Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Grenada

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Grenada

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2015, Grenada made a minimal advancement in efforts to prevent the worst forms of child labor. The Government increased funding for school transportation and textbooks, and it doubled funding for the Needy Assistance Program; both actions support students from low-income families. Research found no evidence that child labor, including its worst forms, exists in Grenada, but there has not been a recent study of child labor to confirm this. Additionally, the Government’s ability to prevent children from becoming engaged in exploitive work is limited due to a lack of prohibitions against children’s involvement in hazardous work and illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs.

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Research found no evidence that child labor, including its worst forms, exists in Grenada.(1) According to the Education Act, public education is free and all children are required to attend school until age 16. However, in practice, some school boards deny access to pregnant girls and teenage mothers.(2, 3)

Grenada has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 1).

 

Table 1. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 2).

 

Table 2. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 32 of the Employment Act (4)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

No

 

 

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

No

 

 

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 25 of the Employment Act; Article 4 of the Constitution; Articles 9–11 of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act (4-6)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 9-11 of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act (6)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 137 and 188 of the Criminal Code; Article 12 of the Electronic Crimes Bill; Article 10 of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act (6-9)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A†

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

N/A†

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Articles 2 and 15 of the Education Act (3)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 15–16 of the Education Act (3)

† No standing military (10)

 

Article 32 of the Employment Act allows holiday employment for children under age 16, but it does not specify the minimum age, types of work, or number of hours permitted for such work.(4, 11) The Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act does not sufficiently prohibit the trafficking of children, despite establishing heightened penalties for traffickers of children, because it requires the use of force, threats abuse of power, or other forms of coercion to carry out the offense.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including in its worst forms (Table 3).

 

Table 3. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor

Enforce laws related to child labor.(1, 9)

Royal Grenada Police Force

Investigate crimes and enforce laws related to child labor. Help the Child Protection Agency and the Ministry of Social Development and Housing provide emergency services to children.(1, 9)

Ministry of Legal Affairs

Prosecute criminal cases of child abuse in consultation with the Child Protection Agency.(12)

Child Protection Agency

Enforce laws related to child labor by receiving and investigating reports of child abuse. Provide social and protective services to abused children, including by requesting court emergency protection orders.(1, 9, 12, 13)

Ministry of Social Development and Housing

Oversee the Child Abuse Hotline and investigate reports of child abuse. Refer child abuse cases to the Child Protection Agency and criminal cases to the police.(12) Enforce laws related to school attendance and provide programs to support school attendance.(1, 9, 14)

Ministry of Education

Enforce laws related to school attendance through employment of truancy officers. Combat student absenteeism by monitoring students’ attendance and facilitating students’ access school transportation and meals.(1, 9, 14)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

 

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Grenada took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

 

Table 4. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

0 (1)

0 (1)

Number of Labor Inspectors

7 (9)

7 (1)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (1)

No (1)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

Number of Labor Inspections

60 (1)

68 (1)

Number Conducted at Worksite

60 (2)

68 (2)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (1)

0 (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0(9)

0 (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (1)

0 (1)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

 

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor had a budget of approximately $280,000 to carry out all activities during the reporting period, including labor inspections. While labor law enforcement agencies have sufficient resources to respond to reports of child labor, these agencies are typically underfunded and lack the staff and resources needed to fully realize their missions.(1)

 

Criminal Law Enforcement

 

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Grenada did not take actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 5).

 

Table 5. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (1)

No (1)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

No (1)

No (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (1)

No (1)

Number of Investigations

0 (9)

0 (1)

Number of Violations Found

0 (9)

0 (1)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (9)

0 (1)

Number of Convictions

1 (9)

0 (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (1)

Yes (1)

 

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for mechanisms to coordinate efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms.

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for policies to address child labor, including its worst forms. However, the Government has policies that may contribute to the prevention of child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

 

Table 6. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Child Abuse Protocol

 

Implements and strengthens the Child Protection and Adoption Act of 2011. Includes guidelines on areas such as coordination of government efforts related to the protection of children, investigations, and referrals to appropriate social services for victims of child labor, including its worst forms.(9, 15)

Child Abuse Reporting Guidelines

Requires health care employees to report cases of child abuse.(9)

Poverty Reduction Strategy

(2014–2018)

Supports increased access to education for persons with disabilities, repairing and upgrading school facilities, and providing educational materials and school meals to children.(9, 16)

Strategic Plan for Educational Enhancement and Development

Aims to increase access to primary and secondary school, including for at-risk children; support children with special needs; and reintegrate dropouts and adolescent mothers into the education system.(17)

 

As there is no evidence of a problem, there appears to be no need for programs to address child labor, including its worst forms. However, there is no current research on whether the worst forms of child labor exist in Grenada.(1) In 2015, the Government of Grenada funded programs that may contribute to the prevention or elimination of child labor (Table 7).

 

Table 7. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Support for Education Empowerment and Development Program†

Ministry of Education and Ministry of Social Development and Housing program funded by the Government and a World Bank loan that provides lunch, transportation, textbooks, and uniforms to students.(2, 14)

School Feeding Programs†

(1992–2015)

Government program that provides subsidized lunches to students in 21 preschools, 55 primary schools, and 11 secondary schools. Waives lunch fee for students who cannot afford to pay.(2, 15, 18, 19)

Uniform and Transportation Allowances†

Government program that covers the costs of uniforms, textbooks, and transportation to schools for students from low-income families. Funding increased for transportation and textbooks in 2015.(1, 15)

Needy Assistance Program†

Government program that provides temporary aid including tuition, medical and transportation assistance, and school items such as book bags and shoes, until recipients can be referred to long-term assistance programs. Funding doubled from approximately $185,185 to $370,370 in 2015.(1, 2)

† Program is funded by the Government of Grenada.

 

Although the Government of Grenada increased funding for social programs to assist school-age children in 2015, these programs are insufficient to fully address student need. Moreover, the Government has also noted that it lacks the resources necessary to further expand aid.(1)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would continue the prevention of child labor, including its worst forms, in Grenada (Table 8).

 

Table 8. Suggested Government Actions to Prevent Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish specific provisions prohibiting hazardous work for children.

2009 – 2015

Prohibit the use of children in illicit activities, including drug production and trafficking.

2011 – 2015

Establish minimum age requirements for holiday employment and define the activities, conditions, and number of hours permissible for such work.

2014 – 2015

Ensure the law sanctions all perpetrators of child trafficking, including where there is no showing of force, threats, or coercion.

2015

Enforcement

Allow all children to enroll in primary and secondary school education and complete their schooling.

2015

Provide sufficient funding and resources to allow agencies responsible for the enforcement of labor laws to fulfill their mission.

2015

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties.

2015

Ensure that investigators receive training related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine whether any of the worst forms of child labor exist in Grenada.

2009 – 2015

Expand existing social programs to increase assistance for students, in particular for adolescent girls in secondary school.

2015

 

1.         U.S. Embassy- Grenada. reporting, January 19, 2016.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Grenada official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 3, 2016.

3.         Government of Grenada. Education Act, No. 21 of 2002, enacted 2002. http://laws.gov.gd/.

4.         Government of Grenada. Employment Act, Act No. 14 of 1999, enacted 1999. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/53925/65176/E99GRD01.htm.

5.         Government of Grenada. Constitution, No. 2155 of 1973, enacted 1973. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/constitutions/grenada/gren73eng.html.

6.         Government of Grenada. Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act, enacted June 11, 2014. [source on file].

7.         Government of Grenada. Electronic Crimes Bill, enacted October 3, 2013. http://www.easterncaribbeanlaw.com/electronic-crimes-act-2013/.

8.         Government of Grenada. Criminal Code, enacted January 20, 1987. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/95182/111978/F2077022491/GRD95182.PDF.

9.         U.S. Embassy- Grenada. reporting, January 15, 2015.

10.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012. http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

11.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Grenada (ratification: 2003) Published: 2014; accessed December 4, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3141593:YES.

12.       Government of Grenada. National Child Abuse Protocol, enacted 2004. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjQrPr6jdrLAhUFVj4KHRR-CcEQFggcMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.unicef.org%2Feasterncaribbean%2FGrenada__NATIONAL_CHILD_ABUSE_PROTOCOL_2004.doc&usg=AFQjCNGELYnYlSskRFo5D2GMzDBIUON62A&sig2=88e7TJdF2J2c9HT_r0uIJw.

13.       Government of Grenada. Grenada Child Protection Agency launches first National Child Protocol in the Region, [online] November 1, 2013 [cited March 24, 2016]; http://www.gov.gd/egov/news/2013/nov13/01_11_13/item_1/grenada_child_protection_agency_launches_ncp_region.html.

14.       UN Human Rights Council. National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21: Grenada. Prepared by Government of Grenada, 2015. http://www.upr-info.org/sites/default/files/document/grenada/session_21_-_january_2015/a_hrc_wg.6_21_grd_1_e.pdf.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Grenada. reporting, January 31, 2014.

16.       Government of Grenada. Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS) 2014-2018, enacted 2014. http://www.gov.gd/egov/pdf/GPRS_Draft_2014.pdf.

17.       Government of Grenada. Strategic Plan for Educational Enhancement and Development (SPEED II) 2006-2015, enacted 2006. http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Grenada/Grenada%20Speed%20II.pdf.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Grenada official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 19, 2011.

19.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Grenada (ratification: 2003) Published: 2014; accessed December 4, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3141641:YES

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