Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Gabon

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Gabon

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2016, Gabon made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Committee for the Fight Against Child Trafficking established Local Vigilance committees in all nine regions, and initiated eight prosecutions against individuals for using child labor. However, children in Gabon perform dangerous tasks in domestic work and transportation. The Government lacks prohibitions against the use of children in illicit activities and does not criminally prohibit slavery or the use of children for pornographic performances. Labor inspectors lack basic resources necessary to conduct investigations, such as transportation, fuel, and office supplies. Additionally, the Government lacks a general policy to address child labor, reduced funding to the Interministerial Committee for the Fight Against Child Trafficking, and reduced financial support to social programs to address child labor.

Expand All

Children in Gabon perform dangerous tasks in domestic work and transportation.(1-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Gabon. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

22.3 (83,073)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

23.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

Unavailable

Primary completion rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Deuxième Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Gabon (EDSG-II) Survey, 2012.(9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Fishing, including the production and sale of smoked fish (10)

Industry

Mining, including in sand quarries (2, 11)

Working in brick factories (2)

Services

Domestic work (2-4, 12)

Street vending, including cleaning market spaces at night and carrying heavy loads (1, 2, 13)

Garbage scavenging (2)

Work in restaurants (11)

Working in transportation and as mechanics (2, 3, 11, 14, 15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in markets or restaurants, handicraft shops, mining, farming, animal husbandry, fishing, domestic work, and as mechanics, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5, 7, 16)

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5-7, 13, 17)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Gabon is primarily a destination and transit country for victims of child trafficking from other countries in Central and West Africa.(3, 4, 6, 7, 13, 15, 16, 18) There is limited evidence of child trafficking occurring within Gabon, although some parents entrust their children to intermediaries who subject them to child trafficking rather than providing education and work opportunities.(7, 16, 19) There is limited information about specific activities carried out by child labor in the agriculture, industry, and service sectors.

Although the Law on General Education guarantees the right to free and compulsory education, in practice, students were often required to pay for supplies and school fees, which may be prohibitive.(15, 20-22) Rural areas have a lack of schools and teachers, and education beyond primary school is often unavailable.(2, 15, 23) Reports suggest that some children, especially girls, are sexually abused at school.(5, 11, 15, 24) Some indigenous groups and children living in remote areas do not have access to birth registration, which is required for school enrollment; out of school children are more vulnerable to child labor.(11, 20)

Gabon has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Gabon’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 177 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of Decree N° 0651/PR/MTEPS Establishing Individual Exceptions to the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (25-28)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 177 of the Labor Code (25, 26)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

No

 

Article 177 of the Labor Code (25, 26)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

No

 

Article 4 of the Labor Code; Articles 3, 11–13, and 20 of Law N° 09/04 Preventing and Fighting Against Child Trafficking (25, 29)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 3, 11–14, and 20 of Law N° 09/04 Preventing and Fighting Against Child Trafficking; Decree N° 0031/PR/MTEEFP on Children’s Work; Article 278 bis of the Penal Code (29-32)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Articles 260, 261, and 263 of the Penal Code(32)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

No*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

20

 Act N° 004/98 (33)

Non-State Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 1 of the Constitution; Article 2 of Act N° 21/2011 on General Education; Article 344.8 of the Penal Code (22, 32, 34)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 1.18 and 1.19 of the Constitution; Article 2 of Act N° 21/2011 on General Education (22, 34)

* No conscription (33, 35)

Article 2 of Decree N° 0651/PR/MTEPS Establishing Individual Exceptions to the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment permits children under age 16 to perform light work with parental permission. However, it does not set a minimum age for light work or include a list specifying the kinds of light work allowed.(28, 36)

Laws related to forced labor are not sufficient, as slavery and child trafficking for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation are not criminally prohibited.(10, 25, 29, 32) The law also does not sufficiently prohibit commercial sexual exploitation, as the production of pornography and procuring or offering children for pornographic performances are not criminally prohibited.(32) Research did not uncover a public version of Act N° 004/98 governing voluntary service in the State armed forces for review.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Employment (MLE)

Receive, investigate, and address child labor complaints through its inspectors.(20) Refer cases of child trafficking to the Ministry of the Interior’s Police Force for investigation and the Ministry of Family and Social Development (MFSD) for social services.(2)

Ministry of Family and Social Development (MFSD)

Provide social services and assistance to vulnerable children; assist in repatriation or resettlement processes for victims of child trafficking; operate shelters for victims of child trafficking.(2, 7) Maintain a helpline for victims of child trafficking and reinsert victims of child trafficking and exploitation with their families.(37, 38)

Ministry of the Interior’s Police Force

Enforce laws, investigate child labor violations, and refer cases to the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights for prosecution.(2, 20, 39)

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights

Enforce child labor laws by prosecuting child labor complaints.(2, 20) Assist in supporting victims of child trafficking while prosecutors and investigators prepare their case.(40)

Local Vigilance Committees

Administered by the Interministerial Committee for the Fight Against Child Trafficking (CNSLTE). Monitor potential cases of child exploitation and human trafficking at the local level. Identify, intercept, and provide assistance to children at risk of child trafficking.(15, 39, 41, 42)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Gabon took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

 Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$0 (43)

Unknown* (2)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown* (43)

Unknown* (44)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

Unknown

10 (44)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (43)

No (2, 25)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (45)

Yes (44)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (43)

Yes (2)

Number of Labor Inspections

24 (43)

Unknown* (2)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

24 (43)

15 (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

10 (43)

0 (2)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (43)

0 (2)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (43)

Unknown (44)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (43)

N/A

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (25, 46)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (43)

No (2)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (43)

Yes (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (43)

Yes (2)

* The Government does not publish this information.

In principle, the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MLE) sends newly hired labor inspectors to Cameroon for a one-time training at the Regional African Center for Administration Work, but this has not happened since 2014 and no new labor inspectors were recruited during the reporting period.(44) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Gabon’s workforce, which includes over 674,000 workers.(47) According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Gabon should employ roughly 45 inspectors.(47-49) Inspectors lack the resources necessary to conduct inspections, including transportation, fuel, and office supplies, and there is a lack of enforcement in the informal sector.(2, 20) Although inspectors have the authority to proactively plan inspections, they did not do so in 2016.(2) Additionally, labor inspectors in Gabon are tasked with reconciling labor disputes, which may detract from their primary duties of inspection and monitoring.(50)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Gabon took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (44)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (7, 10)

Yes (2, 40)

Number of Investigations

15 (7, 51)

Unknown*(2, 40)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (2)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

11 (7, 51)

8 (2)

Number of Convictions

0 (7)

0 (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (10, 43, 46)

Yes (2)

* The Government does not publish this information.

Like labor inspectors, investigators lack resources such as transportation, fuel, and office supplies.(2) Additionally, the prosecution of child trafficking cases can be difficult since the Criminal Court only meets twice per year, has a backlog of cases, and is not mandated to prioritize cases involving children.(7, 17) The 11 prosecutions from 2015 are still pending.(44) In addition, it is not clear how many cases of exploitative child labor were identified as a result of calls made to the MLE’s hotline for child trafficking victims.(16, 37, 38)

The Government has established a mechanism to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Interministerial Committee for the Fight Against Child Trafficking (CNSLTE)

Coordinate national efforts against child trafficking and other worst forms of child labor. Led by the MLE and includes representatives from four other ministries.(2) Operate a hotline for victims of child trafficking, maintain provincial offices and centers for child trafficking victims, remove children from exploitative labor situations, provide social services, and repatriate victims when appropriate.(2, 7, 15, 16, 19, 30, 37) In 2016, established Local Vigilance committees in all nine regions, assisted in the prosecution of individuals for using child labor.(2, 52)

National Observatory for Children’s Rights

Coordinate the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, including the promotion of children’s right to education and protection against all forms of exploitation and abuse.(15, 53)

 

In 2016, budget constraints and a lack of communication between ministries limited the ability of the CNSLTE to effectively coordinate government actions and collect data. Research indicates that members of the Interministerial Committee for the Fight Against Child Trafficking (CNSLTE) occasionally use personal funds to assist victims due to a lack of resources.(10, 43)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

CNSLTE’s 2016-2017 Plan of Action†

Aims to address the worst forms of child labor with a focus on increasing prosecution of offenders and shortening the length of time victims spend at shelters.(44) In 2016, held two awareness raising sessions about child trafficking.(40)

National Manual of Procedures for the Care of Child Victims of Trafficking

Establishes a series of procedures to return victims of child trafficking to their country of origin or facilitate their integration into Gabon.(19) Disseminated by the CNSLTE.(19)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2016, research found no evidence of a general policy to address child labor. Although the Government of Gabon drafted separate bilateral agreements with Benin, Cameroon, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, and Togo to combat child trafficking, the agreements have not been signed by all parties.(3, 11, 15, 21, 54) The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the UNDAF (2012–2016), Gabon Emergent Strategic Plan (2011–2016), National Youth Policy of Gabon, and the Education Policy (2010–2020).(53, 55-57) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Manual of Procedures for the Care of Child Victims of Trafficking or the Gabon Emergent Strategic Plan (2011–2016).

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Shelters for Children in Need†

Shelters in Libreville and Port-Gentil supported by the Government and civil society organizations that provide social services to victims of child labor, child trafficking, and other vulnerable children.(7, 14, 16, 18, 37) The Government provides in-kind support, such as social workers, medical supplies, food, and office supplies. In 2016, provided services to at least 15 children and repatriated 4 victims.(2)

Decent Work Country Program (2013–2016)

Promotes decent work conditions with a focus on creating job opportunities for youth and promoting social protection.(58)

† Program is funded by the Government of Gabon.
‡The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(10, 40, 58)

Although Gabon has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(2) Research indicates that shelter space is insufficient to accommodate all victims and funding for Government-run shelters decreased for the third consecutive year. The Government also decreased funding for NGOs providing social services to human trafficking victims and other vulnerable children.(2, 7, 17, 40) The Government also failed to provide funding to UNICEF as part of its Country Program Action Plan and research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Decent Work Country Program (2013–2016) during the reporting period.(59)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Gabon (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish criminal prohibitions for slavery and child trafficking for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation.

2015 – 2016

Establish criminal prohibitions for the production of child pornography, and procuring or offering children in pornographic performances.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that the legal framework prohibits the use of children in illicit activities, including both the production and trafficking of drugs.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Ensure that the legal framework for light work establishes a minimum age no younger than 13, determines the activities considered light work, and specifies the conditions under which light work may be undertaken.

2013 – 2016

Make publicly available the law governing voluntary service in the State armed forces.

2016

Enforcement

Publish information on the funding level for the labor inspectorate and ensure that inspectors and investigators receive adequate funding and resources to carry out inspections and investigations.

2009 – 2016

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by authorizing inspectors to assess penalties, and conducting routine and unannounced inspections.

2014 – 2016

Publish information on the enforcement of child labor laws, including the number and type of inspections conducted, number of investigations conducted, and violations found.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that both civil and criminal violations of child labor laws are punished in accordance with the law.

2016

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors in accordance with the ILO recommendation and ensure that labor inspectors are able to carry out their primary duties of inspection and monitoring throughout the country, including in rural areas.

2009 – 2016

Establish a mechanism to log all calls to the MLE's child protection hotline and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social services providers.

2014 – 2016

Coordination

Ensure that the CNSLTE has sufficient funds to carry out its mandate, including improving communication and coordination among ministries.

2013 – 2016

Government Policies

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant forms of child labor, such as domestic work, work in transportation, and commercial sexual exploitation.

2015 – 2016

Sign agreements with origin countries to combat child trafficking.

2014 – 2016

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies, and ensure policies are implemented as planned.

2014 – 2016

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the specific activities carried out by children working in agriculture, industry, and the service sector to inform policies and programs.

2014 – 2016

Ensure children have access to education by eliminating school fees, increasing the number of teachers and schools in rural areas, and ensuring schools are free from sexual abuse. Make additional efforts to provide all children with birth registration.

2010 – 2016

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem and ensure the Government continues to provide adequate support.

2010 – 2016

1.         ILO Committee of Experts. Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Gabon (Ratification: 2001) Published: 2011; accessed 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Libreville. Reporting, February 3, 2017.

3.         UN OHCHR. "Gabon: UN expert urges action to tackle trafficking of children from West and Central Africa." ohchr.org [online] May 23, 2012 [cited November 14, 2014]; http://newsarchive.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=12187&LangID=E.

4.         ILO-IPEC. "Rapport Général," in Atelier de restitution des résultats des analyses de la situation des enfants travailleurs domestiques au Gabon et pour l’adoption d’un document cadre sur la réponse institutionnelle et législative en vue de leur protection; March 24 - 26, 2015; Libreville: ILO; [source on file].

5.         UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of Gabon. Geneva; March 11, 2015. Report No. CEDAW/C/GAB/CO/6. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW/C/GAB/CO/6&Lang=En.

6.         "Police Evolve Strategies to Combat Cross-Border Banditry in Lagos, Ogun." The Guardian, London, November 5, 2015. [Source on file].

7.         U.S Department of State. "Gabon," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

8.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Deuxième Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Gabon (EDSG-II), 2012 Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Libreville. Reporting, February 1, 2016.

11.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Gabon. Geneva; July 8, 2016. Report No. CRC/C/GAB/CO/2. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/GAB/CO/2&Lang=En.

12.       ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Gabon (Ratification: 2001) Published: 2013; accessed 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

13.       Lebur, C. "Trafficking of west African children spawns Gabonese hell." Foxnews.com [online] July 17, 2013 [cited May 19, 2015]; http://www.foxnews.com/world/2013/07/17/trafficking-west-african-children-spawns-gabonese-hell/.

14.       Ministère de l’Economie de l’Emploi et du Développement Durable. Tableau de Bord Social: Situation 2006 - 2012. Libreville; 2015. http://www.dgepf.ga/23-publications/29-tableau-de-bord-social/35-tableau-de-bord-social/.

15.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Examen des rapports soumis par les États parties en application de l’article 44 de la Convention. Geneva: December 29, 2014. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FGAB%2F2&Lang=en.

16.       Walk Free Foundation. Global Slavery Index. Nedlands, Western Australia; 2013. http://www.ungift.org/doc/knowledgehub/resource-centre/2013/GlobalSlaveryIndex_2013_Download_WEB1.pdf.

17.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the report submitted by Gabon under article 12(1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. Geneva; July 14, 2016. Report No. CRC/C/OPSC/GAB/CO/1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/OPSC/GAB/CO/1&Lang=En.

18.       IOM. "IOM Helps Togolese Girls Trafficked in Gabon to Return Home." ModernGhana.com [online] November 20, 2015 [cited December 10, 2015]; http://www.modernghana.com/news/657075/1/iom-helps-togolese-girls-trafficked-in-gabon-to-re.html.

19.       ILO Committee of Experts. Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Gabon (Ratification: 2001) Published: 2013; accessed 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

20.       U.S Department of State. "Gabon," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265468.pdf.

21.       African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. Report of the Human Rights Promotion Mission to the Gabonese Republic. Banjul; January 2014. http://www.achpr.org/files/sessions/54th/mission-reports/gabon-promo-2014/achpr54os_misrep_promo_gabon_2014_eng.pdf.

22.       Government of Gabon. Loi portant orientation générale de l’éducation, de la formation et de la recherche, Loi N° 21/2011, enacted February 11, 2012. http://www.axl.cefan.ulaval.ca/afrique/gabon-loi-2011.htm.

23.       UNESCO. Examen national 2015 de l’Éducation pour tous au Gabon. Paris; 2015. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002310/231078f.pdf.

24.       Agence de Presse Africaine. "Plus de 2000 enfants victimes de maltraitance au Gabon (étude)." alibreville.com [online] September 11, 2015 [cited November 16, 2015]; http://news.alibreville.com/h/46380.html.

25.       Government of Gabon. Code du Travail, Loi N° 3/94, enacted November 21, 1994. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/39615/64948/F94GAB01.htm.

26.       Government of Gabon. Ordonnance portant modification de certaines dispositions du Code du Travail de la Republic Gabonaise, Ordonnance N° 018/PR/2010, enacted February 25, 2010. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.home?p_lang=en.

27.       U.S. Embassy- Libreville. Reporting, February 13, 2014.

28.       Government of Gabon. Décret fixant les dérogations individuelles à l'âge minimum d'admission à l'emploi en République Gabonaise, Décret N° 0651/PR/MTEPS enacted April 13, 2011. http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/gab107288.pdf.

29.       Government of Gabon. Loi relative à la prévention et à la lutte contre le trafic des enfants en République Gabonaise, Loi N° 009/2004, enacted September 21, 2004. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=fr&p_isn=70261&p_country=GAB&p_count=194.

30.       UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Examen des rapports des États parties soumis par les États parties conformément aux articles 16 et 17 du Pacte: Rapport initial: Gabon. Geneva; November 22, 2013. Report No. E/C.12/2013/SR.51. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CESCR/Shared%20Documents/GAB/SR%2051_21548_E.pdf.

31.       Government of Gabon. Ordonnance modifiant et complétant certaines dispositions du Code pénal, Ordonnance N° 4/2001/PR, enacted August 14, 2001. [Source on file].

32.       Government of Gabon. Penal Code, Loi N° 21/63, enacted May 31, 1963. [Source on file].

33.       The African Child Policy Forum. Minimum Age to Recruitment in to the Army: International and Regional Laws; December 2013. http://www.africanchildforum.org/clr/Harmonisation%20of%20Laws%20in%20Africa/other-documents-harmonisation_6_en.pdf.

34.       Government of Gabon. Constitution de la Republique Gabonaise, enacted 2003. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.home?p_lang=en.

35.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers. London; 2012. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

36.       ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Gabon (Ratification: 2010) Published : 2013; accessed 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

37.       Ezeilo, JN. Report of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children; May 24, 2013. Report No. A/HRC/23/48/Add.2. http://www.ohchr.org/documents/hrbodies/hrcouncil/regularsession/session23/a_hrc_23_48_add.2_eng.pdf.

38.       United Nations Economic and Social Council. Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Initial reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant. New York,  June 29, 2012. Report No. E/C.12/GAB/1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2FC.12%2FGAB%2F1&Lang=en.

39.       UN Working Group of Gabon. Contribution à l’Examen Périodique Universel du Gabon 14ème session du Groupe de Travail, Octobre –Novembre 2012. Libreville; 2012 April 2012. http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session14/GA/SNU_UPR_GAB_S14_2012_SystemeNationsUnies_F_2012.pdf.

40.       U.S. Embassy- Libreville. Reporting, February 28, 2017.

41.       U.S. Embassy- Libreville official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 28, 2013.

42.       ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request Concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1973 (No. 29) Gabon (Ratification: 1960) Published : 2013; accessed November 11, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

43.       U.S. Embassy- Libreville. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

44.       U.S. Embassy- Libreville official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 2, 2017.

45.       U.S. Embassy- Libreville. Reporting, January 16, 2015.

46.       Government of Gabon. Décret fixant les conditions des contrôes, enquêtes et perquisitions relatives à la prévention et à la lutte contre le trafic des enfants en République gabonaise, Décret N° 24/PR/MTE enacted January 6, 2005. [Source on file].

47.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

48.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

49.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

50.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Gabon (Ratification: 1972) Published: 2015; accessed November 16, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3181710.

51.       U.S. Embassy- Libreville official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 9, 2016.

52.       U.S. Embassy- Libreville official. E-mail communication to US DOL official. November 17, 2016.

53.       UN Human Rights Council. National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21: Gabon. Geneva, UN; October 22 - November 5, 2012. Report No. A/HRC/WG.6/14/GAB/1. http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/alldocs.aspx?doc_id=20760

 

54.       UNICEF. UNICEF Annual Report 2013 -Gabon. New York; December 31, 2013. http://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Gabon_COAR_2013.pdf.

55.       Government of Gabon. Politique Nationale de la Jeunesse. Libreville; 2012. http://www.youthpolicy.org/national/Gabon_2011_National_Youth_Policy.pdf.

56.       UNDAF. Plan Cadre des Nations Unies Pour l'Aide au Développement du Gabon UNDAF (2012-2016). Libreville; June 2011. http://countryoffice.unfpa.org/gabon/drive/Gabon_UNDAF2012-2016_FR.pdf.

57.       Government of Gabon. Gabon Emergent Strategic Plan, enacted July 2012. http://medias.legabon.net/PROD/0000004928.pdf.

58.       Republique Gabonaise. Programme Pays pour le Travail Decent (PPTD) de la Republique Gabonaise (2013-2016). Libreville, ILO; March 2013. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/gabon.pdf.

59.       UNICEF. "Gabon," in UNICEF Annual Report 2015. New York; May 2016; http://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Gabon_2015_COAR_Final.pdf.

Download ILAB's Sweat & Toil app today. #endChildLabor