Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Morocco

2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Morocco made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government published information on criminal and labor law enforcement efforts, in addition to investigating and prosecuting criminal cases involving child labor violations. Moreover, it operated child protection centers and continued to fund the Tayssir Conditional Cash Transfer Program, providing direct cash transfers to qualifying families whose children meet school attendance criteria, reaching more than 2 million students in 2018. The government also launched social programs focused on providing vocational training to at-risk youth, and assistance to street children at risk of child labor. In addition, it drafted legislation to enhance enforcement abilities in the artisanal sector, specifically allowing labor inspectors to enter into private workshops employing any number of employees. However, children in Morocco engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced domestic work. Children also engage in child labor in producing artisanal handicrafts. Although the government made meaningful efforts in all relevant areas during the reporting period, laws related to the minimum age for work and the use of children for illicit activities do not meet international standards. The scope of government programs that target child labor is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

Children in Morocco engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced domestic work. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. (1-9) Government statistics from 2017 showed 30,545 children ages 7 to 15 working; however, the government has not yet made the full data set available, including microdata, leaving the nature and causes of children’s involvement in specific forms of child labor unknown. (10,11) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Morocco.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

10 to 14

4.5 (150,178)

Attending School (%)

6 to 14

82.9

Combining Work and School (%)

10 to 14

0.7

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

92.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (12)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Enquête sur la Population et la Santé Familiale (DHS), 2003–2004. (13)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting and harvesting argan, grain, olives, vegetables, and fruits (1)

Herding goats, cattle, and sheep and raising them for the production of fertilizer, and cattle for the production of milk and butter (1,2)

Fishing (3,4,10)

Forestry, activities unknown (3,4,14)

Industry

Construction, including in carpentry† (4,15)

Weaving textiles (2,16)

Producing artisanal crafts (3,4,15)

Metallurgy, including welding (2,4,15)

Services

Begging (17-19)

Domestic work (3,5,18,20-22)

Working as salespersons in stores and as tour guides (15)

Tailoring textiles (15,16)

Working as waiters in cafés or restaurants (15)

Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles (2,16)

Street vending (2,15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4-9,18,23)

Forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3-6,9,20)

Begging as a result of human trafficking (4-6,9)

Illegal sand extraction (25)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Morocco is a source, destination, and transit country for children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. (7,8,18,24,26)

According to local union observations, rural Moroccan girls, some as young as age 6, are recruited for domestic work in private urban homes. Girls from Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, and Senegal are brought to Morocco for this same purpose. (6,8,27) Some of these girls are subjected to physical and verbal abuse, excessive working hours without regular periods of rest or days off, and no access to educational opportunities. (6,8,27)

Children face barriers to accessing education, including distance to schools, inadequate transportation, prohibitive costs associated with attending school, and the lack of safety and inclusiveness to accommodate students of diverse backgrounds and abilities. These barriers to education increase vulnerability to child labor, especially in rural areas. (1,3,6,23,28) Children with disabilities face additional barriers to education, such as inadequate facilities and support. (6,19,29) Some migrant children, particularly unaccompanied children from sub-Saharan Africa and rural children, face additional barriers to accessing education, such as lack of knowledge of the language of instruction. Furthermore, because birth certificates are required to attend school past the fifth grade, many unregistered children remain out of school and vulnerable to child labor.(23,30,31)

Morocco has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Morocco’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms child labor, including prohibiting the use of children in illicit activities.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

15

Article 143 of the Labor Code (32)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 147 of the Labor Code (32)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Child Labor List, Decree No. 2-10-183; Article 181 of the Labor Code (32,33)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 10 of the Labor Code (32)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 448.1, 448.4–448.5 of the Law on Trafficking in Human Beings (34)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 503 of the Penal Code (35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

   

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 4 of Royal Decree of 9 June 1966 (36)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes

 

Article 4 of Law No. 44-18 (37)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Articles 448.1 and 448.4 of the Law on Trafficking in Human Beings (34)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 1 of Law No. 04-00 (38)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 1 of Law No. 04-00 (38)

Following the passage of the Law on Setting Up Employment Conditions of Domestic Workers in 2016, the law entered into force on October 2, 2018. However, despite regulations to inform agencies on implementing the law, enforcement issues remain, such as the inability of labor inspectors to inspect closed private residences, where many domestic workers are employed. (23,39) In 2018, the Government of Morocco drafted legislation to enhance enforcement abilities in the artisanal sector, specifically allowing labor inspectors to enter private workshops employing any number of employees. (9,40) In addition, in 2018, the Government of Morocco instated military conscription for the national armed forces with an age of 19. (41)

Currently, the law does not provide explicit protections for self-employed children, those who work in the traditional artisan or handicraft sectors for businesses with fewer than five employees, or those who work on private farms or in residences. Despite assurances from the Government of Morocco that inspectors could inspect in the case of any established labor relationship, often verified through witnesses in the absence of contracts, there is an absence of explicit legal protections that conform to international standards, which require all children to be protected under the law establishing a minimum age for work. (5,11,22,32,40,42,43) In addition, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not fully cover sectors in which child labor is known to occur or sectors in which work conditions may harm children’s health, safety, and morals. (33) Moroccan law does not define using, procuring, or offering of children for either the production or trafficking of drugs as a separate crime; nor does it provide for increased penalties in such cases. (31,39)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Integration (MOLVI) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Vocational Integration (MOLVI)

Enforces child labor laws and oversees programs on child labor as lead agency through its child labor task force. (3,5,9,23,31) Provides occupational health and safety services, administers social security, and organizes labor inspections and employment services through nationwide satellite offices. (3)

Ministry of the Interior

Enforces prohibitions on trafficking in persons and prostitution and other exploitative crimes involving minors, as established in the Penal Code, through the General Directorate of National Security. (5,9,23)

General Prosecutor

Prosecutes criminal offenses against children and processes cases involving women and children within the court system. (9,23,44)

Ministry of Solidarity, Women, Family, and Social Development (MSWFSD)

Ensures continuity of child protection and child labor elimination efforts and expands children’s access to education. (45) Implements the Integrated Public Policy on the Protection of Children. (4,5) Supports 142 Child Reception Centers that provide services to child victims of violence. (31)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation

Coordinates efforts to reduce migrant vulnerability to child labor through its Delegate Ministry in Charge of Moroccans Living Abroad and Migration Affairs. Promotes migrant children’s access to public education facilities and other social services and assistance. (3,44,46)

Ministry of National Education, Vocational Training, Higher Education, and Scientific Research

Provides education and job training to children, including former child domestic workers and migrant youth through the Office of Vocational Training and Work Promotion centers. (31,40,44)

In 2018, the Office of the General Prosecutor selected 42 prosecutors nationwide from the courts of appeals as responsible for handling trafficking in persons cases. (9)

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Morocco took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the MOLVI that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including penalty assessment authorization.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (44)

Unknown (23)

Number of Labor Inspectors

304 (44)

297 (23)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (44)

No (23)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (44)

Yes (23)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (44)

Yes (23)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (44)

Yes (23)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

350† (44)

25,882 (23)

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (44)

25,882 (23)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

1,713 (44)

2,824 (23)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

11 (44)

0 (23)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (44)

0 (23)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (44)

Yes (23)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (44)

Yes (23)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (44)

Yes (23)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (44)

Yes (23)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (44)

Yes (23)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (44)

Yes (23)

† Data are from January 1, 2017 to September 30, 2017. (47)

The sectors most frequently inspected included trade, agriculture, and metal and woodwork. There are 22 inspectors dedicated to agriculture, as well as 23 engineers and 18 physicians in charge of health and safety labor inspections, and the government also has 54 dedicated child labor points of contact distributed across the country in various governmental departments. (23,31,44,47) During 2018, labor inspectors participated in 18 separate training sessions, and during the first 9 months of the year removed 14 children under the age of 15 from dangerous working conditions. In the first 9 months of 2018, the government conducted 25,822 labor inspections, including 263 focused on child labor. Last year's reported figures referred only to inspections focused on child labor. (23) The government prescribes a quota of 20 labor inspections per inspector each month, conducted in the formal market. (40)

Insufficient resources, including an insufficient number of inspectors, hamper the labor inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws. (5,39,48,49) Although Morocco employs 297 labor inspectors, the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Morocco’s workforce, which includes more than 12 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Morocco should employ about 800 inspectors. (48,50,51) The official procedures involved in processing child labor violations require the participation of several agencies for each case, which places considerable administrative burdens on labor inspectors. (2) Government officials, local stakeholders, and the ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations report that the penalties against companies that employ children in hazardous work, set forth in the Labor Code, are insufficient deterrents. (22,48)

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Morocco took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including publication of criminal law enforcement data.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Unknown (44)

Yes (23)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (44)

N/A (23)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (44)

Yes (23)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (44)

12 (23)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (44)

1 (23)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

3 (44)

5 (23)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (44)

Unknown (23)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (44)

Yes (23)

Criminal authorities refer victims to appropriate social services through coordination with the government's 54 dedicated child labor points of contact across other government entities and through civil society actors. (23,39)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Technical Committee Under the Special Ministerial Commission for Children for the Protection and Improvement of Childhood

Ensures inter-sectoral coordination and monitoring for implementing international conventions on children’s issues through a committee of 25 government bodies, chaired by the Head of the Government of Morocco. Establishes strategies and mechanisms to implement national policies and plans for child protection and coordinates the management of efforts at the local and regional levels. (31) In 2018, the committee met twice to coordinate inter-agency policies and programs, and to create an action plan for 2019. (23)

The government has established policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

MSWFSD’s Integrated Public Policy on the Protection of Children in Morocco (PPIPEM)

Promotes an interdisciplinary approach to respond to child exploitation and other issues. (3-5,52,53) Stakeholders in PPIPEM confirmed formal meetings for review and discussion of progress related to the policy during the reporting period. (40)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of efforts to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Measurement, Awareness-Raising, and Policy Engagement Project on Child Labor and Forced Labor (MAP16)*

USDOL-funded project implemented by ILO to conduct research and develop new survey methodologies, improve awareness, strengthen policies and government capacity, and promote partnerships to combat child labor and forced labor. Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Tayssir Conditional Cash Transfer Program†

MSWFSD program that provides direct cash transfers to qualifying families whose children meet school attendance criteria. Aims to increase school enrollment and reduce dropout rates, particularly in rural areas, with 832,500 recipients in 2015–2016 and 509,475 recipients in 2016–2017. (3,11,46) In 2018, the program provided assistance to 2,087,200 students from low-income families. (23)

Government-Funded Shelters and Centers†

MSWFSD's Entraide Nationale agency manages three key shelter and support centers ­ Child Protection Units, Social Assistance Centers, and Orientation and Accompaniment Centers for People with Disabilities ­ providing services to child victims of all types of violence, street children, migrant children and refugees, and those with disabilities. (39,40,44,47,54) Other shelters and service centers include student dormitories and training and integration programs for vulnerable children. (39,40,44,47) In 2018, the government operated 82 Child Protection Units across the country, and conducted a campaign in Marrakech in November to raise awareness in schools on the domestic service law. (40)

After-School Program for a Second Chance (E2C)†

Provides students with afterschool educational assistance as part of non-formal education program. (4,44) In 2018, program officials from the Direction of Non-Formal Education, which manages the program, noted that follow-up efforts in October to reach students who failed to return to school reached more than 30,000 students, facilitating the return to educational institutions of approximately one third of them. (40)

Government-funded Projects*†

MSWFS-funded project Mouwakaba assists 2,700 at-risk youth in 6 cities with vocational training. The "Cities without Street Children" project provides assistance to homeless children in Casablanca and Méknes. (23)

USAID-Funded Projects to Address Child Labor

USAID projects in Morocco that aim to increase the social and economic inclusion of at-risk youth (ages 10–24) living in the marginalized neighborhoods of Tangier and Tetouan. Includes Favorable Opportunities to Reinforce Self-Advancement for Today’s Youth (FORSATY) (2012–2017), a $12.77 million project implemented by Search for Common Ground. (48)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Morocco.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (2-5,9,44,47,48)

In 2018, the government continued a regularization campaign to provide legal status and documentation to foreign migrants. (9) Although the government has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, including for children engaged in forced domestic work. (3,39,44)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Morocco (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws prohibit children from being used, procured, or offered for the production and trafficking of illicit drugs.

2015 – 2018

Ensure that all children are protected by law, including children who are self-employed, work for artisan and handicraft businesses with fewer than five employees, or work on private farms or in residences.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that the types of hazardous work that may harm children’s health, safety, and morals are prohibited and comprehensive.

2016 – 2018

Implement regulations related to the Law on Setting Up Employment Conditions of Domestic Workers.

2017 – 2018

Enforcement

Publish information on the funding of the labor inspectorate.

2015 – 2018

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor to meet the ILO technical advice, and ensure sufficient labor inspectorate resources.

2012 – 2018

Streamline child labor enforcement procedures among government agencies.

2013 – 2018

Publish information on the convictions pertaining to the criminal law enforcement of child labor.

2012 – 2018

Increase penalties for employers who use children in hazardous work.

2012 – 2018

Publish information on the number of convictions and imposed penalties pertaining to the criminal enforcement of child labor laws.

2017-2018

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties.

2017 – 2018

Social Programs

Take measures to ensure children’s safety in schools; remove barriers to education, especially for children with disabilities, language issues, rural children, and migrant children; and increase birth registration rates.

2013 – 2018

Expand existing programs to address the full scope of the child labor problem, including in forced domestic work.

2013-2018

Collect and publish microdata on the extent and nature of child labor to inform policies and programs, including in agriculture, industry, and services.

2016 – 2018

  1. ILO-IPEC. Etude sur la collecte de données sur les activités des enfants dans le secteur des petites exploitations agricoles au Maroc. Geneva, April 14, 2015.
    http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_26515/lang--fr/index.htm.

  2. U.S. Consulate- Casablanca. Reporting. January 16, 2014.

  3. U.S. Consulate- Casablanca. Reporting. January 15, 2015.

  4. Government of Morocco. Données relatives au questionnaire du département d'Etat Américain sur la traite des êtres humains et le travail des enfants au titre de l'année 2014 et 2015. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (October 27, 2015) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Rabat. February 17, 2016. Source on file.

  5. U.S. Consulate- Casablanca. Reporting. January 28, 2016.

  6. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of Morocco. Geneva, October 14, 2014: CRC/C/MAR/CO/3-4.
    http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/MAR/CO/3-4&Lang=En.

  7. Idrissi, Hynd Ayoubi. Etude sur la violence sexuelle à l’encontre des enfants au Maroc. Rabat: UNICEF and AMANE, December 2014.
    https://www.unicef.org/morocco/rapports/profil-de-la-pauvreté-des-enfants-au-maroc.

  8. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, Joy Ngozi Ezeilo: Visit to Morocco. Geneva, April 1, 2014: A/HRC/26/37/Add.3.
    http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session26/Documents/A-HRC-26-37-Add3_en.doc.

  9. U.S. Consulate- Casablanca. Reporting. March 4, 2019.

  10. Haut Commissariat au Plan du Maroc. Activité, emploi et chômage, troisième trimestre 2017. Division des Enquetes sur L'Emploi, 2018.
    https://www.hcp.ma/file/199279/.

  11. U.S. Consulate- Casablanca official. Email communication to USDOL official. June 7, 2018.

  12. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary, both sexes (%). Accessed: March 16, 2019. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  13. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics From National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Enquête sur la Population et la Santé Familiale, 2003–2004. Analysis received March 12, 2019.
    Please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  14. Tazi, Rania. Morocco Has High Level of Child Labor. Morocco World News, June 15, 2016.
    https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2016/06/189069/moroccohashighlevelofchildlaborhcp/.

  15. Creative Associates International. USDOL Promise Pathways: Combating Exploitative Child Labor in Morocco Baseline Report. Washington, DC. August 6, 2015. Source on file.

  16. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Morocco (Ratification: 2000) Published: 2016. Accessed: November 8, 2016.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3245254.

  17. Human Rights Watch. Abused and Expelled: Ill-Treatment of Sub-Saharan African Migrants in Morocco. New York, February 10, 2014.
    https://www.hrw.org/report/2014/02/10/abused-and-expelled/ill-treatment-sub-saharan-african-migrants-morocco.

  18. U.S. Consulate- Casablanca. Reporting. February 21, 2017.

  19. UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Concluding observations on the initial report of Morocco. September 25, 2017: CRPD/C/MAR/CO/1.
    http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRPD/C/MAR/CO/1&Lang=en.

  20. Human Rights Watch. World Report 2015: Morocco/Western Sahara: Events of 2014. New York. 2015
    https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2015/country-chapters/morocco/western-sahara.

  21. Ouest-France. Le travail des enfants perdure au Maroc. November 1, 2017.
    https://www.ouest-france.fr/monde/maroc/le-travail-des-enfants-perdure-au-maroc-5349922.

  22. ILO. 2019 Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations. February 8, 2019.
    https://www.ilo.org/global/standards/applying-and-promoting-international-labour-standards/committee-of-experts-on-the-application-of-conventions-and-recommendations/WCMS_669784/lang--en/index.htm.

  23. U.S. Consulate- Casablanca. Reporting. February 8, 2019.

  24. Tennent, James. Moroccan's are Sick of Their Country's Pedophile Problem. Vice, September 3, 2013.
    http://www.vice.com/read/is-morocco-replacing-southeast-asia-as-a-haven-for-european-paedophiles.

  25. Quérouil, Manon and Véronique de Viguerie. Trucks and Children Are Sucking the Beaches of Morocco. Vice, May 19, 2015.
    https://www.vice.com/read/the-sand-looters-0000647-v22n5.

  26. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Morocco. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2017-trafficking-in-persons-report/morocco/.

  27. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Morocco (Ratification: 2001) Published: 2016.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:2700618.

  28. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food on her mission to Morocco. Geneva. February 12, 2016: A/HRC/31/51/Add.2.
    http://ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session31/Documents/A-HRC-31-51-Add-2.doc.

  29. UN Human Rights Council. List of issues in relation to the sixth periodic report of Morocco: Addendum: Replies of Morocco to the list of issues. Prepared by the Government of Morocco, Replies of Morocco to the list of issues, 2016.
    http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR/C/MAR/Q/6/Add.1&Lang=en.

  30. UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Concluding observations on the fourth periodic report of Morocco. Geneva, October 22, 2015: E/C.12/MAR/CO/4.
    http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E/C.12/MAR/CO/4&Lang=En.

  31. U.S. Consulate- Casablanca official. Email communication to USDOL official. June 6, 2017.

  32. Government of Morocco. Le nouveau code de travail. Enacted: May 6, 2004.
    http://adapt.it/adapt-indice-a-z/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Code_du_travail_2004.pdf.

  33. Government of Morocco. Décret n° 2-10-183 du 9 hija 1431 (16 novembre 2010) fixant la liste des travaux auquels il est interdit d'occuper certaines catégories de personnes, No. 2-10-183. Enacted: November 16, 2010.
    https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/86187/97101/F-1362261362/MAR-86187.pdf.

  34. Government of Morocco. Loi n° 27-14 relative à la lutte contre la traite des êtres humains, No. 27-14. Enacted: 2016.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/103357/125489/F1582466313/MAR-103357.pdf.

  35. Government of Morocco. Dahir n° 1-59-413 du 28 joumada II 1382 (26 novembre 1962) portant approbation du texte du code pénal, No. 1-59-413. Version consolidée en date du 15 septembre 2011. Enacted: 1963.
    https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/69975/69182/F1186528577/MAR-69975.pdf.

  36. Government of Morocco. Décret royal n° 137-66 du 20 safar 1386 (9 juin 1966) portant loi relatif à l'institution et à l'organisation du service militaire, No. 137-66. Enacted: June 9, 1966.
    http://adala.justice.gov.ma/production/html/Fr/93248.htm.

  37. Government of Morocco. Law No. 44-18. Enacted: 2018. Source on file.

  38. Government of Morocco. Loi n° 04-00, modifiant et complétant le dahir n°1-63-071 du 25 joumada II 1383 (13 novembre 1963) relatif à l’obligation de l’enseignement fondamental. Enacted: 2000. Source on file.

  39. U.S. Consulate- Casablanca. Reporting. January 17, 2017.

  40. U.S. Consulate- Casablanca. Reporting. May 20, 2019.

  41. Government of Morocco. Loi n° 44-18 Enacted: 2018. Source on file.

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