor in the production of artisanal crafts* and construction* (7, 12)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In Morocco, children are engaged in commercial sexual exploitation.(10, 11, 13) This problem is most prevalent in popular tourist sites such as Tangier, which attracts visitors from European and Persian Gulf countries.(8, 11, 13) Some rural Moroccan girls as young as age 6, as well as girls from Côte d’Ivoire and Senegal, are recruited for domestic work in private urban homes. These girls then become victims of forced labor and are subjected to physical and verbal abuse, excessive working hours of 100 or more per week, without rest or days off; and no access to educational opportunities.(7, 9, 12, 13, 24) Comprehensive data on the number of children in domestic work is unavailable. However, members of civil society expressed concern that there may be a substantial number of children working in this sector.(13)

Despite strong enrollment rates among children during their early years in primary school, school dropout rates remain a problem. A source indicates that every year, up to 300,000 children drop out before finishing their 9 years of compulsory education.(5, 32, 33) Inadequate transportation and prohibitive costs associated with attending school create barriers for children to access education.(1, 5, 9) Lack of security and inclusiveness in schools increase vulnerability to child labor.(5, 9, 33, 34) Only one-third of children with disabilities attend schools.(7, 9, 35) Those who do attend school face rejection and stigmatization, leading some to drop out. These factors, and a lack of adequate support services, make children with disabilities more vulnerable to child labor.(9)

Some migrant children, particularly unaccompanied children from sub-Saharan Africa, as well as Amazigh and Sahrawi children face barriers to accessing education, such as language of instruction, and the lack of necessary documentation, including birth registration and residency.(7, 21, 36-38) The Government implemented a regularization campaign to improve access to education.(38)

Morocco has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 143 of the Labor Code (39)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 147 of the Labor Code (39)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Child Labor List, Decree No. 2-10-183 (40)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 467 of the Labor Code (39)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

 

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 503 of the Penal Code (41)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Royal Decree of 9 June 1996 (42)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 1 of Law No. 04-00 (43)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 1 of Law No. 04-00 (43)

* No conscription (42)

In 2015, the Ministry of Justice and Liberties conducted a legal review of the Penal Code to draft a coherent framework in line with all of the Government’s international agreements. Additionally, the Ministry of Moroccans Living Abroad and Migration Affairs drafted an anti-trafficking in persons law that is intended to be consistent with the Palermo Protocol and other international agreements.(8, 15, 38)

Based on Article 4 of the Labor Code, the minimum age protections do not apply to children who are self-employed, those who work in the traditional artisan or handicraft sectors for businesses with fewer than five employees, or those who work in private farms and residences, leaving children vulnerable to exploitation.(7, 8, 13, 39, 44)

In 2015, the Government, led by the Ministry of Employment and Social Affairs drafted a bill that would provide protections for child domestic workers. If passed into law, it would set the minimum age at 16 for domestic work and at 18 for hazardous domestic work; permit labor inspectors to mediate disputes between employers and domestic workers; and authorize the Government to prosecute intermediaries, known as samsaras, who traffic children for labor exploitation.(6, 8, 15)

Government officials, local stakeholders and the CEACR report that the penalties against companies that employ children in hazardous work, set forth in the Labor Code, are inadequate to act as an effective deterrent.(15, 44)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment and Social Affairs (MOESA) Child Labor Task Force

Enforce child labor laws and oversee programs on child labor. Employ labor inspectors in 53 sectors across Morocco; one inspector in each sector dedicated to child labor.(5, 8, 45) Establish satellite offices in nine regional centers throughout the country to provide occupational health and safety services, administer social security, and organize labor inspections and employment services.(5)

Ministry of the Interior

Enforce prohibitions on prostitution and other exploitative crimes involving minors as established in the Penal Code.(8, 46)

Ministry of Justice and Liberties

Prosecute criminal offenses against children, such as commercial sexual exploitation and child trafficking, and violations of labor laws.(8, 47) The Ministry’s Child Labor Units process cases involving women and children within the court system.(2)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Morocco took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

 Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (5)

Unknown* (15)

Number of Labor Inspectors

478 (6)

409 (8, 15)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

53 (6)

53‡ (6, 8, 15)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (5)

No (15)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (5)

Yes (15)

Number of Labor Inspections

312† (5)

247‡ (6, 15)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

357† (5)

292‡ (15)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

N/A (5)

N/A (15)

Number of Penalties Imposed that were Collected

N/A (5)

N/A (15)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (5)

Yes (15)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (5)

Yes (15)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (5)

Yes (15)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (5)

Yes (15)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Unknown

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.
† Data are from January 1 to March 31, 2014.
‡ Data are from January 1 2015 to June 30, 2015.

In 2015, labor inspectors found 292 child labor violations, 52 of which involved children under age 15. They removed 26 children under age 15 from work, and 158 children between ages 15 and 17 from hazardous work.(6, 8, 15) The sectors most frequently inspected included trade, agriculture, and metal and wood work.(15) Enforcement of child labor laws remains weak in Morocco due to an insufficient number of labor inspectors and a lack of financial resources.(8, 15, 48) According to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Morocco should employ roughly 818 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(15, 49-51) The official procedures involved with processing child labor violations require the participation of several agencies per case, which places considerable administrative burdens on labor inspectors.(2)

Morocco has a toll-free hotline for child victims of violence, but research did not find the number of calls related to child labor.(13)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Morocco took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (5)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (5, 6)

Yes (6, 8, 15)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

37 (52)

Unknown (6)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (52)

Unknown (6, 8)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Yes (8, 12)

 

In 2015, the Government, with assistance from UNHCR, UNODC, IOM, UN Women, and the Council of Europe, offered training sessions on a regular basis to judges, police officers, gendarmes, and civil society stakeholders on human smuggling and trafficking in persons. Additionally, the Government cooperated with UNODC, IOM, and the Council of Europe to establish indicators to standardize procedures for identifying victims of human trafficking. The Government intends to use these  procedures in a nationally integrated system of assistance provision for victims of human trafficking.(8) The Government, NGOs, and some international organizations have established effective informal procedures to refer human trafficking victims to social services.(8, 12, 53)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

MOESA, Office for the Fight Against Child Labor

Coordinate policies and efforts to combat child labor.(5, 54) Provide guidance and limited funding to NGOs working against child labor.(2)

Ministry of Solidarity, Women, Family and Social Development (MSWFSD)

Establish continuity of child protection and child labor elimination efforts. Increase children’s access to education.(46, 55) Contributed to the drafting of the Integrated Public Policy on the Protection of Children. Responsible for coordinating the implementation of this policy.(6, 8)

Inter-Ministerial Delegation for Human Rights

Establish policies that promote child protection and coordinate efforts against trafficking in persons.(5, 8) Chaired by the Head of Government, the Delegation met in 2015 to adopt the Integrated Public Policy on the Protection of Children.(6, 8, 15)

Ministry of Moroccans Living Abroad and Migration Affairs

Coordinate efforts to reduce migrant vulnerability to child labor. Promote migrant children’s access to public education facilities, thus decreasing their vulnerability to child labor and human trafficking.(5)

National Observatory for Children’s Rights

Register complaints related to child welfare and refer them to labor inspectorate units and law enforcement officials. Operate a toll-free hotline available to child victims of violence, including commercial sexual exploitation.(2) Operate 96 Child Reception Centers that provide services to child victims of violence, sexual abuse, or neglect.(15)

Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training (MONEVT)

Provide education and job training to former child workers, including former child domestic workers.(8)

 

The Government of Morocco has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

MSWFSD’s Integrated Public Policy on the Protection of Children†

Promotes an interdisciplinary approach to respond to child exploitation, among other issues.(5, 6, 8) Includes the 2006–2015 National Plan of Action for Children.(15) The implementation of this policy in 2015 included coordination with Internet providers to protect children from sexual exploitation; a Ministry of Tourism communication strategy on child protection; and a mechanism to sensitize and educate tourism companies on the rights of children against all forms of exploitation, in line with the Moroccan Charter on Sex Tourism and based on the World Tourism Organization’s Global Code of Ethics.(8, 15)

National Migration Strategy*

Establishes policies that promote a human rights-based approach to migration. Facilitates the integration of legal immigrants. Provides services, including expanding access to public education facilities for migrant children, thus decreasing their vulnerability to child labor and human trafficking.(2, 5, 52)

UNDAF (2012–2016)*

Promotes education, health, and socioeconomic development in an effort to alleviate poverty. Focuses on providing equal access to education for vulnerable children.(56, 57)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government of Morocco funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Partnerships between the Government and NGOs Working Against Child Labor†

MOESA provided financial to eight NGOs working against child labor. From January to November 2015, resulted in prevention efforts that reached 1,037 children, the removal of 1,069 children under age 15 from work and the provision of educational assistance to their families, the improvement of the work and living conditions of 1,067 children between ages 15 and 18, and the mobilization and capacity building of stakeholders in child labor prevention benefitting 9,672 persons.(6, 8, 15)

Promise Pathways: Reducing Child Labor Through Viable Paths in Education and Decent Work (2014–2017)

$5 million USDOL-funded, 4-year program that aims to reduce child labor in Morocco by increasing access to education for 5,500 children (ages 6 to 17) and by providing livelihood and other social services to 1,000 siblings, parents, and caregivers age 18 and older in the Marrakech-Tensift-El-Haouz region. Conducts policy analysis and raises awareness on the hazards of child labor.(58) Builds the capacity of relevant government and nongovernment stakeholders to better address the issue. Targets children engaged in the production of handicrafts, domestic work, and agriculture.(5, 58)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research in Morocco.(59)

Rural Social Service Support

Royal family-funded, Mohammed V Foundation for Solidarity program that provides funding to NGOs that improve living conditions for very low-income populations.(5)

National Vocational Programs†

MONEVT program that provides education and training to at-risk youth; specific programs address factors that contribute to reduction of child labor.(2, 5)

Tayssir Conditional Cash Transfer Program†

MONEVT program that provides direct cash transfers of between $7 and $16 a month to qualifying families whose children meet school attendance criteria. Provides transportation and student housing through a program with Entraide Nationale.(5, 46) Aims to increase school enrollment and reduce dropout rates, particularly in rural areas.(28, 46, 60, 61) The program helped 828,400 students during the 2015–2016 school year with a budget of $91.9 million, compared to $86.4 million during 2014–2015, an increase of 6 percent.(6, 15)

MONEVT Funding for School Children†

MONEVT program that funds housing and transportation for school children. During the 2015–2016 school year: provided $105 million to cover the costs of dormitories for 149,737 children, student cafeterias utilized by 1.4 million children, and student houses, known as Dar Talib/Taliba, for 149,737 children. Transportation assistance totaled $3.8 million, which covered the costs of 516 buses and 15,454 all-terrain bikes, benefiting 122,636 students.(6, 15)

Entraide Nationale

Prevent child labor through improving school retention rates, in particular for girls in rural areas. It coordinates with MSWFSD and provides social services in MSWFSD’s social protection centers Dar Talib and Dar Taliba.(38)

“A Million Backpacks”†

Continued government-funded $38 million project that provides kits including backpacks, textbooks, and school materials. During the 2015–2016 school year, MONEVT provided 45% of the program’s total budget, or $17 million, which allowed 3,910,000 students to receive assistance.(6, 15)

Child Protection Centers†

Childhood Division of the Ministry of Youth and Sport program that provides social and educational services to minors referred by the courts. Serves victims of abuse, child laborers, and street children, among others. Aims to strengthen children’s ties with their families and society.(62, 63)

Child Reception Centers†

Government program to provide Child Reception Centers staffed by nurses and social workers. As of 2015, 96 Centers were operational at major hospitals to provide medical services to victims of violence and trafficking in persons.(15)

Child Protection Units†

Government program that provides temporary shelter for street children, including former child domestic workers. Offers medical, legal, and psychological services. Based in Casablanca, Essaouira, Marrakech, Meknès, and Tangier.(24, 46, 64)

Social Welfare Program

UNDAF program that addresses education, including equal access to education, especially for vulnerable children. Also addresses health and socio-economic development of children.(2)

Taking Action Against Child Domestic Work in Africa and the Union of Mediterranean Countries (2011–2015)

$1.3 million Government of France-funded, 5-year ILO IPEC regional project to combat child domestic labor.(65)

After-School Program for a Second Chance (E2C)†

Program provides students with after-school educational assistance. Was part of the Government’s nonformal education program engagement during the 2014–2015 school year and involved partnership agreements with associations that provided assistance to 29,935 student beneficiaries and 139 migrant children beneficiaries, to a school accompaniment program that provided assistance to 2,708 beneficiaries and 190 migrant children beneficiaries, and to a community mobilization program for preschool children that provided assistance to 30,174 beneficiaries. During the 2015–2016 school year, 70,000 students benefited from enrollment in E2C programs, and these programs included an education integration component for 721 migrant children.(6, 15)

Program to Improve the Safety and Services at the Government’s Child Protection Centers (2011–2015)

$2 million USDOS-funded project implemented by Bluelaw to improve the safety and services of the Ministry of Youth and Sport’s Child Protection Centers, by designing, and training staff on, a new set of standard operating procedures. Provide social and educational services to minors referred by the courts.(15, 38)

End Violence (2014–2015)

MSWFSD program, with support from UNICEF, that seeks to end violence against children.(6, 8, 15) Launched a national public awareness campaign on November 20, 2014, to commemorate the International Day of Children’s Rights and ran until May 25, 2015. Primary objective was to increase awareness of children’s rights and efforts to protect children at home; at school; at work; and online.(6, 8, 15)

Favorable Opportunities to Reinforce Self-Advancement for Today’s Youth (FORSATY) (2012-2017)

$8.7 million USAID Morocco-funded, 5-year project implemented by IOM, seeks to prevent youth delinquency and reduce recidivism among at-risk youth. Implemented in close collaboration with MONEVT at the regional level and focuses on ensuring the social inclusion of marginalized youth, promoting a safer community environment, and strengthening NGOs and public youth-serving institutions.(15)

† Program is funded by the Government of Morocco. 

Although the Government of Morocco has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. Research could not find programs aimed at reducing child labor in domestic work and street peddling.

In 2015, NGOs that work with child laborers and at-risk children reported receiving only a small portion of their expected projected funding needs from the Government. They stressed that government support was not sufficient to carry out their activities; most were required to rely on private and international donations.(8, 15) NGOs reported that their government counterparts lack the necessary qualifications to address child labor issues effectively, especially in hospital and court units.(8, 15, 32)

Data gaps continue to exist regarding the nature and extent of child labor in Morocco. While the Government expressed its support to work with the ILO-IPEC on carrying out a national child labor survey, there have been insufficient efforts to begin implementing the survey.(2, 3, 5) Research is lacking particularly on the specific types of activities carried out by children working in farming, construction, and forestry, as well as comprehensive data on the number of child domestic workers, children subjected to commercial sexual exploitation, and children engaged in street work such as begging.

Based on the reporting above, the following actions would advance the continued prevention of child labor, including its worst forms, in Morocco (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws prohibit child trafficking.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that laws prohibit children from being used, procured, or offered for the production and trafficking of illicit drugs.

2015

Ensure that all children are protected by law, including children who are self-employed, work for artisan businesses with less than five employees, or in private farms.

2009 – 2015

Increase the penalties for those who employ children in hazardous work.

2012 – 2015

Enforcement

Make information publicly available on the funding of the labor inspectorate, the training system for inspectors, the number of inspections conducted at worksite and by desk review, and whether a reciprocal referral mechanism exists between labor authorities and social services.

2015

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor, and provide them with sufficient resources in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2012 – 2015

Streamline child labor enforcement procedures among government agencies.

         2013 – 2015 

Make information publicly available on the training system for criminal law enforcement investigators, the number of investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions for violations of criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor.

2012 – 2015

Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into National Migration Strategy and UNDAF policies.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Conduct a comprehensive study of children’s work activities, including in domestic work, commercial sexual exploitation, street work, farming, construction, and forestry, to determine whether children are engaged in or at risk of being involved in child labor, and the number child laborers.

2013 – 2015

Take measures to ensure children’s safety in schools and remove barriers to education.

2013 – 2015

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2014 – 2015

Institute programs to address the worst forms of child labor in domestic work and street peddling.

2013 – 2015

Ensure adequate funding for NGOs that carry out programs to combat child labor.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that Government staff who carry out work related to child labor, especially those in hospital and court units, are qualified.

2013 – 2015

 

 

1.         ILO-IPEC. Etude sur la collecte de données sur les activités des enfants dans le secteur des petites exploitations agricoles au Maroc. Geneva; March 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_26515/lang--fr/index.htm.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Rabat. reporting, January 16, 2014.

3.         Haut Commissariat au Plan. Evolution du Phénomène du Travail des Enfants au Maroc. Press Release. Rabat; June 12, 2011. http://www.hcp.ma/attachment/279986/.

4.         ILO-IPEC Rabat official. Interview with USDOL official. February 20, 2013.

5.         U.S. Consulate- Casablanca. reporting, January 15, 2015.

6.         Government of Kingdom of Morocco. Données relatives au questionnaire du département d'Etat Américain sur la traite des êtres humains et le travail des enfants au titre de l'année 2014 et 2015. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (October 27, 2015) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor"; February 17, 2016. http://webapps.dol.gov/FederalRegister/PdfDisplay.aspx?DocId=28552.

7.         U.S. Department of State. "Morocco," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236826.pdf.

8.         U.S. Consulate- Casablanca. reporting, January 28, 2016.

9.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of Morocco. Geneva; October 14, 2014. Report No. CRC/C/MAR/CO/3-4. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/MAR/CO/3-4&Lang=En.

10.       Idrissi, HA. Etude sur la violence sexuelle à l’encontre des enfants au Maroc. Rabat, UNICEF and AMANE; December 2014. http://www.unicef.org/morocco/french/Etude_sur_la_VS_2014.pdf.

11.       Tennent, J. "Moroccan's are Sick of Their Country's Pedophile Problem." vice.com [online] September 3, 2013 [cited http://www.vice.com/read/is-morocco-replacing-southeast-asia-as-a-haven-for-european-paedophiles.

12.       U.S. Department of State. "Morocco," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/index.htm.

13.       UN Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, ewac, Joy Ngozi Ezeilo,. Report of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, Joy Ngozi Ezeilo: Visit to Morocco. Geneva, UN Human Rights Council; April 1, 2014. Report No. A/HRC/26/37/Add.3. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session26/Documents/A-HRC-26-37-Add3_en.doc.

14.       Haut Commissariat au Plan. Activité, emploi et chômage (trimestriel), deuxième trimestre 2015. Rabat; 2015. http://www.hcp.ma/downloads/.

15.       U.S. Consulate- Casablanca. reporting, January 26, 2016.

16.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

17.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquête sur la Population et la Santé Familiale, 2003-2004. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

18.       Creative Associates International. USDOL Promise Pathways: Combating Exploitative Child Labor in Morocco Baseline Report. Washington; August 6, 2015.

19.       "Journée mondiale contre le travail des enfants – 123.000 enfants de 7 à 15 ans concernés au Maroc." Maroc Press, Casablanca, June 11, 2012. http://www.marocpress.com/fr/aufaitmaroc/article-4633.html.

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