Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Kosovo

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Kosovo

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Kosovo made a significant advancement to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government drafted the Law on Child Protection, which would prohibit the use of children in illicit activities, and reauthorized the Committee for Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor to monitor child labor issues. The Government also increased funding for labor inspections and approved a new policy to improve education access for Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian children. In addition, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor and improving education access for children vulnerable to child labor. However, children in Kosovo engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and street work. Children from minority communities continue to face barriers to accessing education. In addition, the Labor Inspectorate continues to face financial and human resource constraints that impede its ability to conduct inspections in all relevant sectors.

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Children in Kosovo engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and street work.(1-6) A Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted from 2013 to 2014 determined that 5,398 children in Kosovo were engaged in child labor.(7) A parallel MICS targeting the Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian communities in Kosovo found that 2,168 children from these communities were engaged in child labor.(8) Data on key indicators on children’s work and education are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

11.7 (324,764)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

95.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

13.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

Unavailable

Primary completion rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014.(10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, activities unknown (3, 11)

Forestry, activities unknown (12)

Industry

Mining, including for coal† (3, 4, 13, 14)

Services

Street work,† including vending small items,† transporting goods,† and begging† (1, 3, 4, 11, 13-15)

Scavenging at dumpsites† (3, 4, 11)

Cleaning hotels and offices (16)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 4, 6, 17-19)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3-6, 17)

Use in illicit activities (3, 16)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Kosovo is a source and destination country for child trafficking, especially of girls, who are sometimes coerced into forced labor by organized criminal groups.(5, 6, 20) Children from Kosovo and neighboring countries are also subjected to forced begging in Kosovo, with the majority coming from the Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian minority ethnic groups.(1, 4, 6, 20) Ashkali, Egyptian, and Roma children, especially girls, continue to experience difficulty accessing education.(21-23) Birth certification is required for attending school in Kosovo. Some Roma children have challenges obtaining a birth certificate, which makes school enrollment difficult.(23-26) Children out of school are vulnerable to engage in the worst forms of child labor.

In addition, non-state armed groups, such as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), recruited parents, along with their children, from Kosovo for use in armed conflict in Syria.(27, 28)

Kosovo has ratified no key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

N/A

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

UN CRC

N/A

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

N/A

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

N/A

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

N/A

 

Kosovo is not a UN member country; therefore, the Government is not eligible to ratify international conventions concerning child labor. Article 22 of Kosovo’s Constitution, however, incorporates the UN CRC into the national legal framework.(29)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Kosovo’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 7 of the Labor Law (30)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 20, 23, 26–27, and 45 of the Labor Law (30)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Administrative Instruction No. 05/2013; Article 45 of the Labor Law; Administrative Instruction No. 2008 (14, 30, 31)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 6 of the Labor Law; Articles 169, 171, and 231 of the Criminal Code; Law on the Prevention and Elimination of Human Trafficking and Protection of the Victims of Trafficking (30, 32, 33)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 171 and 231 of the Criminal Code; Law on the Prevention and Elimination of Human Trafficking and Protection of the Victims of Trafficking (32, 33)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 231, 237–238, and 241–242 of the Criminal Code (32)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

Articles 273–282 of the Criminal Code (32)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 13 of the Law on the Kosovo Security Force (34)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

Article 153 of the Criminal Code (32)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 9 of the Law on Pre-University Education (35)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 9 of the Law on Pre-University Education (35)

* No conscription (34)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (35)

The Government approved a draft Law on Child Protection and it was submitted to a standing committee for further action.(36) The draft law would criminalize violence, abuse, exploitation, and neglect of children, including child beggars, and would prohibit the use of children in illicit activities.(5, 36)

The Criminal Code does not specifically prohibit recruitment of children ages 16 and 17 by non-state armed groups.(32)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MLSW) Labor Inspectorate (LI)

Conduct inspections to enforce child labor laws and refer all cases of children involved in hazardous work to the MLSW Regional Centers for Social Work (Social Work Centers (SWCs)). Through regional SWCs address child labor, provide social services, and compile cases into a nationwide database.(3) Through the Department of Social Welfare, remove children engaged in hazardous child labor.(13)

Kosovo Police (KP)

Enforce criminal laws on forced child labor and commercial sexual exploitation of children. Through the Directorate of Trafficking in Human Beings, enforce laws on child trafficking.(3, 37) Operate under the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MOIA).(4)

Ministry of Justice

Enforce criminal laws on forced child labor, child trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation of children.(37)

Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology

Conduct education inspections on students’ balance of school and work hours.(38)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Kosovo took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$612,632 (3)

$633,002 (4)

Number of Labor Inspectors

51 (3)

51 (4)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

No (3)

N/A (4)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (3)

No (4)

Number of Labor Inspections

9,505 (3)

6,716 (4)

Number Conducted at Worksite

9,505 (3)

6,716 (4)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

N/A

0 (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

15 (19)

0 (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A

0 (4)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

N/A

0 (4)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (3)

Yes (26)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

 

In 2016, Social Work Centers (SWCs) reported 61 cases of children working on the street and 53 children were taken off the streets, offered healthcare services, and returned to their families.(4) In total, 18 children were referred to SWCs, of which 13 were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, 3 were in forced begging, and 2 were victims of forced labor in restaurants.(4)

Despite repeated requests by the Labor Inspectorate (LI) to increase personnel, the number of labor inspectors has remained the same since its inception in 2002.(4) Although there was an increase in funding in 2016, the LI noted that it lacked institutional capacity and financial and material resources to address child labor, in both the formal and informal sectors, and was unable to expand unannounced inspections.(4) The lack of child labor violations detected by the LI in 2016 is likely related to these gaps in institutional capacity.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Kosovo took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

N/A (26)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (3)

18 (4)

Number of Violations Found

21 (3)

13 (4)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (3)

Unknown (4)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (3)

Unknown (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

* The Government does not publish this information.

The Kosovo Police (KP) includes 55 human trafficking investigators, 4 which are dedicated to child trafficking. In 2016, 14 investigators were trained on child abuse, investigative skills, and international legislation on child exploitation.(4, 19) The Government also organized roundtables on human trafficking, including child begging, to create greater awareness and prevention.(5) However, legal training on human trafficking for prosecutors and judges was insufficient, causing ineffective prosecutions and incorrect legal application.(4, 5, 39) In addition, better supervision of trafficking in persons (TIP) cases and specialization of prosecutors and judges is needed in order to reduce case backlog.(5)

While there was proactive screening of populations vulnerable to trafficking, a source noted that foreign forced beggars were not properly screened by the SWCs and police.(5, 18, 26) In some cases, victims were repatriated to their country of origin without referral to SWCs or police in those countries; the lack of coordination resulted in forced beggars being forcibly returned to Kosovo to beg again.(26) The KP do not systematically track whether children involved in child labor are referred to providers of social services as a result of investigations.(26, 37)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Committee for Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor (KKPEPF)

Coordinate government policies to combat child labor, oversee and provide policy guidance for activities to prevent and eliminate child labor. Comprises representatives of government agencies, the KP, trade unions, and an NGO.(13) In 2016, met to discuss a new National Strategy and Action Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor for 2017.(40) During the reporting period, the Government reauthorized the KKPEPF to monitor child labor issues.(4, 41)

Child Labor Monitoring System (CLMS)

Address child labor at the municipal level, identify and provide child services, document child labor trends, and evaluate local responses to child labor.(3)

National Agency Against Trafficking in Persons (NAATIP)

Coordinate policy implementation, monitor and report on actions to combat child trafficking through a National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator.(2, 42, 43) Chaired by MOIA. Includes representatives from the Government, NGOs, and international community.(4) In 2016, discussed anti-TIP initiatives and coordination in monthly meetings.(5)

Municipal Local Action Committees

Prevent and eliminate child labor and report to the CLMS. Members include school representatives, municipal education departments, and the KP.(13, 25)

 

In late 2013, the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MLSW) began using new software to collect and process data on labor violations, and to make these data available to all ministries and law enforcement bodies.(3) During the reporting period, however, the Child Labor Monitoring System continued to lack quality data analysis and there was unsatisfactory data sharing between municipal authorities and the MLSW.(4, 43)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Strategy and Action Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor (2011–2016)

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in Kosovo, with a focus on prevention and withdrawal of children from the worst forms of child labor, protection of young workers, and gender concerns.(44) The Government did not increase funding for activities in 2016.(4, 26)

National Strategy and Action Plan Against Trafficking in Persons (2015–2019)

Aims to prevent and combat human trafficking by awareness-raising, victim identification, and strengthening criminal law enforcement.(45, 46) In 2016, monitored policies, referral mechanisms, and assistance to victims.(5)

Strategy for the Inclusion of Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian Communities (2016–2020)†

Focuses on inclusive education, employment, social issues, healthcare, and housing for Ashkali, Egyptian, and Roma communities. Aims to strengthen rights and full integration into society.(47)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

During the reporting period, the 2017–2021 Strategic Development Plan was approved, which includes early TIP identification for labor inspectors. The Government also drafted a list of TIP indicators for victim identification to ensure adequate referral to support services.(5) The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Strategy for the Inclusion of Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian Communities. In addition, the Government did not provide sufficient funds for social services for victims of child labor in the National Strategy and Action Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor in 2016.(26)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Kosovo Shelter Coalition and Hope and Homes for Children†

MLSW-funded coalition of NGOs that provide shelter to victims of human trafficking, domestic violence, and at-risk youth.(20) Continued to operate in 2016, but funding was insufficient.(4, 5)

Social Inclusion and Improvement of Living Conditions for Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptians, and Other Vulnerable Groups (2013–2016)†

Government and foreign donor-funded project implemented by Terre des Hommes.(48) Focused on improving the lives of minority communities through advocacy, housing, education, and employment. Based on the Government’s Strategy for the Integration of Ashkali, Egyptian, and Roma communities.(48) In 2016, the project was active and started a new phase.(4)

UN Common Development Plan (2016–2020)*

Funded and programmed by UN Kosovo Team. Focuses on international standards and human rights safeguards of migrants and the social protection and educational inclusion of Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian communities.(49)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Kosovo.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(4, 5, 18, 50)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Kosovo (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including Its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the draft Law on Child Protection is passed in order to prohibit the use of children in all illicit activities, including using, procuring, and offering of children for the production and trafficking of drugs.

2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Enforcement

Provide refresher courses to labor inspectors on laws related to child labor.

2009 – 2016

Increase the Labor Inspectorate’s budget, number of personnel, and access to needed resources to facilitate effective targeting and investigating cases of child labor, including ensuring that unannounced inspections are conducted in all relevant sectors.

2009 – 2016

Improve the collection, publication, and interagency sharing of data to appropriate services on the results of investigations related to criminal violations of child labor laws, including the number of related prosecutions initiated, the number of convictions, and the referral of children found in child labor.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the penalties in the legal framework regulating the crime of human trafficking are correctly applied, including by providing training and supervision to prosecutors and judges on the legal framework for human trafficking cases.

2012 – 2016

Properly screen all child victims of human trafficking, especially child beggars.

2016

Coordination

Improve capacity of the Child Labor Monitoring System to better analyze data on child labor and improve data sharing between municipal authorities and the MLSW.

2013 – 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Strategy for the Inclusion of Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian Communities.

2016

Provide sufficient funding for the National Strategy and Action Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor so that victims of child labor receive enough social services.

2016

Social Programs

Make additional efforts to register Ashkali, Egyptian, and Roma community children at birth.

2011 – 2016

Fully fund shelters that house child victims of trafficking.

2016

1.         Conflict Prevention Forum. Begging in Kosovo and Its Impact on People's Safety. Pristina; January 2014. http://www.saferworld.org.uk/resources/view-resource/788-begging-in-kosovo-and-its-impact-on-peoples-safety.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Pristina. reporting, March 17, 2014.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Pristina. reporting, January 14, 2016.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Pristina. reporting, January 20, 2017.

5.         U.S. Embassy- Pristina. reporting, February 15, 2017.

6.         U.S. Department of State. "Kosovo," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017. Washington, DC; June 27, 2017; https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271220.htm.

7.         UNICEF. Monitoring the situation of children and women: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2013-2014. Prishtina; 2014. https://mics-surveys-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/MICS5/Central%20and%20Eastern%20Europe%20and%20the%20Commonwealth%20of%20Independent%20States/Kosovo%20under%20UNSC%20res.%201244/2013-2014/Final/Kosovo%20%28UNSCR%201244%29%202013-14%20MICS_English.pdf.

8.         UNICEF. Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian Communities in Kosovo: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2013-2014. Prishtina; 2014. https://mics-surveys-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/MICS5/Central%20and%20Eastern%20Europe%20and%20the%20Commonwealth%20of%20Independent%20States/Kosovo%20under%20UNSC%20res.%201244%20%28Roma%2C%20Ashkali%2C%20and%20Egyptian%20Communities%29/2013-2014/Final/Kosovo%20%28UNSCR%201244%29%20%28Roma%2C%20Ashkali%2C%20and%20Egyptian%20Communities%29%202013-14%20MICS_English.pdf.

9.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014. Analysis received April 13, 2017. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Matierals section of this report.

11.       Curbing child labour in Kosovo: Let children be children, ILO, [online] February 9, 2015 [cited March 25, 2015]; http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/features/WCMS_343157/lang--en/index.htm.

12.       U.S. Embassy- Pristina official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 27, 2016.

13.       U.S. Embassy- Pristina. reporting, January 16, 2014.

14.       Republic of Kosovo. Administrative Instruction (AI) 05/2013 on the prevention and elimination of hazardous forms of child labor enacted 2013. http://www.kryeministri-ks.net/repository/docs/UDHEZIMI_ADMINISTRATIV_QRK_NR_05_2013.pdf.

15.       Morina, L. In Kosovo, a second chance for vulnerable children, [online] July 1, 2016 [cited October 18, 2016 http://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_91788.html.

16.       U.S. Department of State. "Kosovo," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2015&dlid=252863.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Pristina. reporting, February 8, 2016.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Pristina official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 31, 2017.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Pristina official. US DOL official. March 2, 2017.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Pristina. reporting, February 25, 2015.

21.       Human Rights Watch. Submission on Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Kosovo to the European Comission Progress Report Consultation. New York; June 2015. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/07/24/human-rights-watch-submission-bosnia-and-herzegovina-serbia-and-kosovo-european.

22.       Halili, D. Held Back and Excluded, Kosovo 2.0, [Blog] October 11, 2016 [cited November 8, 2016] http://kosovotwopointzero.com/en/held-back-and-excluded/.

23.       U.S. Department of State. "Kosovo," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265648.pdf.

24.       Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare. Annual report on the implementation of the Action Plan on Prevention and Elimination of Child Labour. Pristina; 2013. [Source on file].

25.       U.S. Embassy- Pristina official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 26, 2015.

26.       U.S. Embassy- Pristina official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 31, 2017.

27.       Azinovic, V. The New Lure of the Syrian War - The Foreign Fighters' Bosnian Contingent. Sarajevo, Atlantic Initiative 2016. http://www.atlanticinitiative.org/project-activities-nato-debates/497-the-new-lure-of-the-syrian-war-the-foreign-fighters-bosnian-contingent,-atlantic-initiative,-sarajevo-2016.html.

28.       Teggarty, N. Kosovo Looks to ISIS Wives In Order to Fight Extremism, The World Post, [Online] March 9, 2017 [cited March 15, 2017]; http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/kosovo-looks-to-isis-wives-in-order-to-fight-extremism_us_58c1ae33e4b054a0ea6900dd.

29.       Republic of Kosovo. Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo, enacted 2008. http://www.assembly-kosova.org/common/docs/Constitution1%20of%20the%20Republic%20of%20Kosovo.pdf.

30.       Republic of Kosovo. Labour Law, Law No.03/L –212, enacted October 8, 2001. http://www.assembly-kosova.org/common/docs/ligjet/2010-212-eng.pdf.

31.       Republic of Kosovo. Administrative Instructions No.2008 on Prevention and Eliminations of the Most Hazardous Forms of Child Labor in Kosovo. Pristina; 2008. http://mi-ks.net/en/administrative-instructions/?dy=2008.

32.       Republic of Kosovo. Criminal Code of the Republic of Kosovo, enacted January 1, 2013. http://www.assembly-kosova.org/common/docs/ligjet/Criminal%20Code.pdf.

33.       Republic of Kosovo. Law No. 04/L-218 On Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Victims of Trafficking, enacted August 19, 2013. http://www.mpb-ks.org/repository/docs/Ligji_kunder_trafikimit-_Anglisht.pdf.

34.       Republic of Kosovo. Law on the Kosovo Security Force, enacted March 13, 2008. http://www.gazetazyrtare.com/e-gov/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=140&Itemid=56&lang=en.

35.       Republic of Kosovo. Law on Pre-University Education in the Republic of Kosovo, No. 04/L-032, enacted August 29, 2011. http://www.kuvendikosoves.org/?cid=2,191,666.

36.       Republic of Kosovo. Draft Law on Child Protection. Pristina. http://www.kuvendikosoves.org/?cid=2,194,993.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Pristina. reporting, February 2, 2015.

38.       Republic of Kosovo. Law on Inspection of Education in Kosovo, enacted September 8, 2004. http://www.gazetazyrtare.com/e-gov/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=71&Itemid=28&lang=en.

39.       U.S. Department of State. "Kosovo," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2015/.

40.       Kosovo Committee for Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor. Kosovo Committee on Prevention and Elimination of Child Labour held a meeting, Kosovo Committee for Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor, [Online] July 1, 2016 [cited January 5, 2017]; http://www.komfkosova.org/mbahet-takimi-i-komitetit-te-kosoves-per-parandalimin-dhe-eliminimin-e-puneve-te-renda-te-femijeve/?lang=en.

41.       Republic of Kosovo. For the establishment of the Kosovo Committee for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor, 10/87, enacted May 13, 2016. [Source on file].

42.       U.S. Department of State. "Kosovo," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 24, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013/.

43.       U.S. Embassy- Pristina official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 4, 2016.

44.       Republic of Kosovo. National Strategy and Action Plan for Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor in Kosovo 2010-2016. Pristina; 2010. http://www.kryeministri-ks.net/repository/docs/Strategy_for_Prevention_and_Elimination_of_WFCL_English_FINAL_(2).pdf.

45.       Republic of Kosovo. National Strategy against Trafficking in Human Beings in Kosovo 2015-2019. Pristina; 2015. http://www.mpb-ks.org/repository/docs/ENG_Strategjia_kombetare_Kunder_trafikimit_me_njerez-Final_12.03.2015.pdf.

46.       Republic of Kosovo. National Action Plan against Trafficking in Human Beings in Kosovo 2015-2019. Pristina; 2015. http://www.mpb-ks.org/repository/docs/ENG_Plani_i_Veprimit_Kunder_trafikimit_-final_12.03.2015.pdf.

47.       Republic of Kosovo. Towards a New Policy Strategy for the inclusion of roma, ashkali and egyptian communities in Kosovo 2016-2020. Draft Project Document; May 2016. http://keen-ks.net/site/assets/files/1345/toward_a_new_policy.pdf.

48.       Terre des Hommes. Kosovo Social inclusion project launched for Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian communities Terre des Hommes, [online] April 12, 2013 [cited January 27, 2014]; http://www.terredeshommes.hu/news/social-inclusion-project-launched-for-roma-ashkali-and-egyptian-communities/5943.

49.       United Nations Kosovo Team. The United Nations Common Development Plan 2016-2020. Project Document. Pristina; 2016. http://unkt.org/en/cdp/.

50.       Coalition of NGOs for Child Protection (KOMF). KOMF signed a contract with the European Union Office in Kosovo for the project “Protection of child rights in Kosovo”, KMOF, [Online] January 4, 2017 [cited January 6, 2017]; http://www.komfkosova.org/komf-nenshkruan-kontrate-me-zyren-e-bashkimit-evropian-ne-kosove-per-implementimin-e-projektit-mbrojtja-e-te-drejtave-te-femijeve-ne-kosove/?lang=en.

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