Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Grenada

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Grenada

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2016, Grenada made a minimal advancement in efforts to prevent the worst forms of child labor. The Government joined the Regional Initiative to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by 2020. Although research found no evidence that child labor, including its worst forms, exists in Grenada, no study of child labor has been done to confirm this. The Government's ability to prevent children from becoming engaged in the worst forms of child labor is limited because existing laws do not comprehensively prohibit child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children. In addition, there is a lack of prohibitions against children's involvement in hazardous work and illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs.

Expand All

Research found no evidence that child labor, including its worst forms, exists in Grenada.(1) According to the Education Act, public education is free and all children are required to attend school until age 16. However, in practice, some school boards deny access to pregnant girls and adolescent mothers.(2-4)

Grenada has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 1).

Table 1. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 2). However, gaps exist in Grenada's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 2. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 32 of the Employment Act (5)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

No

 

 

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

No

 

 

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 25 of the Employment Act; Article 4 of the Constitution; Articles 9–11 of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act (5-7)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

Articles 9–11 of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act (7)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Articles 137 and 188 of the Criminal Code; Article 12 of the Electronic Crimes Bill; Article 10 of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act (7-10)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A†

 

 

State Voluntary

N/A†

 

 

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Articles 2 and 15 of the Education Act (3)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 15–16 of the Education Act (3)

† No standing military (11)

Article 32 of the Employment Act allows holiday employment for children under age 16, but it does not specify the minimum age, types of work, or number of hours permitted for such work.(5, 12) The Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act does not sufficiently prohibit the trafficking of children, despite establishing heightened penalties for traffickers of children, because it requires the use of force, threats, abuse of power, or other forms of coercion to carry out the offense.(7) The Criminal Code, Electronic Crimes Bill, and Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act do not comprehensively prohibit the commercial sexual exploitation of all children.(9)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including in its worst forms (Table 3).

Table 3. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor

Enforce laws related to child labor.(10, 13)

Royal Grenada Police Force

Investigate crimes and enforce laws related to child labor. Help the Child Protection Agency and the Ministry of Social Development and Housing provide emergency services to children.(10, 13)

Ministry of Legal Affairs

Prosecute criminal cases of child abuse in consultation with the Child Protection Agency.(14)

Child Protection Agency

Enforce laws related to child labor by receiving and investigating reports of child abuse. Provide social and protective services to abused children, including by requesting court emergency protection orders.(10, 13-15)

Ministry of Social Development and Housing

Oversee the Child Abuse Hotline and investigate reports of child abuse. Refer child abuse cases to the Child Protection Agency and criminal cases to the police.(14) Enforce laws related to school attendance and provide programs to support school attendance.(10, 13, 16)

Ministry of Education

Enforce laws related to school attendance through employment of truancy officers. Combat student absenteeism by monitoring students' attendance and facilitating students' access to school transportation and meals.(10, 13, 16)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Grenada took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps in labor law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 4. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

0 (13)

0 (1)

Number of Labor Inspectors

7 (13)

6 (1)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (13)

No (1)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (13)

No (1)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (13)

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (13)

No (1)

Number of Labor Inspections

68 (13)

20 (17)

Number Conducted at Worksite

68 (2)

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (13)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (13)

0 (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (13)

0 (1)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A

N/A (1)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (13)

Yes (18)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

 

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor had a budget of approximately $333,333 to carry out all activities during the reporting period, including labor inspections. Although labor law enforcement agencies have sufficient resources to respond to reports of child labor, these agencies are typically underfunded and lack the staff and resources needed to fully realize their missions.(1, 13, 18)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Grenada did not take actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 5).

Table 5. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (13)

N/A (17)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No (13)

N/A (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (13)

No (1)

Number of Investigations

0 (13)

0

Number of Violations Found

0 (13)

0 (1)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (13)

0 (1)

Number of Convictions

0 (13)

0 (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for mechanisms to coordinate efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms.

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for policies to address child labor, including its worst forms. During the reporting period, the Government joined the Regional Initiative to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by 2020 and continued drafting a policy on adolescent pregnancy.(4, 19) Existing policies refer adolescent mothers to the Program for Adolescent Mothers rather than reintegrating them in mainstream education. The limited implementation of these policies impedes the Government's ability to reach all girls who leave school due to pregnancy.(4)

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for programs to address child labor, including its worst forms. However, research found no evidence of current research on the worst forms of child labor in Grenada.

Based on the reporting above, the following actions would advance the continued prevention of child labor, including its worst forms, in Grenada (Table 6).

Table 6. Suggested Government Actions to Prevent Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish a minimum age for hazardous work as 18 and identify hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children.

2009 – 2016

Prohibit the use of children in illicit activities, including drug production and trafficking.

2011 – 2016

Establish minimum age requirements of at least age 13 for holiday employment and define the activities, conditions, and number of hours permissible for such work.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that the law sanctions all perpetrators of child trafficking, including where there is no showing of force, threats, or coercion.

2015 – 2016

Enact legislation prohibiting the use, procuring, or offering of a child for all forms of commercial sexual exploitation.

2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Enforcement

Provide sufficient funding and resources to allow agencies responsible for the enforcement of labor laws to fulfill their mission.

2015 – 2016

Publish information on the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk reviews.

2016

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that labor inspectors and investigators receive training related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Policies

Adopt and implement a policy to address the reintegration of pregnant girls and adolescent mothers in mainstream education.

2016

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine whether any of the worst forms of child labor exist in Grenada.

2009 – 2016

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible to ensure that all children are provided with basic education and complete their schooling, including pregnant girls and adolescent mothers.

2015 – 2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- Grenada. reporting, January 18, 2017.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Grenada official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 3, 2016.

3.         Government of Grenada. Education Act, No. 21 of 2002, enacted 2002. http://laws.gov.gd/.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Grenada official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 12, 2017.

5.         Government of Grenada. Employment Act, Act No. 14 of 1999, enacted 1999. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/53925/65176/E99GRD01.htm.

6.         Government of Grenada. Constitution, No. 2155 of 1973, enacted 1973. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/constitutions/grenada/gren73eng.html.

7.         Government of Grenada. Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act, enacted June 11, 2014. [source on file].

8.         Government of Grenada. Electronic Crimes Bill, enacted October 3, 2013. http://www.easterncaribbeanlaw.com/electronic-crimes-act-2013/.

9.         Government of Grenada. Criminal Code, enacted January 20, 1987. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/95182/111978/F2077022491/GRD95182.PDF.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Grenada. reporting, January 15, 2015.

11.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

12.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Grenada (ratification: 2003) Published: 2014; accessed December 4, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3141593:YES.

13.       U.S. Embassy- Grenada. reporting, January 19, 2016.

14.       Government of Grenada. National Child Abuse Protocol, enacted 2004. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjQrPr6jdrLAhUFVj4KHRR-CcEQFggcMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.unicef.org%2Feasterncaribbean%2FGrenada__NATIONAL_CHILD_ABUSE_PROTOCOL_2004.doc&usg=AFQjCNGELYnYlSskRFo5D2GMzDBIUON62A&sig2=88e7TJdF2J2c9HT_r0uIJw.

15.       Government of Grenada. Grenada Child Protection Agency launches first National Child Protocol in the Region, [online] November 1, 2013 [cited March 24, 2016]; http://www.gov.gd/egov/news/2013/nov13/01_11_13/item_1/grenada_child_protection_agency_launches_ncp_region.html.

16.       UN Human Rights Council. National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21: Grenada. Prepared by Government of Grenada, 2015. http://www.upr-info.org/sites/default/files/document/grenada/session_21_-_january_2015/a_hrc_wg.6_21_grd_1_e.pdf.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Grenada official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 12, 2017.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Grenada official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 21, 2017.

19.       Now Grenada. "World Day Against Child Labour." nowgrenada.com [online] 2016 [cited November 3, 2016]; http://nowgrenada.com/2016/06/world-day-child-labour/.

Download ILAB's Sweat & Toil app today. #endChildLabor