Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Jamaica

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Jamaica

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Jamaica made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. During the year, the Government approved the National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, which outlines goals for assisting victims of human trafficking and child labor and increasing awareness of trafficking violations through public education. In addition, the Government’s special Multi-Agency Strategic Development Child Protection Program ran a center to assist victims of the worst forms of child labor. However, children in Jamaica are engaged in child labor, including in street work and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Although the Government has laws prohibiting the use of children in some illicit activities, it does not prohibit the use, procurement, and offering of children for drug trafficking and production. In addition, programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Jamaica are engaged in child labor, including in street work.(1, 2) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(2-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Jamaica.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

5.4 (28,298)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

99.4

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

6.2

Primary completion rate (%):

96.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming,* activities unknown (2, 3, 7)

Fishing,* activities unknown (1, 8)

Industry

Construction,*† activities unknown (2)

Services

Garbage scavenging,* items include scrap metal* (2, 9)

Working in shops and markets (1, 2, 8)

Street work, including begging† and vending (1, 3, 10)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 3, 7, 10, 11)

Forced labor in domestic work (2)

Use in Illicit activities, including executing financial scams* and serving as drug couriers and dealers* (12-14)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3 (d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Jamaica has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor, including its worst forms (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 34(1) of the Child Care and Protection Act (15, 16)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 34(3) of the Child Care and Protection Act (15, 16)

Prohibitions of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 34(3)(b) and 41 of the Child Care and Protection Act of 2004; Section 55 of the Factories Act: Docks (Safety Health and Welfare) Regulations; Section 18 of the Mining Act; Section 49 of the Factories Act: Building Operations and Works of Engineering Construction Regulations (15-19)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Suppression and Punishment) Act; Section 10 of the Child Care and Protection Act (16, 20)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Suppression and Punishment) Act; Section 10 of the Child Care and Protection Act (16, 20)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Suppression and Punishment) Act; Section 3 of the Child Pornography (Prevention) Act; Section 40 of the Sexual Offences Act (20-27)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Section 18(2) of the Defense Act (28, 29)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18

Section 21 of the Education Act (30)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 13 of the Jamaican Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms (22, 31)

* No conscription.(29)

Although Section 40 of the Child Care and Protection Act prohibits the use of children in selling tobacco and alcohol, it does not address using, procuring, or offering a child for producing and trafficking drugs.(16) Likewise, the Dangerous Drugs Act prohibits the illegal manufacture and distribution of dangerous drugs, such as opium, morphine, and cocaine; however, it does not specifically penalize using, procuring, or offering a child for the production and distribution of these dangerous drugs.(32)

The Child Care and Protection Act establishes the minimum age for employment at age 15, but allows children ages 13 to 14 to engage in light work; however, the Government has not finalized the list of occupations and hours considered as light work. The draft list includes hair braiding, clerical work, newspaper vending, supermarket packing, and household chores.(15, 16, 33) Although the Government has some prohibitions on hazardous work for children in specific industries, in 2010, the Government drafted the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act that would introduce a comprehensive list of prohibitions on hazardous work for children, but the OSH Act has yet to be adopted. The list under review by Parliament would specify 45 hazardous occupations prohibited for children under age 18.(3, 25, 26, 33) The draft statute identifies those hazardous occupations, which include, among others, fishing at sea, working on construction sites, participating in the production of pornography, and engaging in illicit activities that involve weapons. If adopted, the OSH Act will increase current fines for employers who illegally use child labor and enable labor inspectors to access formerly prohibited workplace environments in the informal economic sector.(3, 10, 33)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS), Child Labor Unit and the Occupation Safety Health Department

Enforce and administer child labor laws in the formal economy. (3, 10, 34) Developed tracking system through flow charts to aid multiple-agency responses. Share information with all other agencies involved in child labor issues. (34)

Child Development Agency (CDA)

Enforce child labor laws, monitor related violations, and oversee efforts to address the problem. (3, 10)

Office of the Children’s Advocate (OCA)

Promote and protect the rights of children by establishing strategic partnerships to serve the best interest of the child.

Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF)

Enforce criminal laws, including those related to the worst forms of child labor. Includes a Trafficking in Persons Unit that investigates and prosecutes cases of child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. (10, 35, 36)

Center for the Investigation of Sexual Offences and Child Abuse

Investigate and prosecute sexual offenses and child abuse. Work in victim rehabilitation and conduct public education programs. Branch of the JCF. (37)

Office of the Children’s Registry (OCR)

Receive complaints and reports of suspected cases about child abuse.

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Jamaica took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$343,720† (8)

$379,200‡ (1)

Number of Labor Inspectors

16 (8)

16 (1)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (8)

No (1)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (8)

N/A (1)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (8)

N/A (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (8)

Yes (1)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown (8)

1,842 (1)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (8)

1,842 (1)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (8)

Unknown (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (8)

0 (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A (8)

N/A (1)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A (8)

N/A (1)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown (8)

Unknown (1)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (8)

Unknown (1)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (8)

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (1)

† Data are from March 30, 2014, to April 1, 2015.
‡ Data are from April 1, 2015, to March 31, 2016.

According to the ILO standard of one inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Jamaica should employ about 33 inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(38-40) In addition, labor inspectors conduct inspections only in the formal sector, such as factories, building sites, docks, and ships.(1) The Office of the Children’s Advocate (OCA) serves as a monitoring and public awareness-raising agency, while the Office of the Children’s Registry (OCR) is the repository for mandatory reports of child abuse.(1, 8) The Government has established a system to file and respond to complaints about child labor. During the year, the number of complaints received through the OCR 24-hour hotline has risen. The OCR receives reports of offenses against children, including child labor, child abuse, and human trafficking.(8)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Jamaica took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

N/A (8)

N/A (1)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (8)

N/A (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (8)

Yes (1)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (8)

0 (1)

Number of Violations Found

0 (8)

0 (1)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

2 (8)

0 (1)

Number of Convictions

0 (8)

0 (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

 

The Government provided training to the Jamaica Constabulary Force officers on child labor laws and the tools and training to carry out investigations and prosecutions.(8)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

MLSS Program for the Elimination of Child Labor

Coordinate the Government’s child labor policies and programs and identify gaps in legislation across ministries. The MLSS collaborates with the other ministries, such as the Ministry of Youth and Culture (OCA, OCR, CDA); the Ministry of Justice (National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons); and the Ministry of National Security, to address the legislative gaps.(41)

National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons

Facilitate information exchanges between government agencies and external stakeholders and create momentum for counter-trafficking efforts. Oversee the implementation of the country’s National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking.(26, 36) Led by the Ministry of Justice and includes representatives from the Ministries of National Security and Foreign Affairs; the JCF; the Department of the Public Prosecutor; and representatives from the Ministries of Health, Education, Labor, and Youth and Culture.(4, 10) Meets regularly with the JCF, Director of Public Prosecutions, and other ministries.(34)

 

The Government of Jamaica has established policies on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action on Child Labor (2012– 2015)

Aims to strengthen current legislative frameworks to address all forms of child labor, specifically focusing on children engaged in domestic service, prostitution, forced labor, and hazardous work in the agricultural and fishing industries. Identifies four primary objectives: (1) to collect current and reliable data on child labor, (2) to establish public awareness and sensitize the Jamaican people to the problem, (3) to improve the Labor Ministry personnel capacity to identify child laborers, and (4) to work with trade unions and the Jamaican Employers’ Federation to raise awareness among employees.(1, 10, 13, 42)

National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking (2015–2018)†

Targets law enforcement officials to address the commercial sexual exploitation of children, conducts public awareness campaigns, and implements outreach programs.(43)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through efforts by the signatories to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor in October 2013 and signed by Jamaica at the ILO 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru, October 2014.(44-46)

Compulsory Education Policy*

Ensures that all children between ages 3 and 18 have access to a learning institution or vocational training program. Includes the Career Advancement Program, which provides children ages 16 to 18 with an additional 2 years of schooling upon completion of the 11th grade.(47)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In December 2015, Jamaica participated in the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to promote decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas. Held in Cancún, Mexico, participating countries adopted the Declaration of Cancún 2015, which aims, in part, to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and promote education and vocational training for youth.(48, 49) Participating countries also adopted a Plan of Action that prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and the development of social protection policies for children and families.(49, 50)

In 2015, the Government of Jamaica funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Tackling Child Labor through Education Project (2008–2015)

Jointly launched by the European Commission and the ILO to combat child labor through education in 12 African and Caribbean countries and the Pacific group of states.(51) The Government worked closely with NGOs RISE and Children First to provide direct support to children engaging and at risk of engaging in child labor activities.(52, 53)

Program for Advancement through Health and Education (PATH)†

Funded by the Government of Jamaica and the World Bank, the conditional cash transfer program helps to reduce child labor by requiring participants to attend school at least 85 percent of the academic days in a month.(54-56) Recent evaluations of the PATH program reveal that children at the primary and secondary levels are not likely to reach that target.(56, 57). During the year, PATH assisted 223,000 beneficiaries, with 89 percent of boys and 90 percent of girls achieving education compliance at the primary level and 87 percent of boys and 90 percent of girls achieving education compliance at the secondary level. The Government expanded the program to assist parents whose children needed financial assistance to attend school.(1)

Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO to increase the knowledge base on child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity to conduct research in this area.(58)

Multi-Agency Strategic Development Child Protection Program†

Government program, established a center to assist victims of the worst forms of child labor.(1)

Shelter†

Government shelter to aid women and children trafficking victims.(10, 22)

† Program is funded by the Government of Jamaica.

Although Jamaica has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem of children in domestic work and street work.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Jamaica (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that legislation prohibits the use of children for all illicit activities, including procuring, and offering a child for drug trafficking and production.

2009 – 2015

Determine the specific light work activities and hours permissible for children between ages 13 and 14 to facilitate enforcement.

2014 – 2015

Enact the new Occupational Safety and Health Act that would specify prohibitions on hazardous occupations and activities for children under age 18.

2009 – 2015

Enforcement

Ensure that labor inspectors have authority to conduct unannounced inspections, issue fines, and determine penalties for child labor law violations to facilitate enforcement of child labor laws.

2014 – 2015

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws on child labor to provide sufficient coverage of the entire workforce.

2014 –2015

Ensure that labor inspections are conducted in not just the formal sector, such as factories, building sites, docks, and ships, but also in the informal sector in urban and rural communities.

2014 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Compulsory Education Policy.

2014 –2015

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children who are working, especially for children working in agriculture and construction to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2015

Expand programs that assist children in the worst forms of child labor and develop programs to aid children in domestic work and street work.

2013 – 2015

 

1.         U.S. Embassy- Kingston. reporting, January 29, 2016.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Jamaica," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236912.pdf.

3.         International Trade Union Confederation. Internationally Recognised Core Labour Standards in Jamaica: Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Jamaica. Geneva; January 18 and 20, 2011.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Kingston. reporting, February 20, 2013.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2011. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         Reynolds-Baker, A. "Government Resolute on Reducing Child Labour." jis.gov.jm [online] November 4, 2013 [cited January 17, 2014]; http://jis.gov.jm/govt-resolute-reducing-child-labour/.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Kingston. reporting, January 30, 2015.

9.         Weekley, K. "Child Labour in the Scrap-Metal Industry." jamaica-gleaner.com [online] June 1, 2011 [cited December 13, 2013]; http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20110601/lead/lead9.html.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Kingston. reporting, February 28, 2011.

11.       U.S. Department of the State. "Jamaica," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243462.htm.

12.       "More Parental Education Needed." The Gleaner, Kingston, February 19, 2011. http://go-jamaica.com/news/read_article.php?id=26626.

13.       Reid, T. "No Tracking System for Child Labourers." The Gleaner, Kingston, February 20, 2011. http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20110220/lead/lead5.html.

14.       International Trade Union Confederation. "Internationally Recognised Core Labour Standards in Jamaica: Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Jamaica," in WTO General Council Review; January 18 and 20, 2011; Geneva;

15.       Government of Jamaica. Response to Report: Form 2012. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2012) "Request for information on Efforts by Certain Counrties to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Kingston; September 2012.

16.       Government of Jamaica. Child Care and Protection Act, enacted 2004. http://www.moj.gov.jm/laws/statutes/The%20Child%20Care%20and%20Protection%20Act.pdf.

17.       Government of Jamaica. The Factories Act: The Docks (Safety, Health, and Welfare) Regulations 1968, 315/69, enacted May 27, 1968. http://www.ilocarib.org.tt/cariblex/jamaica_act4.shtml.

18.       Government of Jamaica. The Factories Act: The Building Operations and Works of Engineering Construction (Safety, Health, and Welfare) Regulations, 314/69, enacted May 27, 1968. http://www.ilocarib.org.tt/cariblex/jamaica_act3.shtml.

19.       Government of Jamaica. Mining Act, enacted October 13, 1947. http://moj.gov.jm/sites/default/files/laws/Mining%20Act.pdf.

20.       Governent of Jamaica. Trafficking in Persons (Prevention, Supression, and Punishment) Act, enacted August 4, 1971. http://www.cda.gov.jm/sites/default/files/content/Trafficking%20in%20Persons%20(Prevention,%20Suppresion%20and%20Punishment)-1.pdf.

21.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Jamaica (ratification: 2003) Submitted: 2011; accessed December 17, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=27072&chapter=9&query=%28Jamaica%29+%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.

22.       Government of Jamaica. Response of the Government of Jamaica to the Findings of the 2011 Report of the U.S. Department of Labour on the Worst Forms of Child Labour Pertaining to Jamaica. Submitted in response to the U.S. Department of Labor letter to the Embassy of Jamaica (December 14, 2012) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Washington, DC; January 8, 2013.

23.       Government of Jamaica. Cyber Crimes Act, enacted March 17, 2010. http://moj.gov.jm/sites/default/files/laws/Cybercrimes%20Act.pdf.

24.       Government of Jamaica. Sexual Offences Act, Act 12, enacted 2009.

25.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Jamaica (ratification: 2003) Published: 2011; accessed December 18, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=12707&chapter=6&query=%28Jamaica%29+%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.

26.       Government of Jamaica. Report filed with the ILO under Article 22 of the ILO Constitution for the period ending August 31, 2012 in reference to the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182)

Kingston; September 4, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11110:0::NO:11110:P11110_COUN....

27.       Government of Jamaica. Child Pornography (Prevention) Act, enacted October 21, 2009. http://www.japarliament.gov.jm/attachments/341_The%20Child%20Pornography%20Act.pdf.

28.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary Table on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

29.       Government of Jamaica. The Defence Act, enacted July 31, 1962. http://moj.gov.jm/laws/defence-act.

30.       Government of Jamaica. Education Act, enacted 1965. https://www.ecc.gov.jm/Downloads/Laws/The%20Education%20Act.pdf.

31.       Dunkley, A. "PASSED!-51 MPs Vote in Favour of Charter of Rights Bill." The Jamaica Observer, Kingston, March 23, 2011. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/PASSED-51-MPs-vote-in-favour-of-Charter-of-Rights-Bill_8569370.

32.       Government of Jamaica. Dangerous Drug Act, enacted 1948. http://moj.gov.jm/sites/default/files/laws/The%20Dangerous%20Drugs%20Act.pdf.

33.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Jamaica (ratification: 2003) Submitted: 2011; accessed December 12, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=26567&chapter=9&query=%28Jamaica%29+%40ref&highlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Kingston. reporting, January 24, 2014.

35.       JIS News. "OCA Reports Convictions in Attempt to Sell Child Overseas." jis.gov.jm [online] March 8, 2011 [cited December 19, 2012]; http://www.jis.gov.jm/news/117-headlines/27034?src=media.webstreams.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Kingston. reporting, March 11, 2011.

37.       UNICEF. Jamaica Child Protection Partners, UNICEF, [online] January 22, 2014 [cited 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/jamaica/partners_2061.htm.

38.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131.

39.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf.

40.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf.

41.       U.S. Embassy- Kingston official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 16, 2015.

42.       Robinson, L. Draft National Plan of Action on Child Labour- Jamaica; 2008. on file

43.       Ministry of Justice. Combatting Trafficking of Persons in Jamaica. online. Kingston; 2013. http://moj.gov.jm/stophumantrafficking.

44.       ILO. "18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean Sign a Declaration to Free the Region from Child Labour." http://www.ilo.org/caribbean/WCMS_314428/lang--en/index.htm.

45.       Iniciativa Regional América Latina y el Caribe. Declaración de Constitución de la Iniciativa Regional América Latina y el Caribe Libre de Trabajo Infántil, signed at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas; October 14, 2014. https://iniciativaregionalcontraeltrabajoinfantil.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/declaracic3b3n-ir_espac3b1ol.pdf.

46.       UN News Centre. "At UN-backed forum, Latin American, Caribbean nations pledge robust efforts against child labour." un.org [online] October 15, 2014 [cited 2014]; http://www.un.org/apps/news/printnews.asp?nid=49082.

47.       Ministry of Education, Office of the Chief Education Officer. Compulsory Education Policy: Career Advancement Programme. Kingston.

48.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - List of Participants, [online] [cited December 15, 2015]; http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_IIPreparatoryXIX_IACML.asp.

49.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Declaration of Cancún 2015: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1.

50.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Plan of Action of Cancún: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1.

51.       ILO-IPEC. Tackling Child Labour through Education in African, Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP) States (TACKLE), ILO, [online] February 27, 2014 [cited May 2, 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/tackle/jamaica/lang--en/index.htm.

52.       ILO-IPEC. Tackle Child Labor through Education: Moving Children from Work to School in 11 Countries. Geneva; June 2008. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=8511.

53.       JIS News. "Tackle Project Gets $25 Million to Combat Child Labour." jis.gov.jm [online] September 8, 2011 [cited December 20, 2013]; http://www.jis.gov.jm/component/search/child%2Blabour/%252F?ordering=newest&searchphrase=exact&limit=128.

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