Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Gabon

Gabon
2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2017, Gabon made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government launched the Economic Recovery Plan, which includes the goal of improving the quality of public education, addressing the teacher deficit, and accelerating the construction of classrooms. However, children in Gabon perform dangerous tasks in domestic work and transportation. The government lacks prohibitions against the use of children in illicit activities, and the minimum age for work provisions applies only to children in formal employment relationships and excludes children who work in the informal sector. Also, labor inspectors do not have the authority to assess penalties, and they lack the basic resources, such as transportation, fuel, and office supplies, necessary to conduct investigations.

Children in Gabon perform dangerous tasks in domestic work and transportation. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Gabon. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

22.3 (83,073)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

23.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

Unavailable

Primary completion rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Deuxième Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Gabon (EDSG-II) Survey, 2012. (7)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Fishing, including the production and sale of smoked fish (5)

Industry

Working in sand quarries† (8; 9; 5)

Working in brick factories (5)

Services

Domestic work (1; 10; 11; 5)

Street vending, including cleaning market spaces at night and carrying heavy loads† (12; 5)

Garbage scavenging (5)

Working in restaurants (8; 9)

Working in transportation† and as mechanics (8; 13; 9; 5)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in markets, restaurants, handicraft shops, sand quarries, farming, animal husbandry, fishing, domestic work, and as mechanics, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2; 11; 14; 4)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2; 3; 15; 10; 4)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Gabon is primarily a destination and transit country for victims of child trafficking from other countries in Central and West Africa. (1; 3; 13; 16; 10; 4) Some parents entrust their children to intermediaries who subject them to child trafficking for labor exploitation rather than providing education and safe work opportunities; however, there is limited evidence of child trafficking occurring within Gabon. (4) A national child labor survey or similar research has not been conducted in Gabon. (17)

Although the Law on General Education guarantees the right to free and compulsory education, in practice students must pay for supplies and school fees, which may be prohibitive. (13; 18; 19; 20) Rural areas also lack schools and teachers, and education beyond primary school is often unavailable. (13; 21; 5) Reports suggest that some children, especially girls, are sexually abused at school. (2; 8; 13; 22) In addition, one report indicates that some indigenous groups and children living in remote areas do not have birth certificates because they may not have been born at hospitals. (8) Birth registration is often required for school enrollment, and out-of-school children are more vulnerable to child labor. (18)

Gabon has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Gabon’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the minimum age for work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 177 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of Decree N° 0651/PR/MTEPS Establishing Individual Exceptions to the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (23; 24; 25)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 1 of the Hazardous Work List (23; 24; 26)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 2, 3 and 5 of the Hazardous Work List (23; 24; 26)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Labor Code; Articles 3, 11–13, and 20 of Law N° 09/04 Preventing and Fighting Against Child Trafficking (23; 27)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

Articles 3, 11–14, and 20 of Law N° 09/04 Preventing and Fighting Against Child Trafficking; Decree N° 0031/PR/MTEEFP on Children’s Work; Article 278 bis of the Penal Code (27; 28; 29; 30)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Articles 260–261 and 263 of the Penal Code (30)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

Article 17 of the Law on the Organization of National Defense and Public Security (31; 17)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 17 of the Law on the Organization of National Defense and Public Security (31; 17)

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 1 of the Constitution; Article 2 of Act N° 21/2011 on General Education; Article 344.8 of the Penal Code (20; 30; 32)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 1.18 and 1.19 of the Constitution; Article 2 of Act N° 21/2011 on General Education (20; 32)

* No conscription (17)

 

Article 2 of Decree N° 0651/PR/MTEPS Establishing Individual Exceptions to the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment permits children under age 16 to perform light work with parental permission. However, it does not set a minimum age for light work or specify the kinds of light work that are allowed. (25; 33) In addition, although the Labor Code prohibits work by children under age 16, the minimum age protections do not apply to children outside of formal work relationships, which does not conform to international standards that require all children be protected under the law. (23; 9)

Laws related to child trafficking are not in line with international standards, as they do not prohibit trafficking of children for the purpose of sexual exploitation. (23; 27; 30) The law also does not criminally prohibit producing pornography, nor the procuring or offering of children for pornographic performances. (30; 14) However, research indicates that in practice, existing laws related to forced labor and pimping may be used to prosecute these offenses. (17)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Labor, Employment, Youth, and Professional Training (MOL) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Employment, Youth, and Professional Training (MOL)

Receive, investigate, and address child labor complaints through its inspectors. (18) Refer cases of child trafficking to the Ministry of the Interior’s Police Force for investigation and the Ministry of Social Protection and National Solidarity (MSPNS) for social services. (5)

Ministry of Social Protection and National Solidarity (MSPNS)

Provide social services and assistance to vulnerable children; assist in repatriation or resettlement processes for victims of child trafficking; operate shelters for victims of child trafficking. (4; 5)

Ministry of the Interior’s Police Force

Enforce laws, investigate child labor violations, and refer cases to the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights for prosecution. (18; 5)

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights

Enforce child labor laws by prosecuting child labor cases. (18; 5) Assist in supporting victims of child trafficking while prosecutors and investigators prepare their cases. (34)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Gabon took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the MOL that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including the ability to assess penalties.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (35)

Unknown* (5)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown* (36)

Unknown* (5)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (35; 23)

No (5; 23)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (36)

Yes (5)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (35)

Yes (37)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown* (35)

Unknown* (5)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown

Unknown (5)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

15 (35)

1 (5)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

0 (35)

0 (5)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

0 (35)

N/A (5)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown (36)

No (5)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A

N/A (5)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (35; 38)

Yes (38)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (35)

No (5)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (35)

Yes (5)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (35)

Yes (5)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

Although the MOL is supposed to send newly hired labor inspectors to Cameroon for a one-time training session at the Regional African Center for Administration Work, this has not happened since 2014, and no new labor inspectors were recruited during the reporting period. (5) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Gabon’s workforce, which includes over 546,000 workers. (39) According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Gabon should employ roughly 36 inspectors. (39; 40; 41) Inspectors lack the resources, including transportation, fuel, and office supplies, necessary to conduct inspections. (18; 9; 5) Although inspectors have the authority to actively plan inspections, they did not do so in 2017. (5) Labor inspectors in Gabon are responsible for reconciling labor disputes, which may detract from their primary duty of inspection. (42)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Gabon took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including sufficient financial resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (36)

No (5)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A (5)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (35)

Yes (5)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (35)

1 (5)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (35)

65 (34)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

8 (35)

0 (34)

Number of Convictions

0 (35)

0 (5)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (35)

Yes (5)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

During the reporting period, 26 police investigators received training on identifying cases of human trafficking. (5) However, like labor inspectors, police investigators lack resources such as transportation, fuel, and office supplies, and coordination among enforcement agencies is weak. (14; 5)

Although 65 child trafficking victims were identified during the reporting period, these cases did not result in prosecution. The government sought financial restitution and support from the perpetrator or foreign embassy of the victim’s country of origin. (34) In general, the prosecution of child trafficking cases in Gabon can be difficult due to infrequent convening of the Criminal Court, a failure to prioritize cases involving children, and a backlog of cases. (15; 14; 4; 43) For example, 11 prosecutions from 2015 are still pending. (36; 14)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including a lack of adequate funding.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Inter-ministerial Committee for the Fight Against Child Trafficking (CNSLTE)

Coordinate national efforts against child trafficking and other worst forms of child labor. Led by the MOL, includes representatives from four other ministries and civil society. (5) Remove children from exploitative labor situations, provide social services, and repatriate victims when appropriate. (13; 28; 43; 4) Disseminate the National Manual of Procedures for the Care of Child Victims of Trafficking, which establishes a series of procedures to return victims of child trafficking to their country of origin or facilitate their integration into Gabon. (44; 34) In 2017, drafted a 2017–2018 Plan of Action and in partnership with UNICEF, conducted training on trafficking in persons for 60 labor inspectors and judicial police. (34; 5)

National Observatory for Children’s Rights

Coordinate the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, including promoting children’s right to education and protection against all forms of exploitation and abuse. (13) Establish and oversee committees to protect children’s rights in all provinces. (33) This committee was not active in 2017. (17)

Local Vigilance Committees

Administered by the CNSLTE, committees in provincial capitals identify potential cases of child trafficking, intercept victims, and assist children at risk of child trafficking. (13; 45; 4; 17)

 

In 2017, budget constraints, civil strikes, and a lack of communication among ministries limited the ability of the Inter-ministerial Committee for the Fight Against Child Trafficking (CNSLTE) to effectively coordinate government actions. In addition, research indicates that members of the CNSLTE occasionally use personal funds to assist victims due to a lack of resources. (4; 34)

 

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementing a policy on relevant forms of child labor.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

CNSLTE’s 2016–2021 Plan of Action

Aims to address the worst forms of child labor, with a focus on increasing prosecution of offenders and shortening the length of time victims spend at shelters. (5; 17) In 2017, provided training to labor inspectors. (5)

Economic Recovery Plan (2017–2019)†

Aims to balance public finances, diversify the economy, and reduce poverty. Includes the goal of improving the quality of public education, addressing the teacher deficit, and accelerating the construction of classrooms. (46)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

 

In 2017, research found no evidence of an active policy to address child labor. In addition, the government has not adopted CNSLTE’s 2016–2021 Plan of Action. Although these Plans of Action aim to increase prosecution, the number of prosecutions fell from eight in 2016 to zero in 2017, and the CNSLTE was unable to address its other goal of shortening the duration of time victims spend in shelters. (4) Although the Government of Gabon drafted separate bilateral agreements with Benin, Cameroon, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, and Togo to combat child trafficking, none were finalized by the end of 2017. (8; 13; 19; 11; 43) In addition, the government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the UNDAF (2018–2022), National Youth Policy of Gabon, and the Education Policy (2010–2020). (47; 48; 11)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that may contribute to preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Shelters for Children in Need†

Shelters supported by the government and civil society organizations that provide social services to victims of child labor and child trafficking, and other vulnerable children. (16; 43; 38; 11; 4) Victims receive medical care, literacy training, and reintegration support. In 2017, provided services to 65 children and repatriated 42 victims. (5)

† Program is funded by the Government of Gabon.

 

Although Gabon has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. (5) Research also indicates that shelter space is insufficient to accommodate all victims, and the government decreased funding for shelters and NGOs that provide social services to human trafficking victims and other vulnerable children. (11; 15; 5; 17)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Gabon (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that minimum age protections are extended to children working outside of formal employment relationships.

2017

Establish criminal prohibitions for child trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

2015 – 2017

Establish criminal prohibitions for producing child pornography and procuring or offering children in pornographic performances.

2015 – 2017

Establish criminal prohibitions for using children in illicit activities, including both producing and trafficking of drugs.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that the legal framework for light work establishes a minimum age no younger than 13, determines activities that are considered light work, and specifies the conditions under which light work may be undertaken.

2013 – 2017

Establish criminal prohibitions for the recruitment of children under age 18 for use in armed conflict by State or non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Enforcement

Ensure that the number of labor inspectors is in accordance with the ILO’s technical advice, and that inspectors and investigators receive adequate training, funding, and resources to carry out inspections and investigations.

2009 – 2017

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by authorizing inspectors to assess penalties, and conduct routine and unannounced inspections.

2014 – 2017

Publish information on the funding level for the Labor Inspectorate and information on the enforcement of child labor laws, including the number and type of inspections conducted.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that labor inspectors are not tasked with conciliation or arbitration duties, and that they can carry out their primary duties of inspection and monitoring throughout the country.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that prosecutions related to criminal violations of child labor laws are carried out and perpetrators are punished in accordance with the law.

2016 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure that the CNSLTE has sufficient funds to carry out its mandate, including improving communication and coordination among ministries.

2013 – 2017

Government Policies

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant forms of child labor, such as domestic work and work in transportation, and ensure that existing policies have sufficient resources to be implemented.

2015 – 2017

Sign agreements with origin countries to combat child trafficking.

2014 – 2017

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2014 – 2017

Social Programs

Conduct a national child labor survey or similar research to determine the specific activities carried out by working children to inform policies and programs.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that children have access to education by eliminating school fees, increasing the number of teachers and schools in rural areas, and ensuring schools are free from sexual abuse. Make additional efforts to provide all children with birth registration.

2010 – 2017

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem and ensure that the government continues to provide adequate support.

2010 – 2017

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2. UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of Gabon. Geneva. March 11, 2015: CEDAW/C/GAB/CO/6. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW/C/GAB/CO/6&Lang=En.

3. The Guardian. Police Evolve Strategies to Combat Cross-Border Banditry in Lagos, Ogun. November 5, 2015. https://guardian.ng/news/nigeria/national/police-evolve-strategies-to-combat-cross-border-banditry-in-lagos-ogun/.

4. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Gabon. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271190.htm.

5. U.S. Embassy- Libreville. Reporting, February 16, 2018.

6. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Deuxième Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Gabon (EDSG-II), 2012. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Gabon. Geneva. July 8, 2016: CRC/C/GAB/CO/2. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/GAB/CO/2&Lang=En.

9. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Gabon (ratification: 2010) Published: 2017. Accessed November 9, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3286367.

10. Ametokpo, Shalom. Grand reportage/Gabon : Le paradis « cauchemardesque» pour certains Togolais. March 16, 2017. http://www.27avril.com/blog/diaspora/grand-reportage-gabon-paradis-cauchemardesque-certains-togolais.

11. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Gabon (ratification: 2001) Published: 2017. Accessed November 9, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3286371.

12. Lebur, C. Trafficking of west African children spawns Gabonese hell. Agence France Press. July 17, 2013. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2013/07/17/trafficking-west-african-children-spawns-gabonese-hell/.

13. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Examen des rapports soumis par les États parties en application de l’article 44 de la Convention. Geneva. December 29, 2014: CRC/C/GAB/2. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FGAB%2F2&Lang=en.

14. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Gabon (ratification: 2001) Published: 2017. Accessed November 9, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3286374.

15. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the report submitted by Gabon under article 12(1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. Geneva. July 14, 2016: CRC/C/OPSC/GAB/CO/1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/OPSC/GAB/CO/1&Lang=En.

16. IOM. IOM Helps Togolese Girls Trafficked in Gabon to Return Home. ModernGhana.com. November 20, 2015. http://www.modernghana.com/news/657075/1/iom-helps-togolese-girls-trafficked-in-gabon-to-re.html.

17. U.S. Embassy- Libreville official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 6, 2018.

18. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Gabon. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265468.pdf.

19. African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. Report of the Human Rights Promotion Mission to the Gabonese Republic. Banjul. January 2014. http://www.achpr.org/files/sessions/54th/mission-reports/gabon-promo-2014/achpr54os_misrep_promo_gabon_2014_eng.pdf.

20. Government of the Gabonese Republic. Loi portant orientation générale de l’éducation, de la formation et de la recherche, Loi N° 21/2011. Enacted: February 11, 2012. http://www.axl.cefan.ulaval.ca/afrique/gabon-loi-2011.htm.

21. UNESCO. Examen national 2015 de l’Éducation pour tous au Gabon. Paris. 2015. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002310/231078f.pdf.

22. Agence de Presse Africaine. Plus de 2000 enfants victimes de maltraitance au Gabon (étude). alibreville.com. September 11, 2015. http://news.alibreville.com/h/46380.html.

23. Government of the Gabonese Republic. Code du Travail, Loi N° 3/94. Enacted: November 21, 1994. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/39615/64948/F94GAB01.htm.

24. —. Ordonnance portant modification de certaines dispositions du Code du Travail de la Republic Gabonaise, Ordonnance N° 018/PR/2010. Enacted: February 25, 2010. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=85242&p_country=GAB.

25. —. Décret fixant les dérogations individuelles à l'âge minimum d'admission à l'emploi en République Gabonaise, Décret N° 0651/PR/MTEPS. Enacted: April 13, 2011. http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/gab107288.pdf.

26. —. Décret n°0023/PR/MEEDD du 16 2013, fixant la nature des pires formes de travail et les catégories d'entreprises interdites aux enfants de moins de 18 ans. Enacted: January 16, 2013. http://www.sgg.gouv.ga/820-0023-pr-meedd/.

27. —. Loi relative à la prévention et à la lutte contre le trafic des enfants en République Gabonaise, Loi N° 009/2004. Enacted: September 21, 2004. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=fr&p_isn=70261&p_country=GAB&p_count=194.

28. UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Examen des rapports des États parties soumis par les États parties conformément aux articles 16 et 17 du Pacte: Rapport initial: Gabon. Geneva. November 22, 2013: E/C.12/2013/SR.51. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CESCR/Shared%20Documents/GAB/SR%2051_21548_E.pdf.

29. Government of the Gabonese Republic. Ordonnance modifiant et complétant certaines dispositions du Code pénal, Ordonnance N° 4/2001/PR. Enacted: August 14, 2001. [Source on file].

30. —. Penal Code, Loi N° 21/63. Enacted: May 31, 1963. [Source on file].

31. —. Portant Organisation Generale de la Defense Nationale et de la Securite Publique, Loi N° 004/98. Enacted: February 20, 1998. http://www.defense-nationale.gouv.ga/textes-de-base/loi-n00498.

32. —. Constitution de la Republique Gabonaise. Enacted: 2003. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=34815&p_country=GAB&p_count=182&p_classification=01.01&p_classcount=5.

33. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Gabon (ratification: 2010) Published: 2017. Accessed November 9, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3286364.

34. U.S. Embassy- Libreville. Reporting, March 2, 2018.

35. —. Reporting, February 3, 2017.

36. U.S. Embassy- Libreville official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 2, 2017.

37. Redac Chef. Gabon: Les inspecteurs formés sur le trafic d’enfants. InfosGABON. July 30, 2017. https://fr.infosgabon.com/gabon-les-inspecteurs-formes-sur-le-trafic-denfants/.

38. Government of the Gabonese Republic. Décret fixant les conditions des contrôles, enquêtes et perquisitions relatives à la prévention et à la lutte contre le trafic des enfants en République Gabonaise, Décret N° 24/PR/MTE. Enacted: January 6, 2005. [Source on file].

39. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed June 22, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

40. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

41. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf.

42. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Gabon (ratification: 1972) Published: 2015. Accessed November 16, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3181710.

43. Ezeilo, Joy Ngozi. Report of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children. May 24, 2013: Report No. A/HRC/23/48/Add.2. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G13/139/70/pdf/G1313970.pdf?OpenElement.

44. ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Gabon (ratification: 2001) Published: 2013. Accessed 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3077943,103391,Gabon,2012.

45. —. Direct Request concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1973 (No. 29) Gabon (ratification: 1960) Published: 2013. Accessed November 11, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3076127.

46. Government of the Gabonese Republic. Plan de Relance de l’Economie 2017 - 2019. 2017. http://www.sgg.gouv.ga/plan-de-relance-economique20172019.

47. —. Politique Nationale de la Jeunesse. Libreville. 2012. http://www.youthpolicy.org/national/Gabon_2011_National_Youth_Policy.pdf.

48. UN and Government of the Gabonese Republic. Plan Cadre des Nations Unies pour l’Aide au Développement du Gabon (2018 – 2022). July 2017. https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/PNUAD-Gabon-21.0._2017.pdf.